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Month: April 2024

A month following stent implantation, stopping aspirin may not raise the risk of blood clots.

A month following stent implantation, stopping aspirin may not raise the risk of blood clots.

Following a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat a heart blockage, physicians typically prescribe two antiplatelet medications or blood thinners for one year. According to a recent study, those blood thinners could be safely reduced in half in just one month. Research indicates that patients can safely stop taking one blood thinner after taking two for a month, and there is no increased risk of clots forming on the hardware implanted during percutaneous coronary intervention.

Blood thinners can cause bleeding, make it difficult for scabs to form over wounds, and cause other negative side effects, even though they provide significant protection against the formation of clots. Dual antiplatelet therapy, or DAPT, combines antiplatelet medications used after surgery. It usually contains a stronger P2Y12 receptor inhibitor (there are several), along with aspirin. The medication ticagrelor was used in the study. DAPT is recommended for a full year because there is a decreased chance of clotting beyond that time.

The research examined treatment plans and results for 3,400 Acute Coronary Syndrome patients at 58 facilities in China, Italy, Pakistan, and the U.S. K., from October 2022 to August 2018. Every research participant had undergone PCI. Once stable for a month following the procedure, they were randomized into one of two groups. The new DAPT consisted of ticagrelor and placebo for 1,700 patients. For the entire year, the remaining people took aspirin and ticagrelor.

After one month, 78 participants taking ticagrelor-aspirin experienced major or minor bleeding events, while only 35 participants in the ticagrelor-placebo group experienced such events. This equates to a 55% decrease in bleeding incidents. Significant cardiovascular events were statistically comparable in the two groups, indicating that the ticagrelor-placebo group’s stop of aspirin did not lead to a rise in unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes. There are two ways to address the issue of blocked arteries. The only procedure available to us back then was bypass surgery, in which a surgeon physically enters the body and reroutes all blood flow around the blockages.

Over the past three decades, percutaneous coronary intervention has been used. This minimally invasive technique involves threading small catheters through the groin or wrist to the heart, where doctors use wires, balloons, and stents to open up blocked arteries. Blood clots can form around these devices, which is why patients are often prescribed dual antiplatelet therapy to prevent ischemic events. Compared to bypass surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention is a much less invasive and more common procedure now.

Every hospital performs percutaneous coronary interventions daily, according to Chen. The study tackles a balancing act that has long been a source of difficulty for cardiologists. The problem was explained by Jayne Morgan, MD, a cardiologist and the Executive Director of Health and Community Education at Piedmont Healthcare Corporation in Atlanta, Georgia. She was not involved in the study. The main goal of DAPT is to prevent ischemic events, but as the risk-benefit ratio is considered, there has been some discussion about DAPT after PCI in patients with both acute and chronic coronary syndromes..

She stated it is obvious that the risk of more ischemia needs to be decreased. Morgan called the results compelling and expressed her anticipation for more data on the subject, but at what cost to increased bleeding and its inherent morbidity on the patient as well? According to her, Single Action Platelet Therapy with ticagrelor alone between months one and twelve seems to have produced a comparable rate of MACCE [major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events] with fewer bleeding complications.

This study answers a question that we were all curious about. Even though it’s unquestionably a safer strategy than what we’re all doing right now, it demonstrates that this approach is effective. Furthermore, it demonstrated that things weren’t worse. You were giving the two blood thinners, but it wasn’t leading to more clots forming on the stent. We really need to know that information, Chen said. He stated that things won’t change right away because the protocol of administering two blood thinners after PCI has been in place for decades. The American Heart Association, American Cardiology College, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions are among the significant advisory bodies that update their recommendations yearly. Chen predicted that this would be a significant step toward future changes to these rules.


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Ozempic-like drug may help slow the progression of Parkinson’s symptoms

Ozempic-like drug may help slow the progression of Parkinson’s symptoms

Scientists have found that a drug commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes can help reduce the development of motor skills deterioration in people with early-stage Parkinson’s, according to the findings of a new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine. The study, which was randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled, followed 156 participants in France whose diagnosis of Parkinson’s had been within the last three years, were on a stable regime of medication to treat symptoms, and who did not yet have marked decline in motor skills. The participants were either given lixisenatide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist that is used to treat diabetes, or a placebo.

After 12 months, the 78 people who had been given lixisenatide showed virtually no further deterioration of motor skills that is commonly seen with Parkinson’s disease, while those who were given a placebo saw a worsening of those symptoms. Nearly half of the group who took lixisenatide reported nausea and 13% experienced vomiting. It is a fascinating study that is proof of concept that this class of medications may have some protective effect and be of advantage to someday treat Parkinson’s. It will be interesting to see if the results hold true for other newer GLP-1 agents like Ozempic/Wegovy and Zepbound, Gabbay said.

Parkinson’s is a disorder characterized by significant neurological decline that can manifest in tremors, motor control problems, and dementia. There is no known cause, but it is associated with a lack of dopamine in the brain. It is the second most common neurological disease after Alzheimer’s in the U.S., and it is believed that at least 500,000 adults in the U.S. have it.

Daniel Truong, MD, neurologist and medical director of the Truong Neuroscience Institute at MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, CA, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Clinical Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, told MNT that links between Parkinson’s and diabetes hinge on several common threads between the disorders: There is ongoing research exploring the potential links between diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. Several studies have suggested that individuals with diabetes may have a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, and vice versa, Truong said.

Chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress are common features of both diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. Research suggests that inflammatory processes in the brain may play a role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease, and there is evidence linking inflammation to insulin resistance in diabetes. Studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in diabetes, while mitochondrial impairment is also a key feature of dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson’s disease.

