General causes, symptoms, & remedies to treat hemorrhoids.

General causes, symptoms, & remedies to treat hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoids develop when the veins around your anus swell, frequently as a result of constipation or straining during bowel movements. Hemorrhoids of a particular variety can be quite painful.

What is Hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids, often known as piles, are enlarged veins in the lower rectum and anus that resemble varicose veins. Internal haemorrhoids, which appear under the skin around the anus, are haemorrhoids that form inside the rectum (external hemorrhoids).

Nearly three out of every four adults will get haemorrhoids occasionally. There are numerous causes of haemorrhoids, however frequently the cause is not known. Fortunately, there are treatments for haemorrhoids that work. Home remedies and alterations in lifestyle help a lot of people.

Types of hemorrhoids

Your rectum may develop haemorrhoids inside or outside of it. Where the vein becomes enlarged determines the kind. Types consist of:

  • Externally, the skin around your anus develops swollen veins. The canal in your anus is where your faeces exit. The irritation and pain of external haemorrhoids might vary. They bleed once in awhile. They sometimes become filled with blood that could clot. Although this is not harmful, it may cause pain and swelling.
  • Internal: Your rectum develops swollen veins. The portion of your digestive system known as your rectum joins your colon (large intestine) to your anus. Although internal haemorrhoids might bleed, they often don’t hurt.
  • Hemorrhoids can prolapse either internally or externally, which means they can stretch and enlarge outside of your anus. They could bleed or result in pain.

What causes hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids are a result of straining, which puts pressure on the veins in your rectum or anus. They may come to mind as varicose veins on your bottom.

Anal and rectal veins might swell and inflame as a result of any strain that puts more pressure on your tummy or lower extremities. The following factors might cause haemorrhoids to form:

  • during a bowel movement, straining
  • long periods of sitting, particularly on the toilet
  • having persistent diarrhoea or constipation
  • having haemorrhoids in your family
  • carrying out regular heavy lifting or other physically demanding activities
  • being overweight
  • sexual activity that takes place anally, which might aggravate haemorrhoids
  • having a baby (an enlarged uterus presses on the vein in the colon, causing it to bulge)
  • being 50 years or older

Symptoms of hemorrhoids

The sort of haemorrhoids you have will determine your symptoms.

As a result of internal haemorrhoids,

  • the presence of blood on tissue following a bowel movement
  • skin that protrudes from the anus when a person urinates

Symptoms of an external haemorrhage include:

  • intense itchiness in the anus
  • unpleasant lump(s) or swelling(s) close to your anus
  • Anus aches or pains, especially when sitting

Often, haemorrhoids don’t hurt. However, external haemorrhoids can occasionally cause a blood clot to grow on the skin. A thrombosed haemorrhoid is what this condition is. Hemorrhoids inside the body can also prolapse. Therefore, they won’t close themselves off inside the anus. Hemorrhoids that have prolapsed or that have thrombosed can be quite painful.

Hemorrhoids are not life threatening and frequently go away on their own without treatment, despite the fact that they can be very unpleasant.

Whenever you experience bleeding or black stools, see your doctor. Bleeding must be examined because it can have causes other than haemorrhoids. If after a week of home treatment, haemorrhoids don’t improve, consult a doctor as well.

How are hemorrhoids diagnosed?

The diagnosis of haemorrhoids may be made simply by looking at your anus. Your doctor might perform a separate examination to look for any anomalies inside the anus in order to confirm the diagnosis.

Known as a digital rectal exam, this test is performed. Your doctor will probe your rectum with a finger that is gloved and lubricated during this examination. Your doctor may prescribe an extra test such an anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy depending on your risk factors for digestive disorders.

Each of these examinations entails your doctor using a tiny camera to look for any irregularities in your colon, rectum, or anus. The interior of your anus is inspected by an anoscopy, the final two feet (50 centimetres) of your colon are investigated by a sigmoidoscopy, and the entire colon is investigated by a colonoscopy.

In these exams, a tiny fiber-optic camera is introduced into a tiny tube that is placed in your rectum. Your doctor may inspect the haemorrhoid up close with the help of this test since it provides a clear picture of the interior of your rectum.

Treatment options for hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids can be treated at a doctor’s office or at home.

Pain reduction

Spend at least 10 minutes each day in a warm tub of water to reduce pain. To ease the discomfort of external haemorrhoids, you can also sit on a warm water bottle.

Use an over-the-counter (OTC) medication suppository, ointment, or cream to ease the burning and itching if the pain is intolerable. Hemorrhoid suppositories are available both online and offline.

Fiber-rich foods and supplements

You can also use an over-the-counter fibre supplement if you have constipation to assist soften your stools. The supplements psyllium and methylcellulose are two examples of this kind.

A home remedy

Your discomfort from haemorrhoids can be reduced by over-the-counter topical medications like hydrocortisone or haemorrhoid cream. Witch hazel pads can also provide relief from haemorrhoids.

  • Both hydrocortisone and haemorrhoid cream are available online.
  • It may also be beneficial to soak your anus for 10 to 15 minutes each day in a sitz bath.
  • Every day, take a shower or bath and wash your anus with warm water to maintain proper cleanliness. However, avoid using soap because it can make haemorrhoids worse. Additionally, when wiping after a bowel movement, avoid using toilet paper that is dry or scratchy.
  • Your anus can benefit from applying a cold compress to lessen haemorrhoid swelling. Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin are examples of painkillers that can help with discomfort or pain.

Medical procedures

Your doctor might advise obtaining a rubber band ligation if self-care measures are unsuccessful in treating your haemorrhoids. During this operation, the doctor ties a rubber band around the haemorrhoid to stop blood flow to it.

As a result, the haemorrhoid loses circulation and must contract. A medical practitioner should be the only one to carry out this surgery. Don’t attempt this alone.

Injection treatment, also known as sclerotherapy, may be used by your doctor if rubber band ligation is not a possibility for you. Your doctor directly injects a drug into the blood vessel during this treatment. The haemorrhoid becomes smaller as a result.

Prevention of hemorrhoids

Steer clear of straining when having a bowel movement to stop or stop haemorrhoids from getting worse. Try to consume more water as well. Getting adequate water can prevent the hardness of your faeces.

To stop haemorrhoids from forming, use the bathroom as soon as you begin to feel a bowel movement coming on. Avoid sitting for extended periods of time, especially on hard surfaces like concrete or tile, to prevent constipation. Exercise frequently.

The likelihood of having haemorrhoids later on can be reduced by eating meals high in dietary fibre. Good sources of dietary fibre include:

  • whole grain
  • brow risotto
  • oatmeal
  • pears
  • carrots
  • buckwheat
  • bran

Dietary fibre aids in the development of intestinal bulk, which softens the stool and makes it simpler to pass.



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How common is chikungunya virus and its symptoms?

How common is chikungunya virus and its symptoms?

Humans become infected with the chikungunya virus through mosquito bites. Fever and joint ache are two symptoms. Although it is rarely fatal, the symptoms can be very bad, very persistent, and very crippling.

More than a fifth of the world’s countries now have cases of what was formerly thought to be a tropical disease. This page will describe the chikungunya virus, including its causes, symptoms, treatments, diagnosis, and prevention measures.

The bite of a female mosquito carrying the chikungunya virus is the main method of transmission. It is generally not thought to be communicable, but in a few rare instances, the virus can be spread by coming into contact with someone who has the infection through their blood.

How is it spread and found?

Chikungunya, which was formerly restricted to Africa and Asia, has rapidly spread since 2004. Today, more than one-third of the world’s population resides in areas at risk for infection. The Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Caribbean islands, as well as those in the Indian and Pacific oceans, are among these locations.

When a mosquito bites a person, the mosquito bites carry the chikungunya virus. Chikungunya cannot be contracted from another person. However, when a mosquito bites a person who is infected, the virus is spread. To prevent the virus from infecting others, refrain from acquiring further mosquito bites if you have the infection. Avoid travelling as well.

