Common sweetener in high doses may suppress immune system.

Common sweetener in high doses may suppress immune system.

According to a recent study, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, lowers immunological responses in mice when given in large amounts. In particular, it lessens their T cells’ level of activation. Researchers emphasise that sucralose ingestion by humans in usual amounts is unlikely to be detrimental.

Researchers plan to investigate if this popular sweetener could be utilised to calm down overactive immune systems in the future in high doses.

Sucralose, which goes by the brand name Splenda, is one of several artificial sweeteners that have been given the go-ahead for usage in the US. The sugar substitute has 600 times more sweetness than regular sugar.

Sucralose was given the go-ahead by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1999 to be used as a general-purpose sweetener for food.

In order to better understand how nutrition affects disease, Dr. Karen Vousden’s team at the Francis Crick Institute in London decided to study sucralose. She is a specialist in cancer biology.

“Sweetener consumption is rising quickly around the world, and comprehensive research by numerous regulatory bodies have demonstrated that they are safe at levels of usual consumption,” she said.

There have been reports in recent years suggesting that sweeteners may have more impacts than previously believed, including an impact on the gut flora. Hence, we conducted a study to examine these sweeteners’ impact on mice. Karen Vousden, Ph.D.

They recently had a publication about their study appear in Nature. It indicates the scientists discovered that sucralose lowers mice’s immune systems when taken in large dosages.

Recommended sucralose consumption

Sucralose has an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 milligrammes per kilogramme of body weight per day, as set by the FDA. It has an ADI set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of 15 mg per kg of body weight per day.

Sucralose amounts to 12 milligrammes every packet of Splenda. In the United States, a person weighing 150 pounds can consume 340 mg of sucralose per day and still meet the ADI.

The researchers provided mice with access to water that was comparable to the ADI suggested by the EFSA (.72 mg) and the FDA for rodents for the experiments they conducted for their study (.17 mg).

Higher doses of sucralose

In order to examine the potential impact of sucralose on the immune system, the researchers conducted a number of laboratory tests on the T cells, a subset of white blood cells, of mice and people.

In one experiment, scientists fed mice either 0.17 or 0.72 mg of sucralose or sodium saccharin, a chemically unrelated sweetener (NaS). For several cell types, neither the amount of sucralose nor the presence of NaS had any discernible impact.

Another experiment assessed the homeostatic expansion of donor T cells in mice that were given sucrose but were unable to develop mature T cells or B cells. The growth of vital adaptive immune system cells was only prevented by sucralose.

Overall, results from numerous studies indicated that high sucralose exposure reduces T cell proliferation and differentiation.

Dr. Vousden, the senior author of the study, told that the team was shocked that “the effect was so evident across several mice models” due to sucralose’s poor absorption.

Sucralose did not appear to affect the activity of other immune cells, which shocked her team as well. “We were also startled to discover such a particular effect of sucralose on T-cells — none of the other sweeteners had this effect,” she said.

Effects of sucralose

Sucralose or NaS administration to mice for up to 12 weeks did not influence their dietary habits or body weight, according to the research. It also had no discernible impact on the mice’s fasting insulin levels or glucose tolerance.

Sucralose has been demonstrated to have an impact on the gut microbiota in certain studies, including one from 2008. But, in this most recent publication, researchers found “no consistent alteration in the bacterial species” in the mice given sucralose-treated stools.

The researchers also opted to investigate the medicinal potential of sucralose in the management of autoimmune diseases. They did this by administering sucralose to NOD (nonobese diabetic) mice.

According to Vousden, sucrose does not necessarily have a detrimental impact on the immune system. The findings suggest that the sweetener might one day be utilised therapeutically to treat autoimmune diseases, according to her.

The researchers treated mice that were engineered to be predisposed to type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that induces T cells to assault pancreatic cells, excessive dosages of the sweetener to test this notion in animals. Just approximately a third of the mice given the sweetener acquired diabetes after about 30 weeks; in contrast, all of the animals given simply water got the disease.

In the event that human studies reveal a similar outcome, according to Zani, he could imagine the sweetener being used in conjunction with more traditional immunosuppressive medications. As a result, doctors might be able to reduce the dosages of these medications. Walther believes that this line of enquiry is promising, particularly in light of the fact that sucralose is inexpensive to produce and would have less negative side effects.

long-term use of sucralose

In a 2018 study, Dr. Fabio Cominelli of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Ohio discovered that sucralose consumption by mice may negatively affect the intestinal flora. Dr. Cominelli is the director of the Digestive Health Research Institute.

Dr. Cominelli, who was not involved in the current study, stated that he was unsure of the reason why the microbiome did not undergo significant changes as reported by the researchers.

He did, however, draw MNT’s attention to the fact that the rodent testing relied on doses of the sweetener that are far greater than what humans generally ingest, meaning that the article may not be relevant to scientists interested in the long-term effects of sucralose on humans.


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Focused ultrasound can improve Parkinson’s symptoms?

Focused ultrasound can improve Parkinson’s symptoms?

In a recent study, a novel, non-invasive method of using focused ultrasound to lessen Parkinson’s disease symptoms was presented. In order to disrupt the neural network that causes uncontrolled movement and motor dysfunction, the approach entails deleting a tiny neuron cluster.

Twice as many research participants received the new treatment than those who received sham care, and these improvements in symptoms frequently sustained for at least a year.

An innovative, noninvasive strategy for lowering dyskinesia, or uncontrollable movements, and motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease patients is presented in a recent study. Focused ultrasound is used in the novel technique.

When compared to trial participants who underwent a sham, or placebo, therapy, twice as many people reported improvement in dyskinesia and motor impairment three months after undergoing the incision-less procedure.

In 77% of individuals who responded to the medication, the gains persisted for up to a year. Patients who receive focused ultrasound therapy often return home the same day.

Gait issues, speaking difficulty, and eye disruption were among the infrequently reported negative effects by the researchers. The group that received the treatment experienced more severe adverse effects than the group that received a placebo.

Focused ultrasound

Focused ultrasound is a minimally invasive, non-surgical technique that causes an ablation in a region that reduces Parkinson’s and tremor symptoms. To produce a clear thermal lesion deep into the brain without harming nearby structures, we use focused ultrasonic waves. The basal ganglia are what we are primarily aiming for. A set of brain regions are involved in the coordination and control of movement. We employ a thermal imaging equipment for magnetic radiofrequency imaging (MRI) during the procedure. This gauges alterations in the skull’s temperature and enables us to guarantee the patient’s security.

The treatment is fantastic because it allows us to work on really delicate places securely, effectively, and with very minimal adverse effects.

Dopamine and L-DOPA

Parkinson’s disease is caused by low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the substantia nigra of the brain. This is brought on by the death of neurons that produce dopamine.

The predominant idea holds that autophagy, the brain’s housekeeping mechanism, has failed, causing an accumulation of waste that impairs brain function.

Dopamine synchronises various brain regions so that they are communicating with one another at the same frequency, according to Dr. Jean-Philippe Langevin, director of the Pacific Neuroscience Institute’s Restorative Neurosurgery and Deep Brain Stimulation Program, who was not involved in the study.

“Consider all these parts of the brain as walkie-talkies or phones trying to communicate, but the frequency at which they’re trying to communicate is off,” said Dr. Langevin. Movements become stiff, hesitant, and tremble as a result, and are no longer flowing.

