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Month: March 2023

Innovative ways to stay hydrated without drinking water

Innovative ways to stay hydrated without drinking water

We like a water break as much as the next fitness fanatic after a strenuous workout. But as the temperature rises, it’s critical to pay close attention to our fluid intake throughout the day. Water is, after all, the most crucial nutrient that our body requires.

For optimum performance, your body must maintain adequate hydration. Other than drinking water, there are a number of quick ways to restore your body’s equilibrium and treat dehydration, including eating fruits and vegetables or consuming other liquids.

After engaging in any activity that results in excessive perspiration, such as a strenuous workout, a sauna session, or a hot yoga class, it’s critical to rehydrate.

Rehydrating is essential for avoiding the negative consequences of dehydration whether you have the stomach bug or are recovering from a night of drinking.

Signs and symptoms of dehydration

Your body needs water to function in order for every cell, tissue, and organ to exist.

Water aids in the transportation of nutrients, the elimination of waste, the circulation of blood, and the regulation of body temperature. That implies that if you’re dehydrated, which occurs when you lose more fluids than you take in, your body can’t adequately accomplish these functions.

For instance, vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, or using diuretic drugs that cause increased fluid loss can all cause dehydration.

Dehydration is more common in some populations than others, including children, the elderly, and those with particular illnesses including diabetes and kidney disease.

Dehydration symptoms and signs include:

  • heightened thirst
  • mouth ache
  • sporadic urination
  • arid skin
  • tiredness
  • dizziness
  • headache

Another typical sign of hydration state is the colour of the urine. Generally speaking, the better hydrated you are, the paler the hue. However, the hue can alter for causes other than your level of hydration, such as food, drug use, and some medical problems.

However, older persons cannot use urine colour as a reliable predictor of hydration, according to studies. Here are some methods for swiftly rehydrating if you’re concerned about your or another person’s level of hydration.


Although it probably comes as no surprise, drinking water is frequently the best and most affordable approach to rehydrate.

Water is the best beverage to consume throughout the day and in particular when you need to rehydrate, such as after a workout because it has no added sweets or calories.

It’s important to note that some people lose more salt through sweating than others due to a variety of variables, including heredity. If you get regular muscle cramps after working out or your perspiration irritates your eyes, you may be a “salty sweater”.

If either of these situations describes you, replace both the fluid and salt you lose via sweat, especially after engaging in vigorous or protracted exercise in warm weather.

But, the sodium you lose through perspiration may readily be restored through a balanced meal unless you’re engaging in a prolonged, intensive activity like an ultra-endurance race in a hot area. However, older persons cannot use urine colour as a reliable predictor of hydration, according to studies.

Here are the five greatest methods for swiftly rehydrating if you’re concerned about your or another person’s level of hydration.

Tea and coffee

Caffeine, a stimulant found in coffee and tea, can temporarily dehydrate you if you consume too much of it since it has a diuretic effect. Yet, moderate use of coffee and tea can be just as hydrating as consuming water and act as an invigorating substitute.

Only at doses of 250–300 mg, or around two to three 8-ounce (240 ml) cups of coffee or five to eight 8-ounce (240 ml) cups of tea, can caffeine become dehydrating.

50 frequent coffee users participated in the trial, consuming 4 cups (800 ml) of coffee with 1.8 mg of caffeine per pound (or 4 mg per kilogramme) of body weight per day. It found no discernible differences in the ability of water and coffee to hydrate.

If you don’t like these drinks pure, you may flavour them with herbs and spices like cinnamon, nutmeg, or lemongrass in your tea or unsweetened almond milk in your coffee.

Low-fat and skim milk

Milk not only contains a variety of nutrients, but it also has good moisturising qualities. High levels of electrolytes are found in milk naturally, which helps keep your body’s water equilibrium.

During vigorous exercise, research has shown that skim and low-fat milk can help you rehydrate just as effectively as popular sports beverages while still offering you protein and other crucial elements.

Milk is a great post-exercise beverage for accelerating muscle repair and regeneration because of the high quality protein it contains. Just keep in mind that drinking milk after exercise may induce bloating and other stomach issues. Moreover, it is not a suitable alternative for those who are lactose or specific milk protein sensitive.

If you are having vomiting or diarrhoea, it might not be a good idea to drink milk, especially full fat milk, as it could make these symptoms worse.

Fresh fruits and vegetables can take days or even weeks to reach your plate. In such period, oxidation may result in nutritional loss. On the other hand, frozen fruits and vegetables are preserved with the majority of their nutrients since they are frozen soon after being harvested.

For instance, a research found that frozen blueberries and green beans had higher vitamin C levels than their fresh equivalents.

Try blending your favourite fresh or frozen fruits and veggies with milk or Greek yoghurt to create a refreshing, nutrient-rich smoothie.

Oral hydration solutions

Specialized formulae known as oral hydration solutions are used to both prevent and cure dehydration brought on by diarrhoea or vomiting.

They’ve also been touted as a way to boost post-workout recovery and avoid or alleviate hangovers.

These fluid-based solutions frequently include sugar, usually in the form of dextrose, as well as electrolytes including sodium, chloride, and potassium. Prebiotics and zinc are two additional components included in certain commercial treatments.

These rehydration liquids aid in replenishing electrolytes and lost fluids, but they can be pricey. Fortunately, you can create your own with the following everyday kitchen items:

  • 1 litre of water in 34 ounces
  • Sugar, 6 teaspoons
  • Salt, 1/2 teaspoon


Your body becomes dehydrated when it loses more fluids than it is consuming. The greatest strategy to stay hydrated and rehydrate is, for the majority of individuals, to drink water.

Coffee, tea, milk, fruits, vegetables, and oral hydration products are other options.

If you have any concerns about your or another person’s level of hydration, don’t be afraid to talk to your healthcare professional.


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Genetic Overlap of Endometriosis & Chronic pain conditions

Genetic Overlap of Endometriosis & Chronic pain conditions

There is presently no cure for the disease endometriosis, which can lead to discomfort and infertility. In order to determine whether endometriosis has a hereditary component, researchers at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom examined DNA samples from hundreds of female participants.

25 teams from around the world worked together with the researchers to collect and analyse a sizable amount of data from female participants with and without endometriosis.

Their results demonstrated a link between endometriosis and other inflammatory disorders in addition to demonstrating the genetic component of this condition. For those who have it, endometriosis can be a crippling ailment, and identifying it can be expensive and challenging.

Scientists from the University of Oxford collaborated with experts from other countries to study the DNA from tens of thousands of female volunteers. In order to understand more about the genetic variables influencing the illness. They found that endometriosis might be related to other inflammatory diseases.

Endometriosis overview

The endometrial lining, the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus, thickens during the menstrual cycle as part of the process. This lining usually sheds throughout the menstrual cycle if a person does not become pregnant.

A tissue that resembles this lining can occasionally proliferate where it shouldn’t, which is what happens with endometriosis. This lining may develop in the pelvic region, around the ovaries, or around the fallopian tubes. It can occasionally even grow around other organs like the intestines or the bladder.

Endometriosis symptoms and indicators might include:

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 10% of menstrual women worldwide who are in their reproductive stage are affected by endometriosis.

The study methods

In order to ascertain whether there is probably a genetic component to endometriosis, the research team from the University of Oxford planned to undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS). They did a meta-analysis of the data gathered.

