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Can protein predict mental decline before Alzhiemer’s sign?

Can protein predict mental decline before Alzhiemer’s sign?

A protein called NPTX2 that is present in the cerebrospinal fluid may be able to forecast the onset of memory and cognitive issues, according to recent research.

Researchers evaluated people who had initially been in normal mental health but later experienced dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

According to the study, the quicker start of MCI symptoms was linked to lower levels of NPTX2. The results also demonstrated that NPTX2 levels, like other Alzheimer’s disease-related indicators, appear to fluctuate over time.

Findings from a recent study could be useful for understanding cognitive decline and early Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis.

The levels of a protein called NPTX2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or more simply put, the fluid surrounding the brain, were evaluated by the researchers in order to better understand the brain changes connected to moderate cognitive impairment and dementia.

Lower levels of NPTX2 were discovered to be associated with a more rapid beginning of cognitive deterioration. Along with other Alzheimer’s disease-related indicators, NPTX2 levels evolved with time.

Alzheimer’s disease indicators in cerebrospinal fluid measurement

The 269 participants in the BIOCARD Study who were initially in good mental health had their brain fluid (CSF) taken by the research team.

These patients were followed for an average of 16.3 years, and their average age at the start of the study was roughly 57.7 years.

Out of these people, 77 subsequently experienced dementia or Moderate cognitive impairment (MCI).

Quantitative parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used by the researchers to evaluate three similar peptides that make up the NPTX2 protein.

Three other markers—A42/A40, p-tau181, and t-tau—that are frequently linked to Alzheimer’s disease were also measured. These measurements were made using a Lumipulse automated electrochemiluminescence test on the identical CSF samples.

The goal of this data analysis was to help the researchers better understand how these indicators changed over time and whether they might be related to the onset of MCI and dementia in the patients under study.

NPTX2 levels and cognitive issues over time

They discovered that people with lower NPTX2 protein levels in their brain fluid (CSF) exhibited cognitive issues and memory deterioration (MCI) earlier than people with higher NPTX2 protein levels.

Both those who acquired MCI within seven years of the study’s beginning and those who did so later found this link to be substantial.

Even after accounting for other well-known Alzheimer’s disease markers detected in the CSF, the researchers observed that the baseline levels of NPTX2 were able to predict when the symptoms of MCI would manifest.

This implies that the amounts of these markers may be associated with modifications in NPTX2 and may contribute to the emergence of cognitive issues.

According to the study’s first author, Anja Soldan, Ph.D., an associate professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins University, “our study shows that low levels of the protein ‘neuropentraxin 2’ (or NPTX2) measured in the cerebrospinal fluid among cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults may predict later onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).”

[NPTX2] has been connected to learning and memory in mice in the past. Our findings add to the mounting evidence that low levels of this protein in individuals could signal MCI years before symptoms manifest. Notably, our results demonstrate that low levels of the protein enhance the prediction of cognitive impairment even when traditional Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers (such as those linked to amyloid plaques and tau tangles) and well-established genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease are taken into account,” according to Dr. Anja Soldan.

According to Dr. Soldan, NPTX2 is “predictive of subsequent symptoms of MCI both within and beyond seven years before symptoms occurred.”


The study does have a few drawbacks.

Namely that the majority of the participants were white, educated people with a history of dementia in their families. Therefore, it is uncertain whether the results apply to other populations, according to Dr. Soldan.

Without taking part in the study, Santosh Kesari, Ph.D., a neurologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California, and the regional medical director for the Research Clinical Institute of Providence Southern California, told that “identifying blood or CSF biomarkers that predict developing dementia is critical to intervene earlier by preventative approaches or treat at the earliest onset of cognitive issues or even before when patients are aware they have dementia.”

Could this indicate new Alzheimer’s medications?

There is now just one FDA-approved treatment on the market that is known to even slightly reduce the signs of Alzheimer’s disease in its early stages, and there are no known therapies or strategies to avoid the disease, according to Dr. Soldan.

Our research demonstrates that reduced NPTX2 levels exist for many years before MCI or dementia brought on by Alzheimer’s disease, which increases the prospect of creating therapies that specifically target NPTX2.

Additionally, Dr. Soldan added, “Our findings may be relevant to other neurodegenerative diseases since this protein does not appear to be a specific marker for Alzheimer’s disease.”

Although significant work is being done to create sensitive methods of testing NPTX2 in blood rather than cerebrospinal fluid, we are not yet able to routinely measure brain levels of the substance in clinic settings. Another crucial area of research, according to Dr. Anja Soldan, is the factors that affect the levels of NPTX2 in the brain. However, we know very little about these factors.

Dr. Kesari concurred, stating that “NPTX2 may turn out to be a good target of drug development to prevent cognitive decline and will need to be further tested and validated in future studies.”

Future research will examine NPTX2 in more detail. In the end, additional study is required.


For Alzheimer’s disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Can a new Alzheimer’s vaccine cure or prevent the illness?

Can a new Alzheimer’s vaccine cure or prevent the illness?

Finding a cure for Alzheimer’s disease has proven difficult and contentious. A vaccination has been created for a new target, a protein present in blood vessels and aging brain cells.

It has been tested on mice, and it enhances behavior while lowering levels of a protein precursor to amyloid-beta.

What molecules should be the focus of Alzheimer’s disease therapeutic research is still up for debate.

The development of amyloid beta protein plaques in the brain, which are defining symptoms of the disease, has been the focus of much of the research into treating Alzheimer’s disease. Using a mouse model, scientists have now created a novel vaccination that specifically targets a particular protein present in aging brain cells and blood vessels.

Recent years have seen debate concerning the history of the amyloid beta model and its application as a therapy target. For instance, there was debate about the efficacy and adverse effects of lecanemab (Leqembi) when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave fast approval for its use in treating persons with early Alzheimer’s disease in January 2023. Particularly when the FDA did not, as anticipated, approve donanemab, an Alzheimer’s medicine made by the pharmaceutical corporation Eli Lilly because additional evidence was required to establish its efficacy.

When you think that finding a treatment target for Alzheimer’s disease is potentially big business for pharmaceutical companies, this explosive year for Alzheimer’s science may not have come as a surprise. There are presently 6 million cases in the United States alone, and it is predicted that number would increase to 13 million by the year 2050.

Importants facts about Alzhiemer’s disease

  • Alzheimer’s disease is a persistent, chronic (long-term) illness. It is not a normal ageing symptom.
  • Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are not the same thing. A form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Its symptoms appear gradually, and its degenerative effects on the brain result in a steady decline.
  • Alzheimer’s disease can affect anyone, but some people are more susceptible to it than others. People over 65 and those with a family history of the illness are included in this.
  • Alzheimer’s patients cannot be predicted to have a particular outcome. While some persons experience a slower onset of symptoms and a faster rate of disease progression, others experience lengthy lifespans with minor cognitive impairment.

