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Higher blood caffeine linked to lower fat & type 2 diabetes

Higher blood caffeine linked to lower fat & type 2 diabetes

Researchers looked into how measurements of body fat, type 2 diabetes risk, and cardiovascular risk were affected by a genetic susceptibility to high caffeine levels.

Scientists discovered a connection between less body fat and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and a higher genetic propensity to higher caffeine levels. The findings need to be confirmed by other research.

The psychoactive chemical that is most commonly ingested worldwide is caffeine. Coffee, tea, and soft drinks are the main sources of caffeine consumption.

According to certain research, caffeine consumption is associated with reduced body mass index (BMI), decreased fat mass, and weight loss. Consuming caffeine may therefore reduce the risk of diseases like type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease that are connected to being overweight or obese.

However, it is unknown how much of these advantages are due to caffeine. According to one study, each additional cup of caffeinated coffee and each cup of decaffeinated coffee taken daily reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 7% and 6%, respectively.

It may be possible to establish dietary guidelines to lower the risk of cardiometabolic disorders by learning more about how caffeine consumption affects their onset.

Recent studies looked into the impact of a genetic propensity for higher blood levels of caffeine. Scientists discovered a relationship between a genetic propensity for greater blood levels of caffeine and a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes.

Slower caffeine metabolism

Data from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 9,876 people with primarily European ancestry were used by the researchers to conduct this study.

They examined two common genetic variants—CYP1A2 and AHR genes—using the data in their analysis. These genes slow down caffeine metabolism, which means that compared to people who metabolise caffeine fast, those who carry the variations need to drink less coffee to reach increased levels of caffeine in their blood. Moreover, data on body fat, type 2 diabetes risk, and cardiovascular disease risk were gathered by researchers.

In the end, the researchers discovered a relationship between reduced BMI, whole body fat mass, and a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and genetically predicted greater blood levels of caffeine.

Further investigation revealed that weight loss was responsible for 43% of the protective effect of blood levels of caffeine on type 2 diabetes. They discovered no conclusive correlation between genetically predicted caffeine levels and cardiac diseases such ischemic heart disease, heart failure, or stroke.

Caffeine and weight loss

Dr. Dana Ellis Hunnes, an assistant professor at UCLA Fielding School of Public Health who was not involved in the study and was asked how more caffeine intake may enhance weight loss, said that it stimulates thermogenesis, or heat production, in the body.

When we burn more calories than we consume, we are more likely to lose weight and fat, she said. “Heat production promotes calorie burn.”

Caffeine promotes weight reduction by accelerating the metabolism, according to Dr. Rohini Manaktala, a cardiologist at Memorial Hermann in Houston, Texas, who was not involved in the study.

“This is a dose-dependent phenomenon, meaning that higher coffee consumption results in greater fat and calorie burning, which is reflected in weight loss,” she said. “Caffeine suppresses overeating by stifling a person’s appetite and leading to calorie deficit, which helps to avoid weight gain,” the author writes.

In order to understand how, in addition to promoting weight reduction, caffeine may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, MNT also spoke with Dr. Mark Guido, an endocrinologist with Novant Health Forsyth Endocrine Consultants in Winston Salem, NC, who was not involved in the study.

He claimed that although there is “mixed” scientific evidence on the subject, caffeine may lower the incidence of type 2 diabetes by changing how the body uses glucose and insulin. Higher blood levels of caffeine, according to the study’s findings, may promote weight loss and lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.


Dr. Guido pointed out important flaws in the study. He explained: “It did not appear to look at elevated caffeine levels through food or drink, but rather at naturally elevated caffeine levels in those with a particular genetic propensity. It is uncertain if these results would apply to elevated caffeine levels in food or beverages.

The study, he continued, did not examine how caffeine affected people who already had type 2 diabetes; rather, it focused on lowering the chance of developing it.

The findings, according to Dr. Hunnes, “are not really causative in nature,” as they only examined the impacts of genes as opposed to the “whole person” in a randomised controlled trial.

She said, “It’s kind of like looking at in vitro, or in a test tube, issues and assuming how it will behave in a human.