Emerging evidence suggests that alpha-synuclein pathology may also be present in peripheral tissues, including pancreatic beta cells in individuals with diabetes. Further research could explore the role of alpha-synuclein aggregation in diabetes-related complications and its potential link to Parkinson’s disease. GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonists are part of a treatment regimen for people with type 2 diabetes. They can help reproduce or enhance the effects of a naturally occurring gut hormone that assists in the control of blood sugar levels, and they can also reduce appetite by working on brain hunger centers; this is one of the reasons drugs like Ozempic and Wegovy have been associated with weight loss.

Truong said that a drug like lixisenatide has neuroprotective effects, which would clearly provide some assistance for people with a neurological disorder like Parkinson’s. But he also pointed out how common traits in both diabetes and Parkinson’s can provide some insight into GLP-1 receptor agonists as a way to reduce Parkinson’s symptoms.

There is emerging evidence suggesting shared pathophysiological mechanisms between diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. For example, insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism have been implicated in both conditions. Therefore, drugs that target these mechanisms, such as GLP-1 RAs, might have beneficial effects in both diseases.
In some studies, the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease was lower among patients with diabetes who were treated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, which increase GLP-1 levels, than among patients who received other diabetes medications.

Truong said that the study’s limitations warrant further research to establish several aspects of long-term treatment of Parkinson’s with GLP-1 receptor agonists: dose optimization, combination therapies, safety and tolerability, and effects on the non-motor symptoms. Parkinson’s disease is associated with a wide range of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Future studies should investigate whether lixisenatide has beneficial effects on non-motor symptoms in addition to motor symptoms.

Although the study suggested a potential neuroprotective effect of lixisenatide, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Further research is needed to elucidate the specific neuroprotective mechanisms of lixisenatide in Parkinson’s disease, including its effects on inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and alpha-synuclein pathology.


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Can we leverage immunotherapy against Alzheimer’s disease?

Can we leverage immunotherapy against Alzheimer’s disease?

The most prevalent type of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, affects approximately 32 million people worldwide. Experts predict that the number of dementia cases will rise to 152 million by 2050 due to an aging population. Alzheimer’s disease currently has no known treatment options and no cure. Because of this, scientists have been working to develop new treatments for this kind of dementia. Immunotherapy, a treatment that strengthens the body’s immune response to combat Alzheimer’s disease, is one possible avenue of treatment that researchers are investigating.

The journal Science Translational Medicine published one of the most recent studies on immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s disease. Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis conducted this study. Louis describes how to use antibodies to help the immune cells in the nervous system remove unnecessary debris that can cause Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease currently has no known cure and current treatments only provide symptomatic relief.

The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] has approved lecanemab and aducanumab, two monoclonal antibodies, for treating Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical trials are being conducted on other monoclonal antibodies that activate the TREM2 receptor, thereby improving microglial responses to amyloid-beta pathology. However, more research is needed to determine how effective these treatments are. To improve overall efficacy, it is imperative to investigate alternative approaches that may prove to be more efficacious or serve as a supplement to currently available monoclonal antibody treatments.

The researchers used a mouse model to test their approach, which focused on proteins that control the activity of a particular type of immune cell in the nervous system called microglia. According to Colonna, microglia react to both activating and inhibitory cues from the surrounding tissue. Their main function is to eliminate poisonous substances that accumulate in the brain through phagocytosis, a process in which cells “consume” foreign substances. The signals that these toxins send cause microglia to engulf them.

The healthy components of the brain, which send signals to inhibit microglial activity, must be protected at the same time by microglia, he continued. Blocking inhibitory stimuli or supplying activating ones will both improve microglial phagocytic function. Receptors that reduce microglial phagocytosis are the main target of our strategy. Microglia may be able to reduce neuroinflammation and remove the harmful buildup of proteins like tau and beta-amyloid, which are linked to Alzheimer’s disease, according to earlier research.

Colonna and his colleagues also investigated the potential role of the brain microglia-resident LILRB4 receptorTrusted Source in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Brain microglia contain the receptor LILRB4, which binds to ApoETrusted Source, a fat-transporting protein that is both widely distributed in the brain and a component of amyloid plaques linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease risk is elevated in certain human population variants of [the gene that expresses] ApoE. High levels of LILRB4 were first found on microglial surfaces in brain tissue samples from Alzheimer’s patients, according to research.

A mouse model that could express the human LILRB4 receptor was then employed by the scientists. It was demonstrated by their experiments that the microglia’s interaction with beta-amyloid plaques was interfered with by the LILRB4 receptor. Beta-amyloid accumulation in the brain was linked to behavioral changes in maze tests, but treatment with antibodies against LILRB4 resulted in decreased beta-amyloid levels in the brain and increased microglial activity.

We found that the ability of microglia to remove amyloid plaques is slowed down when ApoE binds to LILRB4, as Colonna explained. The capacity of microglia to remove these plaques is, however, increased when a particular antibody is used to prevent ApoE from attaching to LILRB4. This implies the possibility of amyloid plaque removal from Alzheimer’s patients treated with this antibody. Based on these results, we believe that administering this particular monoclonal antibody to patients with Alzheimer’s disease may aid in the brain’s removal of amyloid plaques and other toxic proteins that accumulate in neuron diseases. To improve the efficacy of other currently being tested treatments, this one may also be combined with them.

This study offers more proof of the potential of neuroimmunologyTrusted Source to treat and, eventually, cure Alzheimer’s disease, according to a board-certified neuropsychologist who was not involved in the research and who reviewed it for MNT. More evidence that monoclonal antibodies can disrupt the accumulation of beta-amyloid, one of the main disease biomarkers, comes from these research findings. She pointed out that we still don’t know how protection against cognitive decline and the progression of the disease is provided by reducing amyloid from this novel mechanism, anti-LILRB4 microglia signaling.

According to Sullivan, there will be a dramatic increase in the number of people with dementia as a result of the so-called “graying of the world.”. We must direct all available resources toward the treatment and medical management of these diseases because the substantial rise in the number of cases of neurodegenerative disorders has a huge financial and psychological cost. Toxins and other hazardous substances are kept out of the brain by the brain-protecting blood-brain barrier, which is maintained in part by microglia. This study outlines the potential consequences of disrupting these protective functions in the etiology (also known as the causal mechanisms) of Alzheimer’s disease, as well as potential treatments.