A vaccination for Alzheimer’s disease may also target atherosclerosis.

Inflammation is one of the other pathways known to contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. There is some disagreement as to whether or not atherosclerosis and inflammation are related diseases. Inflammation also underlies other disorders.

Vasculature and inflammation are involved in both disorders. People with specific APOE gene variations are known to be predisposed to both disorders.

For around ten years, mouse models have been used in the research and development of potential treatments for both disorders.

Researchers in Tokyo found that senescence-associated glycoprotein (SAGP-protein) was elevated in immunological and vascular endothelial cells in animal models with atherosclerosis as one recent example of this. In animal models with mutations on the APOE gene, greater expression of this protein has been connected to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Around the immune cells called microglia in the brain, SAGP-protein is also present.

The team’s prior research has demonstrated that decreasing the expression of this protein reduces atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta of mice with APOE gene variations and improves glucose metabolism in obese animals.

They also disclosed that they had created a vaccination that specifically targeted older cells with high levels of SAGP-protein expression.

The same research recently revealed they had found this vaccine may also lessen levels of inflammatory chemicals and amyloid-beta peptide, which is a precursor to amyloid beta protein and affects how Alzheimer’s disease behaves in mice models.

These preliminary research findings were presented at the Basic Cardiovascular Sciences Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association in Boston in 2023.

A new Alzheimer’s vaccine may change the game.

In an email, the study’s lead author, Dr. Chieh-Lun Hsiao, stated: “Unfortunately, how we generate vaccine is not allowed to expose, but the design of the vaccine is to eliminate or reduce the cells which contain an abundance of our target, SAGP.”

How the vaccination functions are described by Dr Hsiao as follows:

The immune system is trained through vaccination to recognize a particular foreign substance, such as an antigen or peptide. In our theory, we would say that we hypothesize that the pathogenic/abnormal cells with elevated SAGP expression.

Therefore, following vaccination, individuals would have the immunity necessary to recognize SAGP-HIGH expressed signal and then remove/destroy the cells that contain SAGP-HIGH expressed signal.

The study’s authors concluded that Alzheimer’s disease might someday be treated with their vaccine.

In the future, we’d probably switch to different animal models for more in-depth research on vaccination effectiveness, according to researcher Dr Hsiao. We are also interested in how different cell types’ phenotypes alter in response to immunisation. As we move forward, we’ll pay greater attention to the mechanisms.

Potential drawbacks and effects of the new vaccine

There needs to be more research on the potential negative consequences of this target, according to Kath Intson, CEO of the Canadian business Variant that specialises in precision medicine and a PhD candidate at the University of Toronto.

In an email, Intson stated:

At best, there is a low likelihood that a medication like this will be used prophylactically, or like a vaccination, to prevent AD. One of the targets is microglia, which function similarly to immune cells in the brain. I’m interested in learning more about the percentage of SAGP-enriched, highly enriched microglia that were removed. As you might expect, eliminating a significant portion of the brain’s immune system has negative effects.”

She also questioned whether Alzheimer’s disease treatments should focus on preventing the accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide (APP), the precursor of amyloid beta-protein: “One point – we must cease thinking of APP accumulation as a fundamentally abnormal physiological process.”

Previous research has shown that APP acts as a protective factor in the brain after acute lesions like strokes or traumatic brain injuries. In response to these assaults, APP overexpression increases brain cell survival in the near term. Any suggestion of mass vaccination campaigns with APP-elimination goals has my utmost scepticism. It would have effects on the health of healthy people about other brain-damaging disorders to remove this necessary and typical function.


For Alzheimer’s disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Does Alzhiemer’s symptoms worsen due to light sensitivity?

Does Alzhiemer’s symptoms worsen due to light sensitivity?

The late afternoon and evening are when sundowning, a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, typically manifests. Increased agitation, anxiety, and mood fluctuations are some of its defining characteristics.

The impact of Alzheimer’s disease on the brain has been suggested as one of the causes, however the exact mechanisms remain unclear.

Increased light sensitivity was shown in recent studies using Alzheimer’s disease mice models, which is a result of retinal alterations.

Sundowning is a crippling symptom of Alzheimer’s disease that makes people’s dementia symptoms get worse in the late afternoon and evening.

Some researchers hypothesised that this symptom was caused by brain abnormalities, and a recent study confirmed that immune cells in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients may experience circadian disruptions that increase the accumulation of amyloid beta.

One of the distinguishing features of Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of this protein. A psychiatrist from the Rehab Clinics Group named Dr. Alexander Lapa stated in an email:

Both the affected person and their carers may find sunseting upsetting. Increased care requirements and potential major disruptions to daily routines can result from the increase in bewilderment and agitation. Sundowning in some circumstances could endanger the patient’s safety or the safety of those around them.

He continued by saying that many doctors advise individuals with Alzheimer’s disease to follow a daily regimen that includes predictable timings, relaxing hobbies, reducing noise, and making sure there is enough illumination at night.

Increased light sensitivity in Alzheimer’s mice models

The aetiology of sundowning is unknown, despite the incapacitating nature of this symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Given that it manifests in the middle and late phases of the disease, it may coexist with a number of other symptoms that have all been connected to sundowning, including sleep disturbances, forgetting to eat or drink, and adverse drug reactions.

A group of researchers from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, chose to further explore this connection because sleep disturbance has previously been closely linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Their research was published most recently in Frontiers to Ageing Neuroscience.

It had been thought that sleep disturbance might also result from damage to the brain brought on by the buildup of tau protein and amyloid beta protein, two signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

According to the main author Dr. Heather Ferris, an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Virginia, “We were interested in why sleep and circadian rhythms are disrupted in Alzheimer’s disease.”

After ruling out a number of potential causes in the brain, she stated, “We turned our attention to the retina because we thought the problem would be occurring in the brain.”

According to Dr. Ferris, the retina contains specialized cells known as inherently photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Although these cells are sensitive to light, they are not used for vision. Instead, these cells are employed to inform the brain that it is daytime.

We discovered that we could activate these cells in Alzheimer’s disease model mice with much less light and that the retina contained a greater number of these cells, she said.

Looking for the cause of the sundowning

Researchers first employed mice models with genetic alterations that resembled Alzheimer’s disease, along with controls, to learn this. To simulate jet lag, they first gave 13-month-old female mice a 6-hour change in their exposure to sunshine before going back to a regular 24-hour schedule.

They discovered that Alzheimer’s disease-affected mouse models retrained to a 24-hour clock pattern more quickly than control mice.

The initial theory put forth by researchers was that this difference resulted from a higher concentration of microglia, a kind of immune cell present in the brain that surrounds amyloid beta plaques and works to eliminate them.