The researchers gathered data from more than 60,000 people. People had been diagnosed with endometriosis in collaboration with 25 other teams. They compared it to DNA samples from slightly more than 700,000 people who had been diagnosed with endometriosis.However they not have the disease.

Participants with either European or East Asian heritage provided the samples.

The genetic differences between those who have endometriosis and those who do not were taken into consideration by the researchers when they examined the data. The implications of these variations on “endometrium, blood, and other important tissues” were also taken into account.

In order to determine whether there was a connection between endometriosis and nine other immunological or inflammatory illnesses, researchers also looked at those conditions.

Genetic map of endometriosis

The scientists discovered 42 genetic loci sites of genes or genetic sequences in the genome. They regarded important for developing endometriosis after reviewing the data provided.

This research supports the hypothesis that endometriosis may have a hereditary component, which may be important for the advancement of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic approaches.

The researchers were able to pinpoint a number of genes and hormone regulators that were linked to both endometriosis and other pain problems after further investigating these locations.

The scientists discovered links between a number of medical illnesses and symptoms, including asthma, osteoarthritis, chronic back pain, and migraines.

Senior research scientist at the Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and the study’s first author, Dr. Nilufer Rahmioglu, spoke about the study.

“We were able to generate a treasure trove of new information about genetically driven endometriosis subtypes. Also, pain experience using different datasets of women with and without endometriosis. Some of which had unprecedented detailed data on surgical findings and pain experience collected using standardised criteria,” said Dr. Rahmioglu.

Links to IBS, migraine, asthma

MNT spoke with Dr. G. Thomas Ruiz, the head of OB/GYN at Memorial Care Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California, who was not associated with this study.

This study confirms the significance of a family history of endometriosis. Gynecologists have long known this, and this study confirms their theory, according to Dr. Ruiz.

Dr. Ruiz stated that the study’s huge sample size is a strength and that a lot of useful information can be extrapolated from it. He advises concentrating on the overall concept that “endometriosis and advanced stage endometriosis” have a genetic basis.

Dr. Ruiz continued, “There seems to be a connection between the body’s response to endometriosis and other inflammatory diseases like osteoarthritis and asthma.

The results of the study were also discussed by Dr. Steve Vasilev, an integrative gynecologic oncologist who is board-certified, the medical director of integrative gynecologic oncology at Providence Saint John’s Health Center, and a professor at Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California. Dr. Vasilev was not involved in the study.

Diagnosis and management

Endometriosis may be the cause of persistent pelvic discomfort, painfully heavy periods, and other menstrual symptoms. Women who are concerned about these symptoms should speak with their gynaecologists.

There is currently no blood test that can validate a doctor’s diagnosis of endometriosis, according to recommendations published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal earlier this month.

Endometriosis is generally diagnosed by laparoscopic surgery. But like all operations, this one is a little intrusive and comes with certain dangers.

As a result, these new diagnostic guidelines advise doctors to detect endometriosis by combining patient history with imaging. Diagnostic techniques covered by the recommendations include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal ultrasound.

Hormone therapy, such as birth control tablets can have efficacy rates of 60-80%, people with endometriosis can manage their symptoms. Nonetheless, surgery may be required to eliminate lesions in those who are attempting to get pregnant.


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Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

In the present pandemic, many people are looking for hand wipes that destroy viruses as an alternative to gel. These wipes are suited for a number of applications and surfaces. Disinfectant wipes are the most convenient way to clean effectively. But did you know that antibacterial wipes can be useless if used improperly. This includes wrong contact time or the inappropriate cleaning technique.

In this post, we’ll examine some of the frequent errors people make when purchasing, keeping, and utilising wipes, as well as how you may stay clear of them. We’ll go over some important advice on the most common wipe kinds so you can choose wisely. Also, storage and usage strategies to get the most out of your cleaning routine.

The wrong product

In actuality, a lot of the problems begin even before you open the package because you choose the incorrect product. I don’t intend to imply that you accidentally brought a bottle of bleach home from the store instead of a pack of wipes. It’s more probable that you fell for a common ruse employed by many domestic companies to convince you that these wipes are all you need to complete the task at hand.

The likelihood is that the pack claims to eliminate 99.9% of germs. They actually only leave out the fact that they haven’t been scientifically confirmed to be antiviral. Also, the contact time is only 10 minutes; we’ll talk more about contact time when we discuss cleaning methods.

You might also wonder if all wipes are antibacterial given the vast array of wipe brands available. No, they are not; it is crucial to ensure that wipes making antibacterial claims have adequate testing to support those claims. The European Standard EN1276, which certifies a product as antibacterial, serves as a minimum standard.

Incorrect storage

You may rest easy knowing that you have the appropriate tools for the job and that they are prepared for deployment at a moment’s notice. You can store the wipes in a cabinet with the lid tightly covered until you need them. It’s crucial to keep the lid closed when the wipes aren’t being used in order to prevent drying out.

For them to be effective, there must be plenty of moisture available for them to disperse over the area you are cleaning; otherwise, they are useless. A great storage suggestion is to store the pack on its side so that all of the wipes will still retain an equal quantity of moisture if moisture does collect in the pack.

Many applications with same wipe

It’s standard practise to use the same wipes to clean several different surfaces; this is acceptable as long as a new wipe is used for each different surface. If not, there is a considerable risk of cross-contamination since germs spread more widely when they are transferred from the wipe to the new surface. Use a fresh, moist wipe to clean each new surface, and dispose of dirty wipes properly in the trash can.

Improper cleaning methods

Using improper cleaning methods is arguably the most frequent error people make. They use wipes that are overly dry, which spreads germs rather than eliminating them; they use the same wipe on several surfaces; and they don’t let the area naturally air dry, which gives cleaning chemicals less time to work.

Leaving them in a hot place

It could be tempting to keep a container of hand wipes or cleaning wipes in your car’s glove box or a cup holder on a hot, sunny day. They will dry out in the heat, so that is a bad idea. Store wipes at room temperature, which is roughly 70°F.

Not reading the label

Labels, as we all know, are tedious. But, the best way to utilise your antibacterial wipes is to read the label. According to Karen Daw, a dental and medical OSHA and Infection Control coach and speaker, the label contains information regarding “how long the product must remain wet on a surface to inactivate all the germs.” This is something you’ve probably never even considered. According to her, the label will usually state that the area should stay wet for at least three to four minutes in order to eradicate any bacteria present.

Additionally, the wipes’ labels may really indicate which kinds of bacteria they are efficient against. Don’t just assume that any wipe will kill anything. After all, since they are antibacterial wipes, they are prepared to kill bacteria rather than necessarily viruses.

Flushing it down the toilet

This error has been particularly common in 2020 as a result of individuals utilising wipes instead of toilet paper due to a lack of supplies. Wipes can undoubtedly be used, but dispose of them instead of flushing them down the toilet. Indeed, even if the wipes are marked “flushable” on the packaging, discard them.

Despite what we just said, you can and should ignore this portion of the label even though we just stressed the need of reading the label. The wipes can get caught in the pipes and could cause blockages or worse, overflows because they are thicker than toilet paper and don’t degrade as easily.

Using it on visibly dirty surfaces

Since its sole aim is cleaning, this may initially seem weird. Nevertheless, if you use it on a surface that is already unclean, you can merely end up moving the dirt. Surface cleaning should be carried out in a different manner than wiping down surfaces to disinfect them. Cleansing becomes more challenging when a surface is unclean, says Daw. So, it might be necessary to scrub the surface thoroughly with one wipe (or just soap and water), then grab a second wipe to disinfect.