Effective Alzheimer’s disease treatment is still a goal of ours. One potential course of treatment would be to restore microglia function. The most prevalent type of dementia, affecting millions of people globally, is Alzheimer’s disease. Because of aging populations, it is anticipated that the number of cases will rise dramatically in the ensuing decades. It is a global public health emergency because it significantly increases the financial and caregiving load on families, communities, and society as a whole. According to the expert, there is currently no effective treatment that can halt or reverse the course of the disease. She continued, Our ongoing research suggests that multiple processes/risk factors may be involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Investigating different therapies that can halt or slow down the neurodegenerative process is therefore crucial.


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Severe mental health and metabolic symptoms may be ameliorated by a ketogenic diet.

Severe mental health and metabolic symptoms may be ameliorated by a ketogenic diet.

In the United States, mental health disorders are thought to impact at least 578 million adults. Included in this are serious illnesses like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Antipsychotic drugs are sometimes necessary for the treatment of symptoms, but they can also have detrimental effects on metabolism, including weight gain and insulin resistance, which can make people feel worse about themselves and sometimes force them to stop taking their medications. To address these issues, Stanford Medicine recently conducted a pilot study to determine whether a ketogenic diet could improve the metabolic and psychiatric outcomes of patients with severe mental illness.

Diabetes, obesity, and mental health issues are just a few of the conditions that have been successfully managed by the ketogenic diet, which is high in fats, low in carbs, and moderate in protein. A 4-month ketogenic diet intervention may now dramatically improve symptoms and quality of life in individuals with severe mental illness and metabolic conditions when combined with standard medication and treatment, according to a pilot study from Stanford Medicine.

According to recent research, following a ketogenic diet that consists of high-fat, low-carb foods may help reduce weight gain and other side effects from the medications used to treat serious mental illness. Researchers at Stanford Medicine conducted a clinical trial in which they enrolled 23 patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia and gave them dietary instructions to consume roughly 60% fat, 30% protein, and 10% carbohydrates. Researchers have found that drugs used to treat severe mental illness can have “major metabolic side effects,” like weight gain and insulin resistance. All of the patients in the study experienced at least one of these symptoms. Upon completing a four-month ketogenic diet, a significant improvement in psychiatric symptoms was observed in 79% of the participants.

Further research is required to ascertain whether dietary modifications can significantly, long-term benefit patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, given the small size and brief duration of the study. However, the results are part of an expanding body of evidence pointing to a strong connection between diet and brain health. Additionally, studies on the ketogenic diet have been conducted to treat epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease. Theoretically, by addressing metabolic problems, the diet may lessen mental symptoms. The working theory, according to study lead author Shebani Sethi, a clinical associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford Medicine, is that we’re giving the brain energy to get around these metabolic deficiencies.

Researchers are aware that a ketogenic diet can help the brain, but Sethi said it is still unclear how much the diet can specifically help with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Initial search strategies turned up a total of 32 experimental or observational studies, 14 of which satisfied the requirements to be included in this analysis. While the exact diet plans used in each study varied slightly, they all primarily looked at low-carb dietary intake to induce a ketotic state. According to the studies in this review, KD helped lower symptoms related to a range of psychiatric conditions.

There are various theories regarding the application of KD to treat mental health disorders. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to glutamate ratio in the brain is thought to be altered by the KD, favoring GABA. Theoretically, the imbalanced GABA levels in a person with schizophrenia could be compensated for by this increase in GABA, which would then lessen symptoms like delusions and hallucinations.

Additionally, it is believed that ketogenic diets reduce reactive oxygen species and raise levels of phosphocreatine, adenosine triphosphate, and other nutrients that enhance metabolic efficiency. This may be advantageous for people on medications that increase their risk of gaining weight. This may lessen brain inflammation, which could relieve symptoms in a variety of illness states, including Alzheimer’s disease. 7 There is also another theory that suggests ketosis limits neuronal excitability and apoptosis, which could account for the positive reports of KD in epileptic patients.

Due to beneficial changes in the gut microbiome, the metabolic alterations linked to seizure reduction may also have potential benefits in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Acidic plasma is thought to stabilize mood in bipolar disorder by decreasing intracellular calcium and sodium. The KD improves daytime sleepiness by increasing the activation of orexin-containing neurons in narcolepsy patients by causing relative hypoglycemia. This systematic review aims to investigate the clinical effects of KD on different states of psychiatric illness. The examined research offers proof that the KD may help treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ASD, Alzheimer’s disease, and anorexia nervosa.


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Obesity and a high-fat diet may accelerate brain aging, lead to cognitive decline

Obesity and a high-fat diet may accelerate brain aging, lead to cognitive decline

Globally, obesity is becoming a bigger problem for public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 16% of people worldwide suffered from obesity in 2022. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 41.9% of Americans were obese in 2020, indicating a significantly higher prevalence. Younger people are becoming more and more concerned about the condition; according to the WHO, 160 million children and adolescents worldwide will suffer from obesity in 2022. An individual who is overweight is more likely to experience health issues, and the risks rise with weight. Obesity raises the possibility of numerous illnesses, such as:

Obesity may also hasten brain aging and cause cognitive decline, according to a new study that will be presented at the American Physiology Summit in Long Beach, California, April 4–7. The study’s findings have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. The body, including the cerebrovasculature, is known to be affected by a variety of systemic inflammatory reactions that are triggered by diet-induced obesity. The persistent inflammatory state that obesity produces is one of the main reasons it may cause senescence in the cerebrovasculature.