Symptoms of chickungunya

A fever is usually the initial symptom of chikungunya, followed by a rash. Typically, 4 to 8 days after a mosquito bite, an infected person becomes unwell (but the range can be 2 to 12 days).

These signs include:

  • abrupt onset of a fever (typically above 102 degrees F)
  • Joint aches
  • Headache
  • Myalgia
  • Arthritis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • rash with maculopapules (characterized by a flat red area on the skin covered with elevated bumps)

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3 to 28% of chikungunya infections are asymptomatic even though the majority of those who contract the virus exhibit symptoms.

Causes and Risk Factors of Chikungunya

A virus called chikungunya is spread to people by infected mosquitoes. The virus that causes chikungunya (CHIKV) is to blame.

The virus cannot be passed on directly from one sick individual to another. When a mosquito feeds on a person who has the virus circulating in their blood, the sickness is transmitted. Through its bite, the mosquito can acquire the virus and pass it on to another person.

No infants have been discovered to have acquired the chikungunya virus through breastfeeding, according to the CDC. Mosquitoes carrying the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species are the primary vectors of the chikungunya virus. The mosquitoes that spread the dengue virus are the same ones.

Urban mosquito A. aegypti has been predominantly linked to CHIKV epidemics in Africa and Asia. However, A. albopictus has been introduced as a second important CHIKV spreader since an incident on Réunion in 2005.

A. albopictus has a larger geographic range and can endure in moderate areas. Contrary to A. aegypti, which primarily inhabits tropical and subtropical regions, A key risk factor for chikungunya is the presence of mosquito breeding grounds close to places where people live.

Complications of chikungunya

Possible complications include:

  • Uveitis is an inflammation of the part of the eye’s ocular structure that is between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer, which is made up of the sclera and cornea.
  • Retinal inflammation is known as retinal retinitis.
  • Heart muscle inflammation is known as myocarditis.
  • Hepatitis is liver inflammation.
  • Kidney inflammation is known as nephritis.
  • Hemorrhage means to bleed.
  • Meningoencephalitis is an inflammation of the brain and surrounding cerebral tissue membranes.
  • Spinal cord inflammation is known as myelitis.
  • Muscle weakness is a hallmark of the rare peripheral nervous system disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome.
  • Loss of function in the cranial nerves is known as cranial nerve palsies.

Diagnosis of chikungunya

Since symptoms of chikungunya are frequently difficult to distinguish from those of other illnesses, only a blood test can provide a conclusive diagnosis.

Dengue fever has a greater fatality rate than chikungunya, which is 0.1 percent, and must be ruled out as soon as possible because to its higher mortality rate of up to 50% if left untreated.

A person with the aforementioned symptoms should see a doctor as soon as feasible if they have recently been to a region where either of these diseases is prevalent.

Treatment of chikungunya

Although the virus is rarely lethal, its symptoms can be very bad and incapacitating. The majority of people get over their fever in a week, but joint pain might last for months. 20% of patients still experience persistent joint discomfort one year afterwards.

Chikungunya is not specifically treatable with medication; instead, doctors advise rest and drinking lots of fluids.

Fever and joint pain can be reduced with over-the-counter drugs. These consist of:

  • naproxen
  • ibuprofen
  • acetaminophen
  • Physiotherapy may be beneficial for aches that remain longer.

Vaccination for chikungunya

Although there is currently no vaccination or antiviral medication available, the illness is often transient and seldom lethal. The goal of medication is to treat the symptoms rather than the underlying problem. Currently, a phase 2 clinical trial of a chikungunya vaccine is being funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). As opposed to inactivated or weakened viruses, the vaccine uses so-called virus-like particles (VLPs).

The immunological responses induced by VLP-based vaccinations can resemble those produced by naturally acquired immunity after viral infection. VLPs can’t reproduce themselves and are not contagious. VLP vaccines do not require the use of entire viruses, hence high-level biocontainment facilities are not required for their preparation.

Prevention of Chikungunya

Since mosquito bites are the primary way of chikungunya transmission, avoiding mosquito contact is one of the greatest preventative measures. The following actions can be followed to stave off chikungunya:

  • using DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) or picaridin-containing insect repellent to skin and clothing.
  • covering one’s entire body with garments.
  • attempting to spend as much time indoors as you can, particularly in the morning and evening.
  • avoiding trips to places where epidemics are happening.
  • It may be useful to use products that contain PMD (p-Menthane-3,8-diol) or oil of lemon eucalyptus.
  • using air conditioning to keep rooms cool prevents mosquitoes from entering.
  • sleeping with a mosquito net over you.
  • utilising pesticide vaporizers and mosquito coils.

Although chikungunya seldom results in death, the symptoms can be debilitating and last for a long time. The secret is avoiding mosquitoes.



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Latest note on hairloss types and its remedy.

Latest note on hairloss types and its remedy.

Biologists have recently unravelled many of the mysteries surrounding hair growth and loss in disorders like pattern baldness and alopecia areata. In this Special Feature, we examine the most recent advancements and therapies while also debating the viability of hair loss prevention.

Alopecia, or hair loss, is a fairly common condition. Although it’s more common in older people, anyone can get it, even kids.

The American Academy of Dermatology estimates that between 50 and 100 hairs fall out on average per day (AAD). Your head has roughly 100,000 hairs, so that slight loss is not visible. In most cases, new hair grows in to replace the lost hair, although this isn’t always the case.

Hair loss can occur suddenly or gradually over many years. It could be either transient or permanent, depending on the underlying cause.

Hair loss symptoms

Although excessive hair loss is the primary sign of alopecia, it might be trickier to spot than you might expect.

The symptoms listed below can give some indications:

  • Expanding portion. If you separate your hair, you can begin to notice that your part is expanding, which may indicate hair thinning.
  • Hairline is receding. Likely an indication of thinning hair is if you find your hairline is higher than usual.
  • Untied hair. After using a brush or comb, inspect it. Are there more hair clumps than usual? If so, hair loss might be indicated by this.
  • Bald spots. These might come in different sizes and develop over time.
  • Drain blockages. Your shower or sink drains can be obstructed with fallen hair.
  • Itching or pain. You might also feel pain or itching on your scalp if you have a skin issue that is the root of your hair loss.

Types and causes of hair loss

There are various types of hair loss, some of which are more frequent than others and have unique underlying reasons.

Depending on the type of hair loss, heredity, internal causes, or external sources may be to blame. Here are a few examples of hair loss in different contexts:

Androgenic alopecia

Androgenic alopecia, often known as “pattern alopecia,” is inherited hair loss such as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness. It can affect both sexes. Up to 50% of people have hair loss due to it, making it the most prevalent reason.

Androgenic alopecia-related hair loss typically occurs gradually. While some people may start losing their hair before adolescence, others may not start noticing symptoms until their middle ages.

Female pattern baldness frequently manifests as scalp thinning all throughout and may seem as widening or thinning around the part. Although it usually starts after the age of 65, it can start earlier in life for some ladies.

Male pattern baldness often causes a “M” shape to the head due to gradual hair loss above the temples and thinning towards the crown.

Alopecia areata

Due to the autoimmune disease alopecia areata, your immune system attacks your hair follicles, causing little to big bald patches to appear. It might result in total hair loss in some circumstances.

Some persons with alopecia areata also have hair loss from their brows, eyelashes, or other body regions in addition to scalp hair loss.

Anagen effluvium

In anagen effluvium, hair is lost quickly. Typically, radiation or chemotherapy treatments are to blame for this.

Following the end of the treatment, hair normally grows back.

Telogen effluvium

An emotional or physical shock, such as a traumatic event, a prolonged period of high stress, or a serious disease, can cause a type of sudden hair loss known as telogen effluvium.