Using it after its expiration date

Antibacterial wipes may not seem like they would have an expiration date, but Ghildayal points out that occasionally they do not. You might not be able to see an expiration date on your wipes, but in general, you shouldn’t use them more than two years after purchase, at the most, he said

How would you determine when to cease using something if it had no expiration date? Ghildayal advises that if they smell weaker than usual when you reopen them for use, they are perhaps too old to be put to use. That won’t be an issue right away, of course, as the majority of people don’t leave their wipes lying around unused, but it’s still good to know that it’s one of the unexpected things that exists.

Using it as your only cleaner

Even though it might seem clear, this merits discussion. Wipes with antibacterial properties are useful for immediately disinfecting a surface. It won’t perform a “deep clean” or clean particular surfaces that call for a particular cleaning agent. Jon Gibbons of Smart Vacuums clarifies, “They are not good enough to be the only cleaner for your kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Antibacterial wipes are excellent for a quick clean-up, but they won’t make the kitchen or bathroom truly spotless.


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Important ways to consider to avoid afternoon slumps.

Important ways to consider to avoid afternoon slumps.

The majority of us have experienced highly productive mornings where we finished assignments. Also, worked to clear our inboxes and resisted the impulse to tweet at our coworkers. As 2:00 rolls around, you might as well close the blinds, put on your jammies, and go to bed.

Whenever the afternoon comes around, it’s quite normal to feel extremely exhausted. The noon slump can be caused by circadian rhythms, which have an impact on your sleep patterns.

You may wish to take an afternoon nap because your “sleep signals” actually peak at night and in the afternoon (at around 2 p.m.).

Your energy may also be impacted by other elements, such as what you eat, and how well you’re hydrated. Also, how much time do you spend staring at a screen.

Consider it time to relax on your office chair. Here are some strategies for combating weariness as soon as it manifests.

What is the Afternoon Slump?

As your energy levels drop in the late afternoon, it’s known as the afternoon slump. You may find it difficult to focus at work, lose interest in working exercise, and feel overall lethargic. Also, slow, and unable to think of anything other than snatching up another cup of coffee or fitting in a quick sleep.

Not simply in the mid-afternoon slump do you feel exhausted. Your morals and self-control are compromised, as well as your ability to drive safely.

What Causes the Afternoon Slump?

Contrary to popular perception, a big lunch is not what causes the afternoon slump (but it can be exacerbated by one). Your circadian cycle is to blame.

The internal biological clock in your body is called the circadian rhythm. This clock regulates things like your sleep-wake cycle when your body generates specific hormones. Also, when your body temperature changes on an approximately 24-hour cycle.

Your daily timing can vary, but your generally steady flow of energy takes the form of:

  • You experience grogginess or sleep inertia when you awaken.
  • You experience your initial energy surge in the morning.
  • You have an afternoon blah.
  • In the late afternoon or early evening, you experience a second-wind energy surge.
  • Your activity level decreases till sleep

So, the majority of the time, your body’s biological makeup is to blame for your energy slump in the afternoon. There might, however, be more factors at work.

You might experience afternoon fatigue more than usual if:

  • You haven’t had enough rest.
  • Your circadian cycle is out of whack.
  • You suffer from a sleeping issue such as sleep apnea.
  • You have a medical issue like ADHD that makes it difficult for you to sleep and stay awake.

How to Beat the Afternoon Slump?

Lower Your Sleep Debt

The amount of sleep you owe your body in total is called your sleep debt. It is compared to your sleep demand, which is the amount of sleep per night that is controlled by your genes.

According to one study, the recommended amount of sleep per night is 8 hours 40 minutes, plus or minus 10 minutes. Although 13.5% of people may require 9 hours or more.

To find out your exact number, turn to the RISE app. Your exact amount of sleep is determined by RISE using historical phone use data and proprietary sleep science-based models. The amount of sleep debt you are carrying can then be calculated by the app. To feel and perform at your best, we measure this over the previous 14 nights and advise that you keep it under five hours.

Even while you can always have a fall in energy in the afternoon, you’ll notice it more after a sleepless night or when your sleep debt is high. Reduce your sleep debt to lessen how tired you feel overall and in the afternoon slump.

Sync Up with Your Circadian Rhythm

Your circadian rhythm is what makes you feel so weary in the afternoons, but if you’re not synchronizing your lifestyle with it, you may feel even less energised at this time and throughout the rest of the day. Circadian rhythm may be out of whack if:

  • You work the night shift.
  • You’re living contrary to your chronotype. For example, if you force yourself to get up early while being a night owl. Here, we discuss how to maximize the potential of your chronotype.
  • When your physiological clock and social clock don’t sync. This can happen due to an erratic sleep routine, you get social jet lag. For instance, 87% of us, on average, go to bed two hours later on the weekends than we do during the week.

Schedule Your Day

You can lessen how severely the afternoon slump affects you each day by reducing your sleep debt and synchronizing with your circadian clock. The energy slump is still a normal aspect of your biology, therefore you’ll probably always experience it to some degree.

Working with the slump rather than against it will help you if you can’t overcome it. Employ rise to determine when your daily afternoon slump will occur, and then plan your day accordingly.

For instance, if at all possible, plan simpler work for your afternoon slump, such as administrative duties, emails, and catch-up meetings with low stakes. Reserve laborious chores, like writing, programming, or making presentations, for when your energy is at its highest.

Take a Break

Sometimes, during your afternoon energy slump, you can’t even do simple administrative activities. It’s better to take a break at this point and take a step back.

Take a stroll, finish some pointless housework, or engage in a soothing hobby like reading or listening to music. After you feel more energised and capable of being productive, return to work.

Use your weekend afternoon slump for some peace and quiet. Read a book, watch TV, or snooze with the kids (more on the power of naps below).

According to research, judges tend to make less favourable decisions on cases as the day goes on, but taking a break allows them to refocus. It is preferable to take brief but frequent breaks throughout the day, and to avoid waiting until the end of your schedule. Even taking pauses has been found to keep you focused on your objectives.

Work on a Task

Although if it doesn’t seem like it while you’re exhausted, the afternoon slump may be the ideal time to concentrate on a project that calls for insight, creativity, and problem-solving abilities.

According to research, you might be more adept at these tasks when your circadian cycle is not at its best. Hence, even though the afternoon is typically best suited for simple chores, try working on a challenging job on your to-do list during your afternoon slump to see if your brain can come up with new answers then.

Go to sleep

If you’re sleep deprived, taking a nap will help you reduce your sleep debt and increase your vitality. Even if you’ve been getting enough sleep lately, a midday nap can still assist to increase your energy, mood, and performance.

The best time to take a nap is also during your afternoon slump because sleeping now shouldn’t make it more difficult to fall asleep later.

It has been demonstrated that taking a 10-minute sleep in the afternoon increases vigour, vitality, and cognitive performance. Some of these advantages remain for more than 2.5 hours, so you should be able to finish the rest of the workday.

Get Some Exercise

The last thing on your mind in the afternoon when you’re feeling drowsy is exercising. Nonetheless, exercising might aid in removing exhaustion so that you can return to work feeling rejuvenated.

Even while you might not be setting any personal records at the gym, if you want to save your energy peaks for work and family time, your afternoon energy slump may be the perfect time to work out.

