Browsed by
Category: Veins

Irregular sleep habits may increase atherosclerosis risk.

Irregular sleep habits may increase atherosclerosis risk.

According to new research published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association, an open access, peer-reviewed journal of the American Heart Association, irregular sleep patterns, such as sleeping fewer or more hours each night and going to bed at various times, may put adults over 45 at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.

A recent study investigates the relationship between irregular sleeping patterns, atherosclerosis, and not keeping a regular bedtime.

The study discovered that older persons were much more likely to experience subclinical symptoms of atherosclerosis. Only if their sleep patterns altered by an average of two hours over the course of a single week and by an hour and a half.

What is Atherosclerosis?

When you have atherosclerosis, the interior of your arteries develop sticky plaques made of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and cell waste products from your blood. As a result, the plaques thicken and sometimes even harden the arterial walls. The illness restricts blood flow, making it difficult for your organs to receive enough oxygen.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States, the disease associated with atherosclerosis is the country’s top cause of mortality. Also, it affects 50% of Americans between the ages of 45 and 84.

Study on sleep and disease risks

MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a different community-based study, involved 2032 participants in the study. The goal of MESA was to examine the features and risk factors of subclinical atherosclerosis symptoms in a variety of senior citizens.

In light of this, slightly more than half of MESA participants were female. Participants self-identified as White in 38% of cases, Black or African American in 28%, Hispanic in 23%, and Chinese in 11% of cases. They came from a variety of geographical locations, including St. Paul, Minnesota; Baltimore City and Baltimore County. Also, Maryland; Chicago, Illinois; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Los Angeles County, California; Northern Manhattan; and the Bronx, New York.

The participants’ ages, which ranged from 45 to 84 with an average of 69, were all within the normal range for cardiovascular disease. During seven days, each participant wore a wristwatch that recorded when they were awake or slept. They also finished keeping sleep logs.

Last but not least, each person took part in a single night of in-home sleep monitoring that recorded their breathing, heart rate, sleep phases, and length.

In the current study, person with irregular sleep patterns were 1.33 times more likely to have high coronary artery calcium. This is compared to those with more regular sleep duration variations, which varied by an average of two hours per week. Moreover, they had a 1.75 times higher likelihood of having abnormal ankle brachial indices.

Researchers discovered a 1.39 times greater chance of calcified arterial plaques in patients whose bedtimes changed by an average of 90 minutes over the course of a week.

The connection between sleep and atherosclerosis

The circadian rhythm, a 24-hour internal clock in our bodies, controls a variety of physiological activities. This includes sleep-wake cycles. We can experience what is known as “social jet lag” when we frequently go to bed and wake up at different times. According to Dr. José M. Ordovás of Tufts University, who was not involved in the study. This can disturb our circadian rhythm.

Dr. Hoang Nguyen is an interventional cardiologist who was not engaged in the study. He told Medical News Today:

The scientists hypothesised that irregular sleep patterns encourage cardiovascular disease by interfering with the body’s normal circadian cycle. This in turn affects inflammation, glucose metabolism, and sympathetic neurohorma. Cardiovascular disease is known to be brought on by each of these variables.

According to Dr. Ordovás, “the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is normally lowered during sleep. This allows the body to relax and recuperate.” On the other hand, he continued, “Sleep problems, such as sleep apnea, can result in increased SNS activity, which can produce hypertension and other CVD risk factors.

According to the press release, the researchers were unable to determine “whether increased sleep irregularity increases the development of atherosclerosis” . However, sleep and atherosclerosis could not be evaluated concurrently.

Too little sleep, too much, and just right

Dr. Full added that no differences were found in the atherosclerosis indicators of the participants in their study, which followed individuals who frequently slept more or less than usual. Like all other people, older individuals should receive between seven and nine hours of sleep per night, according to the NIH.

Some studies have shown that too much sleep might be harmful. Both a short sleep duration of less than 7 hours per night and a lengthy sleep duration of more than 9 hours per night have been linked to an elevated risk of CVD, according to Dr. Ordovás.

The authors of this study “went beyond the quality of sleep, and evaluated the regularity of sleep,” which is interesting, according to Dr. Nguyen.