It may also occur as a result of hormonal changes, such as those that take place in:

The following are additional telogen effluvium causes:

  • malnutrition, which may include vitamin or mineral deficiencies
  • some endocrine conditions
  • switching between hormonal birth control methods
  • due to the anaesthetic after surgery
  • serious infections like COVID-19 or acute illnesses

It may also result from a number of drugs, including:

  • anticoagulants
  • anticonvulsants
  • retinoids taken orally
  • beta-blockers
  • thyroid-related drugs

Once the underlying reason has been treated, this kind of hair loss frequently returns on its own.

Capitis tinea

Tinea capitis, often known as scalp ringworm, is a fungal infection that can harm the hair shaft and scalp. It results in tiny, scaly, irritating bald spots. If left untreated, the patch or patches will enlarge and fill with pus over time.

Additionally, scarring from trusted sources might result from these patches, also known as kerion.

Additional signs include:

With antifungal medicine, it is curable.

Pull-out alopecia

Too much strain and tension on the hair, frequently from wearing it in tight fashions like braids, ponytails, or buns, causes traction alopecia.

How is hair loss diagnosed?

It’s recommended to make an appointment with a medical practitioner if you detect any changes in your hair because so many reasons can result in hair loss. To help identify the causes, they’ll probably utilise a combination of your health history, including any recent illnesses, surgeries, life stressors, and family history, as well as a physical exam.

They could take a biopsy of the skin on your scalp if they suspect an autoimmune or skin disorder. For laboratory testing, numerous little skin samples must be carefully removed.

It’s crucial to bear in mind that hair development is a complicated process, and you might need a number of tests to figure out the root of your hair loss. If it is initially difficult to determine what the potential underlying causes might be, a biopsy might also be performed.

Additionally, they could request blood testing to look for any nutrient shortages or indications of an underlying illness.

How To Stop & Control Hair Fall?


If you have been experimenting with hair-regrowth drugs, you must be familiar with minoxidil. This over-the-counter medication is thought to promote hair growth. Don’t use high doses because they can cause acne and scalp irritation.

Another drug that aids in the contraction of hair follicles to stop hair breakage when pulled is phenylephrine.

Another drug that promotes hair growth and is accessible only with a prescription is finasteride.

Occupational Therapy Options

Transplanting hair

Hair follicles from a donor spot on your body are surgically removed and then transplanted to balding areas as part of the hair transplant procedure. This treatment, which is minimally invasive, is frequently used to treat male pattern baldness.

Scalp Shortening

As the name suggests, a scalp reduction surgery is surgically removing balding patches from the scalp. It is used to both men and women and resembles scalp lifting.

Laser Treatment

Low-level lasers can help those who are undergoing chemotherapy or have genetic hair loss. Red light therapy activates epidermal stem cells, which is how it works.

Plasminogen-rich plasma

Your blood is centrifuged to separate the platelets from the rest of the blood. Your scalp is subsequently stimulated with this platelet-rich plasma to promote hair growth.

Substitute medical care

Despite the lack of scientific proof, people have been adopting natural remedies to help prevent hair loss for centuries. Common all-natural remedies for hair growth include onion juice, hibiscus leaves, coconut oil, green tea, and aloe vera massages.


Eat a diet high in protein. Amla can help you avoid hair loss and hair ageing, so include it in your diet. Our resident physician, Dr. Zeel, advises you to consume less salt and spice.

She asserts that “moong beans and coconut are particularly effective at halting hair loss. Early greying and hair loss are definitely caused by excessive salt consumption. Regular consumption of raw aloe leaf juice can help regulate hormones and stop hormone-related hair loss.

Hair Fall Prevention Tips

  • Change to a healthy diet.
  • Get enough rest.
  • Avoid having tight haircuts.
  • Take a tablet of multivitamins.
  • When you are outside in the smog, cover your hair with a scarf.
  • Avoid using hair styling methods as much as you can.
  • Regular oil massages will strengthen the roots, reduce stress, and soothe the mind.
  • Hot water hair washing might result in hair loss. It is always advised to wash your hair with cool water.



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How Contagious is Adenovirus and its symptoms?

How Contagious is Adenovirus and its symptoms?

Human adenoviruses are viruses that can lead to a number of conditions, including pneumonia, acute bronchitis, pink eye, the common cold, and other ailments. Mild or severe disease can be brought on by adenoviruses.

However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assert that adenovirus-related serious disease is less frequent. Human adenoviruses are viruses that typically affect the upper or lower respiratory tract or the eyes, according to a 2018 review paper.

According to the CDC, adenoviruses can cause a number of diseases, including:

  • the typical cold
  • flu-like signs
  • fever
  • an upset stomach
  • chronic bronchitis
  • pneumonia
  • Pink eye, or conjunctivitis
  • acute gastroenteritis and gastrointestinal tract inflammation

There are 49 different forms of adenovirus that can harm people. However, according to a 2020 article, the majority of adenovirus infections are asymptomatic. In other words, those who contract these viruses might not exhibit any symptoms.

There are numerous adenoviruses that can lead to major outbreaks, according to the CDC. These consist of:

  • three, four, and seven strains of adenovirus, which cause severe respiratory diseases
  • Adenovirus type 14, which also causes severe respiratory infections, is more common in US military personnel.
  • Types 8, 19, 37, 53, and 54 of the adenovirus, which can cause extremely contagious conjunctivitis
  • Adenovirus types 40 and 41, which primarily affect children and cause gastroenteritis

How the adenovirus spreads?

Adenoviruses are common viruses that cause traditional cold-like symptoms that many people get every year.

Adenovirus symptoms typically appear between 2 and 14 days after the initial exposure.

Symptoms of adenovirus infection can include cough, sore throat, bronchitis, diarrhea, pneumonia, and pinkeye. With a healthy immune system, these symptoms are usually mild and pass quickly.

“The adenovirus is typically associated with respiratory infections, as well as gastrointestinal infections,” said Dr. Helena Gutierrez, medical director of the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Children’s Pediatric Liver Transplant Program.

Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, agrees that adenovirus is quite common and is mostly responsible for outbreaks of pinkeye.

“However, there are also a number of papers that show adenovirus, once it gets into a unit that takes care of immunocompromised patients, can cause more serious outbreaks,” Schaffner said. “They frequently result in pneumonia, and in this case, a number of deaths.”

Despite this recent increase in cases of hepatitis, Schaffner doesn’t believe the general public (or those with a healthy immune system) should be overly concerned. Many cases are mild.

Adenovirus, once it enters a facility that cares for immunocompromised patients, however, can also produce more serious outbreaks, according to a number of articles, Schaffner said. They frequently cause pneumonia and, in this instance, several fatalities.

Schaffner thinks the general public (or those with a healthy immune system) shouldn’t be overly concerned despite the recent rise in hepatitis cases. Many cases are minor ones.

Symptoms of Adenovirus

Various adenovirus types can have different effects on you:

  • Cough, runny nose, fever, chills, and bronchitis
  • Colds and other respiratory infections: Swollen glands, runny and stuffy nose, cough, sore throat, and
  • Coughing up bark, having trouble breathing, and making a high-pitched noise when you breathe in
  • Ear infection: fever, irritability, and ear pain
  • Red eyes, discharge from the eyes, crying, and the sensation that something is in your eye are all symptoms of pink eye (conjunctivitis).
  • Pneumonia: fever, cough, and breathing difficulties
  • Infections of the stomach and intestines: nausea, vomiting, headaches, fever, and cramping in the stomach
  • Meningitis and encephalitis can cause swelling of the brain and spinal cord.
  • nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, fever, and headache (this is rare)
  • Urinary tract infections: frequent urination, burning and pain, and blood in the urine

Consult your child’s paediatrician if you suspect one of these viruses may be present in them. If a baby under three months old exhibits signs of an adenovirus infection, always call the doctor.

If your child exhibits any of these more severe signs, call the doctor right away:

  • difficulty breathing
  • eyes are swollen around them
  • a fever that persists for several days
  • Dehydration symptoms, such as fewer tears or fewer wet diapers

Are adenoviruses contagious?

