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Ozempic-like drug may help slow the progression of Parkinson’s symptoms

Ozempic-like drug may help slow the progression of Parkinson’s symptoms

Scientists have found that a drug commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes can help reduce the development of motor skills deterioration in people with early-stage Parkinson’s, according to the findings of a new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine. The study, which was randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled, followed 156 participants in France whose diagnosis of Parkinson’s had been within the last three years, were on a stable regime of medication to treat symptoms, and who did not yet have marked decline in motor skills. The participants were either given lixisenatide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist that is used to treat diabetes, or a placebo.

After 12 months, the 78 people who had been given lixisenatide showed virtually no further deterioration of motor skills that is commonly seen with Parkinson’s disease, while those who were given a placebo saw a worsening of those symptoms. Nearly half of the group who took lixisenatide reported nausea and 13% experienced vomiting. It is a fascinating study that is proof of concept that this class of medications may have some protective effect and be of advantage to someday treat Parkinson’s. It will be interesting to see if the results hold true for other newer GLP-1 agents like Ozempic/Wegovy and Zepbound, Gabbay said.

Parkinson’s is a disorder characterized by significant neurological decline that can manifest in tremors, motor control problems, and dementia. There is no known cause, but it is associated with a lack of dopamine in the brain. It is the second most common neurological disease after Alzheimer’s in the U.S., and it is believed that at least 500,000 adults in the U.S. have it.

Daniel Truong, MD, neurologist and medical director of the Truong Neuroscience Institute at MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, CA, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Clinical Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, told MNT that links between Parkinson’s and diabetes hinge on several common threads between the disorders: There is ongoing research exploring the potential links between diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. Several studies have suggested that individuals with diabetes may have a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, and vice versa, Truong said.

Chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress are common features of both diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. Research suggests that inflammatory processes in the brain may play a role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease, and there is evidence linking inflammation to insulin resistance in diabetes. Studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes, while mitochondrial impairment is also a key feature of dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson’s disease.

Emerging evidence suggests that alpha-synuclein pathology may also be present in peripheral tissues, including pancreatic beta cells in individuals with diabetes. Further research could explore the role of alpha-synuclein aggregation in diabetes-related complications and its potential link to Parkinson’s disease. GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonists are part of a treatment regimen for people with type 2 diabetes. They can help reproduce or enhance the effects of a naturally occurring gut hormone that assists in the control of blood sugar levels, and they can also reduce appetite by working on brain hunger centers; this is one of the reasons drugs like Ozempic and Wegovy have been associated with weight loss.

Truong said that a drug like lixisenatide has neuroprotective effects, which would clearly provide some assistance for people with a neurological disorder like Parkinson’s. But he also pointed out how common traits in both diabetes and Parkinson’s can provide some insight into GLP-1 receptor agonists as a way to reduce Parkinson’s symptoms.

There is emerging evidence suggesting shared pathophysiological mechanisms between diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. For example, insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism have been implicated in both conditions. Therefore, drugs that target these mechanisms, such as GLP-1 RAs, might have beneficial effects in both diseases.
In some studies, the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease was lower among patients with diabetes who were treated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, which increase GLP-1 levels, than among patients who received other diabetes medications.

Truong said that the study’s limitations warrant further research to establish several aspects of long-term treatment of Parkinson’s with GLP-1 receptor agonists: dose optimization, combination therapies, safety and tolerability, and effects on the non-motor symptoms. Parkinson’s disease is associated with a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Future studies should investigate whether lixisenatide has beneficial effects on non-motor symptoms in addition to motor symptoms.

Although the study suggested a potential neuroprotective effect of lixisenatide, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific neuroprotective mechanisms of lixisenatide in Parkinson’s disease, including its effects on inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and alpha-synuclein pathology.


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How the Diabetes drug Metformin can suppress hunger and help with weight loss

How the Diabetes drug Metformin can suppress hunger and help with weight loss

The body produces more of an appetite-suppressive molecule when taking the diabetes drug metformin, according to research from Stanford University in California that was just published in Nature Metabolism. Researchers at Stanford University and Baylor University in Texas found two years ago that the same molecule is also produced during and after intense exercise. Called the anti-hunger molecule, scientists think the lac-phe molecule accounts for the modest effects of metformin, the world’s most prescribed diabetes drug, on weight loss. It was unclear up until now how the blood sugar-controlling medication metformin also caused weight loss, but it turns out that it works by decreasing hunger in the same way as intense exercise. Knowing how these pathways are regulated may help develop practical methods to reduce body mass and enhance millions of people’s health.

Researchers examined blood plasma samples from patients with type 2 diabetes both before and after they took metformin for 12 weeks, following trials conducted on obese mice. The starting dose for each participant was 500 mg, which was progressively increased to 2,000 mg. According to research, the participants’ lac-phe levels considerably rose during this time. Additionally, in a larger study involving 79 individuals with diabetes and heart disease, the researchers examined blood samples. The participants who were taking metformin exhibited significantly higher levels of lac-phe in comparison to the non-medication group.

Conversely, Long and colleagues discovered that inhibiting mice’s production of lac-phe reversed appetite suppression and led to weight gain. It’s strange and intriguing that metformin and sprint training have the same effect on body weight through the same pathway. He went on to say that these discoveries might inspire the creation of novel drugs for weight loss. Within the first few months of starting the medication, there has been evidence of a slight reduction in body weight for those who take metformin, also known by the brand names Fortamet and Glumetza. The Food and Drug Administration has not yet granted metformin approval for use in managing weight loss.