For more details, kindly visit below.

Lets explore the treatment options for Vericose veins.

Lets explore the treatment options for Vericose veins.

Blood vessels that bulge just beneath the surface of your skin in your lower body are called varicose veins. Blood backs up in your veins as a result of weak vein walls and malfunctioning valves. You may notice blue and purple bumps on your legs, feet, or ankles as a result. Varicose veins can recur despite the effectiveness of many treatment approaches.

Blood vessels that bulge just below the surface of your skin called varicose veins are twisted and bloated. Your legs, feet, and ankles are where these blue or purple bulges typically emerge. They could hurt or itch. Spider veins are smaller red or purple lines that develop near to the surface of your skin and may surround varicose veins.

Varicose veins aren’t dangerous for the majority of people, despite the fact that they can be unattractive and uncomfortable. Serious health issues, such as blood clots, can occasionally result from severe varicose veins. The majority of varicose vein problems can be treated at home by you or by your healthcare practitioner using injections, laser therapy, or surgery.

Causes of varicose veins

When veins aren’t functioning properly, varicose veins develop. One-way valves in veins stop blood from flowing backward. Blood starts to build up in the veins rather than flow back towards the heart when these valves malfunction. The veins then grow in size. Legs are commonly affected by varicose veins. Gravity makes it more difficult for the blood to move higher because those veins are the furthest from your heart.

Varicose veins may be brought on by various factors, such as:

  • pregnancy
  • menopause
  • older than 50
  • prolonged durations of standing
  • obesity
  • family history of varicose veins

Symptoms of varicose veins

Some people might also go through:

  • stiff legs
  • the sensation of having heavy legs, especially after exercising or when sleeping
  • a slight wound to the afflicted area could cause longer than usual bleeding.
  • Skin can contract due to lipodermatosclerosis, a condition in which the fat beneath the skin right above the ankle can harden.
  • enlarged ankles
  • the affected leg has telangiectasia (spider veins)
  • a glossy spot on the skin close to the varicose veins
  • Stasis dermatitis, also known as venous eczema, causes red, dry, and itchy skin in the affected area.
  • Leg pain when abruptly standing up
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Atrophie blanche is a condition in which the ankles develop uneven, white patches that resemble scars.

Treatment of varicose veins

Treatment might not be required if a person has no symptoms or discomfort and does not mind the appearance of their varicose veins. Most varicose vein sufferers can find enough relief at home, including using compression stockings.

But if a person experiences persistent symptoms, they could need medical attention to ease their suffering or to deal with any side effects including leg ulcers, skin discoloration, or swelling. Some people could also want therapy to get rid of their “ugly” varicose veins for cosmetic reasons.


Large varicose veins might need to be surgically removed. Generally speaking, a general anaesthesia is used for this. The patient can typically leave the hospital the same day. However, they might have to stay the night in the hospital if both legs need to undergo surgery.

Smaller veins and spider veins are frequently treated with lasers. The vein is exposed to powerful light bursts, which cause the vein to progressively dissolve.

Ligation and stripping

An incision is made at the top of the target vein close to the patient’s groyne, and another is made further down the leg, either at the ankle or knee. The vein’s top is tied off and sealed. The vein is taken with a thin, flexible wire that is pulled out after being passed through the vein’s base.

Usually, there is no need for a hospital stay after this treatment. Ligation and stripping occasionally cause bruising, bleeding, and discomfort. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in which a blood clot forms in the vein of the leg, can occur on extremely rare occasions.

Most patients recover from surgery within a few days, but it may take them a few weeks to resume work and other usual responsibilities. They will have to wear compression stockings while recovering.


Small and medium-sized varicose veins are given a chemical injection by a doctor, which scars and shuts the veins. After a few weeks, they ought to disappear. It could be necessary to inject a vein more than once.

Radiofrequency ablation

With the use of an ultrasound scan, a doctor creates a small incision above or below the knee. A catheter, which is a little tube, is then inserted into the vein.