Dr. Langevin stated that the absence of dopamine causes the motor system of the brain, which regulates movement, to be “quite noisy.” Researchers can actually recognise electrical noise as this “noise.” According to recent research, Parkinson’s disease actually causes some neuronal frequencies to rise.

Levodopa, also known as L-DOPA, which replenishes dopamine in the brain, is the most widely used medication for the illness.

Yet, for many people, the dyskinesia and motor dysfunction they encounter are genuine side effects of L-DOPA therapy. Over time, the medication’s effectiveness deteriorates as well.

New treatment

The novel method examined in the trial is based on an essential tremor medication that was previously authorised in 2016.

A small group of neurons in the globus pallidus area of the brain are removed or ablate during focused ultrasound therapy. By leaving scarring on the tissue, ablation causes tissue destruction.

Dr. Howard M. Eisenberg, co-author of the study and professor of neurosurgery at the University of Maryland Medical System, with the following explanation of how a little more than 1,000 sound energy beams ablate the target tissue:

“Like light, sound can be concentrated. Imagine you had a magnifying glass when you were a child. If you focused the sun’s rays on a piece of paper, you would receive a tiny dot of light that would then transform into heat and burn a hole in the paper. With sound, we may achieve the same results.

When the beams are concentrated and the intensity is strong enough, “you can burn a little hole in the brain” precisely at the target location without harming surrounding tissue, he told us.

In essence, Dr. Eisenberg said, “that’s how it works: Back to the future, similar to ablation that was done years ago for essential tremor, but using different technology.”

According to Dr. Eisenberg, the dyskinesia and motor dysfunction are not always brought on by the ablated neurons. Instead, “it’s a system of targets that are interconnected nuclei, and you’re interrupting that system,” he said.

Motives for excitement

If the procedure enables Parkinson’s patients to take less L-DOPA medication, then there are many reasons to be optimistic, according to Dr. Langevin.

According to Dr. Eisenberg, based on prior experience with essential tremor ablation, we can anticipate benefits in roughly 80% of patients, and they might last at least five years.

However, not every participant in the research benefited from this treatment. A few participants, according to Dr. Eisenberg, might have skulls that are less effective at transmitting acoustic energy.

The reason for this is that the skull is made up of two hard layers of bone sandwiched by a softer layer, “like an Oreo biscuit,” rather than being one solid piece of bone.

Focused ultrasound vs. DBS

Dr. Eisenberg pointed out that deep brain stimulation is thought to be more successful for treating essential tremors than ablation (DBS). DBS stimulates tissue rather than destroying it. Furthermore, Parkinson’s dyskinesia and motor disability are treatable by DBS.

DBS, however, necessitates creating one or more tiny holes in the skull through which a wire is placed and directed to the desired location in the brain. The wire is then attached to a tiny neurostimulator that has been inserted into the chest.

“They won’t consider it even though we always explain that deep brain stimulation has advantages over focused ultrasound,” Dr. Eisenberg said of individuals who would prefer it instead. Hence, it’s beneficial for individuals who simply don’t want deep brain stimulation, which is understandable.

Yet, he added, the advantages provided by the new focused ultrasound approach are still potent enough to be life-altering.


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Could matcha tea have anti-depressant properties?

Could matcha tea have anti-depressant properties?

In the US, major depressive disorders are thought to affect 21 million persons. According to Japanese researchers, matcha tea powder may be able to reduce symptoms of sadness while also enhancing mood and cognitive function.

According to reports, the powder improves mental wellness by stimulating dopaminergic cerebral pathways. Further research involving human people is required, experts believe. Their study was conducted on mice.

A recent study in the journal Nutrients found that matcha tea powder can aid people in managing stress and depression. According to research, the traditional Japanese tea can improve depressive symptoms in mice who have previously suffered stress from social isolation, activate dopaminergic brain networks, and improve mood and mental function.

The health advantages of matcha have been emphasised. But, additional mechanistic research is needed, which is why the study was conducted on mice, according to experts from Japan’s Kumamoto University. They claimed that more study could contribute in the creation of better antidepressants.

Depression and dopamine

A mood disorder called depression can make it difficult for a person to function in daily life. A continuous sense of emptiness is one of the many symptoms that someone with depression may experience.

Depression still doesn’t have a known specific cause. Yet, some risk factors, including as going through painful experiences or having depressed family members, might raise a person’s likelihood of getting depression.

Many of the basic elements of depression are still not fully understood, and researchers are continually trying to comprehend them. How neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine affect depression is one topic of investigation.

Dopamine, a chemical messenger that affects motivation and mood, is thought by some experts to play a role in depression.

How to treat depression?

The researchers made note of the fact that depression continues to afflict an increasing number of people and is the most common mental health disorder in the world.

Its onset varies, but it is thought to be caused by a decline in dopamine levels in the brain. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter and hormone that helps people feel better.

Low dopamine levels can be treated with antidepressants, although many have negative effects. Antidepressant resistance can also develop in patients, necessitating increased dosages or drug adjustments.

Matcha tea and its impact on depression

Matcha, a type of tea that has been around for a while, is made from the Camellia sinensis plant, which has a lot of happy-making substances in its leaves.

Regular matcha drinking, according to researchers, has been shown to reduce anxiety-like behaviour in rats during prior experiments by triggering dopamine function via dopamine D1 receptor signalling.

Researchers lead by Dr. Yuki Kurauchi of Kumamoto University examined the impact of matcha tea powder on depression in socially isolated mice. The team stressed social isolation on both stress-tolerant BALB/c and stress-sensitive C57BL/6J mice.

They claimed that giving the stress-prone rats an oral dose of a matcha tea suspension appeared to lower their levels of depression. This was determined by how well the mice performed in tail suspension experiments, which are frequently used to gauge mouse sadness.

In contrast to stress-tolerant mice, matcha tea only decreased the immobility time in stress-susceptible mice who were more stressed out by social isolation and showed more depressive-like behaviour. stated Kurauchi in a statement.

The prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were activated in the stress-susceptible mice following matcha consumption, according to a brain examination of the mice. These areas are vital for regulating dopamine levels in the brain as they represent a significant component of the dopaminergic circuit.

Their activation would normally enhance dopamine levels, improving mood, as shown by an increase in the number of cells expressing c-Fos, a critical marker of brain activity.

Experts on matcha tea study

Although there are differences between mice and humans, experts told Healthline they were optimistic about the findings.

Dr. Kelly Johnson-Arbor, a medical toxicologist and the director of the National Capital Poison Center, stated that there isn’t much data on how matcha might effect depression in people. Also, the best dose and time frame for using matcha to prevent or treat depression haven’t been determined.

It’s not yet clear whether matcha can affect people’s moods. According to Johnson-Arbor, Healthline. Matcha has not been clearly demonstrated to be useful in preventing the onset of depression in humans, despite the fact that most healthy people may be able to incorporate it into their daily routine as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

She continued, “Before adopting matcha or any other natural therapy to treat depression symptoms, people should always see their doctor.”

Experts Opinion

Matcha has high levels of L-theanine, an amino acid that relaxes the brain and nervous system, according to Victoria Chan, a licenced naturopathic doctor who specialises in integrative mental health and has medical training in pharmaceuticals. This lessens the jittery effects of the tea’s natural caffeine.