However, fewer microglia in the Alzheimer’s disease mouse models did not result in a quicker recovery to a typical 24-hour cycle after jet lag.

Researchers then found that mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease were more likely than wild-type mice to behave differently in response to changes in lighting, indicating that they were more sensitive to light reception.

The researchers came to the conclusion that Alzheimer’s disease affects the retina rather than the brain as a result of this discovery.

The retina contains the photosensitive cells that control circadian rhythms. The light-sensitive protein that they produce, called melanopsin, is located in the retina and is what we saw in Alzheimer’s disease mice, according to Dr. Ferris, even though they travel through the optic nerve to interact with the brain.

How to possibly handle sundowning?

This hypothesis is supported by prior research, which has shown that amyloid and tau proteins can be found in the retina of people with Alzheimer’s disease and that this condition also causes the retinal blood barrier to break down.

The discovery that the retina in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease may be impacted in a way that increases light sensitivity may point to novel strategies for coping with dusk.

In the future, Dr. Ferris stated she hoped to test this notion. To maintain rhythms as close to normal as possible, she added, doctors currently advise keeping persons with Alzheimer’s disease on a rigorous schedule for eating, sleeping, and light exposure.

She suggested that light treatment might provide the solution.

According to our findings, these efforts might be thwarted by lower levels of light than might be anticipated. To increase the effectiveness of these therapies, we plan to examine next whether we can reduce exposure to light at particular periods or alter its wavelength to prevent some behavioral changes.

Beyond maintaining a regular schedule, she continued, “It makes sense to try to reduce evening exposure to blue light (screens) as this type of light is most likely to trigger melanopsin and disrupt sleep and circadian rhythms — whether you have Alzheimer’s disease or not.”


For Alzheimer’s disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

MIND diet: Can it assist in improving cognitive ability?

MIND diet: Can it assist in improving cognitive ability?

People may start to notice a minor slowdown in processing speed and sporadic memory lapses as a result of ageing or an age-related illness like dementia.

Although these results have not been replicated in clinical trials, diet may provide protective advantages against cognitive deterioration.

An older person’s cognition may be improved by reducing daily caloric consumption by a small amount, according to a recent study.

Improvements in cognition were similar for those on the MIND diet and those on any minor calorie restriction, with no significant differences between the two groups.

As we age, cognitive change is typical. Even in your 20s and 30s, you may notice a modest reduction in memory and processing speed, however this is typically accompanied by advances in accumulated knowledge well into old age.

Observational studies imply that the Mediterranean diet may have positive effects on cognition, despite the fact that no specific vitamin has been found to stop cognitive decline.

The MIND diet, a combination of the Mediterranean and DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diets, and mild calorie restriction have now been examined for their impact on cognition.

Both diets had a somewhat positive impact on cognition, according to the study, but neither was noticeably superior to the other.

This study results point to mild caloric restriction and an average weight loss of 5.5% as lifestyle factors that may support cognition in older adults,” said Molly Rapozo, a registered dietitian nutritionist and senior nutrition and health educator at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California.

The MIND diet: what is it?

The acronym “MIND” refers to “Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay.”

The MIND diet seeks to lessen dementia and the deterioration of brain health that frequently happens as people age. It combines elements of the Mediterranean diet with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, two highly well-known eating plans.

The DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet are two of the healthiest diets, according to many experts. They can lower blood pressure and lower the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and a number of other ailments, according to research.

However, scientists sought to develop a diet designed particularly to support better brain health and guard against dementia.

They mixed foods from the DASH and Mediterranean diets, which have been demonstrated to improve brain function, to achieve this.

For illustration, both the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet advise consuming lots of fruit. Berries in particular have the greatest supporting data, although eating fruit in general has been related to increased brain function.

So, while the MIND diet does not emphasize fruit consumption in general, it does advocate eating berries.

As of right now, there are no fixed rules for adopting the MIND diet. You can easily increase your consumption of the 10 items that the diet suggests and decrease your consumption of the 5 foods that it advises you to limit.

Cutting calories may benefit the brain.

A total of 604 participants were enlisted in the study by the researchers. Despite eating poorly and reporting a family history of Alzheimer’s, none of the participants tested negatively for cognitive deterioration. Body mass index (BMI) > 25 (overweight) was present in each individual.

The participants were randomized into two groups at random: 301 individuals were assigned to the MIND diet, and the remaining 303 individuals continued to follow their regular dietary regimen.

Additionally, as one of the study’s objectives was to reduce body mass by 3-5%, the researchers decreased everyone’s daily calorie consumption by 250 calories.

For three years, the participants were instructed to stick to their diet, and throughout that period, they received frequent dietary counselling over the phone and in person. To make sure both groups were getting the right amount of calories, advice was given about portion size. The MIND diet participants also received instructions on which new meals to incorporate and which ones they should avoid.

Four times over the three years, the researchers checked in with the individuals to evaluate their mental functioning, blood pressure, diet, level of physical activity, and usage of medications.

Participants had a variety of cognitive tests administered by researchers who were not aware of which diet group they were in after six months, then at 12, 24, and 36 months. To detect any abnormalities in the brain, some also had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.

Inflammation and oxidative stress are reduced by the MIND diet?

The particular mechanisms by which the MIND diet operates are yet unknown, according to the available research. However, researchers believe that it might function by decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Free radicals, which are unstable chemicals, build up significantly in the body and cause oxidative stress. Cells are typically harmed by this. Particularly susceptible to this kind of harm is the brain.

Your body naturally responds to injury and infection with inflammation. However, inflammation can also be damaging and a factor in many chronic diseases if it is not well controlled.

Inflammation and oxidative stress can both hurt your brain. They have been the focus of some recent Alzheimer’s disease prevention and treatment initiatives.

Lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to following the DASH and Mediterranean diets.

The MIND diet is a combination of these two diets, thus the foods that make up the MIND diet likely also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits.

By shielding the brain from oxidative stress, antioxidants in berries and vitamin E in olive oil, green leafy vegetables, and almonds are thought to improve brain function.

Omega-3 fatty acids, which are present in fatty fish, are also well known for their capacity to reduce brain inflammation and have been linked to a slower loss of cognitive function.

The dangerous beta-amyloid proteins may be reduced by the MIND diet.

Researchers think that by lowering potentially hazardous beta-amyloid proteins, the MIND diet may also benefit the brain.

Protein fragments called beta-amyloid proteins can be found in the body naturally. However, they can assemble into plaques that develop in the brain, obstructing neural connections and ultimately resulting in the death of brain cells.

In fact, a lot of scientists think that these plaques are one of the main reasons why Alzheimer’s occurs.

Studies on animals and in cells indicate that the antioxidants found in several MIND diet items may aid in preventing the development of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain.