The advantages of metformin for weight loss and overall health go beyond the lac-phe molecule, according to experts in the care of diabetic patients. According to the Diabetes Care Nurse, a virtual diabetes educator who was not involved in the new study, metformin is an incredible medication. Jose has lived with type 1 diabetes for 42 years and has supported others with type 1 and type 2 diabetes for more than 15 years. Jose claimed that during her career, she has worked with thousands of individuals who have type 2 diabetes and has personally witnessed the effects of metformin. It’s among the most economical, safest, and efficient diabetes treatments available. For those with type 2 diabetes who receive a new diagnosis, it remains the standard of care. That will always remain the same.

Although metformin isn’t a medication for weight loss, all providers are aware that it will cause some weight loss. Jose continued, It’s just a positive side effect. Nevertheless, it is generally advised that people with diabetes or obesity lose 7 to 10 percent of their body weight. If metformin is used in conjunction with healthy lifestyle choices, this can definitely be accomplished. Jose emphasized that you have to make a commitment to making significant changes in your daily diet and exercise routine, just like Ozempic and other GLP-1 medications are making headlines. If you stop taking these medications, your weight will return to its initial level if you don’t make those adjustments.

The importance of physical activity is further highlighted by the fact that this medication increases the production of the same molecule that suppresses your appetite after exercise. Exercise enhances every bodily function, not just the burning of calories. It is so important and so underappreciated. Every aspect of your health is impacted by daily exercise, including your mental and physical well-being, your heart and lungs, your metabolism, your energy, and the quality of your sleep. Diabetes management and weight loss necessitate a multifaceted strategy that takes into account all factors. Medication is but one component. You also need to make use of realistic, sustainable eating practices and physical activity.

Since metformin doesn’t garner as much media attention as Ozempic, many people are hesitant to even begin using it. Alternatively, they are adamant about controlling their type 2 diabetes naturally due to the social stigma associated with taking medicine, which implies that you have failed on your own. Metformin, however, improves your body’s performance if your entire metabolic system is lacking. Jose asked people to recognize the advantages of GLP-1 drugs, although their effects are more pronounced and almost instantaneous than those of metformin. Most people with type 2 diabetes who receive a new diagnosis don’t routinely check their blood glucose levels. You will not experience the gradual effects of metformin if those numbers are not visible to you.


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Could an intervention as simple as eye drops treat eye damage in diabetes?

Could an intervention as simple as eye drops treat eye damage in diabetes?

About 537 million adults worldwide live with diabetes, and 90-95% of these cases are type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes are at increased risk of many health problems, including eye problems. These include diabetic retinopathy trusted source, diabetic macular edema, glaucoma, cataract trusted source, chronic dry eye, and retinal detachment. There is currently no cure for diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema. Current treatment options for both conditions include drugs injected directly into the eye, laser treatment, and eye surgery. Soon, less invasive treatment for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema may be available in the form of eye drops.

Recently released data from a phase 1b/2a trial of the new treatment showed it to be safe and tolerable, with 100% of participants completing the study. Additionally, the researchers reported a significant reduction in central macular thickness and prevention of further increases in vascular leakage after 85 days of use.

The current standard of care for diabetic macular edema involves anti-VEGF agents in the eye, so new approaches to treating diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema are required, according to the study’s presenting author and manufacturer of new eye drops. entails several injections, which are painful and need clinical time to complete even though they are effective.
A non-invasive approach is required to enhance these patients’ quality of life by promoting comfort and lowering pain levels through self-management. According to Dr. Lhuillier, patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the early stages of the condition are not given a treatment option other than to wait for their symptoms to get better. It’s possible that the condition won’t worsen due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. When the patient’s condition reaches an advanced stage or they develop diabetic macular edema, anti-VEGF injections are recommended. He said that treating diabetic retinopathy patients with non-invasive, safe, and effective therapies early on will help stop the condition from getting worse. About 7 and a half million Americans are thought to have non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and another 1 and a half million have advanced the disease to more severe forms, which hasten its progression and deteriorates vision. There is a strong motivation to cut back. Dangerous complications.

According to reports, the novel eye drop, known as EXN407, is the first topical treatment for retinal vascular conditions like diabetic macular edema and diabetic retinopathy. The eye drop is a small molecule treatment that employs an inhibitor of serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1). Numerous factors contribute to the development of diabetic eye disease, but the primary cause is the overgrowth of blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels eventually leak, causing subretinal edema to appear and blindness to result. VEGFTrusted Source is a growth factor that causes this phenomenon. According to him, EXN407 is a molecule that only inhibits the members of the family that cause disease, leaving the non-disease-causing members intact, allowing the VEGF to be balanced again. In addition to being more convenient as an eyedrop formulation as opposed to an injection, it provides a more nuanced approach than anti-VEGF agents.


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Yogurt can help reduce type 2 diabetes risk

Yogurt can help reduce type 2 diabetes risk

Yogurt has been associated with several health benefits, including a potential reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Several studies have suggested that yogurt consumption may be linked to a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, possibly due to its nutrient content and its effects on factors such as weight management and insulin sensitivity. Yogurt is a good source of protein, calcium, and probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria that may contribute to gut health. Some research suggests that probiotics may play a role in improving insulin sensitivity and reducing inflammation, which are important factors in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Furthermore, yogurt is low in carbohydrates and has a relatively low glycemic index, meaning it has less of an impact on blood sugar levels compared to high-carbohydrate foods. Including yogurt as part of a balanced diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it’s essential to note that while yogurt can be a healthy addition to the diet, it’s not a guarantee against developing type 2 diabetes. Other lifestyle factors, such as maintaining a healthy weight, staying physically active, and avoiding smoking, also play crucial roles in diabetes prevention. Always consult with a healthcare professional for personalized dietary recommendations and diabetes prevention strategies.