In order to fully understand the clinical and health impacts of caffeine, Dr. Manaktala continued, “A more substantial randomised control trial would be desirable. Also, the study subjects were of European ancestry. Extrapolating study results to the American population as a whole becomes difficult as a result.

Genome-Wide Association Research Highlights Connections

Larsson and colleagues used Mendelian randomization to analyse data from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 9876 people with European ancestry from six population-based investigations.

In people having the two gene variations, greater anticipated plasma caffeine levels were linked to reduced BMI, with one standard deviation more predicted plasma caffeine equating to roughly 4.8 kg/m2 in BMI (P .001).


One standard deviation higher plasma caffeine corresponded to a loss of approximately 9.5 kg in total body fat mass (P .001). The connection with fat-free body mass was not statistically significant, though (P =.17).

The FinnGen project and the DIAMANTE consortia both found genetically predicted higher plasma caffeine concentrations to be linked to a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes (odds ratio, 0.77 per standard deviation increase; P .001) and (0.84, P .001).

In total, there was an increased risk of type 2 diabetes of 0.81 (P .001) for every standard deviation increase in plasma caffeine.

Around 43% of the preventive impact of plasma caffeine on type 2 diabetes, according to Larsson and colleagues, was mediated by BMI.

They did not discover any conclusive links between the risk of any of the examined cardiovascular disease events with genetically predicted plasma caffeine concentrations (ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke).

The thermogenic response to caffeine has previously been calculated as an increase in energy expenditure of approximately 100 kcal for every 100 mg consumed daily, which could lower the risk of obesity. According to the researchers, increased satiety and reduced energy intake are two more potential mechanisms.

They state that “long-term clinical research” studying how coffee consumption affects fat mass and type 2 diabetes risk are necessary. “Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether noncaloric caffeine-containing beverages can help lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity.”

The Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, and Swedish Research Council all provided funding for the study. None of the purported financial connections between Larsson, Lawrence, and Kos are pertinent.


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The natural peptide could help tackle obesity and diabetes.

The natural peptide could help tackle obesity and diabetes.

Smaller versions of proteins known as peptides can serve a variety of functions. This includes the potential to lessen the effects of ageing, reduce inflammation, or stimulate the creation of new muscle.

In 2015, scientists made the discovery of a kind of peptide known as PEPITEM and recognized its role in the adiponectin-PEPITEM pathway. It controls the onset and severity of autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders.

The potential for this peptide to provide a game-changing treatment for numerous diseases has just been discovered by new study in animal models.

The study suggests that the peptide may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and. Other illnesses are connected to obesity, like fatty liver disease.

Obesity alters the metabolism of adipose (fat) tissue significantly, damages the pancreas, reduces insulin sensitivity, and finally results in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes.

It also causes a low-grade inflammatory response throughout the body. This encourages the infiltration of white blood cells into a variety of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue. It is a deep-lying fat deposit that surrounds organs like the liver and gut, as well as the peritoneal cavity, a thin membrane that encloses the gut.

According to a recent study, the adiponectin-PEPITEM pathway connects obesity, the related low-grade inflammatory response, and changes in the pancreas that take place before the onset of diabetes. The study was published in Clinical and Experimental Immunology.

To see if the effects of a high-fat diet on the pancreas could be avoided or even reversed, the researchers used a mouse model of obesity and a slow-release pump to inject the peptide PEPITEM.

When PEPITEM was given to mice on a high-fat diet, the researchers discovered that this significantly decreased the size of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Also, the quantity of white blood cells in the visceral adipose tissue and peritoneal cavity as compared to the control group.

Small protein impacts some effects of obesity

The adiponectin-PEPITEM pathway, which is important in regulating the onset and severity of auto-immune and chronic inflammatory illnesses, is where the peptide employed in this study plays a part.

Obesity can have a variety of negative impacts on the body. This includes altering the metabolism of adipose tissue (fat), harming the pancreas, decreasing insulin sensitivity, etc. Ultimately causing the high glucose levels associated with type 2 diabetes.

But, it also triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, causing white blood cells to flow into visceral adipose tissue, which surrounds organs like the liver and gut, as well as into the area of the abdomen that houses the intestines, stomach, and liver (peritoneal cavity).