The root causes of depression are still being discovered by scientists, according to Chan. Contrary to common belief, ‘chemical imbalances’ or imbalanced neurotransmitters are not the exclusive cause of depression. Digestion, hormones, immune reactions, thyroid, detoxification, allergic responses, nutrition, liver, heredity, and stress responses are just a few of the many elements that might contribute to depression.

According to Chan, matcha reduces depression in ways other than via influencing neurotransmitters.

According to Chan, if antidepressant medicine is not successfully treating your depression, the underlying cause may not be entirely controlled by neurotransmitters, which antidepressant medications primarily target. If so, you might benefit from treating your depression with substances that support various biological pathways, such as matcha, and from employing methods that do so.

Some cautions on the study

According to Dr. Zeeshan Afzal, a dermatologist and medical advisor for the artificial intelligence healthcare platform Welzo, matcha’s L-theanine and caffeine can work together to enhance brain function.

Afzal cautioned against becoming overly euphoric, though. He stated that the study conducted on mice “may offer some insights into the potential antidepressant.” “It’s vital to keep in mind that the results might not apply to humans. Because of the physiological variations between mice and humans, there are frequently notable discrepancies in how medications and therapies affect the two species.

Further affective human studies, according to Afzal, are required.

“Matcha could potentially become a natural alternative or complementary treatment for depression,” he added. “If subsequent studies confirm the antidepressant effects of matcha.” To diagnose and treat depression, people with the condition should always seek the advice of a trained healthcare expert, it is crucial to note that there is still much research to be done in this area.


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Does the contraceptive pill increase risk of breast cancer?

Does the contraceptive pill increase risk of breast cancer?

Researchers looked into the connection between breast cancer risk and the usage of hormonal contraceptives. They discovered that using progestin-only contraceptives raises breast cancer risk in a manner similar to using both types of contraceptives.

According to them, doctors should consider the advantages and disadvantages of patients using hormonal contraceptives.

Almost 65% of women between the ages of 15 and 49 used some form of contraception between 2017 and 2019, with 14% of them using the pill. The progestin-only pill and the combined pill, which contains both progestin and estrogen-based components. These are the two types of contraceptive tablets available.

Progesterone is a naturally occurring hormone, and progestin, or progestogen, is a synthetic version of it. Those who use combination contraceptives have a marginally higher chance of developing breast cancer within 10 years of use, according to a meta-analysis from 1996.

The use of contraceptives that exclusively contain progestin, such as pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs), has increased recently. From 1.9 million in 2010 to 3.3 million in 2020, England saw an increase in prescriptions for medications. However, the effect of progestin-only contraceptives on breast cancer risk has received little attention in the past.

Researchers recently looked into the connection between the usage of hormonal contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. They discovered that progestin-only contraceptives marginally raise the risk of breast cancer, similar to combination tablets.

What is the contraceptive pill?

The term “the pill” also refers to the oral contraceptive. In the UK, it is a widely used method of birth control. To avoid getting pregnant, take the contraceptive pill orally. The body’s hormones regulate the menstrual cycle (periods). By altering these hormones’ concentrations, the pill stops conception.

You may learn more about the two major forms of contraceptive pills on the NHS website:

  • The combination pill is a medication that combines both oestrogen and progestogen.
  • The little tablet (also called the progestogen-only pill or POP). Just progestogen is present in this tablet.

There are additional hormonal contraceptives on the market. On them and the risk of cancer, there is limited research. You can learn more about the various forms of contraception from your doctor.

Data on hormonal contraceptives use

The study’s authors examined medical information from a primary care database in the UK. They included information from 18,171 women without breast cancer and 9,498 women under 50 who had the disease.

Together, 44% of breast cancer survivors and 39% of non-survivors had a prescription for hormonal contraception. They were for progestin-only preparations around half of the time.

In the end, the researchers discovered that taking combination contraceptive pills elevated the risk of breast cancer by 23%. They also discovered that oral contraceptives that contain solely progestin raised the incidence of breast cancer by 29%.

Injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) are examples of other progestin-only formulations that raised the risk of breast cancer by 18%, 28%, and 21%, respectively.

According to the study, breast cancer incidence increased after five years of oral contraceptive usage in women between the ages of 35 and 39, rising from 265 per 100,000 users to 8 per 100,000 in those between 16 and 20.

Oral birth control and breast cancer risk

City of Hope Orange County’s medical director for women’s health and medical oncology, Dr. Irene M. Kang, was not involved in the research.

“Because all medications have dangers and advantages, talking to your doctor about any worries you have is very important. A few adverse consequences of oral contraceptives are blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes. In altering the levels of oestrogen and progesterone, research has revealed that oral contraceptives can affect a person’s chance of developing specific malignancies – in some circumstances, such as ovarian and endometrial cancers, downwardly; in other situations, upwardly. Family planning and more controlled menstrual cycles are additional advantages.

Medical oncologist Dr. Lilian Harris, who was not involved in the study, concurred that hormonal contraceptives offer advantages and disadvantages:

For instance, they can aid in the treatment of acne, fibroids, endometriosis, and menstrual pain in addition to protecting against pelvic inflammatory disease. Also, it has been demonstrated that they lower the risk of uterine cancer. On the other hand, any medicine could have hazards. These side effects for oral contraceptives can include higher risk for breast cancer as well as nausea, headaches, and breast discomfort.

Study limitations 

Dr. Kang said that the study’s shortcomings include that it only explains short-term risk associations rather than long-term danger because of the way it was designed.

Not a part of the study, according to Dr. Kristina Shaffer, a breast surgery oncologist at Novant Health Cancer Institute:

“In addition, the study included premenopausal women, a population whose incidence of breast cancer is lower, suggesting that other variables could have been to blame for the study’s findings of a slightly greater risk. While the study did take into account some of the recognised risk factors for breast cancer, it did not take into account family history, genetic predisposition, or history of atypical breast cells, all of which are known to have an impact on the risk of breast cancer.

Implications for contraceptives use

As a non-participant in the study, Dr. Parvin Peddi is a board-certified medical oncologist who serves as the Margie Petersen Breast Center’s director of breast medical oncology at Providence Saint John’s Health Center and an associate professor of medical oncology at Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California.

The important takeaway from this study is that despite the perception of a lower risk of perinatal cancer, women do not always need to choose a birth control pill that only contains progesterone. – Doctor Peddie

However, Dr. Peddie emphasised that the absolute risk of breast cancer from any of these drugs is relatively low, and this study should not discourage women from using birth control methods that contain hormones.

Less than 0.5% of women aged 35 to 39 who used these drugs showed a risk of breast cancer, and even fewer women who took them earlier.

For instance, a relative rise of 20% would raise the risk of breast cancer in a 30-year-old woman from 5% to 6%. And for this reason, the study came to the conclusion that there was a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer,” she said.

Dr. Kang also pointed out: “Like all cancers, the risk of developing breast cancer rises with age and, in this case, also with the duration of hormonal contraception use.

It may be more advantageous for you to switch to a hormone-free birth control if you have a higher chance of developing breast cancer. Get treatment from a doctor who specialises in your particular type of cancer if you are diagnosed with breast cancer.

Self-exams and screenings are crucial because “early detection of breast cancer is one of the most significant factors in successfully treating this disease,” Dr. Kang said.


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Are Frozen Strawberries linked with Hepatitis Outbreak?

Are Frozen Strawberries linked with Hepatitis Outbreak?