The medical professional then inserts a radiofrequency-emitting probe into the catheter. The vein is heated by the radiofrequency energy, which causes the vein’s walls to break down and efficiently close and seal it shut. For bigger varicose veins, this surgery is suggested.

A local anaesthetic is typically used during radiofrequency ablation.

Endovenous laser treatment

The vein of the patient is entered by a doctor with a catheter. A tiny laser is then inserted via the catheter and positioned at the top of the target vein to administer brief energy bursts that heat the vein and cause it to close.

The doctor uses an ultrasound scan to guide the laser up the vein, eventually sealing and burning it all as they go. Using local anaesthesia, this treatment is carried out. There could be some nerve damage, although it is usually just temporary.

Transilluminated powered phlebectomy

In order to see which veins need to be removed, a doctor makes an incision under the skin and threads an endoscopic transilluminator—a special light—through it. The target veins are then sliced and removed using a suction instrument through the wound.

For this surgery, a general or local anaesthetic may be employed. After the procedure, there can be some bleeding and bruising.

Prevention of varicose veins

In order to lower the chance of getting varicose veins, it is advised to:

  • exercise frequently, such as walking
  • attain or maintain a healthy weight
  • Don’t remain motionless for too long.
  • Avoid crossing your legs while seated
  • When you sit or sleep, elevate your feet on a pillow.
  • Try to move about at least once every 30 minutes if you must stand while working.


For more details, kindly visit below.

General causes, symptoms, & remedies to treat hemorrhoids.

General causes, symptoms, & remedies to treat hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoids develop when the veins around your anus swell, frequently as a result of constipation or straining during bowel movements. Hemorrhoids of a particular variety can be quite painful.

What is Hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids, often known as piles, are enlarged veins in the lower rectum and anus that resemble varicose veins. Internal haemorrhoids, which appear under the skin around the anus, are haemorrhoids that form inside the rectum (external hemorrhoids).

Nearly three out of every four adults will get haemorrhoids occasionally. There are numerous causes of haemorrhoids, however frequently the cause is not known. Fortunately, there are treatments for haemorrhoids that work. Home remedies and alterations in lifestyle help a lot of people.

Types of hemorrhoids

Your rectum may develop haemorrhoids inside or outside of it. Where the vein becomes enlarged determines the kind. Types consist of:

  • Externally, the skin around your anus develops swollen veins. The canal in your anus is where your faeces exit. The irritation and pain of external haemorrhoids might vary. They bleed once in awhile. They sometimes become filled with blood that could clot. Although this is not harmful, it may cause pain and swelling.
  • Internal: Your rectum develops swollen veins. The portion of your digestive system known as your rectum joins your colon (large intestine) to your anus. Although internal haemorrhoids might bleed, they often don’t hurt.
  • Hemorrhoids can prolapse either internally or externally, which means they can stretch and enlarge outside of your anus. They could bleed or result in pain.

What causes hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids are a result of straining, which puts pressure on the veins in your rectum or anus. They may come to mind as varicose veins on your bottom.

Anal and rectal veins might swell and inflame as a result of any strain that puts more pressure on your tummy or lower extremities. The following factors might cause haemorrhoids to form:

  • during a bowel movement, straining
  • long periods of sitting, particularly on the toilet
  • having persistent diarrhoea or constipation
  • having haemorrhoids in your family
  • carrying out regular heavy lifting or other physically demanding activities
  • being overweight
  • sexual activity that takes place anally, which might aggravate haemorrhoids
  • having a baby (an enlarged uterus presses on the vein in the colon, causing it to bulge)
  • being 50 years or older

Symptoms of hemorrhoids

The sort of haemorrhoids you have will determine your symptoms.

As a result of internal haemorrhoids,

  • the presence of blood on tissue following a bowel movement
  • skin that protrudes from the anus when a person urinates

Symptoms of an external haemorrhage include:

  • intense itchiness in the anus
  • unpleasant lump(s) or swelling(s) close to your anus
  • Anus aches or pains, especially when sitting

Often, haemorrhoids don’t hurt. However, external haemorrhoids can occasionally cause a blood clot to grow on the skin. A thrombosed haemorrhoid is what this condition is. Hemorrhoids inside the body can also prolapse. Therefore, they won’t close themselves off inside the anus. Hemorrhoids that have prolapsed or that have thrombosed can be quite painful.