In the latest research, which was released on March 9 in the journal Clinical and Experimental Immunology, mice were administered PEPITEM in addition to a high-fat diet.

The size of the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin was reduced in mice who received the peptide as compared to those who did not. Also, they noticed a reduction in the quantity of white blood cells in the peritoneal cavity and visceral adipose tissue.

“Our results show us that PEPITEM can both prevent and reverse the impact that obesity has on metabolism,” study author Asif Iqbal, PhD, an associate professor at the University of Birmingham’s Centre of Cardiovascular Sciences, said in the release.

The next step, he continued, is to transform these promising findings into human-useable treatments.

Reversing obesity

Dr. Christoph Buettner, an endocrinologist and professor of medicine at the Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Brunswick, New Jersey, told Healthline that experts have known for many years that obesity and diabetes are connected with elevated inflammation.

In contrast, “although in mice various medications that particularly lower inflammation have demonstrated to also reduce obesity and diabetes, in humans—where obesity is also typically related with inflammation—the facts are much less clear,” he noted.

The current study’s findings imply that PEPITEM may be effective in lowering some of the negative consequences of obesity, including the growth of insulin-producing beta cells and the accumulation of white blood cells in particular regions.

Yet, mice given PEPITEM still put on weight when given a high-fat diet. The researchers added that there was “no effect” on fasting glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, both of which are impacted in type 2 diabetics.

“To me, that suggests that this is an anti-inflammatory treatment that is unlikely to have a meaningful effect on either obesity or high blood sugar,” said Buettner.

Aiding in type 2 diabetes prevention

This could “potentially be a useful additional tool for patients regarding the prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes, especially as related to the decrease in enlargement of the beta cells,” according to Nicole Anziani, a registered dietitian, certified diabetes care and education specialist, and senior clinical manager for Cecelia Health who was not involved in the study.

For the purpose of examining PEPITEM’s effects on obesity, Anziani noted that the mice used in the study were fed a high-fat diet either before or during the administration of PEPITEM.

Anziani emphasised that it’s crucial to recognise that obesity has a complex aetiology, which means it can be brought on by a variety of variables and isn’t always related to a high-fat diet. Moreover, Anziani emphasised that obesity was “more than just a biological phenomenon.”

Discovering the root of obesity

While it’s great that there are more options for patients to help with the biochemical aspects of obesity and preventing systemic inflammation, especially when there may already be pancreatic damage present, Anziani told us that it’s also crucial to acknowledge the behavioural and social aspects related to the development of obesity and other related ailments.

To properly understand these pathways, she continued, “additional research into the relationship between inflammation and obesity is still needed.” “Although this therapeutic strategy is being examined to get to the underlying cause of obesity-related disorders,” she noted.

While stating that “additional studies would be required,” Dr. Bosa-Osario concurred and said that “the findings appear encouraging.”

PEPITEM might be a useful treatment target for additional causes, he added. “While the body can make a bioprotein comparable to PEPITEM, it can be made in a lab and administered to patients. He remarked, “That’s exciting.

Currently authorised effective weight loss medications

Several medications have previously been approved to treat obesity, but more research is required to determine whether PEPITEM will be useful in the management of illnesses linked to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes.

This contains semaglutide, a type of medication known as a GLP-1 agonist (brand names Ozempic, Wegovy, and Rybelsus). Those who took semaglutide in clinical trials saw weight loss and a decrease in inflammation. In one trial, participants lost up to 14.9% of their starting weight.

Yet according to Buettner, “it does not imply that [these drugs] function by reducing inflammation” because they aren’t often thought of as anti-inflammatory medications. As an alternative, “they function in the brain to decrease appetite and balance the autonomic nerve system,” he said.

Some medications also have side effects, including nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Buettner is therefore concerned about whether people will be able to handle these medications over the long term, which may be necessary to assist people in maintaining a healthy weight throughout their lives.

That’s why other medications to treat obesity are still needed, he added, including ones that function through different mechanisms than GLP-1 agonists and don’t have the adverse effects of those treatments.