The Summary

The MIND diet was developed to decrease the deterioration of brain function that can occur with ageing and prevent dementia. The diet promotes the consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, olive oil, fish, chicken, beans, and wine.

These meals provide a variety of nutrients that support healthy brain function, perhaps by lowering oxidative stress, inflammation, and beta-amyloid plaque development.

According to preliminary study, strictly adhering to the MIND diet is linked to a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease and a slower decline in brain function over time. To fully comprehend the consequences of the diet, more research is required.

Future study revealing that the MIND diet provides additional health advantages linked to the Mediterranean and DASH diets won’t come as a surprise because it is a combo of these two diets.

But for now, the MIND diet is a terrific and easy-to-follow method if you’re seeking for a way of eating that focuses on maintaining brain function as you age.


For Mental disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Cognitive function: Can better sleep absorption improve it?

Cognitive function: Can better sleep absorption improve it?

The association between obstructive sleep apnea, insufficient sleep, and cognitive performance was further explored in a new research that examined data from five population-based studies.

Greater sleep consolidation and preventing obstructive sleep apnea, in which breathing is interrupted while sleeping, were connected to greater cognitive function in the subjects, according to the data.

On the other hand, less sleep was associated with concerns like poor focus and other cognitive problems.

According to a study published in JAMA Network Open, sleep consolidation and the absence of obstructive sleep apnea may be crucial for enhancing cognition with ageing in persons without dementia.

Data from five population-based studies conducted across the United States with at least five years of follow-up were examined by researchers. Studies included cognitive tests and nightly sleep studies. They examined the information from March 2020 to June 2023.

The researchers examined sleep studies that focused on sleep apnea and sleep consolidation and their relationships to dementia risk as well as associated cognitive and brain function.

5,945 persons without a history of stroke or dementia participated in the study.

The results showed that longer sleep duration was linked to better attention and processing speed, while better sleep consolidation and the absence of obstructive sleep apnea were related with worse cognitive function.

Sleep that is uninterrupted by nighttime awakenings and is continuous is referred to as consolidated sleep. The hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea is episodes of airway collapse, which can lower oxygen levels and lead to fragmented, unrestorative sleep.

What can we learn from this sleep study?

Over the course of the 5-year follow-up, the researchers discovered that stronger sleep consolidation and the lack of sleep apnea were related to better cognition.

The researchers hypothesised that these results demonstrated the necessity for additional study on the effect of therapies in enhancing consolidated sleep to preserve cognitive function.

Some aspects [of this study] were predictable and further reinforced concepts related to the association between sleep and cognition over time,” said Dr. Vernon Williams, a sports neurologist, pain management expert, and founding director of the Centre for Sports Neurology and Pain Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Kerlan-Jobe Institute in Los Angeles who was not involved in the research.

The lack of a correlation between cognitive deterioration and particular sleep stages was an intriguing and less expected finding in this study. A decrease in slow-wave, deep sleep would have been expected to be more harmful than other stages, however this was not the case. Though there are a lot of plausible answers, that is a fascinating discovery, said Dr. Vernon Williams.

Dr. Williams continued, “This study [further] helps by demonstrating effects across multiple participant groups and by demonstrating that overall sleep efficiency, as well as the presence of obstructive sleep apnea, significantly affect cognition over time, whether or not a prior diagnosis exists.”

Obstructive sleep apnea: What is it?

Breathing pauses during sleep are a common symptom of obstructive sleep apnea. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, it restarts frequently while you sleep.

According to medical professionals, between 9 and 17% of women and between 25 and 30% of males are believed to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea. Age increases prevalence.

The most prevalent kind of sleep apnea is caused by a collapse or restriction of the upper airway, which prevents airflow. When this occurs, the person briefly stops breathing before restarting it while they are sleeping, and they normally are not aware of it.

It may result in restless sleep, difficulty focusing, and issues with memory and decision-making.

The American Lung Association lists the following as symptoms of sleep apnea:

  • snoring
  • daytime slumber
  • breathing breaks
  • memory and attention issues
  • Moodiness and annoyance
  • frequent nighttime awakenings for urination
  • daily headaches
  • mouth arid.

It is connected to other medical issues as well. Obstructive sleep apnea may increase the risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, according to research.

How to lessen the symptoms of sleep apnea

A functional medicine physician and health and wellness coach named Dr. Laura DeCesaris, who was not involved in the study, stated that lifestyle modifications like decreasing weight, quitting smoking, and abstaining from alcohol can lessen obstructive sleep apnea.

She also provided the following advice for enhancing sleep:

  • Managing stress more skillfully and paying attention to where the body stores stress can help prevent forward head carriage and other breathing problems. Many people hold tension in their necks and shoulders.
  • monitoring your sleeping position, as side sleeping can occasionally aid with symptoms
  • Since chronic inflammation in the gut and nasal passages frequently makes it difficult to breathe through the nose, changing the diet and, when possible, switching to a more anti-inflammatory diet may be helpful.
  • exercising consistently
  • Especially in a dry area, remember to stay hydrated and consider installing a humidifier in your bedroom.


For Mental disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Cognitive decline: What causes and slow it down.

Cognitive decline: What causes and slow it down.

Age-related cognitive and memory deterioration is a universal phenomenon, however the specific causes are yet unknown to science. While some lifestyle choices can prevent cognitive decline, age-related illnesses like dementia speed it up.

One recent study using mice models may now have identified the primary mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment brought on by typical aging.

Another recent study, this one using mice, raised the possibility that social connection, cognitive training, and physical activity could halt the ageing process and prevent cognitive deterioration.

As we become older, our cognitive abilities—the brain processes that enable thinking, learning, memory, awareness of one’s environment, and judgment—change. Our capacity to process information and make decisions swiftly decreases as our brain’s nerve cells and synapses age.

Most people begin to notice a steady deterioration at around age 50. However, advances in cumulative knowledge continue far into old life together with this minor decline in processing speed and working memory.

But why are the changes happening? According to a recent study conducted on mice, changes in a brain protein may limit synaptic plasticity, the capacity of nerve cells to change the strength of their connections, which impairs memory. This research is published in Science Signalling.

We may be able to prevent age-related cognitive loss, according to a different study conducted on mice. In this study, which was published in the journal Ageing, researchers hypothesise that social interaction, mental exercise, and physical activity all work to activate an enzyme that enhances the functionality of nerve cells and synapses, enhancing cognitive performance.

What leads to cognitive ageing?

The first study focused on CaM kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme that is involved in synaptic plasticity and the transmission of nerve impulses across synapses, among other functions.

They simulated the cognitive effects of typical ageing in mice by changing this brain protein.