Manufacturers of yogurt are permitted by federal regulators to make restricted statements on their packaging suggesting that yogurt could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. According to the officials, specific language can be used to make qualified health claims as long as it is made clear that the claims are supported by scant data. According to experts, the decision might be perplexing for customers, who might read the label incorrectly and believe that yogurt is a foolproof method of lowering type 2 diabetes.

According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yogurt manufacturers can now assert that consuming yogurt made from dairy products regularly may lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The FDA selects which health claims are approved when manufacturers’ claims are substantiated by enough data. Manufacturers of yogurt are not allowed to suggest unless they have a valid health claim that eating yogurt lowers the risk of diabetes on their products or in their advertising. They can now converse with one in three adult Americans, though, who may be thinking about changing their diet to improve their health and have prediabetes. Before you reach for a spoon, here are some things to know about the new claim and whether it applies to your favorite yogurt.

Based on 28 observational studies that suggest a potential association between regular yogurt consumption and a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, a new qualified health claim was developed that centers around yogurt. The yogurt health claim, like other qualified health claims, can only be explained to customers in extremely precise and authorized language. For instance: Consuming yogurt regularly at least two cups, or three servings may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. The FDA has determined that the evidence for this claim is weak. Based on limited scientific evidence, eating yogurt regularly at least 2 cups (3 servings) per week may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. For the claim which is limited to dairy-based yogurt products to be deemed compliant with the enforcement discretion, it must additionally contain language regarding two cups (or three servings) per week.

1.4 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in the US each year, making it one of the top 10 causes of death. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the great majority of these cases; fortunately, lifestyle modifications like increasing physical activity and eating more nutrient-rich foods can reduce the risk of this condition. Yogurt doesn’t seem to directly lower blood sugar or insulin sensitivity, although blood sugar is a major factor in type 2 diabetes and diet plays a part in management. That being said, yogurt still has health benefits for those who are susceptible to the illness. Even though more research is required to fully understand how yogurt may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, Hackworth said that researchers have a few theories, including “pointing to the overall complexity of yogurt and its matrix of proteins, fats, and micronutrients which may have bioactive activities that contribute to lower risk of type 2 diabetes.” Yogurt is a nutrient-dense food that provides a good or excellent source of nine essential nutrients: calcium, protein, phosphorus, vitamin B12, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, zinc, selenium, and iodine. The whey protein in dairy products and live, active cultures may also have an impact on the risk of diabetes, according to research cited by Hackworth. Some research supports these theories. Yogurt is a fermented food containing live cultures, to start.

Through a number of different mechanisms, yogurt may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Probiotics are good bacteria that are found in yogurt and can have a positive impact on gut health. Probiotics have been linked to decreased inflammation and increased insulin sensitivity, both of which are critical elements in the onset of type 2 diabetes. Nutrient Content: Protein, calcium, and other important nutrients can be found in good amounts in yogurt. As part of a balanced diet, nutrient-rich foods like yogurt can support general health and may help lower the risk of chronic illnesses like type 2 diabetes. Low Glycemic Index: Yogurt usually has a low glycemic index, which means that consuming it doesn’t quickly raise blood sugar levels. Selecting foods with a lower glycemic index may lower the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes while also assisting in blood sugar regulation. Weight management: Consuming yogurt may help with weight management, according to some research. Since obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, maintaining a healthy weight is crucial to preventing the disease. Calcium: A vital component of many bodily metabolic processes, yogurt is a good source of this mineral. According to certain research, the risk of type 2 diabetes may be negatively correlated with the amount of calcium consumed. Overall, adding yogurt to a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and other nutrients will help you achieve a balanced diet.


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FDA Approves Semaglutide for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

FDA Approves Semaglutide for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

The FDA has approved Wegovy, an anti-obesity drug, for reducing cardiovascular risk in adults with overweight or obesity and established cardiovascular disease. The label expansion now allows for the once-weekly injection of semaglutide 2.4 mg to be used to reduce risks for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). These events include cardiovascular death, nonfatal heart attack, or nonfatal stroke. The drug should be used in combination with a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. This approval makes Wegovy the first weight loss medication to also help prevent life-threatening cardiovascular events in adults with cardiovascular disease and either obesity or overweight, according to the FDA with type 2 diabetes.

Several clinical trials, including the SUSTAIN and PIONEER trials, have demonstrated that semaglutide can reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in people with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. These trials have shown a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular death in participants treated with semaglutide compared to those treated with a placebo or other diabetes medications.

The exact mechanisms by which semaglutide reduces cardiovascular risk are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to its effects on blood sugar control, body weight, blood pressure, and other metabolic factors. Additionally, semaglutide may have direct effects on the cardiovascular system, such as reducing inflammation and improving vascular function. Overall, the cardiovascular benefits of semaglutide make it an important treatment option for individuals with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. However, as with any medication, it’s essential to discuss the potential risks and benefits with your healthcare provider to determine if semaglutide is the right choice for you.

This patient population has a higher risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack, and stroke. Providing a treatment option that is proven to lower this cardiovascular risk is a major advance for public health, he added. The approval was based on results from the 3-year SELECT trial, which randomly assigned 17,604 patients with cardiovascular disease and body mass index 27 to weekly semaglutide or placebo. None of the patients had diabetes, although two-thirds met prediabetes criteria. The incidence of MACEs was reduced by 20% with the drug. The label will also reflect the risk reduction of 15% for cardiovascular death and 19% for death from any cause. Participants also lost a mean of 9.4% of body weight over the first 2 years with semaglutide vs 0.88% with placebo.

Adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment occurred in 16.6% in the semaglutide group, mostly gastrointestinal effects, and in 8.2% in the placebo group. The maker of the weight loss medication, Novo Nordisk, has also filed for a label expansion in the European Union, with a decision expected in 2024. 