Also, a 2020 study indicated that exercising between 3 and 6 p.m. had greater metabolic benefits than exercising between 8 and 10 a.m. for people who were either at risk for or had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Drink Caffeine in the Morning but avoid in afternoon

The seductive call of a cup of coffee might be difficult to resist when the afternoon slump sets in. Yet, caffeine can stay in your system for up to 12 hours, so an innocent cup of coffee at 3 p.m. might keep you up at night. Your sleep debt will increase as a result, which will worsen your afternoon slump the following day.

Yet there’s another way that coffee can help you get through the mid-afternoon lull.

The half-life of caffeine is between three and seven hours. Thus, it takes three to seven hours for the quantity of caffeine in your system to decrease by half, and another three to seven hours for it to decrease by half once again, and so on.

Socialize with Friends or Colleagues 

Your energy can increase by socialising. Hence, if you’re experiencing a mid-afternoon energy slump, stop by a colleague’s desk for some energising small talk (if they’re also experiencing a dip in energy) or work on a project together. During this time, you can also take a break and talk to a friend or family member.

As you interact with others, dopamine and oxytocin are released, which improves your mood, lowers your cortisol levels, and lessens stress.

Need one more justification to invest in relationships? Your sleep may improve, giving you more energy throughout the day and throughout the afternoon slump.

Get Some Natural Light

Your energy can increase by socialising. Hence, if you’re experiencing a mid-afternoon energy slump, stop by a colleague’s desk for some energising small talk (if they’re also experiencing a dip in energy) or work on a project together. During this time, you can also take a break and talk to a friend or family member.

As you interact with others, dopamine and oxytocin are released, which improves your mood, lowers your cortisol levels, and lessens stress.

Need one more justification to invest in relationships? It might help you get better sleep, which will give you more energy throughout the day, including during the afternoon slump.

Eat a Healthy Lunch 

We know we mentioned your lunch isn’t the cause of the afternoon slump, but if you eat the wrong items, it can make matters worse. Your afternoon energy slump may be considerably worse than usual if you eat a meal high in carbohydrates or sugary snacks.

According to research, a big lunch results in higher drowsiness and subpar performance on simulated driving exams. Make a point of choosing lunches that are high in vegetables, whole grains, complex carbohydrates, and healthy fats.

Go for things like bananas, chickpeas, kimchi, and tempeh. A 2022 study revealed that a diet strong in prebiotic and fermented foods reduced felt stress and increased subjective sleep quality.


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Can consuming red meat really cause you cancer?

Can consuming red meat really cause you cancer?

Years have been spent by nutritionists and health professionals arguing the advantages and disadvantages of consuming red meat in an effort to discover whether it is beneficial or harmful to health. Results have been inconsistent so far.

Red meat, according to researchers, supplies vital elements like protein, vitamin B-12, and iron. Yet, research indicates that consuming large amounts of red meat may increase one’s risk of developing some malignancies, heart disease, and other illnesses.

The amount of red meat that may be healthy is examined in this article along with what the science and official dietary recommendations have to say.

The effects of red meat on health are the main topic of this essay. The ethical and environmental concerns surrounding the consumption of red meat are not addressed.

Is red meat nutritious?

Iron, vitamin B-12, and zinc are among the healthy components found in red meat.

The primary nutritional sources of vitamin B-12 are animal-based foods like meat and dairy. Because of this, individuals who consume a vegetarian or vegan diet may need to supplement their B-12 to avoid developing B-12 deficiency anaemia.

The United States Department of Agriculture reports that one 3.5-ounce (oz) or 100-gram (g) serving of raw ground beef provides the following nutrients:

  • calories in 247
  • Fat weight 19.07 g
  • Protein content: 17.44 g
  • Iron 1.97 milligrammes (mg)
  • Potassium 274 mg
  • zinc 4.23 mg
  • B-12 vitamin dosage of 2.15 micrograms

A piece of meat’s nutritional value might vary depending on a variety of circumstances. The amount of calories and fat, for instance, differs between cuts from various animal parts. The food of the animal, how the farmer grew the animal, and even the animal’s age and sex can have an impact on the nutritional value of the meat.

Several varieties of red meat are recommended as good sources of heme iron by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The only foods that contain heme iron are meat, poultry, and shellfish. Plants and meals enriched with iron, such as cereals and plant milk, contain nonheme iron.

Heme iron is more bioavailable, which implies that the body can utilise it more readily, according to the NIH. Despite the fact that many people consume adequate amounts of iron, the NIH notes that some people are at risk of iron deficiency, including:

  • infants
  • little children
  • those with frequent menstruation
  • expecting mothers

Difference between unprocessed and processed red meat

It’s crucial to comprehend the many varieties of red meat before delving into the studies on the connection between red meat and cancer.


Red meats that haven’t been altered or manipulated are known as unprocessed red meats. Examples comprise:

  • steak
  • Lamb chops
  • lamb ribs

Unprocessed red meat can be healthy on its own. It frequently contains high levels of protein, vitamins, minerals, and other vital components. When processed, red meat loses some of its original value.


Meat that has undergone some sort of modification—often for taste, texture, or shelf life—is referred to as processed meat. Meat that has been salted, cured, or smoked can accomplish this.

Red meats that have been processed include:

  • hotdogs
  • the salami and pepperoni
  • ham with bacon
  • dinner meats
  • sausage
  • bologna
  • jerky
  • cans of meat

Processed red meat typically has fewer healthy elements and is higher in fat and salt than unprocessed red meat. When taken in large quantities, red meat is regarded by experts as a potential cause of cancer. Processed meat and the chance of developing cancer are more closely related.

Processed meat has been identified as a carcinogen by experts. As a result, its link to cancer is now established.

What the research says

Many studies have examined the link between eating unprocessed and processed red meat and health outcomes over time.

There is some evidence that eating a lot of red meat may increase your chance of developing some malignancies, while the data are still conflicting.

IARC methodology

A division of the World Health Organization is the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is made up of professionals from throughout the world who work to categorise potential carcinogens (cancer-causing agents).

IARC members analyse scientific papers regarding a potential carcinogen for several days when there is a lot of evidence to suggest that it may cause cancer.

They take into account many aspects of the data, such as how people and animals react to a potential carcinogen and how cancer might grow following exposure to it.

The classification of the probable carcinogen according to its propensity to cause cancer in humans is one step in this procedure.

Group 1 agents are those that have been shown to cause cancer in people. On the other hand, group 4 agents consist of substances that most likely do not cause cancer.

Remember that this classification does not indicate the risk a carcinogen poses. It simply shows the amount of data that supports the association between particular carcinogens and cancer.

IARC conclusions

22 specialists from ten different countries gathered in 2015 to assess the body of knowledge regarding the connection between red meat and cancer.

Almost 800 studies over the previous 20 years were reviewed. Just processed or unprocessed red meat was the focus of certain investigations. Others observed them both.

To reduce cancer risk, avoid processed meat

Avoid eating processed meats if you want to lower your risk of colorectal cancer and perhaps other cancers as well.

Processed meat is a Category 1 carcinogen, according to the IARC. In other words, there is sufficient study to demonstrate its link to human cancer. Here are some additional Group 1 carcinogens for context:

  • tobacco
  • ultraviolet rays
  • alcohol

Once more, the basis for this classification is the evidence that links a certain agent to cancer. Although there is compelling evidence that all Group 1 agents cause cancer in humans, not all of them necessarily carry the same degree of risk.