Due to hepatitis A infections, the FDA announced voluntary recalls on some frozen strawberry goods from California Splendor, Inc. and Scenic Fruit Company. The recalled goods were distributed all around the country, including in Trader Joe’s and Costco stores.

The best way for people to protect themselves, according to experts, is to wash their hands frequently. Also, avoid touching raw or undercooked meat, and get vaccinated against hepatitis A.

According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), two businesses are voluntarily recalling their organic frozen strawberries. This is due to the connection to five viral hepatitis A illnesses.

Following the FDA’s opening of an investigation into a hepatitis A outbreak, two businesses California Splendor, Inc., and Scenic Fruit Company voluntarily recalled some frozen strawberry goods. These include labels like Trader Joe’s Organic Tropical Fruit Mix. This is sold under its own name, and Kirkland Signature, which is available at some Costco locations.

Washington State has seen all five of the hepatitis A infections linked to frozen strawberries. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it’s conceivable that additional people had symptoms from the recalled product but did not report them.

The hepatitis A virus has not yet been identified in any of the items. However, every sick person said they had eaten frozen strawberries before getting sick.

“Five cases product was withdrawn. According to Robert Fontana, MD, professor of internal medicine in the division of gastroenterology and hepatology at Michigan Medicine. He said that they don’t want anyone to acquire it because it’s a public health issue. “It doesn’t matter how healthy you are; you can get sick as an adult even if you’re completely healthy.”

What Is Hepatitis A?

According to Chloe Thio, MD, professor of medicine in the division of infectious diseases at Johns Hopkins Medicine, hepatitis A is a foodborne sickness that affects the liver.

She said that liver cells are where the virus enters. In the majority of cases, the infection will simply be eliminated by your immune system. Some will are those who will experience significant liver cell disintegration. While others may not experience any symptoms at all.

Dr. Thio pointed out that hepatitis A is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. This means that infection occurs when a person unintentionally consumes blood or stool contaminated with the virus.

Dr. Thio stated that even though the FDA has not identified the precise source of the contamination in the instance of these frozen strawberries, the fruit most likely acquired contaminated with the hepatitis A virus during the growing or processing process. It’s likely that some of the individuals handling the berries contracted hepatitis A while doing so, or that tainted water was used to irrigate the plants.

Each year or two, the country is affected by these food-related outbreaks, which are frequently caused by tainted produce, according to Dr. Fontana. Because of the FDA and CDC’s involvement and ability to identify it and pull the product, most outbreaks are self-limited.

This outbreak is related to another hepatitis A outbreak that affected fresh strawberries around 10 months ago and that appears to have started in the same region—Baja California, Mexico—as this one. Dr. Fontana speculated that in order to ensure that this won’t happen again, additional government bodies may need to look into emerging practises in this area.

Hepatitis A Symptoms

If you have this infection, your liver is inflamed because of the virus. Numerous children, in particular, lack symptoms in some persons. Others may have:

  • Jaundice (yellow eyes and skin)
  • belly ache
  • dark urine
  • reduced appetite
  • uneasy stomach
  • Vomiting
  • Itching
  • Light-colored faeces
  • aching joints
  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue

Although they may recur for up to six months, these issues often go away after around two months. Even if you feel healthy, the hepatitis A virus can still be transferred. Additionally, you can spread it in the two weeks prior to and the first week following the onset of your symptoms.

How to Avoid Getting Sick?

Dr. Thio noted that even though the recall was extensive, it does not necessarily follow that each and every package of organic frozen strawberries is hepatitis A-positive.

According to Dr. Thio, the frozen strawberries are unlikely to contaminate other foods in a person’s refrigerator and would even be safe to consume if the virus on the fruit were to be killed by heating it at high temperatures. Yet in situations like this, it’s preferable to be cautious than sorry.

Dr. Thio remarked, “I wouldn’t eat them. Hepatitis A may thrive in nooks and crannies, especially in strawberries, so even after washing the fruit, there may still be some contamination.

Hepatitis A symptoms might vary in intensity, although they can occasionally be very severe. Some people might go through:

  • yellow eyes or skin
  • abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • faeces with a pale tone or dark urine
  • Diarrhea
  • aching joints

Drs. Fontana and Thio concurred that hepatitis A infections can be somewhat more problematic for elderly individuals, those with impaired immune systems, and those with underlying liver diseases. Rarely, individuals in these higher-risk groups could develop liver failure or even pass away from the infection.

Beyond the symptoms, Scott Meschke, PhD, professor in the department of environmental and occupational health science at the University of Washington School of Public Health, said that hepatitis A outbreaks are also dangerous because infected individuals may spread the disease to other members of their household or customers if they work in the food service industry.

Individuals are most contagious in the one to two weeks before to the onset of symptoms, which may present additional opportunities for virus transmission.


When consumers are harmed by contaminated food, firms are sometimes plainly to fault. According to NPR, the former Head of a company that marketed peanuts received a 28-year prison sentence in 2015 for knowing selling goods that were tainted with salmonella. He replied in an email, “Just ship it.

But because they are picked by hand, lack any natural defences like a peel or shell, cannot be washed thoroughly without causing damage, and are often not cooked before consumption, berries are particularly susceptible to contamination. Even when businesses and employees are cautious and adhere to best procedures, they are therefore more likely to be contaminated at the moment of consumption than, for example, a watermelon or an avocado, according to Detwiler.

Because the water at the farm is contaminated, perhaps by animal excrement, faecal matter infected with Hepatitis A could be transferred by employees who haven’t cleansed their hands. Another potential point of contamination on the path to consumers is the freezing of berries after they have been harvested.

The CDC advises people to get in touch with their state agency as soon as possible if they have any reason to believe they may have consumed a contaminated berry. Also, medical specialists can help to alleviate the problem if a person learns they may have been infected with hepatitis A while in close contact with others.

Because hepatitis A is contagious, it is advised that household contacts receive a dose of the vaccination within two weeks, according to Dr. Fontana. He noted that some people might also have an immune globulin treatment, which strengthens the immune system, in the two weeks following exposure.


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Innovative ways to stay hydrated without drinking water

Innovative ways to stay hydrated without drinking water

We like a water break as much as the next fitness fanatic after a strenuous workout. But as the temperature rises, it’s critical to pay close attention to our fluid intake throughout the day. Water is, after all, the most crucial nutrient that our body requires.

For optimum performance, your body must maintain adequate hydration. Other than drinking water, there are a number of quick ways to restore your body’s equilibrium and treat dehydration, including eating fruits and vegetables or consuming other liquids.

After engaging in any activity that results in excessive perspiration, such as a strenuous workout, a sauna session, or a hot yoga class, it’s critical to rehydrate.

Rehydrating is essential for avoiding the negative consequences of dehydration whether you have the stomach bug or are recovering from a night of drinking.

Signs and symptoms of dehydration

Your body needs water to function in order for every cell, tissue, and organ to exist.

Water aids in the transportation of nutrients, the elimination of waste, the circulation of blood, and the regulation of body temperature. That implies that if you’re dehydrated, which occurs when you lose more fluids than you take in, your body can’t adequately accomplish these functions.

For instance, vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, or using diuretic drugs that cause increased fluid loss can all cause dehydration.

Dehydration is more common in some populations than others, including children, the elderly, and those with particular illnesses including diabetes and kidney disease.