Obesity damages brain blood vessels: Research indicates that obesity is linked to a decline in cognitive function. Although the precise mechanism is unknown, inflammation, a known effect of obesity, may have an impact on cognitive function because being obese in midlife is linked to a higher risk of dementia and a decline in executive function when compared to a normal weight8,35. However, other studies have found that late-life obesity is associated with a lower risk of dementia and improved cognition. Obese people’s adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can travel throughout the body and impact distant organs like the brain.

A high-fat diet consisting primarily of omega-6 and SFAs has been linked to poorer performance on a cognitive task in human epidemiological studies. Moreover, research indicates that a diet high in SFAs and TFAs is linked to a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Several factors can age-related brain damage that results in cognitive impairments. These variables include head trauma, toxins like alcohol, too many stress hormones, cerebral ischemia, and the onset of degenerative dementias like AD. The average age of an overweight person’s brain was eight years older than that of a normal-weight person, according to research from the University of Pittsburgh, and overweight people had 4% less brain volume.

A retrospective study conducted in China found that a high energy intake of fat and protein and a low energy intake from carbohydrates are associated with cognitive decline in later life (23). Low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fats in the diet may also be linked to memory loss. The main factor contributing to cognitive impairment is age. A person’s family history, lack of physical activity, and illnesses like diabetes, drugs, toxins, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, stroke, brain injury, and brain cancer are additional risk factors.

According to research, maintaining brain health may be aided by combining physical exercise, mental and social stimulation, and a healthy diet. Reading books, learning an instrument, and engaging in other activities have all been linked to the preservation of brain function, according to studies. Social interaction can help maintain mental health and slow the aging process. It can also make life more fulfilling. You may be able to perform better with memory training and other cognitive training.

These inflammatory signals can accelerate the aging of vascular cells and the onset of senescence in the brain, which makes it more difficult for the vessels to control blood flow and react to brain activity, the speaker continued. Numerous research findings indicate that individuals with obesity or a high body mass index (BMI) experience decreased cerebral blood flow, a finding that may be linked to compromised cognitive function, especially in the elderly. In this most recent study, the researchers examined the impact of obesity and a high-fat diet on mice’s brain blood vessels and cognitive function. They fed a 60 percent fat or 10 percent fat diet to novel transgenic mice (p16-3MR mice, which allow for the visualization and selective elimination of senescent cells).

Researchers compared the endothelial cells in the blood vessels of the mice on the high-fat diet to those on the regular diet and found that the former were more prone to senescence a condition in which cells cease to divide but do not die, releasing chemicals that may cause inflammation. The founder of Dietitian Insights and registered dietitian nutritionist Kelsey Costa stated, “The results of this animal study suggest that obesity and poor eating patterns lead to the build-up of blood vessel damage, which reduces oxygen delivery to particular brain regions and may ultimately result in cognitive decline.

In mice fed a high-fat diet, the radial arm water maze test revealed reduced cognitive function in addition to an increase in senescent endothelial cells. Researchers used Navitoclax/ABT263, a medication that specifically destroys senescent cells, on obese older mice fed a high-fat diet to examine the importance of these cells. The mice’s cognitive function improved after treatment. Even though the study was done on mice, it provides us with helpful suggestions regarding possible human outcomes. The removal of senescent cells improved the brains of obese mice, which is exciting because it suggests a potential treatment for brain issues associated with obesity. Navitoclax-induced senescent cell elimination in the brains of obese mice appeared to enhance brain vasculature, suggesting that this approach may be useful in treating obesity-related cognitive decline.

Obesity may accelerate the aging and senescence of brain blood vessel cells. If a connection is found between obesity and cellular senescence, this could lead to new research directions that address therapeutic approaches to stop or delay the onset of senescence and potentially improve the health problems associated with obesity, such as cognitive decline. The findings demonstrated that in comparison to normal-weight mice fed a standard diet, mice fed a high-fat diet had, after three months, increased cellular senescence and decreased density of healthy blood vessels in the brain, along with evidence of impaired learning in a maze test. Furthermore, by employing Navitoclax, an experimental cancer medication that targets and eliminates senescent cells specifically, the researchers were able to enhance the characteristics of the brain vasculature.


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Blended antioxidant supplements may help boost memory and cognition

Blended antioxidant supplements may help boost memory and cognition

By reducing an excess of unstable free radical molecules that can harm healthy cells, antioxidants aid in promoting cell health. Although free radicals are a normal part of life, an excessive amount of them can overwhelm healthy cells and lead to oxidative stress. An extensive array of health problems have been associated with oxidative stress. Molecules known as antioxidants can reduce or even stop cell damage in the body. Though synthetic antioxidants are also taken as supplements, they are mostly found in plants and some even occur in the human body.

The Japanese researchers employed Twendee X, a blended antioxidant product that is presently available for purchase in that nation. In the new study, 18-month-old genetically modified mice were given a blended antioxidant in water, which they were free to drink or not for a month. The antioxidant was created by Professor Haruhiko Inufusa of the Department of Antioxidant Research and contains eight different types of antioxidants.

In contrast to mice in the control group who were given plain filtered tap water, their spatial cognition and short-term memory improved during the test period as demonstrated by their performance in a Morris water maze and Y-maze. Running distance was found to have increased significantly more in the blended antioxidant mice by the end of the study compared to the normal control group of mice not taking blended antioxidants, according to treadmill tests.

No appreciable differences were observed between the two groups in subsequent attempts to train mice on the treadmills with additional supplement administration, indicating that while the combined antioxidant may not increase exercise capacity or strength, it may help prevent age-related muscle decline. Upon post-mortem analysis of the brains of the blended-antioxidant mice, the researchers noted a noteworthy reduction in total cholesterol levels and aspartate aminotransferase, an enzyme indicative of muscle damage.

No appreciable differences were observed between the two groups in subsequent attempts to train mice on the treadmills with additional supplement administration, indicating that while the combined antioxidant may not increase exercise capacity or strength, it may help prevent age-related muscle decline. Upon post-mortem analysis of the brains of the blended-antioxidant mice, the researchers noted a noteworthy reduction in total cholesterol levels and aspartate aminotransferase, an enzyme indicative of muscle damage.