For instance, when it comes to the danger of developing cancer, eating a hot dog isn’t necessarily equivalent to smoking a cigarette.

Be mindful about red meat consumption

For many people, unprocessed red meat is a crucial component of a healthy diet. It provides ample amounts of:

  • protein
  • vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12
  • minerals, such as selenium, iron, and zinc

Yet, the IARC analysis came to the conclusion that frequently consuming red meat probably raises the risk of developing several malignancies.

Therefore, there’s no need to exclude all red meet from your diet. Simply be mindful of how you prepare it and how much you consume.

Cooking techniques

In their analysis, IARC specialists also mentioned that the manner red meat is prepared can affect your chance of developing cancer.

High-temperature meat grilling, burning, smoking, or cooking appears to enhance risk. But, the IARC specialists stated that there wasn’t enough data to issue any official advice.

Serving suggestion

There is no requirement to completely give up unprocessed red meat, according to the authors of the IARC analysis. So it’s recommended to stick to three servings per week.

The bottom line

Red meat has come under fire for its alleged associations with a number of diseases, including cancer. According to experts, routinely consuming red meat may up your risk of developing colorectal cancer.

A consensus among experts also exists that consuming a lot of processed meat does raise your chance of developing cancer. Therefore, you don’t have to completely eliminate red meat from your diet. Just make an effort to stick to eating only a few servings of high-quality, unprocessed red meat per week.


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Can the Hunger hormone help patients with heart failure?

Can the Hunger hormone help patients with heart failure?

A serious condition that affects how properly the heart can pump blood throughout the body is heart failure.

Heart failure is managed with a combination of medicines and lifestyle changes.

In a recent study, individuals with chronic heart failure were examined for the hormone acyl ghrelin.

Its discovery that acyl ghrelin could boost cardiac output may encourage more study into the therapeutic potential of this substance.

When the heart is unable to adequately pump blood throughout the body, heart failure can be hazardous. One area of research is discovering drugs that successfully enhance heart function.

Recently, a study on the use of the peptide hormone acyl ghrelin to increase cardiac output in persons with heart failure was published in the European Heart Journal.

Acyl ghrelin, which increases cardiac output, or the heart’s capacity to pump blood, was found to have no adverse impact on participants’ blood pressure or heart rhythms.

The impact of heart failure

When the heart cannot efficiently pump blood throughout the body, cardiac failure results. Many issues, including fluid retention and weariness, may result from this.

Serious side effects like kidney damage or unexpected cardiac arrest might also result from it. Almost 6 million adults in the US suffer from heart failure. Someone may be at risk of contracting the disorder if certain conditions exist.

For instance, those who have diabetes, high blood pressure, or coronary artery disease are more likely to develop heart failure. Risk can also be increased by lifestyle factors like inactivity or a diet high in salt.

Heart failure must be managed using a multifaceted strategy, frequently involving both medication and lifestyle modifications.

Cardiologist and medical director of the Deborah Heart and Lung Center’s Advanced Heart Failure Department, Dr. Kulpreet Barn, who was not involved in the current study.

More treatment options for heart failure

The authors of this study point out that certain drugs can improve cardiac output and the heart’s ability to contract. The quantity of blood that the heart pumps out is known as cardiac output.

Unfortunately, these drugs might have negative side effects and are frequently only taken temporarily. Ghrelin, a hormone that increases appetite, was tested to see if it might efficiently increase cardiac output. Acyl ghrelin, an active version of ghrelin, was used by the researchers.

The purpose of the study, according to study author Prof. Lars H. Lund of the Department of Medicine at Solna’s Karolinska Institute in Sweden, was “to test whether acyl ghrelin, a novel drug treatment, is safe and effective for patients with heart failure, and to test the mechanism of action in the laboratory.”

No adverse effects from ghrelin

There were roughly thirty individuals in the study who had heart failure and a low ejection fraction; it was a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

The amount of blood the heart pumps to the body with each contraction is measured by ejection fraction. To investigate the underlying mechanisms behind the effects of acyl ghrelin, researchers also examined the impact of the hormone on the heart muscle cells of mice.

Either the treatment group or the placebo group was selected from among the participants. The intervention group was given artificial human acyl ghrelin, while the control group received an intravenous saline infusion as a placebo.

The injections happened throughout a 2-hour period. Cardiac output significantly increased in the intervention group. A 28% increase in cardiac output was observed by researchers without any negative consequences.

Subjects did not experience low blood pressure, rapid heart rate, ischemia, or irregular heart rhythms. Participants from the intervention group continued to experience cardiac function that was higher than their pre-treatment baseline over the 2- to 5-day follow-up period.

Promising findings

The fundamental mechanisms of acyl ghrelin actions have been examined through research on the cardiac muscle cells of mice.

While more research is required, it’s possible that acyl ghrelin doesn’t cause any negative effects since calcium ions aren’t being mobilised. As a prospective therapy for persons with heart failure, acyl ghrelin appears to be promising.

Founder of Manhattan Cardiology and fellow of the American College of Cardiology (FACC) Dr. Robert Segal made the following observation although not participating in the study:

There is a need for additional clinical development because of the clinical benefit of acylated (activated) ghrelin that has been observed. It has always been difficult to treat heart failure caused by a low ejection fraction, but hopefully we can make progress with this terrible condition.

Optimal dose not yet clear

More investigation is necessary because this study has a number of shortcomings. First off, there were not many participants in the study, and there was little time for follow-up. Larger samples and a longer follow-up period may therefore be used in future studies.

Furthermore, there was no necessity for official reporting of adverse events because the inquiry concerned an endogenous peptide hormone rather than a novel chemical or medication. Nonetheless, the individuals were observed by the researchers both before and after the treatment.

The best dose of acyl ghrelin was not found by the researchers in their trial, they say. Also, there were some restrictions on how the researchers could measure cardiac function, and there might have been some variations between the intervention and placebo groups.

Potential conflicts of interest were also reported by some of the study’s authors. To comprehend the underlying mechanism for the enhancements in heart function observed by the researchers, more investigation is also required.

Future clinical trials

The present study “provides a framework for later phase trials with ghrelin-like therapies,” according to Prof. Lund.

Future studies could consist of “a larger clinical trial with extended treatment duration, to test whether this medication may be useful for chronic use,” the author continued.

According to D. R. Barn, this was “a terrific, early-phase study that shows tremendous potential as there are favourable changes to the heart function.”


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How gut bacteria can boost cancer immunotherapy efficacy?

How gut bacteria can boost cancer immunotherapy efficacy?

Researchers looked into how gut bacteria affected mice’s response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. They discovered that ICIs enable specific gut bacteria to get through tumor locations. It then stimulates the immune system, which then destroys cancer cells.

To confirm whether these results may apply to humans, more research is required.

Immunotherapy includes the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). They function by “taking the brakes off” of the immune system so it can eliminate cancer cells by blocking certain proteins that restrict immune function, such as CTLA-4 or PD-1.

Unfortunately, ICI therapies are ineffective in up to 50% of cancer patients. The effectiveness of ICI treatment may be influenced by the gut flora, according to a growing body of research.

According to research, animals with impaired gut flora or those given antibiotic treatment react to ICI less favourably. Studies have also shown that faecal transplants of new microbiota may improve ICI responsiveness.