Dehydration symptoms and signs include:

  • heightened thirst
  • mouth ache
  • sporadic urination
  • arid skin
  • tiredness
  • dizziness
  • headache

Another typical sign of hydration state is the colour of the urine. Generally speaking, the better hydrated you are, the paler the hue. However, the hue can alter for causes other than your level of hydration, such as food, drug use, and some medical problems.

However, older persons cannot use urine colour as a reliable predictor of hydration, according to studies. Here are some methods for swiftly rehydrating if you’re concerned about your or another person’s level of hydration.


Although it probably comes as no surprise, drinking water is frequently the best and most affordable approach to rehydrate.

Water is the best beverage to consume throughout the day and in particular when you need to rehydrate, such as after a workout because it has no added sweets or calories.

It’s important to note that some people lose more salt through sweating than others due to a variety of variables, including heredity. If you get regular muscle cramps after working out or your perspiration irritates your eyes, you may be a “salty sweater”.

If either of these situations describes you, replace both the fluid and salt you lose via sweat, especially after engaging in vigorous or protracted exercise in warm weather.

But, the sodium you lose through perspiration may readily be restored through a balanced meal unless you’re engaging in a prolonged, intensive activity like an ultra-endurance race in a hot area. However, older persons cannot use urine colour as a reliable predictor of hydration, according to studies.

Here are the five greatest methods for swiftly rehydrating if you’re concerned about your or another person’s level of hydration.

Tea and coffee

Caffeine, a stimulant found in coffee and tea, can temporarily dehydrate you if you consume too much of it since it has a diuretic effect. Yet, moderate use of coffee and tea can be just as hydrating as consuming water and act as an invigorating substitute.

Only at doses of 250–300 mg, or around two to three 8-ounce (240 ml) cups of coffee or five to eight 8-ounce (240 ml) cups of tea, can caffeine become dehydrating.

50 frequent coffee users participated in the trial, consuming 4 cups (800 ml) of coffee with 1.8 mg of caffeine per pound (or 4 mg per kilogramme) of body weight per day. It found no discernible differences in the ability of water and coffee to hydrate.

If you don’t like these drinks pure, you may flavour them with herbs and spices like cinnamon, nutmeg, or lemongrass in your tea or unsweetened almond milk in your coffee.

Low-fat and skim milk

Milk not only contains a variety of nutrients, but it also has good moisturising qualities. High levels of electrolytes are found in milk naturally, which helps keep your body’s water equilibrium.

During vigorous exercise, research has shown that skim and low-fat milk can help you rehydrate just as effectively as popular sports beverages while still offering you protein and other crucial elements.

Milk is a great post-exercise beverage for accelerating muscle repair and regeneration because of the high quality protein it contains. Just keep in mind that drinking milk after exercise may induce bloating and other stomach issues. Moreover, it is not a suitable alternative for those who are lactose or specific milk protein sensitive.

If you are having vomiting or diarrhoea, it might not be a good idea to drink milk, especially full fat milk, as it could make these symptoms worse.

Fresh fruits and vegetables can take days or even weeks to reach your plate. In such period, oxidation may result in nutritional loss. On the other hand, frozen fruits and vegetables are preserved with the majority of their nutrients since they are frozen soon after being harvested.

For instance, a research found that frozen blueberries and green beans had higher vitamin C levels than their fresh equivalents.

Try blending your favourite fresh or frozen fruits and veggies with milk or Greek yoghurt to create a refreshing, nutrient-rich smoothie.

Oral hydration solutions

Specialized formulae known as oral hydration solutions are used to both prevent and cure dehydration brought on by diarrhoea or vomiting.

They’ve also been touted as a way to boost post-workout recovery and avoid or alleviate hangovers.

These fluid-based solutions frequently include sugar, usually in the form of dextrose, as well as electrolytes including sodium, chloride, and potassium. Prebiotics and zinc are two additional components included in certain commercial treatments.

These rehydration liquids aid in replenishing electrolytes and lost fluids, but they can be pricey. Fortunately, you can create your own with the following everyday kitchen items:

  • 1 litre of water in 34 ounces
  • Sugar, 6 teaspoons
  • Salt, 1/2 teaspoon


Your body becomes dehydrated when it loses more fluids than it is consuming. The greatest strategy to stay hydrated and rehydrate is, for the majority of individuals, to drink water.

Coffee, tea, milk, fruits, vegetables, and oral hydration products are other options.

If you have any concerns about your or another person’s level of hydration, don’t be afraid to talk to your healthcare professional.


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Genetic Overlap of Endometriosis & Chronic pain conditions

Genetic Overlap of Endometriosis & Chronic pain conditions

There is presently no cure for the disease endometriosis, which can lead to discomfort and infertility. In order to determine whether endometriosis has a hereditary component, researchers at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom examined DNA samples from hundreds of female participants.

25 teams from around the world worked together with the researchers to collect and analyse a sizable amount of data from female participants with and without endometriosis.

Their results demonstrated a link between endometriosis and other inflammatory disorders in addition to demonstrating the genetic component of this condition. For those who have it, endometriosis can be a crippling ailment, and identifying it can be expensive and challenging.

Scientists from the University of Oxford collaborated with experts from other countries to study the DNA from tens of thousands of female volunteers. In order to understand more about the genetic variables influencing the illness. They found that endometriosis might be related to other inflammatory diseases.

Endometriosis overview

The endometrial lining, the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus, thickens during the menstrual cycle as part of the process. This lining usually sheds throughout the menstrual cycle if a person does not become pregnant.

A tissue that resembles this lining can occasionally proliferate where it shouldn’t, which is what happens with endometriosis. This lining may develop in the pelvic region, around the ovaries, or around the fallopian tubes. It can occasionally even grow around other organs like the intestines or the bladder.

Endometriosis symptoms and indicators might include:

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 10% of menstrual women worldwide who are in their reproductive stage are affected by endometriosis.

The study methods

In order to ascertain whether there is probably a genetic component to endometriosis, the research team from the University of Oxford planned to undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS). They did a meta-analysis of the data gathered.

The researchers gathered data from more than 60,000 people. People had been diagnosed with endometriosis in collaboration with 25 other teams. They compared it to DNA samples from slightly more than 700,000 people who had been diagnosed with endometriosis.However they not have the disease.

Participants with either European or East Asian heritage provided the samples.

The genetic differences between those who have endometriosis and those who do not were taken into consideration by the researchers when they examined the data. The implications of these variations on “endometrium, blood, and other important tissues” were also taken into account.

In order to determine whether there was a connection between endometriosis and nine other immunological or inflammatory illnesses, researchers also looked at those conditions.

Genetic map of endometriosis

The scientists discovered 42 genetic loci sites of genes or genetic sequences in the genome. They regarded important for developing endometriosis after reviewing the data provided.

This research supports the hypothesis that endometriosis may have a hereditary component, which may be important for the advancement of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic approaches.

The researchers were able to pinpoint a number of genes and hormone regulators that were linked to both endometriosis and other pain problems after further investigating these locations.

The scientists discovered links between a number of medical illnesses and symptoms, including asthma, osteoarthritis, chronic back pain, and migraines.

Senior research scientist at the Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and the study’s first author, Dr. Nilufer Rahmioglu, spoke about the study.

“We were able to generate a treasure trove of new information about genetically driven endometriosis subtypes. Also, pain experience using different datasets of women with and without endometriosis. Some of which had unprecedented detailed data on surgical findings and pain experience collected using standardised criteria,” said Dr. Rahmioglu.