Adenoviruses spread easily. They can quickly spread by:

  • Close contact: Hand shaking, kissing, and hugging are all ways that the virus can pass from one person to another.
  • Sneezing and coughing can spread the infection through the air. Sneezes, coughs, and other respiratory discharges can spread to other people through the air.
  • Objects and surfaces: If you don’t immediately wash your hands after touching a contaminated surface, the virus can enter your body through contact with your eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • The virus can spread through an infected person’s poop (stool). As an illustration, changing your baby’s diaper can expose you to an infection.
  • Water: Water that has not been chlorine-treated can help transmit the infection. For instance, if an adenovirus-infected individual swims in a pool without enough chlorine, they can spread the infection. Though uncommon, this kind of spread does exist.

Adenoviruses are immune to a variety of widely used disinfectants. As a result, they can spread disease for a very long time on surfaces.

Furthermore, even after you have recovered from an infection, these viruses can continue to release from your body (shed) for days or even weeks. So even if you are symptom-free, the virus can still spread.

Treatment of Adenovirus

Since antibiotics primarily treat bacterial infections, they cannot treat viral infections. Within a few days, children frequently recover on their own from illnesses. Some diseases, such as pneumonia or pink eye, can persist for a week or longer.

Children with a weakened immune system could require hospital care to aid in their recovery.

To assist your child in feeling better, you can:

  • Drink a lot of liquids. Children lose fluids due to diarrhoea, vomiting, and fever. Dehydration is a possibility. For kids to stay hydrated, water or 100% fruit juice are the best options. You might also give an electrolyte-containing children’s solution a shot.
  • Eliminate congestion Help your child to frequently blow their nose. Put a few drops of saline spray or drops into the nostril of an infant. Mucus should then be removed using a bulb syringe.
  • Turn on a humidifier with cool mist. Your child’s breathing will be made easier thanks to the moisture.
  • lower the fever. To reduce pain and a fever, ask your doctor if you can give your kid acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin).
  • Avoid giving children aspirin-containing goods because they may cause Reye syndrome, an uncommon but deadly illness.

Prevention of adenovirus

Making sure that both adults and kids frequently wash their hands is a simple preventative strategy. The best practise is to wash your hands:

  • during and after the cooking process
  • prior to eating
  • touching someone who is vomiting or having diarrhoea both before and after
  • cutting and wound care before and after
  • following a bathroom visit
  • after a diaper change or after assisting someone to the restroom
  • after sneezing, coughing, or blowing one’s nose
  • Upon contact with any animal, animal products, or animal waste (such as soiled cat litter),
  • after handling any trash

If someone has conjunctivitis, they should also refrain from sharing towels or pillows. This is done to stop individuals of the same home from contracting the adenovirus.



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Bottom line on bronchitis and its various treatment.

Bottom line on bronchitis and its various treatment.

In people with bronchitis, the airways that connect the mouth, nose, and lungs experience swelling and irritation. A cough, wheezing, and trouble breathing are bronchitis symptoms. Additionally, individuals may struggle to clean their airways of thick mucus or phlegm.

You can have acute or chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis typically goes away on its own, but chronic bronchitis persists and never fully heals. Bronchitis can be avoided by not smoking or by quitting altogether.

Symptoms and Types of Bronchitis

You can have acute or chronic bronchitis. If the condition is acute, it only occurs once before a person recovers. Even if it may occasionally get better and worse, if it is chronic, a person must always deal with it.

Both acute and chronic bronchitis have the following symptoms:

  • a chronic cough that occasionally produces mucous
  • wheezing
  • chills and a low fever
  • a sensation of chest constriction
  • an upset stomach
  • bodily pains
  • breathlessness
  • headaches
  • clogged sinuses and nose

If the bronchial tubes take a long time to heal completely, a person with bronchitis may have a cough that lasts for several weeks or even a few months. Chronic bronchitis symptoms can recur frequently. This occurs frequently for many people during the winter.

Nevertheless, bronchitis is not the only illness that results in a cough. A persistent cough could indicate asthma, pneumonia, or a number of other illnesses. For a diagnosis, anyone with a recurrent cough should visit a doctor.

Acute bronchitis

A certain amount of time is required to treat acute bronchitis. It frequently has a similar pattern to a viral infection, such the flu or a cold, and it might be caused by the same virus.

The individual could:

  • a cough, whether or not it is mucous
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • fever
  • bodily aches and a little headache
  • breathing difficulty

In most cases, symptoms disappear after a few days or weeks.

Chronic bronchitis

Although chronic bronchitis is a continuing condition, it exhibits symptoms similar to acute bronchitis. According to one definition, someone has chronic bronchitis if they cough productively every day for two or more years in a succession and for at least three months out of the year.

It is classified as a kind of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in which the bronchial tubes create a lot of mucus, according to the National Library of Medicine. Either it stays put or it leaves but keeps returning.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), someone who develops emphysema combined with chronic bronchitis will be given the diagnosis of COPD. A dangerous and maybe fatal condition, this one.

Who does bronchitis affect?

Everyone can get bronchitis, however several factors put you at greater risk:

Diagnosis of bronchitis

A stethoscope will be used by the doctor during the physical examination to listen for any strange sounds coming from the lungs.

They might also inquire of someone about:

  • their signs, particularly the cough
  • their medical background
  • any recent cold or flu symptoms
  • or not they smoke
  • exposure to air pollution, dust, fumes, or secondhand smoke

The physician could also:

  • to check for bacteria or viruses in the lab, obtain a sputum sample.
  • assess the person’s blood oxygen levels.
  • suggest a pulmonary lung function test, a chest X-ray, or blood testing

Treatment of bronchitis

A bronchitis patient may be advised by a doctor to:

  • rest
  • ingest liquids
  • ingest over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, like ibuprofen

Taking over-the-counter medication will help you get rid of a cough and any related pain. Acute bronchitis will eventually go away, frequently untreated.

For a period, the signs of chronic bronchitis may go away or get better. But if there is exposure to smoking or other triggers, they will return or get worse again.

Options that could be useful include:

  • Cough medicine: While medication can offer comfort, especially at night, coughing is still helpful in clearing mucus from the bronchial tubes.
  • Online retailers sell cough medications.
  • Honey consumption: Two spoonfuls of honey may help with cough symptoms.
  • Using a humidifier: It can help to reduce wheezing, increase airflow, and release mucus.
  • Bronchodilators: These help to remove mucus by widening the bronchial passages.
  • Mucolytics: These facilitate sputum production by thinning or loosening mucus in the airways.
  • Steroid and anti-inflammatory medications: These can aid in reducing inflammation, which can lead to tissue damage.
  • Oxygen therapy: In serious conditions, a person may require additional oxygen to help them breathe easier.

Behavioural cures

The following are additional bronchitis treatment options:

  • removing, say, a lung irritant by not smoking
  • strengthening the chest muscles through exercise will aid with breathing
  • pulmonary rehabilitation improves breathing technique

Breathing exercises like pursed-lip breathing can assist slow breathing down and improve its efficiency.


A doctor may advise antibiotics if a bacterial infection causes acute bronchitis. In some circumstances, taking antibiotics may also help avoid a secondary illness. However, a person with a virus should not use these medications.

Most medical professionals won’t recommend antibiotics until they know that bacteria are to blame for the patient’s ailment. Antibiotic resistance is one of the causes of this, as excessive antibiotic use makes it more difficult to treat an infection over the long term.

How to prevent pneumonia?

Even though you may not be able to prevent bronchitis, there are certain things you can do to reduce your risk. These consist of:

  • avoiding irritants such as smoke
  • obtaining a seasonal influenza vaccine
  • Using handwashing to stop the transmission of germs
  • obtaining lots of sleep
  • eating a balanced diet



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Explore each types of Colitis and its numerous symptoms.

Explore each types of Colitis and its numerous symptoms.