The best gut bacteria for boosting ICI response and the mechanism by which gut bacteria enhance immune response are still unknown.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors(ICI) and gut bacteria

Recent studies examined the relationship between gut bacterial diversity and ICI effectiveness in a mouse model of melanoma.

They discovered that ICI treatment results in gastrointestinal inflammation. This allows bacteria to get through the intestines. Thereby moves to lymph nodes close to tumors where they activate immune cells.

The research is published in Science Immunology. Even though checkpoint inhibitor treatment has demonstrated unheard-of clinical success, a sizable portion of responders will later develop acquired resistance. As previously mentioned, the gut microbiota has a significant impact on host anti-tumor immunity in several ways. This affects the clinical reactions and outcomes of cancer immunotherapy patients.

Dr. Anton Bilchik, chief of medicine and director of the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Program at Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California, as well as a surgical oncologist and division chair of general surgery at Providence Saint John’s Health Center, did not take part in the study.

Investigating ICI efficacy

Mice with and without melanoma tumours received ICI therapy as part of the study.

They discovered that ICI treatment exacerbated gastrointestinal inflammation, allowing certain bacteria to pass from the gut to lymph nodes close to the tumour as well as the tumour site. In that location, the bacteria triggered a group of immune cells that destroyed tumour cells.

The effectiveness of ICI may be impacted by antibiotic exposure, according to the study. To do this, mice were first given antibiotic treatment. Further followed by melanoma tumor implantation and ICI treatment a week later.

They discovered that exposure to antibiotics lowered the number of immune cells and the migration of the gut microbiota to the lymph nodes.

Finally, they looked at whether giving out certain bacteria may counteract the effect of the antibiotics on the effectiveness of the ICI. They discovered that using Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in treatments increased ICI effectiveness.

Fecal microbiome transplantation

FMT is the most direct way to change the microbiota. Feces from one donor is given to another by lyophilized or frozen pills that are taken orally. Also, they can be delivered directly via colonoscopy or gastroscopy.

With almost 300 registered clinical trials as of now, FMTs are being investigated as a treatment alternative for an increasing range of illnesses (, accessed Aug 2021). Over the past ten years, it has been clear that FMTs are extraordinarily effective at treating resistant and recurring Clostridium difficile infections. This helps patients feel better and get rid of their clinical symptoms.

Dietary intervention and lifestyle

The relationship between diet and the microbiota has been studied for numerous years at various resolution levels because gut microbes have a role in food digestion. In fact, distinct microbial communities are closely involved in the sequential host digestion and nutrient extraction, with the gut microbiota playing the major role.

On the one hand, the host’s inability to digest a large number of chemicals released by the gut microbiota affects the food’s ability to provide nutrients. Contrarily, both short- and long-term dietary modifications can affect the microbial transcriptome and metabolomic profiles, especially for newborn nutrition. This may have long-term effects through microbial modulation of the immune system. For instance, high-fat diets are linked to significant changes in the makeup of the colonic microbiota. This includes decreases in both Gram-positive.

Study restrictions

Dr. Andrew Koh, senior author of the present work and associate professor at the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center at UT Southwestern, was contacted by MNT to discuss its limitations.

They only employed one preclinical cancer model, which, according to Dr. Koh, is a significant restriction, necessitating additional research to see whether the results also apply to other cancers.

Although we have not yet produced evidence to support that notion, we think that our findings may also be applicable to other tumours, he said.

According to published research, various human cancers include specific or unique tumour microbiomes, and many of the prominent taxa are bacteria that normally live in the gut. Dr. Bilchik stated that it is still unclear whether the results apply to people when asked about the study’s other limitations.

Interventional gastroenterologist Dr. Lance Uradomo, who is not affiliated with the study and practice in Irvine, California at the City of Hope Orange County Lennar Foundation Cancer Center, stated that “the type of therapy applied for testing melanoma can be linked to adverse side effects, such as colitis.”

Before it is known if microbiome therapy — and the proper administration — is genuinely successful, more research is required, he continued.


The gut microbiome appears to have a significant impact on host immunity and therapeutic response in cancer, either locally within the tumour microenvironment or via systemic antiviral immune responses, according to strong evidence from preclinical and clinical research. The latter is most likely the reason why the gut microbiota is able to control how the body reacts to immunotherapy and traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, eventually having a variety of effects on patient outcomes.


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Explore the warning signs of immune system problems.

Explore the warning signs of immune system problems.

It’s a lifesaver when your immune system is functioning properly. That may be excellent, but it is not faultless. This unique collection of cells, tissues, and organs occasionally behaves improperly.

With autoimmune illnesses, your immune system attacks your body unintentionally. Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and a few thyroid diseases are examples of these types.

What is an autoimmune disease?

Normally, the immune system protects against viruses and germs. It sends out an army of fighter cells to attack these foreign invaders as soon as it detects them.

The immune system can typically distinguish between your own cells and foreign cells. When you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system misinterprets your skin or joints as alien tissues. Autoantibodies, which are proteins released by the body, assault healthy cells.

Certain autoimmune disorders only affect a single organ. The pancreas is harmed by type 1 diabetes. Some illnesses, such as lupus or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), can have a total body impact.

A brief description of some of the most prevalent autoimmune illnesses is given below.

Why does the immune system attack the body?

Clinicians are unsure of the precise aetiology of immune system malfunction. Nonetheless, some people are more likely than others to develop an autoimmune disease.

According to a 2014 study, women are more likely than males to develop autoimmune illnesses (6.4% of women versus 2.7% of men). A lot of times, the illness strikes women who are fertile (ages 15 to 44).

Some ethnic groups are more likely to develop specific autoimmune illnesses. For instance, lupus affects white individuals less than it does African Americans and Hispanics.

Many autoimmune conditions, including lupus and multiple sclerosis, run in families. Although not every family member will necessarily have the same illness, they all have a propensity for autoimmune diseases.

Researchers believe environmental factors like infections and exposure to chemicals or solvents may potentially play a role in the rise in the prevalence of autoimmune illnesses.

Another possible risk factor for developing an autoimmune illness is a “Western diet”. Consuming meals that are rich in fat, sugar, and processing is likely to contribute to inflammation, which may trigger an immunological response. But there is no proof of this.

SHORT VERDICT: The precise causation of autoimmune disorders is unknown. A number of factors may be at play, including genetics, nutrition, infections, and chemical exposure.

Your chance of contracting COVID-19 may increase if your immune system is compromised. If you have symptoms, make sure to get checked as soon as possible.

Common signs of a weak immune system

Remember that there are numerous additional reasons why these potential signals might appear. You should visit your doctor to find out what’s wrong with your health.

Cold hands

Your fingers, toes, ears, and nose may have a tougher time maintaining heat if your blood vessels are irritated. When exposed to cold, the skin in these places may turn white, then blue. The skin may turn red after the blood flow has resumed.

“Raynaud’s phenomenon,” as doctors refer to it. It can be brought on by immune system issues as well as by smoking, some prescription medications, and artery-related illnesses.

Dry Eyes

If you suffer from an autoimmune condition, your immune system is attacking your body rather than protecting it. Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis are two examples.

Dry eyes are a common symptom for those with autoimmune diseases. You can get a sand-like, grainy feeling in your eye. Astringent discharge, discomfort, redness, or blurred vision are some potential symptoms. Even when they are angry, some people find they are unable to cry.