Links to IBS, migraine, asthma

MNT spoke with Dr. G. Thomas Ruiz, the head of OB/GYN at Memorial Care Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California, who was not associated with this study.

This study confirms the significance of a family history of endometriosis. Gynecologists have long known this, and this study confirms their theory, according to Dr. Ruiz.

Dr. Ruiz stated that the study’s huge sample size is a strength and that a lot of useful information can be extrapolated from it. He advises concentrating on the overall concept that “endometriosis and advanced stage endometriosis” have a genetic basis.

Dr. Ruiz continued, “There seems to be a connection between the body’s response to endometriosis and other inflammatory diseases like osteoarthritis and asthma.

The results of the study were also discussed by Dr. Steve Vasilev, an integrative gynecologic oncologist who is board-certified, the medical director of integrative gynecologic oncology at Providence Saint John’s Health Center, and a professor at Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California. Dr. Vasilev was not involved in the study.

Diagnosis and management

Endometriosis may be the cause of persistent pelvic discomfort, painfully heavy periods, and other menstrual symptoms. Women who are concerned about these symptoms should speak with their gynaecologists.

There is currently no blood test that can validate a doctor’s diagnosis of endometriosis, according to recommendations published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal earlier this month.

Endometriosis is generally diagnosed by laparoscopic surgery. But like all operations, this one is a little intrusive and comes with certain dangers.

As a result, these new diagnostic guidelines advise doctors to detect endometriosis by combining patient history with imaging. Diagnostic techniques covered by the recommendations include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal ultrasound.

Hormone therapy, such as birth control tablets can have efficacy rates of 60-80%, people with endometriosis can manage their symptoms. Nonetheless, surgery may be required to eliminate lesions in those who are attempting to get pregnant.


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Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

In the present pandemic, many people are looking for hand wipes that destroy viruses as an alternative to gel. These wipes are suited for a number of applications and surfaces. Disinfectant wipes are the most convenient way to clean effectively. But did you know that antibacterial wipes can be useless if used improperly. This includes wrong contact time or the inappropriate cleaning technique.

In this post, we’ll examine some of the frequent errors people make when purchasing, keeping, and utilising wipes, as well as how you may stay clear of them. We’ll go over some important advice on the most common wipe kinds so you can choose wisely. Also, storage and usage strategies to get the most out of your cleaning routine.

The wrong product

In actuality, a lot of the problems begin even before you open the package because you choose the incorrect product. I don’t intend to imply that you accidentally brought a bottle of bleach home from the store instead of a pack of wipes. It’s more probable that you fell for a common ruse employed by many domestic companies to convince you that these wipes are all you need to complete the task at hand.

The likelihood is that the pack claims to eliminate 99.9% of germs. They actually only leave out the fact that they haven’t been scientifically confirmed to be antiviral. Also, the contact time is only 10 minutes; we’ll talk more about contact time when we discuss cleaning methods.

You might also wonder if all wipes are antibacterial given the vast array of wipe brands available. No, they are not; it is crucial to ensure that wipes making antibacterial claims have adequate testing to support those claims. The European Standard EN1276, which certifies a product as antibacterial, serves as a minimum standard.

Incorrect storage

You may rest easy knowing that you have the appropriate tools for the job and that they are prepared for deployment at a moment’s notice. You can store the wipes in a cabinet with the lid tightly covered until you need them. It’s crucial to keep the lid closed when the wipes aren’t being used in order to prevent drying out.

For them to be effective, there must be plenty of moisture available for them to disperse over the area you are cleaning; otherwise, they are useless. A great storage suggestion is to store the pack on its side so that all of the wipes will still retain an equal quantity of moisture if moisture does collect in the pack.

Many applications with same wipe

It’s standard practise to use the same wipes to clean several different surfaces; this is acceptable as long as a new wipe is used for each different surface. If not, there is a considerable risk of cross-contamination since germs spread more widely when they are transferred from the wipe to the new surface. Use a fresh, moist wipe to clean each new surface, and dispose of dirty wipes properly in the trash can.

Improper cleaning methods

Using improper cleaning methods is arguably the most frequent error people make. They use wipes that are overly dry, which spreads germs rather than eliminating them; they use the same wipe on several surfaces; and they don’t let the area naturally air dry, which gives cleaning chemicals less time to work.

Leaving them in a hot place

It could be tempting to keep a container of hand wipes or cleaning wipes in your car’s glove box or a cup holder on a hot, sunny day. They will dry out in the heat, so that is a bad idea. Store wipes at room temperature, which is roughly 70°F.

Not reading the label

Labels, as we all know, are tedious. But, the best way to utilise your antibacterial wipes is to read the label. According to Karen Daw, a dental and medical OSHA and Infection Control coach and speaker, the label contains information regarding “how long the product must remain wet on a surface to inactivate all the germs.” This is something you’ve probably never even considered. According to her, the label will usually state that the area should stay wet for at least three to four minutes in order to eradicate any bacteria present.

Additionally, the wipes’ labels may really indicate which kinds of bacteria they are efficient against. Don’t just assume that any wipe will kill anything. After all, since they are antibacterial wipes, they are prepared to kill bacteria rather than necessarily viruses.

Flushing it down the toilet

This error has been particularly common in 2020 as a result of individuals utilising wipes instead of toilet paper due to a lack of supplies. Wipes can undoubtedly be used, but dispose of them instead of flushing them down the toilet. Indeed, even if the wipes are marked “flushable” on the packaging, discard them.

Despite what we just said, you can and should ignore this portion of the label even though we just stressed the need of reading the label. The wipes can get caught in the pipes and could cause blockages or worse, overflows because they are thicker than toilet paper and don’t degrade as easily.

Using it on visibly dirty surfaces

Since its sole aim is cleaning, this may initially seem weird. Nevertheless, if you use it on a surface that is already unclean, you can merely end up moving the dirt. Surface cleaning should be carried out in a different manner than wiping down surfaces to disinfect them. Cleansing becomes more challenging when a surface is unclean, says Daw. So, it might be necessary to scrub the surface thoroughly with one wipe (or just soap and water), then grab a second wipe to disinfect.

Using it after its expiration date

Antibacterial wipes may not seem like they would have an expiration date, but Ghildayal points out that occasionally they do not. You might not be able to see an expiration date on your wipes, but in general, you shouldn’t use them more than two years after purchase, at the most, he said

How would you determine when to cease using something if it had no expiration date? Ghildayal advises that if they smell weaker than usual when you reopen them for use, they are perhaps too old to be put to use. That won’t be an issue right away, of course, as the majority of people don’t leave their wipes lying around unused, but it’s still good to know that it’s one of the unexpected things that exists.

Using it as your only cleaner

Even though it might seem clear, this merits discussion. Wipes with antibacterial properties are useful for immediately disinfecting a surface. It won’t perform a “deep clean” or clean particular surfaces that call for a particular cleaning agent. Jon Gibbons of Smart Vacuums clarifies, “They are not good enough to be the only cleaner for your kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Antibacterial wipes are excellent for a quick clean-up, but they won’t make the kitchen or bathroom truly spotless.


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Important ways to consider to avoid afternoon slumps.

Important ways to consider to avoid afternoon slumps.

The majority of us have experienced highly productive mornings where we finished assignments. Also, worked to clear our inboxes and resisted the impulse to tweet at our coworkers. As 2:00 rolls around, you might as well close the blinds, put on your jammies, and go to bed.