Wegovy is now the first weight loss medication to also be approved to help prevent life-threatening cardiovascular events in adults with cardiovascular disease and either obesity or overweight, This patient population has a higher risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack, and stroke. Providing a treatment option that is proven to lower this cardiovascular risk is a major advance for public health.

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist, a class of medications that has gathered much media attention as of late.1 The FDA said that semaglutide should not be used in combination with other medication containing semaglutide or other GLP-1 receptor agonists.
The approval was based on efficacy and safety in the multicentered, placebo-controlled, double-blind SELECT (NCT03574597) trial, which had over 17,600 individuals in the cohort. Treatment was randomized between semaglutide or the placebo, with both groups receiving standard-of-care treatment, including management of blood pressure and cholesterol, and healthy lifestyle counseling, including diet and physical activity, according to the FDA. Investigators of the study found that semaglutide significantly reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) such as CVD death, heart attack, and stroke, which occurred in 6.5% of individuals in the semaglutide group compared with 8% of those in the placebo group.

The FDA approved Wegovy (semaglutide) for a new use: reducing the risk of cardiovascular (CV) death, heart attack, and stroke in adults with both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and overweight or obesity. Wegovy is the first weight-loss medication approved for this specific purpose. It should be used alongside a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity.


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Ozempic may delay kidney disease progression

Ozempic may delay kidney disease progression

Ozempic (semaglutide) is a medication primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have suggested that it may have potential benefits beyond glycemic control, including possible effects on kidney disease progression. Some research indicates that Ozempic may slow the progression of kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes, though more studies are needed to confirm these findings and understand the mechanisms involved. It’s always essential for individuals to discuss potential treatment options and their implications with their healthcare providers.

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that results from the body no longer responding to insulin, the hormone that controls blood glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Semaglutide sold under the brand name Ozempic is a drug that, in conjunction with diet and exercise, improves blood glucose (sugar) control in people with diabetes. Now, trial results show that semaglutide may also reduce the progression of kidney disease.

Chronic kidney disease affects one in three adults with diabetes. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of chronic kidney disease if blood glucose (sugar) levels are not controlled. The resulting damage to blood vessels and nephrons in the kidneys means they cannot function effectively. As the early stages of kidney disease cause few or no symptoms, people with diabetes should manage their blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. They should also get regular checks from their doctor.
Semaglutide which is marketed as Ozempic, is one of a group of drugs called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. These mimic a hormone GLP-1 that makes the body produce more insulin, reduces appetite, and gives feelings of fullness.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Ozempic as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, in addition to diet and exercise. As well as helping control blood glucose, it may also reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, or death in adults with type 2 diabetes and heart disease. One study has shown that it could also reduce inflammation, which may explain these other health effects.

Now, the manufacturer of Ozempic Novo Nordisk has announced headline results of their latest trial, suggesting that semaglutide can reduce the risk of kidney disease progression by 24% in people who have type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. The detailed results of the FLOW trial will be presented at a scientific conference later this year. They have not yet appeared in a peer-reviewed journal. This is a very significant finding; over 500 million people have diabetes, and 30-40% have chronic kidney disease, and we need treatments to stop or reduce progression of the kidney disease as well as to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease which is high in this population. People with [type 2 diabetes] and [chronic kidney disease] are at amplified risk for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality and progression to kidney failure. Treatment options capable of mitigating heart and kidney risk in this population are greatly needed, he told us.

Researchers on the FLOW trial recruited 3,533 people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease from 418 locations in 28 countries. They randomly allocated them to semaglutide or placebo. Participants self-administered both semaglutide and the visually identical placebo by weekly subcutaneous injection. Those in the semaglutide group started on a dose of 0.25 milligrams (mg) per week for 4 weeks, increasing the dose to 0.5 mg, then to 1 mg after 8 weeks and for the rest of the trial.

In addition, all participants received the maximum labeled or tolerated dose of a RAAS blocking agentTrusted Source unless contraindicated or not tolerated which helps control hypertension, acute myocardial infarctionTrusted Source (heart attack), chronic systolic heart failure, stroke, and diabetic renal disease. Participants had a mean age of 66.6 years, 69.7% were men and 65.7% were white. All participants had type 2 diabetes diagnosed, on average, 17.4 years before the start of the trial and chronic kidney disease. The trial was meant to run until the end of 2024 but was stopped early after it reached its primary endpoint. The endpoint is composed of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular and kidney death, and in particular progression to kidney failure and mortality of cardiovascular events. These are frequent in this population of [type 2 diabetes] with [chronic kidney disease], so that we can reduce this by 24% is important and meaningful for patients.

In the announcement, Novo Nordisk stated that the trial had achieved a statistically significant and superior reduction in kidney disease progression as well as cardiovascular and kidney death of 24% for people treated with semaglutide 1.0 mg compared to placebo. There needs to be repeated assessments with different samples of participants across the world. In the real world setting, people behave differently and have other conditions as well. So, we need more effectiveness trials [because] effectiveness trials find how well a medication works [unlike] efficacy trials that measure how well it works in RCT/lab studies. The recently released headline results are impressive, yet we await the presentation and publication of the complete trial results to fully understand the efficacy and safety outcomes of the trial.

Ozempic is not without side effects. While Ozempic (semaglutide) can be effective in managing type 2 diabetes, it’s important to be aware of potential side effects. Like many medications, Ozempic does carry the risk of side effects, some of which can be serious. It’s crucial for individuals to discuss these potential risks with their healthcare providers before starting the medication and to monitor for any adverse reactions while taking it.