According to Buettner, “for now, the tolerance for the adverse effects is still high, but with time, patients may become dissatisfied with the [lower enjoyment of eating food].”


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Purple veggies and tubers may have anti-diabetic properties

Purple veggies and tubers may have anti-diabetic properties

Anthocyanins are organic substances that give many fruits, vegetables, and tubers their reddish-orange and blue-violet hues. Anthocyanins have been found to have favourable impacts on inflammation, the energy metabolism, and the gut flora.

A comprehensive review of the research reveals how the effects of purple vegetables and tubers on energy metabolism. Also, inflammation and gut microbiota may help prevent and control type 2 diabetes.

Studies in terms of anti-diabetic characteristics, acylated anthocyanins, present in vegetables like red-cabbage and purple sweet potatoes were conducted. They may be superior to nonacylated anthocyanins, which are present in blackberries and blackcurrants.

The CDC estimates that around 37 million Americans—or about 1 in 10 people—have diabetes, and that 90–95% of them have type 2 diabetes.

In a typical state, the hormone insulin transports glucose (sugar) from the blood into the cells, where it is used as an energy source. Nevertheless, type 2 diabetes causes the body to improperly use or create insulin. This causes glucose to build up in the blood rather than be utilised by cells.

Diabetes, if improperly controlled, has a long list of negative effects on health. This ncludes heart disease, high blood pressure, nerve damage, eye damage and vision loss, renal illness, and foot issues.

Research has shown that a diet high in fruits and vegetables can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes. Also, it improve the well-being of people with diabetes-related health problems. Even though there are many factors that can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, including a family history of the disease.

Fruits and vegetables have a high concentration of polyphenols, which is what is responsible for their health advantages. Plants get their red-orange to blue-violet colours from a specific family of polyphenols called anthocyanins.

Consumption of foods high in anthocyanins, particularly berries, has been linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This is according to research from the United States and Finland.

Acylated vs. nonacylated anthocyanins

Based on their molecular makeup, anthocyanins can be classified as either acylated or nonacylated.

Nonacylated anthocyanins do not have a “acyl group,” which is a chemical compound made up of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom double-bonded to one another with a single connection to another carbon atom.

Atherosclerotic pigments that have been acylated are more enduring and resistant to digestion than those that have not been acylated. Because of this, they pass through the stomach and upper intestine without being digested and absorbed, instead moving on to the colon where they are extensively broken down by gut microbes.

Nonacylated anthocyanins are mostly found in elderberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant. However, acylated anthocyanins are present in red radish, purple maize, black carrot, red cabbage, and purple sweet potato.

It is challenging to make definitive judgements regarding the changes in biological activity between studies on the two types of anthocyanins. This is due to differences in study design and analysis techniques.

Yet according to Dr. Baoru Yang, a professor of food sciences at the University of Turku, and the other authors of the review, acylated anthocyanins may have better anti-diabetic characteristics than nonacylated anthocyanins.

Consider other variations in the sources of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins. According to Dr. Taylor C. Wallace, founder and CEO at the Think Healthy Group and adjunct professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at George Mason University, as reported by Medical News Today.

Anthocyanins promote gut health

Using animal models, researchers have examined how different anthocyanins affect the bacteria that make up the gut microbiome.

Nonacylated anthocyanins from black rice were found to boost the number of specific gut bacteria. Notably Akkermansia muciniphila, in a rat research. It has been demonstrated that A. muciniphila improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic mice by enhancing insulin secretion.

Acylated anthocyanins may be found in foods like purple sweet potatoes and Concord grapes. They have also been proven to have an impact on the gut microbiota by enhancing the growth of good bacteria. They reduces the proliferation of bad bacteria, and boosts the production of short-chain fatty acids. This is good for gut health and glycemic control.

The bulk of studies conducted to date, according to Dr. Wallace, are not sophisticated or validated enough “to actually know what happens to anthocyanins in the GI system,” he told MNT.

To truly understand if there is a difference, purified radio labelled non-acylated and acylated anthocyanins should be administered in humans, he added. To his knowledge, this has not been done because it is quite expensive.