The study’s first author, Kouji Fukui, PhD, responded to a question about the safety of blended antioxidants by pointing out that the supplement in question is already available for purchase. It is available for purchase by anybody. I also have a daily drink of it. Though combining them yields a greater impact than taking them separately, Fukui and Routhenstein both advised against creating one’s own concoction of antioxidants from pre-existing supplements. It is practically hard for average consumers to select several supplements and keep taking them. Overconsumption of certain vitamins may pose an issue. He mentioned that TwendeeX has amino acids in addition to vitamins, which is an intriguing combination in my opinion.

Routhenstein concurred, stating that there are safety issues with homemade antioxidant blends, including difficulties in determining dosage accuracy, possible drug interactions, contamination, and the possibility of toxicity from excessive consumption, particularly with fat-soluble antioxidants. Routhenstein noted that when blended antioxidants are prepared in precise dosages and administered using a clinically monitored and investigated protocol, it is simpler to evaluate their impact and compliance for research purposes. A person can consume a variety of foods that contain various antioxidants to safely mimic the blended effect.

There are plenty of antioxidant-rich foods to choose from. These consist of potatoes, sweet potatoes, broccoli, and carrots. More excellent sources include cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce, and squash. Other foods high in antioxidants include spinach, okra, beets, dark chocolate, kale, raspberries, pecans, blueberries, and strawberries. The results of this study, which showed that combined antioxidants improved mice’s short-term and spatial memory, are not surprising as antioxidants have been shown to support cognition in numerous studies.

Fukui was taken aback, nevertheless, by the results of his investigation, which showed that they also appeared to halt the aging-related loss of muscle mass. Age-related declines in muscle strength are avoided by using our blended supplement. While the results are encouraging, it is still too early to extrapolate the findings to the human race. Antioxidants may help reduce the oxidative stress that exercise causes in the muscles, which may facilitate recovery and strengthen the muscles. To confirm these benefits of combined antioxidants in human trials, more investigation is needed, according to Routhenstein.

Extended COVID-19 can cause cognitive decline known as “brain fog,” which can drastically alter an individual’s quality of life. The post-coronavirus effects may also be effectively countered by [blended antioxidants], according to some research. They have an antioxidant effect, which is the fundamental idea, according to Fukui. In addition to preventing age-related health decline, antioxidants can lower oxidative stress. In mice given a mixed antioxidant supplement, recent research has shown significant improvements in short-term memory, spatial cognition, and a reduction in age-related muscle decline.

One of the biggest challenges facing the healthcare industry is the age-related decline in muscle and cognitive function. It is anticipated that in the future, the cost of healthcare will rise significantly to treat age-related cognitive decline and muscular weakness. Oxidative stress, or the progressive damage that oxygen-free radicals inflict on cells, is one of the main underlying mechanisms connected to the decline in health that occurs with aging.

Antioxidants are certain substances found in food that can counteract oxygen-free radicals. Eating foods high in antioxidants is known to prevent cell damage and delay the deterioration of aging-related health issues. When a diet deficient in antioxidants is present, people frequently turn to antioxidant supplements, which provide equivalent or even more protective effects on health. Researchers led by Professor Koji Fukui of the Shibaura Institute of Technology (SIT) and including Dr. Fukka You of Gifu University have discovered that giving elderly mice a combination of antioxidant supplements enhances their short-term memory, muscle durability, and spatial cognition. The article was released on February 28, 2024, in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences’ special issue titled “Antioxidants in health and diseases.”.

The study found that supplement-treated aged mice notably enhanced their spatial learning capacity and short-term memory. Even with the effects of aging and associated increased oxidation in the body, long-term consumption of blended antioxidant supplements may be beneficial, according to Prof. the study’s principal investigator, Fukui. Alzheimer’s disease is one of the crippling illnesses that disproportionately affect the elderly and is linked to memory loss. Blended antioxidant supplements have been shown to enhance memory in mice, which implies that they might help prevent memory loss in people.


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Most people with heart disease consume excessive amounts of sodium, study finds

Most people with heart disease consume excessive amounts of sodium, study finds

Many people, especially those who should limit their intake due to heart health concerns, consume more sodium than is advised daily. This is supported by a recent study that discovered individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) were ingesting more than twice as much sodium per day 1,500 mg—as is advised. The study participants consumed an average of 3,096 mg of sodium daily, with 89% consuming more than the recommended amount. The results will be presented from April 6–8 at the Annual Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology. The findings are still pending publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

The American Heart Association (AHA) advises adults without a history of heart disease or those not suspected of being at risk to consume no more than 2,300 mg of sodium daily. This is roughly the same as one teaspoon of table salt. This study’s average heart disease patient was over 1,000 mg above that threshold. 3,170 participants in the NHANES study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control provided data for the study. Men and women with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease who were older than 20 were included in this sample. White people 65 years of age or older with less education than a high school diploma made up the bulk of this group. With an average daily calorie intake of 1,862, males, who made up slightly more than half of the subjects (56.4%), were overweight. Although it’s commonly believed that having fewer food options leads to excessive sodium consumption, this study challenges that theory.

Those with a college degree or above and those at the higher end of the income spectrum consumed the most sodium. The unexpected findings may have been influenced by the fact that people with greater incomes and educational backgrounds may have been more accurate in disclosing their sodium consumption, according to the study’s authors. Sodium chloride is the chemical name for table salt. In trace amounts, sodium, a naturally occurring mineral, is essential to human health. According to cardiologist Jayne Morgan, MD, clinical director at Piedmont Healthcare Corporation in Atlanta, GA, sodium helps to balance the water in your body. It even helps to maintain the healthy operation of nerves and muscles.