Extreme fatigue similar to what you experience from the flu may indicate a problem with your body’s defences. Sleep probably won’t do any good. Your muscles or joints may also hurt. However, there may be a variety of different causes for your feelings.

Light Fever

Your immune system may be beginning to overwork itself if your body temperature is higher than usual. It may occur as a result of an impending infection or the beginning of an autoimmune disorder flare-up.


Headaches can have an immune system component. Vasculitis, for instance, is the inflammation of a blood vessel brought on by an infection or an autoimmune disorder.


Your body’s first line of defence against pathogens is your skin. How it feels and looks may be an indication of how well your immune system is functioning.

Skin that is red, dry, and itchy is a typical sign of inflammation. The same goes for rashes that hurt or don’t go away. Lupus patients frequently develop a butterfly-shaped rash on their cheeks and nose.

Joint Pain

Your joints become sensitive to the touch when the lining inside them gets inflamed. It might affect more than one joint, and it may also be stiff or swollen. It can seem to be worse in the morning.

Patchy Hair Loss

The immune system can occasionally assault hair follicles. You can have a disorder called alopecia areata if you experience hair loss on your scalp, face, or other areas of your body. Hair breaking out in clumps or strands is another sign of lupus.

Continual Infections

Your body might not be able to effectively combat germs on its own if you need to take antibiotics more than twice per year (four times for kids).

Additional warning signs include persistent sinus infections, having more than four ear infections in a calendar year (for anybody older than 4), and recurring pneumonia.

Sun sensitivity

Photodermatitis, an allergic response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, can occasionally occur in people with autoimmune diseases. After being in the sun, you can develop blisters, a rash, or scaly spots. Alternatively you can get nausea, a headache, or chills.

Numbness or Tingling in Your Feet and Hands

That might be entirely benign. Yet, in other circumstances it may indicate that your body is targeting the nerves that communicate with your muscles. For example, numbness that begins in the legs and spreads to the arms and chest may be a symptom of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), the demyelinating type of GBS, lasts for two to thirty days, whereas chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) lasts longer. Longer-lasting is CIDP.

Difficulty swallowing

Your oesophagus, which transports food from your mouth to your stomach, may be enlarged or underdeveloped if you have trouble swallowing. Some individuals have a food-stuck sensation in their throat or chest. Those who swallow choke or gag. Your immune system could be one of the potential causes.

Unaccounted-for Weight Change

Even if your eating habits and exercise routine haven’t altered, you notice that you are putting on weight. Perhaps the number on your scale can fall without apparent cause. It’s possible that your thyroid gland has been harmed by an autoimmune disease as a result.

White Spots

Sometimes, melanocytes, the cells that produce colour in the skin, are targeted by the immune system. If so, your body will start to develop white patches of skin.

Your Skin or Eyes Are Turning Yellow

Jaundice, sometimes called biliary cirrhosis, is a condition where your immune system attacks and destroys healthy liver cells. This may result in autoimmune hepatitis, a disease.

Symptoms of autoimmune diseases

Several autoimmune illnesses have early signs and symptoms, including:

  • fatigue
  • stiff muscles
  • swell and erythema
  • minimal fever
  • difficulty concentrating
  • tingling and numbness in the hands and feet
  • hair fall
  • body rashes

Also, every disease may have a different set of symptoms. As an illustration, type 1 diabetes results in excessive thirst, weight loss, and exhaustion. IBD results in diarrhoea, bloating, and stomach pain.

Symptoms of autoimmune illnesses like psoriasis or RA can fluctuate. A flare-up is a time when symptoms are present. Remission refers to the time frame during which symptoms disappear.

VERDICT: Signs of an autoimmune disease may include weariness, muscle aches, swelling, and redness. With time, symptoms may appear and disappear.


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Higher blood caffeine linked to lower fat & type 2 diabetes

Higher blood caffeine linked to lower fat & type 2 diabetes

Researchers looked into how measurements of body fat, type 2 diabetes risk, and cardiovascular risk were affected by a genetic susceptibility to high caffeine levels.

Scientists discovered a connection between less body fat and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and a higher genetic propensity to higher caffeine levels. The findings need to be confirmed by other research.

The psychoactive chemical that is most commonly ingested worldwide is caffeine. Coffee, tea, and soft drinks are the main sources of caffeine consumption.

According to certain research, caffeine consumption is associated with reduced body mass index (BMI), decreased fat mass, and weight loss. Consuming caffeine may therefore reduce the risk of diseases like type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease that are connected to being overweight or obese.

However, it is unknown how much of these advantages are due to caffeine. According to one study, each additional cup of caffeinated coffee and each cup of decaffeinated coffee taken daily reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 7% and 6%, respectively.

It may be possible to establish dietary guidelines to lower the risk of cardiometabolic disorders by learning more about how caffeine consumption affects their onset.

Recent studies looked into the impact of a genetic propensity for higher blood levels of caffeine. Scientists discovered a relationship between a genetic propensity for greater blood levels of caffeine and a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes.

Slower caffeine metabolism

Data from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 9,876 people with primarily European ancestry were used by the researchers to conduct this study.

They examined two common genetic variants—CYP1A2 and AHR genes—using the data in their analysis. These genes slow down caffeine metabolism, which means that compared to people who metabolise caffeine fast, those who carry the variations need to drink less coffee to reach increased levels of caffeine in their blood. Moreover, data on body fat, type 2 diabetes risk, and cardiovascular disease risk were gathered by researchers.

In the end, the researchers discovered a relationship between reduced BMI, whole body fat mass, and a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and genetically predicted greater blood levels of caffeine.

Further investigation revealed that weight loss was responsible for 43% of the protective effect of blood levels of caffeine on type 2 diabetes. They discovered no conclusive correlation between genetically predicted caffeine levels and cardiac diseases such ischemic heart disease, heart failure, or stroke.

Caffeine and weight loss

Dr. Dana Ellis Hunnes, an assistant professor at UCLA Fielding School of Public Health who was not involved in the study and was asked how more caffeine intake may enhance weight loss, said that it stimulates thermogenesis, or heat production, in the body.

When we burn more calories than we consume, we are more likely to lose weight and fat, she said. “Heat production promotes calorie burn.”

Caffeine promotes weight reduction by accelerating the metabolism, according to Dr. Rohini Manaktala, a cardiologist at Memorial Hermann in Houston, Texas, who was not involved in the study.

“This is a dose-dependent phenomenon, meaning that higher coffee consumption results in greater fat and calorie burning, which is reflected in weight loss,” she said. “Caffeine suppresses overeating by stifling a person’s appetite and leading to calorie deficit, which helps to avoid weight gain,” the author writes.

In order to understand how, in addition to promoting weight reduction, caffeine may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, MNT also spoke with Dr. Mark Guido, an endocrinologist with Novant Health Forsyth Endocrine Consultants in Winston Salem, NC, who was not involved in the study.

He claimed that although there is “mixed” scientific evidence on the subject, caffeine may lower the incidence of type 2 diabetes by changing how the body uses glucose and insulin. Higher blood levels of caffeine, according to the study’s findings, may promote weight loss and lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.


Dr. Guido pointed out important flaws in the study. He explained: “It did not appear to look at elevated caffeine levels through food or drink, but rather at naturally elevated caffeine levels in those with a particular genetic propensity. It is uncertain if these results would apply to elevated caffeine levels in food or beverages.