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Can prediabetes be reversed with diet and exercise

Can prediabetes be reversed with diet and exercise

Diabetes, more especially type 2 diabetes, is emerging as one of the 21st century’s most difficult medical issues. It is also anticipated that 380 million individuals globally will receive a diabetes diagnosis by 2025. Diabetes management and treatment are increasingly important because it is a risk factor for many other diseases and chronic health conditions, including stroke, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and blindness, to name a few. However, many people are thought to be in a precursor stage known as prediabetes before they go on to develop type 2 diabetes. People with this illness have blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. However, a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes is prediabetes. The statistics of those who have prediabetes provide a clear picture when it comes to scaling this issue: more than one in three persons in the U.S. S. along with the U. K. have been identified as prediabetic. Therefore, if prediabetes is considered an early warning sign of type 2 diabetes, people can take  steps to reverse the course of this condition and it is possible to reverse this condition with significant lifestyle changes.

On our May podcast, “In Conversation: Can diet and exercise help reverse prediabetes?” Dr. Thomas Barber, an associate clinical professor at Warwick Medical School and consultant endocrinologist at University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, joined Dr. Hilary Guite and me. Additionally, Healthline Media and Medical News Today Managing Editor Angela Chao shared her personal story of reversing her diagnosis of prediabetes and the lifestyle changes she made to maintain it. In Angela’s instance, few medical professionals would have thought that her blood sugar levels were concerning. She is not thin, young, and energetic like most people with prediabetes or those at risk of getting diabetes. She did, however, admit that at the time she led a fairly sedentary lifestyle. She said that because my readings were so low on the spectrum, I don’t even think my primary care physician at the time talked to me about it beyond providing the range and the diagnosis. She did, however, add that some doctors and her medical friends seemed concerned about the changes to the cutoff point for readings that qualified as prediabetes.

According to Dr. Barber, the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes was previously made using fasting glucose readings or a conventional glucose tolerance test. In this test, participants were given 75 grams of a sugar-filled beverage, and their blood sugar levels were monitored for the following two hours. Additionally, the definition of prediabetes is constantly changing and may vary from nation to nation. Definitions vary amongst societies and prestigious organizations. According to Dr. Barber, the first thing to really keep in mind is that there is a continuum involved when discussing diabetes or prediabetes. Should we choose the U. S. along with the U. K. For instance, there are variations in the thresholds and units of measurement applied when diagnosing prediabetes. As you point out, there are various units, which makes it a little confusing. However, in essence, in the U. K. for glucose, we use millimoles per liter, and in the U.S. S. milligrams per deciliter, to be exact. We typically use millimoles per mole in clinical settings now, and we have for a while, according to Dr. Barber. He went on, “I think that further complicating matters is the hemoglobin A1C, which has two different percentage units, one that we have historically used and the other that is now replaced by millimoles per mole.

According to Dr. Barber, glucose is a continuous variable rather than a discrete measure. He clarified that while everyone can agree on what is elevated and what is normal, there are kind of disagreements about everything in between. The World Health Organization approved hemoglobin A1C as a test for diabetes a few years ago. While additional glucose readings can be useful, Dr. Barber stated that medical professionals do primarily rely on A1C in current clinical practice. With regard to prediabetes in the U.S. K. this is predicated on an A1C of 39 to 47 mmol per mol; according to him, 39 is equal to an A1C of 5 points 7 percent. Anything that raises the hemoglobin A1C level above 48 millimoles per mole, or 6.5% of the baseline, is considered diabetes by definition. According to him, in order to diagnose type 2 diabetes, we should ideally have at least two of those readings that are elevated. When Angela was diagnosed, her A1C was 5 points8 percent, and anything above 5 points7 was considered prediabetes. Dr. Barber reminded us that, in the United States, Angela’s readings would not have been regarded as prediabetes and that, in recent years, the diagnostic criteria for diabetes have gradually decreased. K. at the time, since the values were extremely near to normal and not quite below the cut-off.

Usually, prediabetes shows no symptoms at all. On the other hand, some people may occasionally have frequent thirst, wake up in the middle of the night to urinate, experience blood sugar spikes, or have energy crashes. Prediabetes is frequently asymptomatic, so many people who are diagnosed with it may have had it for months or even years. Furthermore, it can easily go unreported unless people are tested for it, according to Dr. Barber. In describing her personal experience, Angela said, “I definitely didn’t have a wide range of symptoms.”. On the other hand, I was definitely already drinking water on a regular basis. I therefore found it difficult to determine whether anything was changing. Low blood sugar, particularly if she went for prolonged periods without eating, was something she did notice prior to the diagnosis. Over the years, she said, there has been a consistent pattern of significant fluctuations in her blood sugar levels, which she could feel physically. She can, however, fast trouble-free for more than 16 hours now because of certain lifestyle adjustments. Sugar surges and falls may be considered preemptive indicators of diabetes.

According to Dr. Dot Barber, prediabetes is a general term that can refer to either elevated fasting glucose or elevated postprandial glucose. Dr. Dot Barber stated that fluctuations in blood sugar levels, or glycemia, were often observed in the context of insulin resistance. Glucose levels tend to rise a little higher than they should, he explained, because the beta cells can’t produce enough insulin, for example, or the insulin isn’t as effective after a meal. He explained that without careful monitoring of blood sugar levels throughout the day, people might not physically notice these changes. “I guess the difference really is that most of the time, in the context of prediabetes, we’re not aware of this,” he said. It makes perfect sense that as you lead a healthier lifestyle, lose weight, and reverse prediabetes, your blood sugar levels will stabilize. He mentioned Angela’s description of the changes she saw and said that the insulin becomes more effective and can handle the fluctuations in glycemia better.