Nitric oxide (NO), according to earlier research by the same authors, may influence CaMKII’s function. This work expanded on previous investigation and discovered that CaMKII is modified via a procedure termed S-nitrosylation, which depends on NO.

Memory and learning skills are hampered if CaMKII’s nitrosylation is diminished, which occurs with natural ageing.

Prof. Ulli Bayer, of the University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine and the study author, outlined the potential causes of this.

He explained to us that the diminished nitrosylation of CaMKII results in a decrease in its synaptic localisation, which appears to impede its synaptic activities.

Simply put, a decrease in NO decreases the transmission of nerve impulses through the synapses between nerve cells, which may contribute to cognitive deterioration.

Cognitive decline and way of life

The benefits of a healthy lifestyle on brain health have long been recognised by researchers. According to a 2015 study, exercise, intermittent fasting, and critical thinking are crucial for maintaining good brain function over the course of a person’s lifetime.

In people with normal cognition, a healthy lifestyle is linked to a slower rate of memory impairment, according to another extensive study.

Social connection, physical activity, and cognitive training are all positive experiences that are beneficial to cognitive health. The precise mechanism by which these lifestyle factors work is unknown.

A mechanism that could explain how these satisfying events improve your brain health has now been discovered by the Ageing study, which was carried out in mice.

For ten weeks, the researchers kept adult and senior mice in an enhanced environment. They were housed in huge cages with bedding, a cardboard tube, a running wheel, many plastic toys (tunnels, platforms, see-saws), and a metal ladder in groups of eight to ten mice each. Twice per week, the toys were rearranged, and once per week, new toys were added.

The only items in the control group’s regular cages, which were housed in groups of two to four mice each, were bedding and a cardboard tube.

The researchers tested the cognitive abilities of both groups once every week using land and water mazes. These were put to the test:

  • working memory for space the capacity to temporarily maintain spatial information engaged in working memory.
  • cognitive adaptability, or the capacity to change with the environment
  • Long-term recall of task-related spatial, factual, and contextual elements is known as spatial reference memory.

How enrichment keeps cognitive ability intact?

Comparing mice in the usual environment to those in the enriched environment, the mice in the enhanced environment performed better on every behavioural task. The elder mice showed a particularly noticeable improvement.

Our study provides a potential mechanistic basis for the effects of enrichment — this removes the ‘wooliness’ associated with such enrichment studies and puts them on a more rigorous scientific basis,” said Prof. Bruno Frenguelli, corresponding author and a professor of neuroscience at the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom.

In mice with a mutation in the enzyme MSK1, which is involved in neural growth and synaptic plasticity, the researchers did not observe any advantages.

They came to the conclusion that MSK1 is necessary for enrichment to fully improve cognition, synaptic plasticity, and gene expression.

The following is how Prof. Frenguelli explained it to us:

MSK1 is an enzyme that controls gene expression, or more specifically, it stimulates the activation of a variety of genes. We believe that MSK1 influences cognition by turning on a number of these genes because they have been linked to various aspects of learning and memory.

Exercise, networking, and ongoing learning

“Although our mechanistic experiments were conducted in mice, earlier research has revealed that ageing reduces CaMKII’s nitrosylation in both mice and humans. Pharmacological therapies should be able to boost CaMKII’s nitrosylation and so reduce the cognitive losses related to normal ageing, according to Dr. Bayer.

While there are currently no such treatments, research is being done, as Dr. Bayer stated: “This needs further research/development, but there are actually candidate approaches — such as inhibitors of GSNOR, an enzyme that limits nitric oxide bioavailability, and that is higher expressed with aging.”

The second study, however, suggests that we might not have to wait for pharmacological treatments to stop cognitive ageing. Prof. Frenguelli provided an explanation of why lifestyle enrichment should be effective in both humans and mice.

A key brain growth factor (BDNF), which activates MSK1, has been implicated in both rodents and humans as being important for these benefits,” he said.

By identifying key molecules involved in this process, this offers opportunities to explore and exploit these molecules as drug targets,” the author continued.

And he added that you can never be too old to reap the benefits of physical activity, interpersonal contact, and mental stimulation: “Our recent findings show that these benefits occur even in very old mice (equivalent to 70s in humans), meaning that it’s never too late to offer and engage in such enrichment activities to elderly people.”

How do medical professionals spot cognitive decline?

If you’re unsure if you’re exhibiting usual ageing symptoms or cognitive decline indications, a doctor can help. For a quick self-screening exam to look for signs of cognitive deterioration, they might provide you.

Other screening exams, such as the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE),

You can use a variety of screen tests to look for indicators of cognitive impairment. These exams typically last between three and fifteen minutes. They consist of:

  • Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE)
  • AD8 Dementia Screening Interview
  • Quick Dementia Rating System (QDRS)
  • Mini-Cog

One of the most popular screening exams is SAGE. The test is available for download online, and you can take it offline. You might even finish it off at a doctor’s office.

SAGE is unique from the other tests because it is a little bit more complicated. According to a 2022 study, SAGE identified cognitive impairment in MCI patients six months earlier than the MMSE, another popular test. A review from 2021 found that SAGE delivers the right answer 79% of the time.

Please take note that these brief tests alone cannot identify cognitive impairment or dementia. A doctor may need to conduct a more complete evaluation if your score starts to fall.


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Alzheimer’s disease: Loss of smell may be the sign?

Alzheimer’s disease: Loss of smell may be the sign?

More than 6 million people in the United States are affected by Alzheimer’s disease, which is the most prevalent type of dementia.

The key to controlling the condition is early detection, yet first symptoms like memory problems are frequently written off as normal aging symptoms.

According to a recent study, those who contain the APOE4 gene mutation, who are more likely to acquire Alzheimer’s disease, may begin to lose their sense of smell sooner than people who do not.

Testing people’s sense of smell could assist identify those at higher risk of Alzheimer’s because this reduced sense of smell may be an early marker of future cognitive issues.

Around 1 in 9 Americans over the age of 65, or 6.7 million people, have Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to the Alzheimer’s Association. By 2050, scientists predict that this number will surpass 12 million due to an ageing population.

Alzheimer’s is a degenerative, incurable disease, but it is not a natural part of becoming older. If a person begins to have memory issues or cognitive deficiencies, these should not be ignored as normal ageing symptoms because early diagnosis enables effective therapy.

Globally, 13.7% of the population carries the APOE4 gene variation, which raises the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. 40% of those who are diagnosed with the illness have this gene.

According to a recent study in Neurology, those who have this gene mutation may have a compromised sense of smell before they show any signs of Alzheimer’s disease, like moderate cognitive impairment.

The researchers propose that screening for odour sensitivity may be helpful for identifying those who are at risk.

Alterations in scent brought on by Alzheimer’s

In order to conduct the study, 865 participants responded to a survey that measured their capacity for odour detection as well as their ability to identify the odour. Every five years, they underwent testing.