When your big intestine becomes inflamed, colitis develops. It can result in discomfort as well as other symptoms like ulcers, bloating, and diarrhoea. Different therapies are needed for various forms of colitis.

Your colon, sometimes referred to as your large intestine, is inflamed when you have colitis. You will have abdominal discomfort and agony if you have colitis. This discomfort could be modest and recurrent over time, or severe and striking out of nowhere.

On the colon’s lining, ulcers can develop in serious situations. These ulcers may bleed, resulting in the production of pus and mucous. There are many different drug options, and doctors can customise the course of treatment to match specific needs.

Types and causes of colitis

Ulcerative colitis

One of two disorders categorised as inflammatory bowel disease is ulcerative colitis (UC). The second is Crohn’s illness. The inner lining of your large intestine becomes inflamed and develops bleeding ulcers as a result of the chronic condition known as UC. Typically, it starts in the rectum and progresses to the colon.

The most typical colitis diagnosis is UC. Experts don’t know why the immune system overreacts to bacteria and other chemicals in the digestive tract, which causes it to happen.

Typical forms of UC include:

  • Proctosigmoiditis, a condition that affects the rectum and lower colon,
  • Left-sided ulcerative colitis, which starts from the rectum and affects the left side of the colon.
  • Having an effect on the entire large intestine, pancolitis

Pseudomembranous colitis

The expansion of the bacterium Clostridium difficile causes pseudomembranous colitis (PC) (C. diff). In the intestine, this type of bacteria is typically present, but because “good” bacteria exist to balance it out, it doesn’t create any issues.

Antibiotics in particular are known to kill beneficial bacteria. This enables C. diff to take control and release inflammatory toxin-producing toxins.

Ischemic colitis

When blood supply to the colon is abruptly cut off or reduced, ischemic colitis (IC) develops. A abrupt blockage may be brought on by blood clots. The most common cause of recurrent IC is atherosclerosis, or the accumulation of fatty deposits in the blood arteries supplying the colon.

This kind of colitis frequently results from underlying diseases. These may consist of:

  • An inflammatory condition of the blood vessels is called vasculitis.
  • diabetes
  • stomach cancer
  • dehydration
  • losing blood
  • heart disease
  • Blockage or hindrance
  • injury or trauma

Although it’s uncommon, taking certain medications, including fibrates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can cause IC (NSAIDs). To fully comprehend all drugs that might be a contributing component, more research is required.

Microscopic colitis

A physician can only diagnose microscopic colitis by using a microscope to examine a sample of colonic tissue. A doctor will search for inflammation-related indicators, such as white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Occasionally, doctors would divide microscopic colitis into lymphocytic and collagenous colitis. When a large number of lymphocytes are found, a doctor says the patient has lymphhocytic colitis. The tissues and lining of the colon, however, are not abnormally thickened.

Collagenous colitis is a condition in which the outermost layer of tissue of the colon’s lining thickens abnormally as a result of an accumulation of collagen. Doctors are unsure of the specific cause of microscopic colitis. They are aware that certain persons are more susceptible to the disease than others.

People who are more vulnerable are:

  • habitual smokers
  • individuals who were born as females
  • persons who have had an autoimmune disease in the past
  • those over the age of 50
  • those who take specific medications, such as some varieties of:
  • proton pump blockers (PPIs)
  • inhibitors of selective serotonin reuptake (SSRIs)
  • Aspirin and other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications)

The following are the signs and symptoms of microscopic colitis:

  • persistent diarrhoea
  • stomach bloating
  • abdominal pain

Babies with allergic colitis

Infants are susceptible to the disorder known as allergic colitis, which typically appears in the first few months following birth. Infants with the syndrome may have the following symptoms:

  • reflux
  • uncontrollable spitting up
  • fussiness
  • potential blood specks in a baby’s poop

Doctors are unsure of the specific cause of allergic colitis. One of the most widely accepted explanations is that some components in breast milk cause allergic or hypersensitive reactions in newborns with allergic colitis. A review of papers published in 2020 suggested that formula, cow’s milk, or breast milk protein allergies may be at blame.

Infants with similar symptoms may also develop an allergic colitis called eosinophilic colitis. Similar to that, its causes are unknown, but they are probably connected to a protein allergy.

Symptoms of Colitis

Typically, diarrhoea is ulcerative colitis’s initial sign. Stools becoming gradually looser, and some people may get cramping in their stomachs and have a strong urge to use the restroom.

The onset of diarrhoea may be gradual or abrupt. The degree and spread of inflammation affects the symptoms.

The following list of ulcerative colitis symptoms is common:

  • abdomen ache
  • crimson and mucus-filled diarrhoea

Some folks might also go through:

  • drowsiness or tiredness
  • slim down
  • reduced appetite
  • anaemia
  • an increased temperature
  • dehydration
  • a persistent urge to urinate

Early in the morning is usually when symptoms are worse. Mild or nonexistent symptoms may last for months or years at a time. However, depending on the area of the colon that is afflicted, they frequently come back without therapy.

Risk factors of colitis

Following are a few well-known risk factors for ulcerative colitis:

  • Age: Although ulcerative colitis can affect anybody, it is more prevalent in people between the ages of 15 and 30.
  • Ethnicity: White people and persons of Ashkenazi Jewish origin are more likely to develop the illness than other ethnic groups.
  • Genetics: Although new research has discovered particular genes that may contribute to ulcerative colitis, the relationship is unclear because environmental variables also play a part.

Diagnosis of Colitis

Your symptoms may be frequently asked about by your doctor, along with when they first appeared. The doctor will do a complete physical examination and use diagnostic procedures like:

  • A flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the anus to see the rectum and colon during a colonoscopy.
  • Similar to a colonoscopy but only displaying the rectum and lower colon, sigmoidoscopy
  • stool specimens
  • scans of the abdomen using MRI or CT technology
  • ultrasonography, which, depending on the area being examined, can be useful
  • An X-ray of the colon taken after it has been injected with barium, which improves image clarity, is known as a barium enema.

Treatment of colitis

Treatments, which attempt to lessen symptoms, can differ depending on things like:

  • a kind of colitis
  • age
  • overall state of health

Bowel rest

Limiting your oral intake can be beneficial, especially if you have IC. It could be required to administer fluids and other nutrients intravenously at this time.


To help you control the symptoms of colitis, your doctor may recommend a number of drugs. These medicines may consist of:

  • Corticosteroids or 5-aminosalicylates are examples of anti-inflammatory drugs that can be used to alleviate pain and swelling.
  • immune system suppressants such cyclosporine, azathioprine, or tofacitinib (Xeljanz) (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)
  • Biologics like ustekinumab, adalimumab, and infliximab (Remicade) (Stelara)
  • antibiotics for infection treatment
  • taking painkillers
  • antibiotics for diarrhoea
  • spasmolytic medications
  • nutritional deficiency supplements


Your colon or rectum may be completely or partially removed during surgery for colitis. In the event that other therapies fail, this might be required.

Prevention of colitis

Surgery is the only surefire method of avoiding a flare-up of colitis. You can lessen the likelihood of flare-ups by doing the following if you want to avoid surgery:

  • To keep note of the things that can make symptoms worse, keep a food journal.
  • Find out from your doctor whether you should alter how much fibre you consume.
  • Ask your doctor if eating more frequent, smaller meals will benefit you.
    If you can, up your level of activity.
  • Learn stress-reduction techniques like yoga, meditation, and mindfulness practises.
  • Always follow the directions on your prescriptions, and let your doctor know if you haven’t.
  • Make sure your doctor is aware of all of your other prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as vitamins.



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Characteristics of peptic ulcers and its complications.

Characteristics of peptic ulcers and its complications.

What are peptic ulcers?

If you have open sores in your stomach or upper small intestine, you may have a peptic ulcer. That occurs when the mucus lining your digestive tract’s protective layer is removed by stomach acids. There can be no symptoms, or there might be discomfort or a sharp ache. Internal bleeding brought on by peptic ulcers can occasionally need receiving blood transfusions in a medical facility.