Hemorrhoids are not life threatening and frequently go away on their own without treatment, despite the fact that they can be very unpleasant.

Whenever you experience bleeding or black stools, see your doctor. Bleeding must be examined because it can have causes other than haemorrhoids. If after a week of home treatment, haemorrhoids don’t improve, consult a doctor as well.

How are hemorrhoids diagnosed?

The diagnosis of haemorrhoids may be made simply by looking at your anus. Your doctor might perform a separate examination to look for any anomalies inside the anus in order to confirm the diagnosis.

Known as a digital rectal exam, this test is performed. Your doctor will probe your rectum with a finger that is gloved and lubricated during this examination. Your doctor may prescribe an extra test such an anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy depending on your risk factors for digestive disorders.

Each of these examinations entails your doctor using a tiny camera to look for any irregularities in your colon, rectum, or anus. The interior of your anus is inspected by an anoscopy, the final two feet (50 centimetres) of your colon are investigated by a sigmoidoscopy, and the entire colon is investigated by a colonoscopy.

In these exams, a tiny fiber-optic camera is introduced into a tiny tube that is placed in your rectum. Your doctor may inspect the haemorrhoid up close with the help of this test since it provides a clear picture of the interior of your rectum.

Treatment options for hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids can be treated at a doctor’s office or at home.

Pain reduction

Spend at least 10 minutes each day in a warm tub of water to reduce pain. To ease the discomfort of external haemorrhoids, you can also sit on a warm water bottle.

Use an over-the-counter (OTC) medication suppository, ointment, or cream to ease the burning and itching if the pain is intolerable. Hemorrhoid suppositories are available both online and offline.

Fiber-rich foods and supplements

You can also use an over-the-counter fibre supplement if you have constipation to assist soften your stools. The supplements psyllium and methylcellulose are two examples of this kind.

A home remedy

Your discomfort from haemorrhoids can be reduced by over-the-counter topical medications like hydrocortisone or haemorrhoid cream. Witch hazel pads can also provide relief from haemorrhoids.

  • Both hydrocortisone and haemorrhoid cream are available online.
  • It may also be beneficial to soak your anus for 10 to 15 minutes each day in a sitz bath.
  • Every day, take a shower or bath and wash your anus with warm water to maintain proper cleanliness. However, avoid using soap because it can make haemorrhoids worse. Additionally, when wiping after a bowel movement, avoid using toilet paper that is dry or scratchy.
  • Your anus can benefit from applying a cold compress to lessen haemorrhoid swelling. Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin are examples of painkillers that can help with discomfort or pain.

Medical procedures

Your doctor might advise obtaining a rubber band ligation if self-care measures are unsuccessful in treating your haemorrhoids. During this operation, the doctor ties a rubber band around the haemorrhoid to stop blood flow to it.

As a result, the haemorrhoid loses circulation and must contract. A medical practitioner should be the only one to carry out this surgery. Don’t attempt this alone.

Injection treatment, also known as sclerotherapy, may be used by your doctor if rubber band ligation is not a possibility for you. Your doctor directly injects a drug into the blood vessel during this treatment. The haemorrhoid becomes smaller as a result.

Prevention of hemorrhoids

Steer clear of straining when having a bowel movement to stop or stop haemorrhoids from getting worse. Try to consume more water as well. Getting adequate water can prevent the hardness of your faeces.

To stop haemorrhoids from forming, use the bathroom as soon as you begin to feel a bowel movement coming on. Avoid sitting for extended periods of time, especially on hard surfaces like concrete or tile, to prevent constipation. Exercise frequently.

The likelihood of having haemorrhoids later on can be reduced by eating meals high in dietary fibre. Good sources of dietary fibre include:

  • whole grain
  • brow risotto
  • oatmeal
  • pears
  • carrots
  • buckwheat
  • bran

Dietary fibre aids in the development of intestinal bulk, which softens the stool and makes it simpler to pass.



For more details, kindly visit below.