Additionally, they conducted two tests of their memory and thinking, with a five-year gap between each test.

Who carried the gene mutation that enhanced risk for Alzheimer’s disease was determined by DNA testing. Based on the concentration of an odour that participants had to be exposed to in order to notice it, scores ranged from zero to six.

The study’s team discovered that those with the APOE e4 allele had a 37% lower likelihood of being adept at smelling things than those without it. This came after age, sex, and education were all taken into account.

Between the ages of 65 and 69, odour detection started to decline.

It wasn’t until participants reached the ages of 75 to 79 that changes in their capacity to detect the smell started to show. However, compared to people without the Alzheimer’s gene variation, once they lost the capacity to name smells, this skill deteriorated more quickly.

Those who had the gene mutation also aged more quickly in terms of cognitive decline.

Losing one’s sense of smell could be an early sign of Alzheimer’s.

Over the course of the trial, those who had the gene were 37% less likely than those who did not to have effective odour detection.

Age-related loss in odour sensitivity was observed in those with the APOE 4 variant at 65 years of age, as compared to those without the gene. However, non-carriers, who initially had a greater sense of smell, showed a faster drop beyond the age of 65.

At 65, there was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in their capacity to recognise odours, but this ability started to diminish more quickly in carriers, especially around age 75. Similar trends were seen in cognition, with those with the APOE 4 variation seeing quicker decreases in cognition.

Although the researchers did not discover a connection between odour detection and cognition, their data do imply a connection between odour identification and cognition.

The authors discovered that APOE 4 carriers had odour sensitivity impairments that manifested sooner in life (65–69 years old) than odour identification impairments (75–79 years old), according to Dr. Clark, who was not involved in the study. Additionally, among APOE 4 carriers, odour sensitivity deficiencies came before cognitive deterioration.

She continued, “This shows that reduced odour sensitivity may be an early indication of future cognitive impairment in APOE 4 carriers.”

How to lower your chance of getting Alzheimer’s?

In addition to not participating in the study, Dr. Alejandro Alva is the founder, chief medical officer, and CEO of Pacific Neuropsychiatric Specialists (PNS). He also stated that there are other risk factors besides age that can contribute to an increased number of people developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Sedentary behavior, obesity, smoking, excessive drinking, high blood pressure, and other things are among these risk factors.

However, according to Alva, there are several lifestyle modifications that can lower your risk and enhance your general health. He offers the following advice:

  • Control your blood pressure. Alva suggests following any medical advice, eating a range of heart-healthy foods, and keeping your salt intake under 5 g per day.
  • Continue your usual exercise regimen. 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise helps reduce risk, especially when combined with other aspects of a healthy lifestyle.
  • Stop drinking excessively. “Drinking alcohol can increase the loss of brain cells and can induce the accumulation of toxic protein in the brain,” he said. “It is advised to drink in moderation or to completely kick the habit.”
  • Give up smoking. “The chemicals and toxins from cigarettes can cause inflammation and stress on brain cells that can significantly increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease,” claimed Alva.

The development of Alzheimer’s disease can be delayed or slowed down with the use of certain drugs, Alexander continued.

Lecanemab (Leqembi) and aducanumab (Aduhelm) are two FDA-approved drugs that are being used to control the illness, according to the Alzheimer’s Association.

She added, “However, individuals may be able to lower their chances of acquiring this degenerative condition by adopting preventative actions and identifying one’s risk factors.


An association between the loss of scent and the later onset of Alzheimer’s has been discovered by recent research. People with a certain gene variant known as APOE e4 were the ones that showed this connection.

According to experts, the loss of smell may be utilized to anticipate future cognitive issues. Your risk of Alzheimer’s may be lowered by making certain lifestyle decisions. Additionally, several drugs might stop it in its tracks.


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Consuming strawberries might benefit Your Heart and Brain.

Consuming strawberries might benefit Your Heart and Brain.

Berries are often regarded as superfoods with a variety of health advantages. Berries have been demonstrated in prior research to reduce inflammation and protect specific bodily systems, including the cardiovascular system and gut microbiome.

According to San Diego State University experts, eating the equivalent of two servings of strawberries every day can boost people’s blood pressure, brain function, and antioxidant capacity.

Berries are typically regarded as a superfood. That is due to the multiple health advantages that all berries, including acai berries, blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries, offer.

Berries can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which can be disease factors, according to earlier research.

Berry eating has also been related in other research to health benefits and protection for the immune system, neurological system, cardiovascular system, and gut flora.

According to recent research from San Diego State University, eating strawberries daily can help people become more antioxidant-capable. They can Alsop have better cognitive function, and lower their blood pressure.

The California Strawberry Commission supported the study, which was just presented at NUTRITION 2023, the American Society of Nutrition’s annual meeting.

26 grams or two strawberry servings

The idea for this study was inspired by earlier research, according to Dr. Shirin Hooshmand, a professor in the School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences at San Diego State University and the project’s primary investigator.

She noted that some of the same effects had been observed in animal and human research prior to the clinical investigation, but in various populations and with various study designs.

Dr. Hooshmand and her team recruited 35 healthy men and women between the ages of 66 and 78 for this study. Over eight weeks, participants were given either a control powder or 26 grams of freeze-dried strawberry powder, which is equal to two servings of fresh strawberries.

In comparison to those who took the control powder, those who consumed the strawberries showed an increase in cognitive processing speed of 5.2%, a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 3.6%, and an increase in antioxidant capacity of 10.2%.

In response to their findings, Dr. Hooshmand stated that since strawberries are an excellent source of vitamin C, they anticipated seeing an enhancement in antioxidant capability. Based on their theory, they also anticipated some improvement in cognitive processing speed.

When asked about the blood pressure results, Dr. Hooshmand remarked, “Previously published research has already shown some of the acute and long-term cardiovascular health benefits of strawberries in different populations, so this is great to confirm some of those findings.”

This study shows that strawberry consumption may enhance cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and cognitive function. Dr. Shirin Hooshmand said, “We’re pleased that an easy dietary change, like including strawberries in a daily diet, may enhance these outcomes in older persons.”

Why are strawberries so nutritious?

In late 18th-century France, gardens were where strawberries (genus Fragaria) were first cultivated. However, they were discovered in the wild as early as the Roman era.

Strawberries are now grown all over the world, with the majority of the production taking place in Spain, Turkey, and the United States.

Surprisingly, although being referred to as a “berry,” strawberries are actually an accessory or aggregate fruit because of how they develop.

The body needs a variety of vitamins and minerals to keep healthy, including vitamin A, magnesium, potassium, and folate (vitamin B9), all of which are present in strawberries.