Whenever the afternoon comes around, it’s quite normal to feel extremely exhausted. The noon slump can be caused by circadian rhythms, which have an impact on your sleep patterns.

You may wish to take an afternoon nap because your “sleep signals” actually peak at night and in the afternoon (at around 2 p.m.).

Your energy may also be impacted by other elements, such as what you eat, and how well you’re hydrated. Also, how much time do you spend staring at a screen.

Consider it time to relax on your office chair. Here are some strategies for combating weariness as soon as it manifests.

What is the Afternoon Slump?

As your energy levels drop in the late afternoon, it’s known as the afternoon slump. You may find it difficult to focus at work, lose interest in working exercise, and feel overall lethargic. Also, slow, and unable to think of anything other than snatching up another cup of coffee or fitting in a quick sleep.

Not simply in the mid-afternoon slump do you feel exhausted. Your morals and self-control are compromised, as well as your ability to drive safely.

What Causes the Afternoon Slump?

Contrary to popular perception, a big lunch is not what causes the afternoon slump (but it can be exacerbated by one). Your circadian cycle is to blame.

The internal biological clock in your body is called the circadian rhythm. This clock regulates things like your sleep-wake cycle when your body generates specific hormones. Also, when your body temperature changes on an approximately 24-hour cycle.

Your daily timing can vary, but your generally steady flow of energy takes the form of:

  • You experience grogginess or sleep inertia when you awaken.
  • You experience your initial energy surge in the morning.
  • You have an afternoon blah.
  • In the late afternoon or early evening, you experience a second-wind energy surge.
  • Your activity level decreases till sleep

So, the majority of the time, your body’s biological makeup is to blame for your energy slump in the afternoon. There might, however, be more factors at work.

You might experience afternoon fatigue more than usual if:

  • You haven’t had enough rest.
  • Your circadian cycle is out of whack.
  • You suffer from a sleeping issue such as sleep apnea.
  • You have a medical issue like ADHD that makes it difficult for you to sleep and stay awake.

How to Beat the Afternoon Slump?

Lower Your Sleep Debt

The amount of sleep you owe your body in total is called your sleep debt. It is compared to your sleep demand, which is the amount of sleep per night that is controlled by your genes.

According to one study, the recommended amount of sleep per night is 8 hours 40 minutes, plus or minus 10 minutes. Although 13.5% of people may require 9 hours or more.

To find out your exact number, turn to the RISE app. Your exact amount of sleep is determined by RISE using historical phone use data and proprietary sleep science-based models. The amount of sleep debt you are carrying can then be calculated by the app. To feel and perform at your best, we measure this over the previous 14 nights and advise that you keep it under five hours.

Even while you can always have a fall in energy in the afternoon, you’ll notice it more after a sleepless night or when your sleep debt is high. Reduce your sleep debt to lessen how tired you feel overall and in the afternoon slump.

Sync Up with Your Circadian Rhythm

Your circadian rhythm is what makes you feel so weary in the afternoons, but if you’re not synchronizing your lifestyle with it, you may feel even less energised at this time and throughout the rest of the day. Circadian rhythm may be out of whack if:

  • You work the night shift.
  • You’re living contrary to your chronotype. For example, if you force yourself to get up early while being a night owl. Here, we discuss how to maximize the potential of your chronotype.
  • When your physiological clock and social clock don’t sync. This can happen due to an erratic sleep routine, you get social jet lag. For instance, 87% of us, on average, go to bed two hours later on the weekends than we do during the week.

Schedule Your Day

You can lessen how severely the afternoon slump affects you each day by reducing your sleep debt and synchronizing with your circadian clock. The energy slump is still a normal aspect of your biology, therefore you’ll probably always experience it to some degree.

Working with the slump rather than against it will help you if you can’t overcome it. Employ rise to determine when your daily afternoon slump will occur, and then plan your day accordingly.

For instance, if at all possible, plan simpler work for your afternoon slump, such as administrative duties, emails, and catch-up meetings with low stakes. Reserve laborious chores, like writing, programming, or making presentations, for when your energy is at its highest.

Take a Break

Sometimes, during your afternoon energy slump, you can’t even do simple administrative activities. It’s better to take a break at this point and take a step back.

Take a stroll, finish some pointless housework, or engage in a soothing hobby like reading or listening to music. After you feel more energised and capable of being productive, return to work.

Use your weekend afternoon slump for some peace and quiet. Read a book, watch TV, or snooze with the kids (more on the power of naps below).

According to research, judges tend to make less favourable decisions on cases as the day goes on, but taking a break allows them to refocus. It is preferable to take brief but frequent breaks throughout the day, and to avoid waiting until the end of your schedule. Even taking pauses has been found to keep you focused on your objectives.

Work on a Task

Although if it doesn’t seem like it while you’re exhausted, the afternoon slump may be the ideal time to concentrate on a project that calls for insight, creativity, and problem-solving abilities.

According to research, you might be more adept at these tasks when your circadian cycle is not at its best. Hence, even though the afternoon is typically best suited for simple chores, try working on a challenging job on your to-do list during your afternoon slump to see if your brain can come up with new answers then.

Go to sleep

If you’re sleep deprived, taking a nap will help you reduce your sleep debt and increase your vitality. Even if you’ve been getting enough sleep lately, a midday nap can still assist to increase your energy, mood, and performance.

The best time to take a nap is also during your afternoon slump because sleeping now shouldn’t make it more difficult to fall asleep later.

It has been demonstrated that taking a 10-minute sleep in the afternoon increases vigour, vitality, and cognitive performance. Some of these advantages remain for more than 2.5 hours, so you should be able to finish the rest of the workday.

Get Some Exercise

The last thing on your mind in the afternoon when you’re feeling drowsy is exercising. Nonetheless, exercising might aid in removing exhaustion so that you can return to work feeling rejuvenated.

Even while you might not be setting any personal records at the gym, if you want to save your energy peaks for work and family time, your afternoon energy slump may be the perfect time to work out.

Also, a 2020 study indicated that exercising between 3 and 6 p.m. had greater metabolic benefits than exercising between 8 and 10 a.m. for people who were either at risk for or had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Drink Caffeine in the Morning but avoid in afternoon

The seductive call of a cup of coffee might be difficult to resist when the afternoon slump sets in. Yet, caffeine can stay in your system for up to 12 hours, so an innocent cup of coffee at 3 p.m. might keep you up at night. Your sleep debt will increase as a result, which will worsen your afternoon slump the following day.

Yet there’s another way that coffee can help you get through the mid-afternoon lull.

The half-life of caffeine is between three and seven hours. Thus, it takes three to seven hours for the quantity of caffeine in your system to decrease by half, and another three to seven hours for it to decrease by half once again, and so on.

Socialize with Friends or Colleagues 

Your energy can increase by socialising. Hence, if you’re experiencing a mid-afternoon energy slump, stop by a colleague’s desk for some energising small talk (if they’re also experiencing a dip in energy) or work on a project together. During this time, you can also take a break and talk to a friend or family member.

As you interact with others, dopamine and oxytocin are released, which improves your mood, lowers your cortisol levels, and lessens stress.

Need one more justification to invest in relationships? Your sleep may improve, giving you more energy throughout the day and throughout the afternoon slump.

Get Some Natural Light

Your energy can increase by socialising. Hence, if you’re experiencing a mid-afternoon energy slump, stop by a colleague’s desk for some energising small talk (if they’re also experiencing a dip in energy) or work on a project together. During this time, you can also take a break and talk to a friend or family member.