The study, he continued, did not examine how caffeine affected people who already had type 2 diabetes; rather, it focused on lowering the chance of developing it.

The findings, according to Dr. Hunnes, “are not really causative in nature,” as they only examined the impacts of genes as opposed to the “whole person” in a randomised controlled trial.

She said, “It’s kind of like looking at in vitro, or in a test tube, issues and assuming how it will behave in a human.

In order to fully understand the clinical and health impacts of caffeine, Dr. Manaktala continued, “A more substantial randomised control trial would be desirable. Also, the study subjects were of European ancestry. Extrapolating study results to the American population as a whole becomes difficult as a result.

Genome-Wide Association Research Highlights Connections

Larsson and colleagues used Mendelian randomization to analyse data from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 9876 people with European ancestry from six population-based investigations.

In people having the two gene variations, greater anticipated plasma caffeine levels were linked to reduced BMI, with one standard deviation more predicted plasma caffeine equating to roughly 4.8 kg/m2 in BMI (P .001).


One standard deviation higher plasma caffeine corresponded to a loss of approximately 9.5 kg in total body fat mass (P .001). The connection with fat-free body mass was not statistically significant, though (P =.17).

The FinnGen project and the DIAMANTE consortia both found genetically predicted higher plasma caffeine concentrations to be linked to a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes (odds ratio, 0.77 per standard deviation increase; P .001) and (0.84, P .001).

In total, there was an increased risk of type 2 diabetes of 0.81 (P .001) for every standard deviation increase in plasma caffeine.

Around 43% of the preventive impact of plasma caffeine on type 2 diabetes, according to Larsson and colleagues, was mediated by BMI.

They did not discover any conclusive links between the risk of any of the examined cardiovascular disease events with genetically predicted plasma caffeine concentrations (ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke).

The thermogenic response to caffeine has previously been calculated as an increase in energy expenditure of approximately 100 kcal for every 100 mg consumed daily, which could lower the risk of obesity. According to the researchers, increased satiety and reduced energy intake are two more potential mechanisms.

They state that “long-term clinical research” studying how coffee consumption affects fat mass and type 2 diabetes risk are necessary. “Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether noncaloric caffeine-containing beverages can help lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity.”

The Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, and Swedish Research Council all provided funding for the study. None of the purported financial connections between Larsson, Lawrence, and Kos are pertinent.


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Medications that Seniors Should Use With Caution.

Medications that Seniors Should Use With Caution.

There is a higher likelihood of developing unfavourable drug side effects in older persons since they frequently have chronic health conditions that call for treatment with several medications. Moreover, older persons may react more strongly to some drugs.

The American Geriatrics Society’s Health in Aging Foundation advises older people to use caution when using the following types of medications. This includes some that can be purchased without a prescription. In order to help you make better-informed decisions about your medications and to reduce your chances of overmedication and serious drug reactions (over-the-counter).

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Be wary of long-lasting NSAIDS such indomethacin and piroxicam (marketed under the brand name Feldene) (Indocin).

The issue: NSAIDs are prescribed to treat pain and inflammation. Older persons who take them run the risk of developing indigestion, stomach or colon bleeding, renal damage, high blood pressure, and worsening heart failure. They can also increase the risk of blood pressure and kidney damage. The quicker-acting ibuprofen (Motrin) and salsalate are preferable options if NSAIDs are required (Disalcid).

Use caution when combining NSAIDs with aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dabigatran (Pradaxa), dipyridamole (Persantine), prasugrel (Effient), ticlopidine (Ticlid), or warfarin due to the increased risk of bleeding (Coumadin).

You might need to take a prescription medication like misoprostol (Cytotec) or a proton pump inhibitor like omeprazole to prevent stomach bleeding. Only if you regularly take NSAIDs, have a history of ulcers, or are 75 years of age or older. These drugs can help stop stomach bleeding (Prilosec).

Drugs that relax the muscles

Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), methocarbamol (Robaxin), carisoprodol (Soma), and other comparable drugs should be avoided.

The issue: These drugs may make you feel sleepy and dazed, raise your risk of falling, and result in constipation, dry mouth, and urine issues. However, there is little proof that they are effective.

Drugs that treat anxiety and sleeplessness

Avoid using benzodiazepines like diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), or chlordiazepoxide (Librium, Limbitrol, Librax). Also, nonbenzodiazepine sleeping medications like zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien).

The issue: Certain medications can make you more likely to fall and can also make you confused, especially in older folks. You may experience drowsiness and grogginess for a long time because it takes your body a long time to eliminate these medications from your body.

Medications for Anticholinergics

Be cautious of: medications including the antidepressants amitriptyline (Elavil) and imipramine (Tofranil). The anti-drug Parkinson’s trihexyphenidyl (Artane), the irritable bowel syndrome drug dicyclomine (Bentyl), the overactive bladder drug oxybutynin (Ditropan) and diphenhydramine, an antihistamine (Benadryl) often included in over-the-counter sleep medicines such as Tylenol PM.

Anticholinergic medications run the risk of causing low blood pressure, constipation, urinary issues, confusion, and other side effects.

Heart Medications

Digoxin (Lanoxin) in doses larger than 0.125 mg should be avoided.

Digoxin, a drug used to treat heart failure and irregular heartbeats, raises safety concerns because it can be harmful for older adults and those with impaired renal function.

Medications for diabetes

Glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase) and chlorpropamide should be used with caution (Diabinese).

These can result in extremely low blood sugar in elderly persons, which is a worry.

Opioids as painkillers

Meperidine (Demerol) and pentazocine should be avoided (Talwin).

The problem: These opioid analgesics, often called narcotic analgesics, can lead to confusion, falls, seizures, confusion, and even hallucinations, especially in elderly people.

Antipsychotic medication

Avoid anti-psychotic medications such haloperidol (Haldol), risperidone (Risperdal), and quetiapine unless you are being treated for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or some types of depression (Seroquel).

Antipsychotic medications raise the possibility of a stroke or possibly death; they also raise the possibility of tremors and falls.


Pay close attention to: Estrogen patches and pills, which are frequently prescribed to treat hot flashes and other menopause-related symptoms.

The issue: Estrogen can raise your chances of dementia, blood clots, and breast cancer. Female urine incontinence caused by oestrogens might also become worse.


These medications may be recommended by your doctor to help treat disorders like Parkinson’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and depression. Anticholinergics, however, can make people feel confused, have a dry mouth, and have hazy vision, especially in older people.

The likelihood of their causing urination issues is higher in older men. Antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, cimetidine, muscle relaxants, and several cold medicines are additional common pharmaceuticals with anticholinergic characteristics.

Ask your doctor the reason for any drug changes or new prescriptions that are made.

For instance, consider if it makes sense to continue taking the medicine that is causing the negative reaction if a new prescription is prescribed to lessen the adverse effects of one you are already taking.

When taking five or more medications already, it is extremely important to ask your doctor or pharmacist to verify any new prescriptions in a database of possible drug interactions.

Review your medication schedule.

Ask your doctor or other health care provider to examine the prescription drugs, dietary supplements, and vitamins you are taking once or twice a year. Check to see if you still need to take each one at the prescribed dosage.

Try to have the same pharmacy fill all of your medications if at all possible. Most pharmacies employ computer programmes that alert them to potential drug interactions.

Inform your medical professionals of any prior drug allergies you may have experienced.


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