Researchers predict that 8.09% of people worldwide experienced at least one peptic ulcer in 2019; which is a 25% increase since 1990. According to the same study, fewer occurrences have been documented in the US since the first half of the 20th century. Between 1990 and 2019, they started to rise once more.

Peptic ulcers come in three different varieties:

  • Internal stomach ulcers are referred to as gastric ulcers.
  • Esophageal ulcers are so named because they appear inside the oesophagus.
  • Duodenal ulcers are ulcers that form in the duodenum, the upper portion of the small intestine.

Symptoms of peptic ulcers

Peptic ulcers may not show any symptoms at all or they may just produce minor discomfort. Others can feel a stomach ache that is both dull and searing.

Additional signs can include:

  • meal is tough to swallow
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • feeling full or bloated
  • sticky, dark stool (if bleeding)

Ulcers can result in severe symptoms, bleeding, and indications. These are symptoms of an ulcer that is bleeding:

  • throwing up blood
  • faeces that are dark crimson in colour or that are black and tarry
  • nausea and vomiting that is particularly intense and continuous

A medical emergency is indicated by these symptoms. The patient has to see a doctor right away or dial 911.

Causes of peptic ulcers

There are numerous potential causes of peptic ulcers, however the two most frequent ones are as follows:

H. pylori cause ulcers

It is unclear why H. pylori bacteria only cause ulcers in some people, despite the fact that many people naturally carry them. H. pylori spread via water and food. They reside in the mucus that covers the lining of the stomach and duodenum and generate the enzyme urease, which reduces the acidity of stomach acid, neutralising it.

The stomach creates more acid to make up for this, which irritates the stomach lining. Additionally, the germs irritate the stomach and impair its immune system.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause ulcers

NSAIDS are a class of drugs frequently used for headaches, menstrual cramps, and other symptoms. They can also aid in lowering inflammation and fever. Ibuprofen and aspirin are two examples. Many NSAIDs are accessible over-the-counter.

They lessen the stomach’s capacity to produce a thick layer of mucus for protection. As a result, stomach acid has a greater potential to harm Trusted Source. NSAIDs may also hinder blood flow to the stomach, which would hinder the body’s capacity to repair cells.

Other causes of peptic ulcers

Among the additional probable causes of peptic ulcers are:

  • Genetics: Many people who have peptic ulcers have relatives who also have the condition, indicating that hereditary factors could be at play.
  • Smoking: It’s possible that people who smoke tobacco frequently have a higher risk of developing peptic ulcers than people who don’t smoke, though it’s unknown how smoking affects peptic ulcers specifically.
  • Alcohol consumption: Alcohol consumption can aggravate the lining of the stomach and raise acidity.
  • Use of corticosteroids: Studies have shown that those who use high or ongoing dosages of corticosteroids are also at higher risk.

Studies on the link between stress and an increased risk of ulcers are contradictory, but one study revealed that psychological stress may make peptic ulcers more common in a way that cannot be explained by other factors like NSAID use.

Complications of a peptic ulcer

Ulcers that are left untreated may worsen over time. They may trigger additional, more severe health issues like:

  • Perforation: An infection results from a hole that forms in the stomach or small intestine lining. A perforated ulcer can cause abrupt, excruciating stomach pain.
  • Internal bleeding: Because bleeding ulcers can cause severe blood loss, hospitalisation is often necessary. Lightheadedness, wooziness, and dark stools are symptoms of a bleeding ulcer.
  • Scar tissue: After an accident, thick tissue known as scar tissue forms. Food has a tough time moving through your digestive tract because of this tissue. Vomiting and weight loss are indications that there is scar tissue.

All three issues are significant and might necessitate surgery. If you suffer any of the following symptoms, get emergency medical help right away:

  • unexpectedly acute abdominal ache
  • extreme perspiration, fainting, or confusion, as these could be symptoms of shock
  • blood in the stool or vomit
  • a difficult-to-touch abdomen
  • stomach ache that gets better when lying perfectly motionless but gets worse when you move around

Diagnosis of peptic ulcers

During a regular exam, a doctor will frequently become suspicious of a peptic ulcer due to a patient’s description of their symptoms.

The following tests can support a diagnosis:

  • an H. pylori blood test, while a positive result does not usually indicate a current infection
  • a breath test that detects H. pylori using a radioactive carbon atom.
  • a stool antigen examination to find H. pylori in the stools
  • using a GI (upper gastrointestinal) X-ray) to look for ulcers

The most popular device used by doctors to make diagnoses is Upper endoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. In order to check for the presence of an ulcer in the stomach and upper intestine, a tube must be inserted through the mouth.

The doctor may take a biopsy (a small sample of tissue) to be examined under a microscope if the test reveals an ulcer. A biopsy can check for cancerous tissue and test for H. pylori. A second endoscopy may be required a few months later to check on the ulcer’s progress.

Treatment of peptic ulcers

The goal of treatment will be to either completely eradicate the H. pylori infection or reduce stomach acid levels to allow the ulcer to heal. The following are typical treatments that a doctor might suggest:

  • Antisecretory substances. To help reduce the production of stomach acid, these include proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists.
  • Triple treatment. To get rid of H. pylori, two antibiotics plus a proton pump inhibitor are used.
  • Staying away from NSAIDs. If someone regularly uses NSAIDs, doctors advise against using them.
  • Surgery. A doctor may advise surgery in cases of bleeding, with an average recovery time of 8 to 12 weeks.


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Lets Explore the types of Cardiomyopathy and its treatment.

Lets Explore the types of Cardiomyopathy and its treatment.

Cardiomyopathy is a condition that affects the heart muscle that gets worse with time and can be fatal. As the heart muscle ages, it becomes less effective in pumping blood.

Cardiomyopathy can be brought on by a genetic trait that is inherited or it can develop as a result of a number of different medical disorders, including heart disease, hyperthyroidism, or alcohol abuse.

Weakness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, elevated blood pressure, and fluid retention, or edoema, are among the symptoms. Cardiomyopathy can be treated with lifestyle modifications, medicines, and surgery.

Cardiomyopathy is a condition that progressively affects the heart muscle, or myocardium. The heart muscle typically weakens and becomes less capable of properly pumping blood to the rest of the body.

Cardiomyopathy comes in a variety of forms and is brought on by a number of conditions and medications, including coronary heart disease. Heart failure, an irregular pulse, and other consequences can result from cardiomyopathy.

It’s crucial to receive medical care and continue receiving it. They can lessen the risk of heart disease or heart failure.

Types of Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy comes in a variety of forms, including the following:


Heart palpitations and shortness of breath are two symptoms of cardiomyopathy. The most prevalent type of the condition is dilated cardiomyopathy. Adults between the ages of 20 and 60 are the typical victims.

Although the disease frequently begins in the left ventricle, it can later spread to the right ventricle as well. Additionally, the atria’s structure and operation might be impacted by dilated cardiomyopathy.


A hereditary disorder known as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causes the heart muscle fibres to develop abnormally, thickening or “hypertrophying” as a result. The thickening restricts blood flow and stiffens the heart’s chambers. Additionally, it may raise the chance of electrical disturbances, called arrhythmias.

It is the second most prevalent kind of cardiomyopathy in children, according to the Children’s Cardiomyopathy Foundation. Before the age of one year, a diagnosis is made in around one-third of the affected children.


When the tissues in the ventricles stiffen and cannot properly fill with blood, restrictive cardiomyopathy develops. It might eventually result in cardiac failure. It is more prevalent in elderly persons and may be brought on by infiltrative disorders, such as amyloidosis, which involve the buildup of aberrant substances in physiological tissues.


In arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, the healthy tissues of the right ventricle are replaced by fibrotic and fatty tissue, which may lead to irregular heart beats. This procedure may occasionally take place in the left ventricle as well.