Obesity, having a high body mass index, and being overweight are some of the most well-known risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Additionally, as we age, our vulnerability increases. And the reason for that is that as we age, the beta cells and insulin’s receptors can no longer function as well, and insulin itself becomes slightly less effective. Accordingly, as we age, our chance of having prediabetes and diabetes rises, according to Dr. Barber. Dr. Barber added that eating a diet heavy in high-glycemic foods and sugary drinks, as well as stress, can all raise risk. Conversely, he asserted that a diet low in simple carbohydrates and high in fiber can delay the onset of dysglycemia. Genetics and ethnic origin are other factors to consider. Dr. Dot Barber presented the results of a recent study she and her colleagues carried out in the U. K. which revealed that, at a BMI of 23.9%, individuals of South Asian ethnicity had the same risk of developing diabetes as did white people at 30.

In contrast, Angela’s risk was increased by her family history. My mother, a retired medical doctor, had warned me since I was a teenager about the slight family history of type 2 diabetes on my father’s side. She also mentioned that everyone on that side of the family was thin and had no weight problems. Dr. According to Barber, diabetes is frequently attributed to lifestyle decisions, but many people are unaware that it is a hereditary disorder. According to him, patients with a strong family history may not always exhibit the characteristics of type 2 diabetes, such as being middle-aged, male, obese, and having a large abdomen. That’s the idea that most people with type 2 diabetes have of the typical person. And, he added, as you say, Angela doesn’t conform to any of those stereotypes of what that entails. Dr. Barber also emphasized that having a genetic predisposition to diabetes at birth can result in dysglycemia even in the absence of those other factors. More than 40 genes and gene mutations have been found to increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Additionally, he stated that even though each effect is relatively weak on its own, adding them all together can have a cumulative effect. Through a combination of intermittent fasting, a balanced diet with an increased amount of lower-glycemic index foods and complex carbohydrates, and a sig, Angela was able to reverse her diabetes.

She advised against strict dieting, keto, and quick, drastic changes that aren’t long-term. Dr. Barber acknowledged that while this approach obviously worked for Angela, not many people would be able to make such drastic life changes and may find it challenging. According to Dr. Barber, there is evidence to suggest that intensive lifestyle treatments that prioritize diet, physical activity, weight loss, and other related factors can effectively prevent or postpone the onset of type 2 diabetes. In my opinion, it serves as a kind of early warning system that indicates when a person needs to make a lifestyle change. He added that it must be beneficial if it inspires or motivates people to alter their way of life.


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People with diabetes and other conditions can benefit from high-intensity water exercise.

People with diabetes and other conditions can benefit from high-intensity water exercise.

According to research, adults with chronic conditions can exercise more effectively when they participate in aquatic high-intensity interval training (AHIIT). They observed that AHIIT had an effect comparable to that of land-based training (LBHIIT) and that it might be a useful and safe substitute for those with long-term medical conditions who are unable to engage in land-based exercise. Although there is conflicting data regarding the physiological benefits of exercising in the water, experts agree that it can help reduce joint strain and enable individuals to perform movements that they may not be able to on dry land. For those with long-term medical conditions who find land-based training too challenging, researchers have a message. Come on in. The water is clear. Currently available in the BMJ Open Sport and Exercise Medicine journal. According to the study, adults with chronic conditions like diabetes and arthritis can exercise more effectively when they participate in high-intensity interval training (AHIIT), which is conducted in water. Additionally, the researchers claim that AHIIT has an effect comparable to that of land-based training (LBHIIT) and that it could be a beneficial and safe substitute for LBHIIT for those with long-term medical conditions. Dr. Sports medicine expert Mark Slabaugh of Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore told Medical News Today that exercising in the water has obvious advantages for those with chronic pain, arthritis, and tendinitis.

Salbaugh, who was not involved in the study, said, “This study gives us as clinicians even more options for patients who are interested in cross training and doing HIIT workouts but can not due to joint pain.”. “I advise my patients to begin with these brief AHIIT sessions and work their way up to longer swimming sessions, as swimming is a sport that can be continued well into old age. The study team examined 18 trials to compare the effects of AHIIT and LBHIIT on participants’ ability to exercise (as determined by oxygen consumption, walking tests, and other physical fitness assessments). Additionally, they contrasted AHIIT with a control group that did not exercise and moderate-intensity exercise in water (AMICT). Using the widely accepted GRADE system, the researchers evaluated the degree of certainty in the evidence. They examined 868 participants with a variety of illnesses, including multiple sclerosis, back pain, arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and chronic lung disease (COPD), with 74% of the participants being female. A few individuals were dealing with multiple chronic illnesses. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were used in the study to represent group differences. A small effect was indicated by an SMD of 0.2-0.49, a moderate effect by 0.5-0.79, and a large effect by 0.8 or more.

According to the study, AHIIT had a minor positive impact when compared to AMICT (SMD 0.45) and a moderately positive impact when compared to no exercise (SMD 0.78). Furthermore, there was no discernible difference in the exercise capacity between LBHIIT and AHIIT. Compared to LBHIIT, fewer adverse events were reported with AHIIT. The range of 84 percent to 100 percent was the adherence rate for AHIIT. Physical therapist Sydnee Corbin is also the clinic director of SporTherapy in Texas, where therapy is conducted in a swimming pool. Water-based therapy, according to Corbin, who was not involved in the study, helps people with conditions like osteoarthritis, balance issues, sensory processing disorders, generalized weakness/deconditioning, and post-operative patients by offloading joints while increasing resistance. According to Corbin, “the pool is a great opportunity to provide resistance and sensory feedback—a unique property that is difficult to replicate on land.”. Reaching a patient population that would otherwise be sedentary or inactive can be greatly facilitated by an aquatic setting. “.