Anthocyanins lower blood glucose levels

The suppression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion is one of the pharmacological actions of anthocyanins, and it lowers blood glucose levels. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that anthocyanins activate the liver’s and muscles’ lipid and glucose metabolism pathways. This also aid in decreasing blood sugar levels.

One study found that diabetic mice given unrestricted access to food for two weeks who were supplemented with mulberry fruit extract containing nonacylated anthocyanins had blood glucose levels that were roughly 30% lower than mice who weren’t fed.

In a related study, diabetic mice were given acylated anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potatoes for four weeks at a daily dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. Also, the treatment groups showed a significant drop in blood glucose and an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

Anthocyanin activation of the AMPK (AMP-activating protein kinase) and PI3K/AKT (phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B) pathways, which are essential for glucose and lipid metabolism, has been linked to anthocyanins’ ability to reduce blood glucose levels.

Dr. Wallace made the observation that as the majority of the research listed in the study employed anthocyanin-rich extracts as opposed to purified anthocyanins, additional polyphenols and flavonoids could have had synergistic effects.

The majority of flavonoids have the ability to interfere with sugar absorption by adhering to sugars and blocking the enzymes that break down carbohydrates.

Anthocyanins lower inflammation 

An immediate inflammatory immunological response is brought on by eating carbohydrates or fat. Inflammation often subsides rapidly, but if it persists, it may develop into a chronic condition. Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes can result from chronic inflammation that damages the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas.

Nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins were added to the diets of diabetic mice in experiments to reduce inflammation. The improvement in glucose metabolism in diabetes is caused by the reduction in inflammation, which also lowers insulin resistance.

The NF-B inflammation pathway is inhibited by anthocyanins, which has been demonstrated in numerous studies to have an anti-inflammatory impact. Additional studies have demonstrated that nonacylated anthocyanins stimulate the Nrf2 pathway, which aids in the production of antioxidant proteins to guard against inflammation- or injury-induced oxidative damage.



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Type 2 diabetes drug may help lower rose dementia risk.

Type 2 diabetes drug may help lower rose dementia risk.

According to new research, older persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who have a history of stroke or ischemic heart disease may benefit most from treatment with the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone.

In general, over the course of an average of 10 years, patients who took pioglitazone had a 16% lower risk of dementia. This compares to the people who take medication, according to a large cohort study from Korea.

However, the risk of dementia was decreased by 54% and 43%, respectively, among people with ischemic heart disease and stroke histories.


There will be 139 million cases of dementia worldwide by 2050, with the number continuing to rise. Dementia is more likely to affect some people, particularly those with type 2 diabetes.

Researchers have shown that persons with type 2 diabetes who used the diabetic medication pioglitazone had a lower risk of dementia in old age.

Dementia affects an estimated 55 million individuals worldwide, and by 2050, that figure is anticipated to rise to 139 million.

Type 2 diabetes and dementia

Why would someone with type 2 diabetes have a higher chance of getting dementia?

At Pinehurst, North Carolina, Dr. Karen D. Sullivan, a board-certified neuropsychologist and proprietor of I CARE FOR YOUR BRAIN, claims that diabetes has a detrimental effect on nearly every system of the body, including the brain.

“Compared to people without diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes have a 50–60% increased risk of developing dementia. She stated in an interview with Medical News Today that this is one of the most potent modifiable risk factors for dementia.

She said: “The insulin resistance we detect in diabetes increases atherosclerosis and alters energy metabolism. This results in microvascular alterations in the brain and ultimately a decrease of blood supply to networks of neurons.”

16% lower risk with pioglitazone

Researchers used information on newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics without dementia from the National Korean Health Database for their investigation. The average follow-up period for the more than 91,000 participants was 10 years. 3,467 of the individuals received the medication pioglitazone.

Following examination, researchers discovered that 8.3% of those taking pioglitazone experienced dementia. This is opposed to 10% of those with type 2 diabetes who did not take the medication.

Scientists discovered that persons with type 2 diabetes who took pioglitazone were 16% less likely to acquire dementia later in life after controlling for a number of lifestyle factors. This study was limited by the fact that it was based on data from insurance claims. Therefore it is possible that some participants did not even take pioglitazone.