Strawberries are also a very good source of vitamin C; eight strawberries will provide you the recommended daily allowance.

Additionally, strawberries are well recognized for having a significant number of antioxidants, such as phytosterols and polyphenols. In addition to their ability to decrease cholesterol, phytosterols, and polyphenols both have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics.

Previous studies have connected strawberry consumption to a reduced risk for heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and even maybe help prevent cancer.

There is much to learn about strawberries.

Dr. Hooshmand responded that the strategy for the research’s following steps will depend on finding additional financing.

But stay tuned, because we have lots of fantastic ideas for follow-up research on some of our recent findings. As part of a multi-fruit experiment, we are also looking into how strawberries affect these and other outcomes, the researcher added.

Allison Tallman, a registered dietitian and the creator of Nourished Routes who was not involved in the study, discussed her wishes for future research on the health benefits of strawberries after reading this study.

The relationship between strawberries and heart health, brain health, and gastrointestinal health has been well investigated. Since strawberries definitely contain antioxidants, I’d love to see further studies on how they help prevent cancer.

the healthiest method to consume strawberries?

Most adults should consume 1 1/2 to 2 cups of fruit daily, according to experts. One cup of fruit is roughly eight big strawberries.

Are you trying to find new ways to eat more strawberries? Consider Tallman’s recommendations:

  • Add strawberries to a protein-rich smoothie to kick off your day.
  • Put strawberries on top of a spinach salad or a grain bowl to add some flavour to your lunch.
  • Yoghurt parfaits taste wonderful with strawberries.
  • Finally, strawberries are good eaten unprocessed!

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate programme also provides a number of nutritious strawberry-centric dishes, such as:

  • Broccoli Strawberry Orzo Salad
  • Pear Kebabs with Strawberry Dipping Sauce
  • Fruit and Yogurt Breakfast Shake
  • Fabulous Fruit Muffins
  • Fruit Salsa
  • Fruit Pizza


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Constipation increases the chance of cognitive downfall.

Constipation increases the chance of cognitive downfall.

Researchers looked into the relationship between constipation and deteriorating cognitive function in several recent studies.

In addition to various alterations in the gut flora, they discovered that having one bowel movement every three days or less frequently is associated with increased rates of cognitive deterioration.

More research is required to determine how these results might influence cognitive decline prevention and treatment approaches.

Constipation affects approximately 16% of the world’s population. Low levels of physical activity, being a woman, living in an area with high rates of constipation, and certain medical diseases, such as depression, hemorrhoids, and several cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal problems are all risk factors for constipation.

When a person has fewer than one bowel movement every three days or more, they are said to be chronically constipated. It has been connected to several illnesses, including sadness and anxiety.

According to studies, constipation is a frequent consequence of neurological diseases like Parkinson’s disease and is associated with a faster course of Alzheimer’s disease.

The development of treatments and preventative measures for cognitive decline and related disorders may be aided by knowing more about how constipation impacts the neurological system, and consequently, the brain and cognition.

The relationship between constipation and cognitive deterioration has recently been studied by experts. They discovered that a 73% higher likelihood of subjective cognitive deterioration was associated with having bowel movements every three days or less frequently.

Cognition and gut bacteria

Increases and decreases in specific gut flora have been associated with dementia and cognitive decline, according to several studies in this area.

According to Dr. Thomas Gut, an assistant professor at the Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell who was not involved in this study, “This research is a first step to investigating whether certain types of bacterial presence within our intestines protects our brains from certain types of cognitive diseases.”

Dr. Thomas Gut stated that although “this research does not even begin to address the question of whether promoting certain types of bacterial colonization could be protective of memory and brain function,” it does raise the issue and open up a new line of inquiry.”

Constipation linked to three additional years of age

The researchers analyzed information from 112,753 men and women for the study. the frequency of their bowel movements between 2012 and 2013, as well as self-reports of their cognitive function between 2014 and 2017.

Under the watchful eye of experts, a portion of 12,696 subjects also undertook neuropsychological testing. The participants also gave stool samples so that the amounts of various germs could be determined.

In the end, the researchers discovered that persons who had a bowel movement every three or more days had much lower cognition than those who had one each day, which is comparable to an additional three years of aging.

Additionally, they produced 73% less butyrate, a sign of good bacteria that aid in the digestion of dietary fibers, and had a lower overall risk of subjective cognitive decline.

The study’s findings also revealed that those who had more than two bowel movements each day had a somewhat higher risk of cognitive decline and tended to have more pro-inflammatory species in their microbiomes.

The study’s findings suggest that having fewer bowel movements is associated with poorer cognitive function and that this association may be explained by changes in the gut flora.

Certain gut bacteria linked to cognitive decline

Two more recent studies looked more closely at particular gut bacteria associated with an increased risk of dementia as well as those that may be neuroprotective.

In the initial investigation, data from 140 cognitively sound subjects with an average age of 56 years were analyzed. Data included measurements of the Alzheimer’s protein biomarkers amyloid and tau from PET brain scans as well as fecal samples.

They discovered that lower levels of the gut bacteria Butyricicoccus and Ruminococcus and higher levels of Cytophaga and Alistipes were associated with higher levels of amyloid and tau. They mentioned the possibility of neuroprotective benefits from Butyricicoccus and Ruminococcus.

According to a news statement from the researchers, the absence of some bacteria may increase gut permeability and the transport of some metabolites to the brain, which may in turn lead to an increase in amyloid-beta and tau protein formation.

They recommended testing if introducing, boosting, or decreasing particular gut microorganisms could advantageously alter levels of amyloid and tau. If so, this would be useful in locating potential novel Alzheimer’s treatment strategies.

In the second study, experts looked at fecal samples and the results of cognitive tests from 1,014 participants, with a mean age of 52. They divided the cohort into groups based on the results of their cognitive tests and contrasted those scoring in the bottom 20% with those scoring in the top 20%.

To learn more about the potential neuroprotective benefits of these bacteria, the researchers stressed that more study is required. They did, however, add that in the future, it might be able to control their abundance through food and prebiotics to maintain cognitive performance and brain health.

Uncertainty regarding causality

The National Institutes of Health’s Dr. J. Wes Ulm, a bioinformatic scientific resource analyzer and biological data specialist who was not involved in the study, was consulted by experts regarding its drawbacks.

The studies, he claimed, do not prove causation because of their early nature even though they reveal a link between constipation and cognitive deterioration.

It’s also unclear whether certain dietary habits, such consuming fibre or using probiotics or prebiotics, are related to the reported results, the author said.

Additionally, only a relatively small sample of the related patient population underwent objective testing using several methods to more reliably corroborate such a finding, making the majority of the findings of cognitive impairment in the patient group subjective.

Can overcoming constipation promote mental health?