According to Corbin, individuals who suffer from osteoarthritis, persistent low back pain, or other long-term medical conditions might not be able to fully engage in LBHIIT and reap the full benefits of HIIT. “By introducing AHIIT, we can decrease further health risks to those populations and be more inclusive to them,” the speaker stated. In addition to offloading joints, the aquatic environment gives users’ systems sensory input that might otherwise be sensitized due to chronic pain, constant resistance from the water, and, if done in a heated pool, the ability to relax otherwise painful muscles and joints. “Mr. Medical News Today was informed by William Ashford, an orthopedic surgeon at AICA Orthopedics in Atlanta who was not involved in the study, that AHIIT presents a highly effective treatment modality, especially for individuals with musculoskeletal conditions like chronic back pain and arthritis. According to Ashford, the buoyancy of the water minimizes joint stress and offers a natural resistance, enabling people to engage in exercises that would be too painful or impractical on land. Additionally, Ashford noted that the cardiovascular benefits of HIIT are well-established, and applying this knowledge to an aquatic setting appears to enhance these benefits for some populations. According to Ashford, maintaining an exercise routine is essential to managing chronic illnesses.

Water exercise has its limitations as well. “Although beneficial for numerous individuals, it may not be appropriate for all patients, particularly those with specific chronic lung conditions, as the water pressure may cause difficulties in breathing,” stated Ashford. Also, some patients may find it difficult to get to the right facilities. Having said that, Ashford recommended further study to find strategies for expanding the reach of water-based therapy. “AHIIT is a highly effective, flexible, and patient-centered method for treating a range of chronic illnesses,” the speaker stated. The benefits of HIIT are combined with the special qualities of water to create a synergistic effect that can be especially helpful for patients who have trouble with land-based exercises. “.


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Depression increases the risk of mortality among people living with diabetes

Depression increases the risk of mortality among people living with diabetes

More than 462 million people worldwide suffer with type 2 diabetes, making it the ninth most common cause of death. People with type 2 diabetes frequently experience mental health problems; research indicates that the likelihood of depression is twice as high in those with the disease as in those without it. According to a recent study, the risk of dying young is four times higher for those who have type 2 diabetes and depression combined than for those who don’t. The authors advocate for the inclusion of mental health services in type 2 diabetes patients’ medical regimens.

Using data from the Global Burden of Disease dataset, a study conducted in 2017 projected that 462 million individuals worldwide, or 6.28% of the total population, had type 2 diabetes. Since then, the number has grown, and by 2050, it is anticipated that there will be more than 1.3 billion type 2 diabetics globally. Individuals who have diabetes are more likely than those who do not to experience depression. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 5% of persons worldwide suffer from depression, also known as depressive disorder. Research has also shown that people with type 2 diabetes have twice the risk of developing depression compared to the general population.

Type 2 diabetes and depression together can raise the chance of death by up to four times, according to a recent study. Both illnesses increase the risk of mortality. Professor of public health at current Mexico State University and lead and corresponding author of the current study Dr. Jagdish Khubchandani told MNT that “it is estimated that almost a fifth of people with diabetes may also have depression symptoms of varying severity” globally. Data from 14,920 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2005 and 2010, were analyzed by the researchers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) death records up to December 31, 2019, were then linked to these data.

When it came to the participants’ diabetes status, the researchers recorded it as diabetes if they replied “yes” or “borderline” to the question, “Other than during pregnancy, have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have diabetes or sugar diabetes?”. They measured depression using the PHQ-9, a tool for gauging depression severity. Anyone who received a score of 10 or higher on the questionnaire—which has a maximum score of 27—was deemed to have depression. 10% of the cohort had type 2 diabetes, and 9 points08 percent had depression. Sixteen percent of people with type 2 diabetes also experienced depression. The researchers discovered that, overall, individuals with type 2 diabetes had a 1:7 chance of dying before their time after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The risk of dying young was more than four times higher for those with type 2 diabetes and depression than for those without either illness.

“Considering the range of additional conditions, including depression, that often coexist with diabetes, specialists in diabetes care may not be able to provide assistance on their own,” he continued. Dr. This viewpoint was echoed by Gabbay, who stated that “[t]he American Diabetes Association Standards of Care recommends routine screening for depression because it is a common condition in people with diabetes, predicts poor outcomes, and, shockingly, now increases the risk of death.”. “It is crucial to screen for depression, which can be as easy as asking a PHQ-2 question [about the frequency of depressed mood], and then concentrate on appropriate treatments, given that there are effective treatments for depression,” he said. According to Dr. Gabbay, there are a number of factors that may contribute to diabetes and depression, including inflammation, sleep disturbance, an inactive lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and environmental and cultural risk factors.

There are several possible explanations for the link between type 2 diabetes and depression. He pointed out that people who are depressed are frequently less likely to lead healthy lifestyles, which can result in poorer glucose regulation and an increased risk of diabetes complications. We may not fully understand the biological connection, but it appears to play a significant role in the relationship between depression and type 2 diabetes, Dr. Gabbay continued. Dr. Khubchandani stressed how critical it is to treat both illnesses. He informed us that a combination of antidepressants and hypoglycemic drugs are recommended for optimum management of both the disorders and to prevent worsening of any of these, although receiving treatment for any one of the two disorders is still preferable to receiving none at all. He continued, Frequent monitoring and screening is essential for this to occur, and diabetes care practitioners must remain vigilant about mental health issues among patients.. Dr. Khubchandani further emphasized the need for prompt action to stop needless diabetes-related deaths. He emphasized that by 2050, the number of people with diabetes worldwide will have rapidly doubled from 400 million today, adding that diabetes imposes a lot of social, economic, and emotional burdens.. In the absence of a more thorough and serious approach to mental health issues, the number of diabetics who pass away too soon will increase. .