Your body’s blood volume rises as a result of salt. High blood pressure is the result of this. Due to the increased cardiac workload caused by the elevated blood pressure, you may eventually develop heart disease. Atherosclerosis and the hardening and stiffening of the arteries have long been associated with excess sodium, according to Dr. Morgan. Numerous studies have examined the reasons behind the widespread desire for salt.

According to registered dietitian nutritionist Michelle Routhenstein, MNT, “the consistent overconsumption of sodium across the socioeconomic spectrum suggests that factors beyond just access to resources may influence sodium intake.”. Routhenstein did not work on the project. According to Routhenstein, this might imply the marketing and general availability of processed foods that are easily accessed and high in sodium, cultural eating habits that value salty foods, and a lack of knowledge or instruction regarding the health risks connected to consuming excessive amounts of sodium.

This is a powerful illustration of how common the Western diet is and how much people crave salt and “flavor.”. It also illustrates how simple and readily available sodium is in a lot of grocery items, even when purchasing ‘healthy’ alternatives. According to her, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) could establish a uniform food rating system that would enable everyone to know where a given food choice falls on a health spectrum. At that point, the customer can make an informed choice. The first step in lowering sodium consumption is to monitor your salt intake, but it can be challenging to determine how much sodium you’re really taking in.

Sodium is used in many food products for purposes other than just adding flavor. It has multiple uses, including baking, thickening, curing meat, retaining moisture, and serving as a preservative. A lot of sodium-rich foods don’t even taste salty. According to Routhenstein, people may unintentionally consume excessive amounts of sodium if they don’t actively read food labels and pay attention to sodium levels. Before even thinking about using a salt shaker, people might not be aware of how much sodium is in their food, according to Routhenstein. For instance, the recommended sodium intake for people with heart disease can be exceeded by the 2,000 mg or more found in a typical restaurant meal.

Using fresh ingredients when cooking at home, selecting low-sodium options, incorporating herbs and spices for flavor, reading labels, and being aware of hidden sodium in processed foods are all good ways to reduce your intake of sodium through diet. While eating out, people can choose heart-healthier, lower-sodium options by asking for dressings and sauces to be served on the side, choosing grilled or steamed food over fried, and asking for meals to be prepared without added salt. While [you’re] still enjoying delicious meals, these small changes can make a big difference in your overall sodium intake reduction. Routhenstein offered a variety of flavor-retaining salt substitutes, such as a small amount of lemon or grapefruit juice added to recipes.

Citrus fruits’ tart flavor can fool the palate into thinking food has more salt than it actually does, keeping food tasty even when it contains less sodium. Furthermore, Routhenstein promoted spiciness; add hot sauce or chili peppers to your food based on your personal preferences. You could also use a shaker of your favorite powder, like oregano or garlic powder, in place of the tabletop salt shaker (not garlic salt, which contains sodium). Seasonings such as Dijon mustard, whole grain mustard, or dry mustard powder can give dressings, marinades, and sauces tang and depth. According to Routhenstein, adding mustard to rubs, sandwich spreads, and vinaigrettes provides a tasty variation without using a lot of sodium.


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Treating anxiety, and depression linked to better heart disease outcomes

Treating anxiety, and depression linked to better heart disease outcomes

There are two common mental health conditions: anxiety and depression. Well-being depends on treating these conditions appropriately, and research is still being done to determine how treatment affects other health issues, such as heart health. In individuals who had already suffered from serious cardiac issues, a recent study that was published in the Journal of the American Heart AssociationTrusted Source looked at the effects of anxiety and depression treatment on heart health outcomes.

Researchers who used medication and psychotherapy to treat depression or anxiety in over 1,500 participants found that they were 75% less likely to return to the emergency room and 74% less likely to have to stay in the hospital after discharge. The findings emphasize how critical mental health disorders must be treated to improve outcomes for patients with pre-existing cardiac issues. The mental health condition of depression is prevalent. A persistent sense of hopelessness and a decrease in energy are common in people with depression. Their daily activities might be difficult for them to carry out.

An additional prevalent mental health issue is anxiety. Individuals who suffer from anxiety may have trouble falling asleep, worry all the time, and feel restless. Anxious people may also be more susceptible to depressionTrusted Source. Physical and mental health are inversely correlated. For instance, individuals with depression may experience worsening symptoms from both their chronic illnesses, such as diabetes or heart disease. Additionally, anxiety may increase a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease and mental health are closely related, with effects on both conditions occurring simultaneously. Heart disease risk factors include elevated blood pressure and physiological stress, which can be experienced by people with disorders like depression and anxiety.

Furthermore, he pointed out, that they might be more likely to adopt lifestyle changes, like smoking and inactivity, that can raise their risk of cardiovascular disease even further. On the other hand, following a stressful acute cardiovascular event, patients with heart disease, such as those who experience a heart attack, stroke, or heart failure, are more likely to experience mental health disorders like anxiety, depression, or PTSD [post-traumatic stress disorder].

Researchers are not entirely sure of the precise relationship that exists between physical conditions and mental illness. The goal of the current study was to learn more about the connections between anxiety and depression and specific cardiac issues. This study used a retrospective cohort design and was population-based. Using Medicaid data from Ohio, researchers included 1,563 participants in their analysis. The participants experienced anxiety or depression in addition to heart failure or coronary artery disease. Additionally, they had been admitted to the hospital for the first time due to ischemic heart disease or heart failure.

The relationship between anxiety and depression treatment and hospital readmission, ER visits for heart failure and coronary artery disease, all-cause mortality, and heart disease mortality was examined by researchers. They examined whether participants were receiving psychotherapy and whether they were using antidepressants. Many covariates, such as biological sex, Medicaid eligibility, and ethnicity, were noted and taken into consideration. Several models that were adjusted for distinct covariates were run. According to the analysis, patients with depression or anxiety who also received medication saw the greatest reductions in risk and the greatest benefits.