Dr. Ulm highlighted that although the exact causes and processes of chronic constipation are still unknown, other research have demonstrated a connection between inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders and factors that contribute to chronic constipation, such as inadequate fibre consumption, inadequate hydration intake, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Despite the fact that dietary guidelines regularly change in response to new scientific findings, he continued, strengthening general health practises may lower the risk of cognitive decline in the long run. Increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, fibre, and water, as well as more frequent exercise, are examples of such practises.

Dr. Ulm came to the conclusion that it would be interesting to observe the results of this research, from straightforward methods to ease constipation to focused adjustments to the gut microbiota, and how they can aid in preventing dementia and other forms of cognitive decline.


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Could caffeine-concentrated beverages lower dementia risk?

Could caffeine-concentrated beverages lower dementia risk?

The question of whether espresso can help lower the incidence of dementia is being investigated in a recent study from the University of Verona in Italy.

An relationship between increased caffeine concentrations and the prevention of tau protein aggregates—a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia—was discovered in the preliminary research, which was carried out in vitro, in the laboratory.

Whether consuming coffee could genuinely delay dementia for a longer period is still unknown.

A study that was published in the ACS Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry suggests that consuming coffee with a high caffeine content, which some might associate with sipping an espresso, may help lower the risk of dementia.

Researchers discovered that espresso chemicals may prevent tau protein aggregation, a process thought to be responsible for the beginning of Alzheimer’s disease, the most prevalent kind of dementia, in preliminary in vitro laboratory testing.

The advantages of coffee and tea

According to medical experts, coffee and tea have additional health advantages besides the obvious one with caffeine.

While caffeine is undoubtedly a significant common factor, Dr. Scott Kaiser, the director of Geriatric Cognitive Health for the Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California, noted that both coffee and tea are derived from plants with a wide variety of potentially advantageous chemical compounds, including potent antioxidants.

According to Kaiser for Healthline, “a substantial and expanding body of research demonstrates the benefits of specific foods for brain health, particularly those rich in antioxidants and other “neuroprotective” compounds.” For instance, more flavonoid intake has been linked in multiple studies to a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease development.

He said, “These phytonutrients, which are substances that plants make to maintain their health, can really reduce inflammation in our brains, protect brain cells from damage, boost learning and memory, and give other clear benefits for brain health. And coffee and tea are on the list of healthy sources of flavonoids.”

According to the study’s authors, compared to the general population, the UK Biobank represents a healthier sample of people, which may limit the ability to generalize the correlations between coffee and tea and their potential advantages.

Additionally, just a small portion of the sample had dementia or a stroke, which the authors acknowledge makes it challenging to extrapolate rates correctly to wider populations.

On the other hand, “our findings suggested that moderate consumption of coffee and tea, separately or in combination, were associated with lower risk of stroke and dementia,” they concluded.

Coffee may reduce the aggregation of harmful proteins.

First, the researchers extracted espresso shots from pre-purchased beans. After that, they described the chemical composition and picked a few compounds, including caffeine.

Molecular components as well as the entire extract were tested. They spent at least 40 hours incubating with a cut-down version of the tau protein.

Tau fibrils did not grow into larger sheets as the caffeine concentration rose, with the whole extract producing the most striking consequences. The fibrils were ultimately harmless to cells and did not serve as a seed for further aggregation.

This was an interesting study by a group of scientists in Verona, Italy, who are trying to help change the use of espresso coffee from a potential health risk to a health benefit,” said Clifford Segil, a board-certified neurologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, CA, who was not involved in the study.

What are the consequences of medicine?

According to Segil, “The researchers found that adding coffee to a protein called tau in test tubes prevented the tau protein from developing into something that has been demonstrated to be present in neurological illnesses that cause memory loss and trembling.”

Patients with Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s dementia both have tau. In the current work, the tau protein’s ability to aggregate, condense, and seed activity was inhibited by adding coffee brew to a basic form of the protein. According to Clifford Segil, the objective is to develop a therapeutic for these disorders utilising a coffee brew extract base.

Segil added that it is uncertain whether the study’s results would result in a fresh approach to treating neurodegenerative diseases.

He said that rather than a buildup that leads to neurological disease, “many contemporary neuroscientists believe these tau proteins may be more akin to freckles, which are typically normal aging pigments.”

Clinical neurologists like me who treat patients with neurodegenerative disorders like the Alzheimer’s form of dementia or Parkinson’s disease should be aware that no treatment modifying tau structure has demonstrated any clinical advantages.

Antioxidants maybe able to prevent dementia

Because coffee contains antioxidants in the form of polyphenols, some researchers have hypothesized that it may have several positive health effects, such as reducing the incidence of type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer. Additionally, it might improve brain health.

That might be as a result of the fact that antioxidants from a person’s diet can assist prevent cellular ageing. Antioxidants, on their alone, are unlikely to provide complete immunity against any illness or medical condition.

According to Segil, “Antioxidant compounds that claim to be neuroprotective are abundant, and in theory, they may even be healthy. However, claims [that a] coffee brew is going to protect someone from getting a neurodegenerative disease is challenging to agree has scientific merit.”

However, the current study’s researchers assert that their initial in vitro results may open the door to discovering or creating additional bioactive chemicals against neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s.

Dr. Joel Salinas, a neurologist at NYU Langone Health who was not involved in the study, emphasised that this is extremely preliminary work and that other lines of inquiry are necessary.

He gave us an example, saying, “Causation has not yet been established, but other studies have linked coffee consumption to an increased risk of dementia.”

Dr. Salinas speculated that it would be necessary to draw boundaries between how much coffee is beneficial and how much is dangerous. Before designing or attempting to construct treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, these questions must be answered.

The function of tau in Parkinson’s and dementia

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, tau helps maintain the internal skeleton of neurons in the brain.

Tau tangles, a defining feature of Alzheimer’s disease, are created when tau proteins stick to one another.

In certain types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s and frontotemporal dementia, this buildup of tau proteins can harm or kill brain cells. The internal skeleton is torn apart by the tangles, which impairs thinking and memory.

The National Institutes of Health state that tau proteins may contribute to disease in addition to Alzheimer’s disease in:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • frontotemporal dementia
  • Pick’s disease
  • progressive supranuclear palsy
  • corticobasal degeneration.

Researchers are still trying to find a mechanism to slow down or halt tau cells from harming good tissue.

Diagnoses of tau and Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis requires pricey imaging, which patients may not always have access to.

For this reason, researchers are trying to find a mechanism to spot Alzheimer’s disease in its early stages. The University of Pittsburgh developed a test to identify a biomarker known as “brain-derived tau.”

They claim that it performs better than the tests that are currently being used. It examines blood tau levels about the severity of amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain and is specifically for Alzheimer’s disease.

Large-scale clinical trials with people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds are planned by the researchers.


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