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy increases the risk of sudden cardiac mortality, particularly in young individuals and sports, according to study published in the journal Circulation Research. It is a genetic inherited disorder.

Other types of cardiomyopathy

The majority of the following forms of cardiomyopathy fall under one of the previous four categories, however each has different causes or side effects:

Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy peripartum can happen before, during, or after pregnancy. This uncommon kind happens in the final month of pregnancy or within five months after delivery when the heart weakens. Postpartum cardiomyopathy is the term sometimes used to describe it after delivery. This dilated cardiomyopathy variant poses a serious risk to life. One instance raises your chances for subsequent pregnancies.

Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is caused by consuming excessive amounts of alcohol over time, which can weaken your heart and make it less effective at pumping blood. Additionally, your heart may grow. It’s a type of dilated .cardiomyopathy

Ischemic cardiomyopathy. Ischemic cardiomyopathy happens when coronary artery disease prevents your heart from pumping blood to the rest of your body. Heart muscle blood vessels constrict and become clogged. The cardiac muscle cannot receive oxygen as a result. The most common cause of heart failure is ischemic cardiomyopathy. Alternatively, any form of cardiomyopathy that is unrelated to coronary artery disease is referred to as nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

Noncompaction cardiomyopathy. The medical term for this is spongiform cardiomyopathy. It is a rare condition that manifests at birth and is brought on by faulty heart muscle development during pregnancy. Any stage of life may experience a diagnosis.

Pediatric cardiomyopathy. Pediatric cardiomyopathy is the term used to describe cardiomyopathy that affects children.

Idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Idiopathic cardiomyopathy indicates the reason is unknown.

Symptoms of cardiomyopathy

Early on in the development of cardiomyopathy, there may be neither indications nor symptoms. However, when the illness worsens, several indications and symptoms, such as:

  • a lack of breath during exercise or even while at rest
  • Legs, ankles, and feet swelling
  • abdominal bloating brought on by a fluid buildup
  • Cough when seated
  • difficulty falling asleep flat
  • Fatigue
  • fast, hammering, or fluttering heartbeats
  • chest pressure or discomfort
  • Unsteadiness, fainting, and dizziness

If not treated, symptoms and signs frequently worsen. It depends on the individual whether the illness becomes worse swiftly or gradually.

Causes and risk factors

There are certain well-established risk factors for cardiomyopathy, albeit its exact aetiology is not always known. For instance, disorders that cause the heart to inflame or sustain damage can raise a person’s risk of cardiomyopathy.

Cardiomyopathy can also be brought on by heart failure, which can happen as a result of a heart attack or other medical issues.

Additional risk elements consist of:

  • a history of cardiomyopathy, sudden cardiac death, or heart illness in the family
  • blood pressure is high.
  • cardiovascular disease
  • The diseases sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, which can harm the heart
  • viruses that affect the heart
  • diabetes
  • drinking disorder

After giving birth, certain women may be at an increased risk for cardiomyopathy.

Research from 2016 indicates, cardiomyopathy risk is also increased by HIV and HIV therapies. Heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy in particular are risks that are increased by HIV.

Talk to your doctor if you have HIV about obtaining frequent testing to monitor the condition of your heart. Additionally, you ought to make an effort to maintain an active and heart-healthy diet.

Diagnosis of cardiomyopathy

To confirm cardiomyopathy, doctors will do a physical examination and diagnostic procedures. They may employ one or more of the diagnostic tests listed below:

  • Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray can assist diagnose some medical disorders by revealing whether the heart has enlarged.
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG): A heart’s electrical activity, including how quickly it beats, is measured by an electrocardiogram (EKG). Additionally, it demonstrates if the heart rhythm is normal or irregular.
  • Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram produces a moving image of the heart using sound waves. It displays the heart’s size and shape.
  • Cardiac catheterization: This procedure examines the blood flow through the heart’s chambers.

How is cardiomyopathy treated?

Treatment for cardiomyopathy focuses on controlling your symptoms. The course of the disease is also slowed by treatment. You will get routine examinations to monitor the condition of your heart.

Your healthcare provider might advise:

Medication: Heart drugs can increase blood flow, address underlying issues, or manage symptoms. You may use beta blockers like propranolol (Inderal), blood thinners like warfarin (Coumadin), or drugs to decrease cholesterol.

Arrhythmia-treating equipment: Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are used to treat erratic heartbeats. Your heartbeat is monitored by these gadgets. When an arrhythmia begins, they send electrical impulses to your heart.

Devices that improve blood flow: Some gadgets make your heart’s blood-pumping process more effective. Devices used in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) regulate the heart’s left and right side contractions. Your heart is assisted in pumping blood with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

Surgery: Your doctor might advise heart surgery if you have serious symptoms or underlying heart issues. Open heart surgery or a heart transplant are typically only suggested by healthcare professionals after all other options have failed to provide relief.


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Important parameters of Cervical cancer women need to know.

Important parameters of Cervical cancer women need to know.

What Is Cervical Cancer?

Women’s cervix, which connects the uterus and vagina, is where cervical cancer develops when cells in the cervix alter. The deeper tissues of their cervix may be affected by this cancer, and it has the potential to metastasis (spread to other parts of the body), most frequently the lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and rectum.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is avoidable with a vaccine, is the main cause of cervical cancer. Since cervical cancer develops slowly, it is typically detectable and treatable before it poses a major threat. Thanks to better screening through Pap tests, it claims fewer and fewer lives of women every year.

The majority of cases are women between the ages of 35 and 44. However, women over 65 make up more than 15% of new cases, particularly those who haven’t been undergoing routine exams.

Different Types of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer comes in several different forms.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma. This develops in your cervix’s lining. Up to 90% of cases have it.
  • Adenocarcinoma. This develops in the mucus-producing cells.
  • Mixed cancercarcinoma. This possesses traits from the other two categories.

Cervical cancer stages

Your doctor will determine the stage of your cancer after a diagnosis has been made. The stage reveals if and how far the cancer has spread if it has. Your doctor can identify the best course of treatment for you by staging your cancer.

There are four phases of cervical cancer:

  • Stage 1: A little cancer. There’s a chance the lymph nodes were affected. It hasn’t spread to other body areas.
  • Stage 2: The tumour has grown. It can have reached the lymph nodes or spread beyond the uterus and cervix. It hasn’t yet spread to other areas of your body.
  • Stage 3: The malignancy has gone to the pelvic or the lower vagina. The ureters, which are tubes that transfer urine from the kidneys to the bladder, may be blocked as a result. It hasn’t spread to other body areas.
  • Stage 4: The cancer may have spread to other organs, such as your lungs, bones, or liver, from the pelvis.

Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer

Early stages of cervical cancer are typically difficult to diagnose because they lack symptoms. It may take several years before cervical cancer symptoms appear. The greatest strategy to prevent cervical cancer is to find abnormal cells during testing for the disease.

Stage 1 cervical cancer symptoms and signs might include:

  • Vaginal discharge that is either bloody or watery, may be heavy, and may smell bad.
  • Vaginal bleeding following sex, in between cycles, or following menopause.
  • Periods of menstruation could be heavier and longer than usual.

Symptoms of cancer that has spread to adjacent tissues or organs include:

  • urination that is painful or difficult, occasionally with blood in the pee.
  • diarrhoea, abdominal pain, or bleeding when you poop.
  • fatigue, weight loss, and appetite loss
  • a state of general disease
  • a dull backache or leg swelling.
  • abdominal and pelvic pain

You should have a comprehensive gynaecological exam, which includes a Pap test, if you suffer abnormal bleeding, vaginal discharge, or any other unexplained symptoms.

Cervical cancer causes

The sexually transmitted human papillomavirus is the primary factor in most occurrences of cervical cancer (HPV). Genital warts are brought on by the same virus.

There are over 100 distinct HPV strains. Cervical cancer is only caused by specific types. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the two strains that cause cancer the most frequently.

Cervical cancer is not a guarantee even if you have an HPV cancer-causing strain. Most HPV infections are cleared up by your immune system, frequently within two years.