Nonetheless, there were improvements in rehospitalization and ER visits for every group that got treatment. Researchers did not find any appreciable drops in the mortality risk from heart disease in patients receiving treatment for depression and anxiety. Individuals who got both medication and psychotherapy had a 75% lower chance of returning to the hospital, a 74% lower risk of requiring ER visits, and a 66% lower risk of dying from any cause. The findings highlight the significance of treating mental illness in heart disease patients to help improve the course of their condition.

MD, a professor of internal medicine at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center and director of cardiovascular research for the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, outlined the study’s conclusions. He informed us that patients with anxiety or depression who have been admitted to the hospital due to heart failure or coronary artery disease benefit from mental health treatments that include medication, psychotherapy, or both.

The biggest benefits go to those who receive both medication and psychotherapy together. The likelihood of dying is lowered in every instance, and there are notable decreases in the need to visit the ER or return to the hospital. The study emphasizes how critical it is to identify mental health conditions in patients with cardiovascular disease, such as depression and anxiety. It is particularly crucial for vulnerable groups, including the elderly, people with advanced heart disease, and people who have previously been admitted to the hospital due to cardiovascular illness.

There are several restrictions on this study. Initially, since it only included Ohio Medicaid participants and collected information from their filed claims, certain information might be absent. Furthermore, no causal relationship between the factors the researchers looked at could be found in the research. Since white people made up the bulk of the participants, future research could concentrate on looking at other groups. Additionally, adults over 64 were not included in the research; therefore, older participants should be included in future studies. Furthermore, the study was conducted over a relatively short period; therefore, longer-term research may be necessary to validate these results.

It’s possible that some confounders were overlooked and that other factors, like the severity of the illness, were not taken into account. Additionally, they were unable to use standardized assessments to validate the mental health diagnoses. This was a retrospective study, and more prospective research is needed to determine the effectiveness of mental health therapies for heart disease patients. Mechanistic research will improve our ability to prevent and treat mental health issues as well as heart disease by clarifying the physiological links between the two conditions.


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Migraine, predisposition to blood clots can increase stroke risk

Migraine, predisposition to blood clots can increase stroke risk

One essential component of preventive healthcare is the prevention of strokes. People need to be aware of their risk factors and possible ways to reduce them because strokes can be very dangerous. Even though the risk of stroke is generally lower in younger people, it is still important to understand what risk factors apply to this population, especially since stroke consequences can last a lifetime. A recent study that looked at the relationship between traditional and nontraditional risk factors for stroke and stroke in younger adults was published in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and OutcomesTrusted Source

The relationship between traditional and nontraditional risk factors and stroke risk in adults 55 years of age and younger was investigated by researchers using data from over 2,600 stroke cases and over 7,800 controls. The results of the study showed that nontraditional risk factors decreased in association with age and were primarily responsible for strokes in adults under the age of 35. Finding non-traditional stroke risk factors is crucial, especially for younger adults, as these findings demonstrate.

The possibility of brain damage makes strokes such a serious medical emergencyTrusted Source. Ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes are the two main types. The brain’s blood supply is blocked in some way during an ischemic stroke. Blood clots in the brain, possibly due to an artery burst, during a hemorrhagic stroke. High blood pressure, diabetes, inactivity, and smoking are just a few of the many risk factors that can raise a person’s risk of having a stroke.

Additional risk factors include having an AB blood type or a family history of stroke. To find out their level of stroke risk, people can seek medical advice and guidance. The Colorado All-Payer Claims Database was the source of data for this retrospective case-control study. To examine conventional and nontraditional stroke risk factors, researchers examined models stratified by biological sex and age. During the period under investigation, 2,628 stroke cases were reported. 52 percent of these were in women, and 73.3% of the total were ischemic strokes. These stroke cases were contrasted with 7,827 controls by researchers.

The traditional risk factors associated with stroke cases were more likely to be noticed by researchers. They found that high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use were the most prevalent traditional risk factors. Headache, renal failure, and thrombophilia were the most prevalent nontraditional risk factors in men. Among females, thrombophilia, migraine, and malignancy diseases in which defective cells infiltrate healthy tissue—were the most prevalent nontraditional risk factors. The youngest age group’s stroke risk was found to be more influenced by nontraditional risk factors than by traditional risk factors, according to research.

Nontraditional risk factors were linked to 31.4 percent of strokes among men and 42.7 percent of strokes among women aged 18 to 34. On the other hand, traditional risk factors were responsible for 25.3% of strokes in men and 33.3% in women. Additionally, the researchers discovered that the risk from nontraditional factors decreased with age and that the risk from traditional factors peaked among participants in the 35–44 age group.

We aimed to gain more insight into the risk factors that contributed most significantly to the risk of stroke in young adults. We discovered that nontraditional risk factors held equal importance to traditional risk factors among adults aged 18 to 34. In fact, a nontraditional risk factor for stroke was more likely to cause the patient’s stroke if they were younger at the time of the event. We were taken aback to discover that among adults [between the ages of 18 and 34], migraine was the most significant nontraditional stroke risk factor. Although the link between migraines and strokes has long been known, this study is the first to demonstrate the precise magnitude of this contribution.

The findings certainly emphasize how crucial it is to screen for non-traditional stroke risk factors, especially in younger people. The study clarified lesser-known risk factors for stroke in young patients, such as migraines, autoimmune disorders, and thrombophilia, in addition to well-known risk factors like hypertension, according to Adi Iyer, MD, a neurosurgeon and interventional neuroradiologist at Pacific Neuroscience Institute who was not involved in the research.

This study is intriguing because it sheds light on the risk factors for stroke in young patients, which are ultimately just as significant as the well-known risk factors like heart disease and hypertension. Physicians should screen younger patients for stroke risk if they have nontraditional risk factors like autoimmune disorders, migraines, or thrombophilia. The researchers noted some important limitations to their study even though this research revealed some important information about stroke risk factors.