The study contains no data on the severity of the illness, the participants’ glycemic control, or their genetic susceptibility to dementia.

How blood vessels may play a role

Dr. Eosu Kim is a professor in the Department of Psychiatry in the College of Medicine at Yonsei University in Seoul, Republic of Korea, and the lead author of this study responded when asked how pioglitazone helps reduce the risk of a person with type 2 diabetes developing dementia by pointing out that this study was to investigate the association between pioglitazone use and incidence of dementia, not how — with what mechanisms — this drug can suppress dementia pathology.

Nonetheless, he told Medical News Today, “Several could be recommended based on [the] basic pharmacological activities of this medicine and findings from past studies.”

“First of all, maintaining healthy blood sugar levels is advantageous for brain activities. Also, this medication enhances cells’ capacity for metabolism and encourages them to use bioenergy more effectively. This helps the brain’s insulin resistance.

“Second, certain studies have demonstrated that pioglitazone removes harmful beta-amyloid proteins from the brain. One of the main causes of Alzheimer’s disease is the buildup of beta-amyloid in the brain, he continued.

“Lastly,” he continued, “we hypothesise that pioglitazone’s anti-dementia action may be related to increasing blood vessel health as we found that this medication is more beneficial in diabetic patients who have blood circulation difficulties in the heart or brain than in those without such problems.

Strongest defence in people with heart illness

Speaking about the heart, Dr. Kim and his team discovered that individuals with type 2 diabetes who had previously experienced an ischemic stroke or ischemic heart disease benefited from pioglitazone the most in terms of dementia protection.

Researchers discovered that dementia risk was lowered by 54% in people with ischemic heart disease. Also, by 43% in people with ischemic stroke. Dr. Kim claimed that these outcomes astounded him and his team. It was a surprising discovery, he added.

“Ischemic heart or brain disorders are key risk factors for dementia, thus it would have made sense if pioglitazone’s effects were found to be less effective in those with these conditions. The outcome, though, was the exact reverse of what was anticipated, he said.

Anti-diabetic drugs against dementia

Dr. Kim stated that the next stage of this research is looking at how current anti-diabetic medications or potential medications. These meds enhance cell energy metabolism can inhibit dementia pathogenesis in animal models.

To confirm this medication’s anti-dementia properties and the risk-benefit ratio of using it, prospective trials are required in clinical research. That is, [a] balance between adverse symptoms and advantageous long-term consequences of this medication in terms of dementia prevention,” he said.

Dr. Sullivan replied that the next stage for pioglitazone would be to evaluate long-term safety in people and determine the ideal dose that minimises side effects while maintaining the desired results.

Due to safety concerns, pioglitazone is presently only used as a second-line medication for type 2 diabetes. It is well recognised to raise the risk of fractures, weight gain, and heart failure hospitalisation.

Until then, Dr. Sullivan advised persons with type 2 diabetes to focus on stabilising their blood glucose levels because both high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) might harm brain blood vessels.

According to her, brain damage occurs when people experience extreme highs and lows.



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Undenieable causes and symptoms of Diabetes you must know.

Undenieable causes and symptoms of Diabetes you must know.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus, also known as just diabetes, is a metabolic condition that raises blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone that transports sugar from the blood into your cells where it can be stored or utilised as fuel. When you have diabetes, your body can’t use the insulin it does make or doesn’t produce enough of it.

Diabetes-related high blood sugar left untreated can harm your kidneys, nerves, eyes, and other organs. However, you can safeguard your health by learning about diabetes and taking measures to prevent or control it.

Types of diabetes

There are several varieties of diabetes:

  • Type 1: Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune condition. The immune system targets and kills insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Uncertainty surrounds the attack’s origin.
  • Type 2: When your body gets resistant to insulin, type 2 diabetes develops and blood sugar levels rise. About 90% to 95%Trusted Source of people with diabetes have type 2, making it the most prevalent kind.
  • Type 1.5: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adulthood is another name for type 1.5 diabetes (LADA). Like type 2 diabetes, it develops gradually during maturity. LADA is an autoimmune condition that cannot be controlled by a healthy diet or way of living.
  • Diabetes gestational: Diabetes gestational is excessive blood sugar when pregnant. This form of diabetes is brought on by substances the placenta secretes that block insulin.