High blood sugar levels brought on by diabetes can cause a number of health problems that can impact the body’s organs. Controlling these levels can lower the chance of harm occurring to the entire body. Diabetes can be treated to a lesser extent by receiving an early diagnosis and adhering to a treatment plan that includes medication, lifestyle modifications, and routine medical care. The primary cause of early death for diabetics is cardiovascular disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, the risk of having a stroke or passing away from heart disease is two to three times higher for those who have diabetes than for those who do not. Moreover, diabetes patients typically experience more severe cardiac issues earlier in life than non-diabetic individuals. Furthermore, diabetes frequently coexists with other heart-stressing conditions like obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease are both at risk due to poor diet and inactivity. When there is an infection or wound, the body’s capacity to heal is compromised by poor circulation. The lack of blood, oxygen, and nutrients is the cause of this. Diabetes patients should frequently examine their skin for wounds and should consult a physician if they experience any infection-related symptoms, such as redness, swelling, or fever.

One of the most frequent side effects of diabetes is neuropathy, or nerve damage. Nerve damage affects roughly 10–20% of individuals with diabetes at diagnosis. A person’s risk of developing neuropathy increases with the length of time they have diabetes. Over 50% of individuals with diabetes will develop the illness at some point. Any area of the nervous system, including the nerves governing autonomic or involuntary processes like digestion, can be affected by neuropathy. On the other hand, peripheral neuropathy is the most prevalent type. The legs, feet, and toes, as well as the arms, hands, and fingers, are affected, resulting in pain and numbness. The upper legs and hips can also be affected by neuropathy. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), peripheral neuropathy accounts for up to 50% of cases of diabetes, while autonomic neuropathy accounts for over 30% of cases. High blood sugar levels have the potential to harm kidney blood vessels over time. The kidneys’ ability to filter waste from the blood is compromised by this damage. Kidney failure may develop eventually. One of the primary causes of kidney disease, according to the NIDDK, is diabetes. It impacts one in three diabetics.

Diabetes raises the possibility of several ocular issues, some of which can result in blindness. One of the short-term issues is hazy vision from elevated blood sugar. Diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, cataracts, and glaucoma are long-term complications. Controlling blood sugar, avoiding or quitting smoking, and scheduling routine eye exams can all help preserve eye health in diabetics. Nervous system damage can impact autonomic bodily processes, such as digestion. When nerve damage prevents the digestive system from properly moving food from the stomach into the small intestine, the condition known as gastroparesis may result. Diabetes may cause a person to experience nausea, vomiting, acid reflux, bloating, abdominal pain, and, in extreme situations, weight loss. Stress can be reduced by learning as much as possible about diabetes. It may also cause concerns about treatment, health, and potential complications that can lead to stress, anxiety, and depression. Concerns about the cost of treatment and whether or not they are getting it right, especially if symptoms change mood disorders that make it difficult for a person to maintain a healthy lifestyle. A person will feel more in control of their diabetes and its management the more informed they are about their illness. Being aware of what to do in every circumstance can help someone feel more confident and better about themselves in general. Reducing these issues can be achieved by collaborating with a healthcare provider. A physician or therapist may do so.


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According to a study, insulin may be kept at room temperature for months without losing its effectiveness.

According to a study, insulin may be kept at room temperature for months without losing its effectiveness.

According to recent studies, insulin does not lose its efficacy even when kept out of the refrigerator for several months. Insulin can be maintained at room temperature, according to guidelines already in place, but the new information provides further detail on acceptable temperature ranges. Insulin must be kept out of direct sunlight and kept at or above 25°C (77°F) or below freezing for optimal effects. For those with type 1 diabetes who are unable to consistently refrigerate their insulin, new research reveals that insulin can be kept at room temperature for months and still maintain its efficacy.

In a recent review, the Cochrane Collaboration examined the effects of various temperatures on insulin and discovered that unopened containers of some human insulin types could be kept at 77°F, or 25°C, for up to six months without significantly losing potency. The information affects both individuals without refrigerators and those whose refrigerators may not be dependable. Richter points out that some refrigerator pockets truly get too cold below freezingwhich reduces the effectiveness of any insulin that may be kept there.

It is possible to maintain the efficacy of insulin if it is not refrigerated and is stored outside. Richter advises avoiding direct sunlight and letting it grow too hot or too chilly. Insulin that hasn’t been opened should normally be stored in refrigerators at 4°C (39°F), whereas insulin that is being used should be left at room temperature. Richter noted that the new data from our research indicated that insulin could be administered for longer periods of time and at greater temperatures without significantly reducing activity in those living in challenging settings.

According to him, the results have raised new issues that might be the subject of further investigation, such as examining the impacts of both motion and temperature. According to him, “people who use insulin pumps, for instance, wear them close to their bodies, which causes a higher temperature, and they’re more or less continuously moving.” We also seek information on how people who live in cold climates keep their insulin from freezing. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are well aware of the urgent necessity of insulin. Insulin is a dependable and efficient treatment for type 1 diabetes since it lowers blood glucose in those whose systems are unable to manage glucose on their own.

It is imperative for physicians to inform their patients about the warning signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia reactions. For this reason, he said, it’s imperative that you constantly remind your patients that they must eat in order for their bodies to absorb glucose and that they should always carry a glucose tablet. Dr. Romain mentioned that he treats patients from a low-income community, which can make it difficult for them to get insulin.

For the patient, it might be quite difficult, especially if they don’t have insurance. I make an effort to learn about my patients’ daily lives because many people are unaware of the seriousness of type 1 diabetes. He stated that it is important to consider the potential for serious problems. Knowing what foods to eat and how much exercise is necessary since diabetes, whether type 1 or not, can induce myocardial infarction, which is the main cause of death for diabetics. Dr. Romain continued, “It all comes down to teaching the patient how critical it is to get the illness under control so we can avoid those consequences from developing.


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