As you interact with others, dopamine and oxytocin are released, which improves your mood, lowers your cortisol levels, and lessens stress.

Need one more justification to invest in relationships? It might help you get better sleep, which will give you more energy throughout the day, including during the afternoon slump.

Eat a Healthy Lunch 

We know we mentioned your lunch isn’t the cause of the afternoon slump, but if you eat the wrong items, it can make matters worse. Your afternoon energy slump may be considerably worse than usual if you eat a meal high in carbohydrates or sugary snacks.

According to research, a big lunch results in higher drowsiness and subpar performance on simulated driving exams. Make a point of choosing lunches that are high in vegetables, whole grains, complex carbohydrates, and healthy fats.

Go for things like bananas, chickpeas, kimchi, and tempeh. A 2022 study revealed that a diet strong in prebiotic and fermented foods reduced felt stress and increased subjective sleep quality.


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Can consuming red meat really cause you cancer?

Can consuming red meat really cause you cancer?

Years have been spent by nutritionists and health professionals arguing the advantages and disadvantages of consuming red meat in an effort to discover whether it is beneficial or harmful to health. Results have been inconsistent so far.

Red meat, according to researchers, supplies vital elements like protein, vitamin B-12, and iron. Yet, research indicates that consuming large amounts of red meat may increase one’s risk of developing some malignancies, heart disease, and other illnesses.

The amount of red meat that may be healthy is examined in this article along with what the science and official dietary recommendations have to say.

The effects of red meat on health are the main topic of this essay. The ethical and environmental concerns surrounding the consumption of red meat are not addressed.

Is red meat nutritious?

Iron, vitamin B-12, and zinc are among the healthy components found in red meat.

The primary nutritional sources of vitamin B-12 are animal-based foods like meat and dairy. Because of this, individuals who consume a vegetarian or vegan diet may need to supplement their B-12 to avoid developing B-12 deficiency anaemia.

The United States Department of Agriculture reports that one 3.5-ounce (oz) or 100-gram (g) serving of raw ground beef provides the following nutrients:

  • calories in 247
  • Fat weight 19.07 g
  • Protein content: 17.44 g
  • Iron 1.97 milligrammes (mg)
  • Potassium 274 mg
  • zinc 4.23 mg
  • B-12 vitamin dosage of 2.15 micrograms

A piece of meat’s nutritional value might vary depending on a variety of circumstances. The amount of calories and fat, for instance, differs between cuts from various animal parts. The food of the animal, how the farmer grew the animal, and even the animal’s age and sex can have an impact on the nutritional value of the meat.

Several varieties of red meat are recommended as good sources of heme iron by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The only foods that contain heme iron are meat, poultry, and shellfish. Plants and meals enriched with iron, such as cereals and plant milk, contain nonheme iron.

Heme iron is more bioavailable, which implies that the body can utilise it more readily, according to the NIH. Despite the fact that many people consume adequate amounts of iron, the NIH notes that some people are at risk of iron deficiency, including:

  • infants
  • little children
  • those with frequent menstruation
  • expecting mothers

Difference between unprocessed and processed red meat

It’s crucial to comprehend the many varieties of red meat before delving into the studies on the connection between red meat and cancer.


Red meats that haven’t been altered or manipulated are known as unprocessed red meats. Examples comprise:

  • steak
  • Lamb chops
  • lamb ribs

Unprocessed red meat can be healthy on its own. It frequently contains high levels of protein, vitamins, minerals, and other vital components. When processed, red meat loses some of its original value.


Meat that has undergone some sort of modification—often for taste, texture, or shelf life—is referred to as processed meat. Meat that has been salted, cured, or smoked can accomplish this.

Red meats that have been processed include:

  • hotdogs
  • the salami and pepperoni
  • ham with bacon
  • dinner meats
  • sausage
  • bologna
  • jerky
  • cans of meat

Processed red meat typically has fewer healthy elements and is higher in fat and salt than unprocessed red meat. When taken in large quantities, red meat is regarded by experts as a potential cause of cancer. Processed meat and the chance of developing cancer are more closely related.

Processed meat has been identified as a carcinogen by experts. As a result, its link to cancer is now established.

What the research says

Many studies have examined the link between eating unprocessed and processed red meat and health outcomes over time.

There is some evidence that eating a lot of red meat may increase your chance of developing some malignancies, while the data are still conflicting.

IARC methodology

A division of the World Health Organization is the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is made up of professionals from throughout the world who work to categorise potential carcinogens (cancer-causing agents).

IARC members analyse scientific papers regarding a potential carcinogen for several days when there is a lot of evidence to suggest that it may cause cancer.

They take into account many aspects of the data, such as how people and animals react to a potential carcinogen and how cancer might grow following exposure to it.

The classification of the probable carcinogen according to its propensity to cause cancer in humans is one step in this procedure.

Group 1 agents are those that have been shown to cause cancer in people. On the other hand, group 4 agents consist of substances that most likely do not cause cancer.

Remember that this classification does not indicate the risk a carcinogen poses. It simply shows the amount of data that supports the association between particular carcinogens and cancer.

IARC conclusions

22 specialists from ten different countries gathered in 2015 to assess the body of knowledge regarding the connection between red meat and cancer.

Almost 800 studies over the previous 20 years were reviewed. Just processed or unprocessed red meat was the focus of certain investigations. Others observed them both.

To reduce cancer risk, avoid processed meat

Avoid eating processed meats if you want to lower your risk of colorectal cancer and perhaps other cancers as well.

Processed meat is a Category 1 carcinogen, according to the IARC. In other words, there is sufficient study to demonstrate its link to human cancer. Here are some additional Group 1 carcinogens for context:

  • tobacco
  • ultraviolet rays
  • alcohol

Once more, the basis for this classification is the evidence that links a certain agent to cancer. Although there is compelling evidence that all Group 1 agents cause cancer in humans, not all of them necessarily carry the same degree of risk.

For instance, when it comes to the danger of developing cancer, eating a hot dog isn’t necessarily equivalent to smoking a cigarette.

Be mindful about red meat consumption

For many people, unprocessed red meat is a crucial component of a healthy diet. It provides ample amounts of:

  • protein
  • vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12
  • minerals, such as selenium, iron, and zinc

Yet, the IARC analysis came to the conclusion that frequently consuming red meat probably raises the risk of developing several malignancies.

Therefore, there’s no need to exclude all red meet from your diet. Simply be mindful of how you prepare it and how much you consume.

Cooking techniques

In their analysis, IARC specialists also mentioned that the manner red meat is prepared can affect your chance of developing cancer.

High-temperature meat grilling, burning, smoking, or cooking appears to enhance risk. But, the IARC specialists stated that there wasn’t enough data to issue any official advice.

Serving suggestion

There is no requirement to completely give up unprocessed red meat, according to the authors of the IARC analysis. So it’s recommended to stick to three servings per week.

The bottom line

Red meat has come under fire for its alleged associations with a number of diseases, including cancer. According to experts, routinely consuming red meat may up your risk of developing colorectal cancer.

A consensus among experts also exists that consuming a lot of processed meat does raise your chance of developing cancer. Therefore, you don’t have to completely eliminate red meat from your diet. Just make an effort to stick to eating only a few servings of high-quality, unprocessed red meat per week.


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