In both men and women, HPV can lead to other malignancies. These consist of:

  • vulvar cancer
  • vaginal cancer
  • penile cancer
  • anal cancer
  • rectal cancer
  • throat cancer

Cervical cancer risk factors

The greatest risk factor for cervical cancer is HPV. Additional elements that may raise your risk include:

  • HIV
  • chlamydia
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • a history of cervical cancer in the family
  • consuming little fruit and veg
  • using contraceptive tablets
  • being pregnant three times at term
  • being under the age of 17 when you first became pregnant

You are not destined to develop cervical cancer even if you have one or more of these risk factors.

How is cervical cancer treated?

One member of the team treating cervical cancer is a gynecologic oncologist (a doctor who specialises in cancers of female reproductive organs). The stage of the disease, your age and general health, and whether or not you intend to have children in the future all play a role in the recommended course of therapy for cervical cancer.

Radiation, chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are all options for treating cervical cancer.

Radiation Therapy

Your cervix’s cancerous cells are destroyed by energy beams used in radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is available in two different forms:

  • External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) uses a machine outside the body to direct powerful radiation towards tumours.
  • Radiation is applied directly to or near a malignancy during brachytherapy.


Chemotherapy (chemo) kills cancer cells by administering medications by injection into your veins or oral ingestion. It enters your circulation and kills cells effectively throughout your body. Chemotherapy uses a variety of medications, some of which can be combined. Cycles of chemotherapy are frequently administered.


Cervical cancer is treated with a variety of surgical procedures. The most typical procedures used to treat cervical cancer include:

  • Laser procedure
  • conical biopsy
  • an easy hysterectomy
  • Trachelectomy
  • Pelvic enlargement
  • Targeted treatment

Specific cancer cells are eliminated by targeted medication therapy without harming healthy cells. It functions by focusing on proteins that regulate how cancer cells proliferate and spread.


In immunotherapy, drugs are used to activate your immune system’s capacity to detect and eliminate cancer cells. Cancer cells can also signal to avoid being attacked by your immune system. Targeting these signals with immunotherapy makes it so cancer cells can’t deceive your body into believing they are healthy cells.

Clinical trials are yet another form of treatment. Some people supplement their cancer therapy with complementary therapies like nutrition, herbs, acupuncture, and other practises. Speak with your healthcare practitioner about alternative practises that promise to lessen the symptoms of cancer. Some may be beneficial, while others may be dangerous.

Cervical cancer prevention

Screening with a Pap smear or a hrHPV test on a regular basis is one of the simplest strategies to avoid cervical cancer. Precancerous cells are detected during screening so they can be treated before they progress to malignancy.

Most occurrences of cervical cancer are caused by HPV infection. With the help of the vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix, the illness can be avoided. The best time for vaccination is before a person starts acting sexually. Boys and girls can both receive the HPV vaccine.

You can lessen your risk of HPV and cervical cancer by doing the following additional things:

  • Do not have too many sexual partners.
  • When engaging in vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse, you should always use a condom or another barrier device.

You may have precancerous cells in your cervix if your Pap smear results are abnormal.


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Expert note on causes of teeth sensitivity & its treatment.

Expert note on causes of teeth sensitivity & its treatment.

When you have sensitive teeth, it can occasionally be uncomfortable to eat and drink. However, certain natural therapies might help lessen tooth sensitivity.

The condition of sensitive teeth is frequent and curable. One in eight patients who went to dental offices had sensitive teeth, according to a 2013 research.

What is Teeth Sensitivity?

Dentin hypersensitivity, also known as tooth sensitivity, is what it means like. The teeth that become painful or uncomfortable in reaction to particular stimuli, such as hot or cold temperatures, causes sensitivity.

It can affect one tooth, many teeth, or all of the teeth in one person, and it can be a short-term or long-term issue. While sensitive teeth might have a variety of causes, the majority of them can be readily remedied by altering your oral hygiene routine.

Symptoms of sensitive teeth

People who have sensitive teeth may feel pain or discomfort when certain triggers are present. This discomfort may be felt at the tooth roots of the troubled teeth. Among the most typical triggers are:

  • piping hot food and drink
  • chilly foods and drinks
  • chilly air
  • sweet dishes and drinks
  • sour foods and drinks
  • especially while performing routine dental cleanings, cold water
  • flossing or brushing your teeth
  • Alcoholic mouthwashes

Over time, your symptoms could fluctuate without any apparent cause. They could be light or strong.

What causes tooth sensitivity?

The occurrence of sensitive teeth can be caused by a variety of circumstances, such as:

Brushing too strongly:

Over time, vigorous brushing or the use of a toothbrush with a firm bristle can wear down the enamel and expose the dentin. It might also result in gum recession (when your gum tissue pulls away from your teeth).

Gum recession:

Some individuals have thin gum tissue as a genetic predisposition. Periodontal disease also causes gum recession in other people. Gum recession occurs when the gum line recedes from the teeth, exposing the roots.

Gum disease:

Inflamed and painful gum tissue may result in sensitivity because the ligaments that hold the gums in place have been removed, exposing the root surface that directly connects to the tooth’s nerve.

Cracked teeth:

Broken or chipped teeth may allow plaque-containing germs to enter the pulp and cause irritation.

Grinding or clenching:

Doing this to your teeth can wear away the enamel and reveal the dentin beneath.

Products for teeth whitening:

These products are a main cause of tooth discomfort. Speak to a dentist about teeth whitening for sensitive teeth if you wish to improve your smile.


Between the ages of 25 and 30, teeth sensitivity is at its peak.

Plaque accumulation:

Root surface sensitivity may be brought on by the presence of plaque.

Use of mouthwash:

If you have exposed dentin, several over-the-counter mouthwashes include acids that might exacerbate tooth sensitivity (the middle layer of the tooth). The dentin layer of the tooth is further harmed by the acids. Consult your dentist about using a neutral fluoride solution if you experience dentin sensitivity.

Acidic foods:

Erosive enamel can result from routinely consuming foods with a high acid content, such as citrus fruits, tomatoes, pickles, and tea.

Recent dental procedures:

Following fillings, teeth cleanings, and dental restoration placement, patients may experience sensitive teeth. Dental procedure-related sensitivity is transient and often goes away in four to six weeks.

Sensitive teeth diagnosis

Make an appointment with your dentist if this is the first time you’ve noticed tooth sensitivity. You may make a dental appointment with a professional in your neighbourhood. They can examine the condition of your teeth and search for any issues that might be causing the discomfort, such as cavities, loose fillings, or receded gums.

During your regular teeth cleaning, your dentist can perform this. They’ll perform a visual inspection and clean your teeth. They might use dental tools to gently touch your teeth to check for sensitivity, and they might also request an X-ray to rule out other possibilities like cavities.

Treatment of teeth sensitivity

Your dentist can employ a variety of techniques to reduce your discomfort once the issue has been identified, including:

  • toothpaste for teeth that are sensitive
  • The fluoride gel
  • coverings for exposed roots
  • Sealants
  • You can purchase desensitising pastes from your dentist (not to be used with a toothbrush).
  • If you grind your teeth, wear a mouthguard.
  • A root canal may be recommended by your dentist if your condition is serious.

Additionally, it’s critical to avoid avoiding dental care due to tooth pain. Ignoring your teeth can exacerbate the situation. Twice-daily brushing and flossing will maintain your smile healthy and pain-free. Additionally, go to the dentist twice a year for a checkup.

Prevention tips for sensitive teeth

People can lessen tooth sensitivity and safeguard their tooth enamel by:

  • using a fluoride toothpaste to wash your teeth twice a day
  • once daily flossing
  • taking pauses from tooth whitening
  • minimising intake of foods that are high in sugar, carbohydrates, and acids
  • reducing alcohol consumption
  • using a mouthguard at night to avoid clenching and grinding
  • regular dental visits
  • giving up smoking


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