Despite having a similar name to diabetes mellitus, the uncommon illness known as diabetes insipidus is unrelated. Your kidneys are removed from your body too much fluid in a separate ailment. Each kind of diabetes has specific symptoms, underlying conditions, and therapies.


When your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the condition is known as prediabetes. It happens when your body’s cells don’t react to insulin as it should. Later on, type 2 diabetes may result from this.

According to experts, more than one in three Americans have prediabetes, but more than 80% of those individuals are completely unaware of their condition.

Symptoms of diabetes

The onset of diabetes is accompanied by blood sugar increases.

General symptoms

The symptoms of kinds 1, 2, and 1.5 (LADA) are identical, however they manifest more quickly than those of types 2 and 1.5. Type 2 usually has a slower onset. This diabetes is more likely to cause tingling nerves and slow-healing wounds.

Type 1 in particular, if untreated, can result in diabetic ketoacidosis. At this point, the body’s level of ketones is harmful. Although less typical in other forms of diabetes, it is nevertheless conceivable.

Diabetes’s typical signs and symptoms include:

  • increased appetite
  • heightened thirst
  • slim down
  • excessive urination
  • hazy vision
  • extreme exhaustion
  • not-healing wounds

Men’s symptoms

Men with diabetes may have the following in addition to the typical symptoms:

Women’s symptoms

Diabetes symptoms in women might include:

Gestational diabetes

The majority of women who develop gestational diabetes show no symptoms. When doing a routine oral glucose tolerance test or blood sugar test, which is often done between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, medical professionals frequently find the issue.

A person with gestational diabetes may, in extremely rare circumstances, also feel increased thirst or urination.

Diabetes symptoms might be so subtle that they are first difficult to identify. Discover the symptoms that call for a visit to the doctor.

Causes of diabetes

Each form of diabetes has a unique set of reasons.

Diabetes type 1

Type 1 diabetes has an unknown specific cause, according to doctors. The immune system wrongly targets and kills insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas for some unknown cause.

Some people may be affected by their genes. Additionally, a virus may trigger an immune system attack.

Diabetes type 2

The cause of type 2 diabetes is a result of both hereditary and environmental factors. Your risk is further increased if you are overweight or obese. The effects of insulin on your blood sugar are resisted by your cells more when you are overweight, especially in the abdomen.

Families are prone to this condition. Family members have genes that increase their risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Diabetes of type 1.5

When your own antibodies attack your pancreas, you have type 1.5 autoimmunity. like kind 1. Although additional research is required, it might be inherited.

Gestational diabetes

Hormonal changes during pregnancy are the cause of gestational diabetes. The placenta secretes hormones that reduce the sensitivity of a pregnant person’s cells to the effects of insulin. Pregnancy-related elevated blood sugar can result from this.

Gestational diabetes is more likely to develop in people who are overweight before becoming pregnant or who put on too much weight while pregnant.

Diabetes complications

Your body’s organs and tissues are harmed by high blood sugar. Your risk of complications increases as your blood sugar level rises and as you live with it for a longer period of time.

Diabetes-related complications include:

  • stroke, heart attack, and heart disease
  • neuropathy
  • nephropathy
  • Retinopathy and reduced eyesight
  • loss of hearing
  • harm to the feet, such as infections and unhealed wounds
  • skin problems include fungal and bacterial infections
  • depression
  • dementia

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes that is not treated might result in issues for both the mother and the unborn child. Baby-related complications can take the following forms:

  • preterm delivery
  • higher-than-average birth weight
  • a later-life increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • low blood glucose
  • jaundice
  • stillbirth

A woman who has gestational diabetes during pregnancy runs the risk of getting type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure (preeclampsia). You can also need a C-section, often known as a caesarean delivery. Future pregnancies also have a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes.

Although diabetes can cause major medical issues, you can manage the disease with medication and a change in lifestyle.


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