To start, when participants did not seek care, the researchers did not consider uncoded diagnoses or risk factors due to how they identified risk factors. Furthermore, there exists a possibility of residual confounding and unmeasured bias. How the study was carried out probably prevented the risk of specific factors from being fully captured. Researchers pointed out that their assessment of nontraditional risk factors may have been underestimated and that the study did not address every possible risk factor for stroke.

The research team also warned that the study’s findings might not apply to other contexts because it was carried out in a Colorado claims database, which has a higher altitude and might have impacted the study sample. A sickle cell pain crisis, for instance, might be brought on by the altitude. This could account for the small number of participants who had sickle cell disease.

The researchers finally admitted that some confounders were impossible to account for and that there were gaps in some of the racial and ethnic data. Therefore, to collect additional data, researchers encouraged the study to be replicated in various population-based cohorts. The study’s authors acknowledged some important limitations even though their research revealed some important information regarding stroke risk factors. First off, uncoded diagnoses or risk factors that were present when participants chose not to seek treatment were not taken into consideration by the researchers due to how they identified risk factors. Additionally, there is a chance of residual confounding and unmeasured bias. Because of the way the study was carried out, it’s possible that the risk from specific factors was not fully captured.

Additionally, not all possible stroke risk factors were examined in the study, and the researchers acknowledged that their evaluation of nontraditional risk factors might have been underestimated. The study was carried out in a claims database in Colorado, which has a higher altitude, which may have affected the study sample, the authors added, warning that the results might not be generalizable. For instance, a sickle cell pain crisis could be brought on by the altitude. This could be the reason for the small number of sickle cell disease participants. Lastly, the researchers acknowledged that some confounders were impossible to account for and that some racial and ethnic data were missing.

Consequently, to collect additional data, researchers promoted the study’s replication in various cohorts drawn from different populations. We discovered that young adults’ strokes may be greatly influenced by migraine headaches. On the other hand, we are unsure of the initial cause of migraine [attacks] and stroke. Stroke prevention for migraineurs is currently untreated clinically. We can create more effective clinical interventions in the future by improving our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying migraines that result in strokes.


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Why dementia risk is higher for people with irregular sleep patterns

Why dementia risk is higher for people with irregular sleep patterns

Maintaining a regular sleep schedule is just as important to your general health as getting enough sleep. According to a recent study that was published in Neurology, persons with extremely erratic sleep patterns may be more susceptible to dementia than people with more regular sleep patterns. An average of 62 years old, 88,094 people were observed by researchers over about 7 years.

A wrist device was worn by participants for a week to track their regularity and sleep cycle. The group created a score for irregular sleep patterns based on these data. After that, the researchers looked through the participants’ medical records to determine which of them had dementia. They discovered that the highest sleep irregularity was associated with a 53% higher risk of dementia development compared to moderate sleep irregularity.

According to Matthew Pase, PhD, of Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, the correlation between sporadic sleep patterns and the likelihood of developing dementia was strong, particularly considering the size of the sample. He made this observation to Healthline. Additionally, the results were unaffected by the length or disruption of sleep, indicating that regularity of sleep is significant in and of itself. Based on this data, researchers and the general public should think about sleep regularity in addition to overall sleep duration and quality when defining what constitutes good sleep.

Future research, according to study co-author Pase, could look into whether getting enough sleep enhances memory. Research may also look into the mechanisms relating regular sleep patterns to dementia. For instance, are there any connections in the brain between regular sleep patterns and Alzheimer’s disease? Pase said.

According to sleep experts, the human body naturally follows circadian rhythms, or sleep-wake cycles, which are synchronized with the time of day. A pattern of day-night oscillation of neural, hormonal, and other regulatory system patterns that respond best to environmental light is known as the circadian system. This especially applies to sunlight. According to experts, this system is impacted by irregular sleep patterns, which may also increase the risk of cognitive decline.

The circadian timing system, which runs concurrently with our sleeping and waking, is challenged by irregular sleep patterns, according to Mary A. Carskadon, Ph.D., a professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University’s Warren Alpert Medical School. The circadian system receives a strong “darkness” signal from sleep, which aids in establishing and maintaining circadian timing.

According to Dr. Sudha Tallavajhula, medical director of the Neurological Sleep Medicine Center at TIRR Memorial Hermann and a sleep neurologist at UTHealth Houston, sleep is a natural human phenomenon that should be synchronized with day-night rhythms. Multiple networks collaborate to coordinate immune response, hormone production, and other vital organ system functions, all aimed at regulating the human rest-activity cycle. These networks begin with specialized cells in our eyes.

Tallavajhula did not contribute to the research. Cerebrospinal fluid has been shown in recent research to aid in the brain’s waste-removal process while you sleep. A recently identified role of sleep is the brain’s glymphatic system, which is responsible for removing waste materials from the brain, or Carskadon. It’s easy to see how a series of these actions could lead to a potentially dangerous build-up of material that, over time, could impair cognitive function. A regular schedule for going to bed and waking up is crucial for maintaining regular sleep patterns.

The US. S. The following are suggestions for improving sleep quality from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Establish a regular bedtime and wake-up time. Make sure your bedroom is peaceful, cozy, and dark. Do not store electronics in your bedroom, such as a laptop, tablet, or phone. Large meals, coffee, and alcohol should be avoided right before bed. Engage in regular exercise. Regular sleep schedules are important, Tallavajhula agrees.

The most frequent action that specialists in sleep medicine recommend to enhance sleep is establishing a regular schedule, according to Tallavajhula. It’s like working out at the gym, only this is mental exercise. Some individuals may find it difficult to stick to a regular sleep and wake-up schedule, particularly shift workers.

That’s when Tallavajhula suggested avoiding rotating shifts and adopting a different sleep schedule. In contrast to those who sleep more regularly, individuals with irregular sleep patterns may be more susceptible to dementia, according to recent research. Cognitive performance is negatively impacted by irregular sleep, which disrupts the body’s circadian rhythm. Both getting enough sleep and adhering to a regular sleep schedule are crucial, according to experts.


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