Browsed by
Category: Aging

Have researchers discovered the fountain of youth?

Have researchers discovered the fountain of youth?

The development of stem cell, embryonic development, and organoid research has been made possible by the discovery of methods to make stem cells pluripotent.

Pluripotency can be created, however it has proven more challenging to reverse ageing. A team of scientists claims to have found chemical concoctions that can stop cells from ageing.

Other researchers believe that the markers employed to measure this could represent a significant advance.

The discovery of how to cause stem cells to restore their pluripotency was one of the most significant developments in biology in the previous 20 years.

Because stem cells can differentiate into a wide variety of other cells, the body’s cells and tissues can replace dead cells or produce new cells as needed, including immune cells, in response to various situations.

Prof. Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John B. Gurdon were jointly given the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of how to produce pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from differentiated cells. This work was originally accomplished in 2006 and led to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

Since then, developing embryo models has enabled us to investigate the very earliest phases of human development and generate organoids. This has been made possible by the knowledge of how to create induced pluripotent stem cells.

Can age be quantified accurately?

Restoring cells to a younger state has proven difficult, despite the capacity to induce individual cells to return to a more pluripotent state.

This is partially due to the complexity and interdependence of the idea of an organism’s biological age and how it affects on it at the cellular level.

Each time a cell splits, telomeres, a section of DNA at the end of each chromosome, are shorter, therefore the older an organism gets, the shorter the telomeres in its cells are.

DNA has a substance called a methyl group attached to it that affects how the cell’s machinery reads the DNA. Age can affect these molecules’ epigenetic conformation, which can alter.

Epigenetic clocks, like GrimAge, claim to be able to determine a human’s “biological” age, which is independent of their chronological age. It has been claimed that stress can quicken aging.

A group of scientists from the US and Russia recently created an “aging clock” using data on age-related gene expression variations that they had quantified from studies.

They employed their transcription-based ageing clock to show that cell reprogramming had taken place after aging-related genes were overexpressed and knocked off by genetic engineering. Preprint versions of their findings, which have not yet been subjected to peer review, are published.

Six chemical concoctions to stop the ageing process?

In a paper recently published in the journal Ageing, the research team, led by Prof. David Sinclair, a professor in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, used this same “transcriptomic ageing clock” to show that genes they had discovered to be associated with ageing were downregulated in cells that had been treated with one of six chemical cocktails.

This study also showed that as cells age, their nuclei become more leaky, indicating that the older the organism from which the cell originates, the more molecules that are typically contained in the nucleus are likely to be present throughout the cell.

The breakdown of the nuclear barrier was measured using a fluorescent marker to establish the age of the cell.

Psychiatry instructor at Yale’s Department of Psychiatry Dr. Zachary Harvanek, who has conducted research on how aging affects epigenetics but was not involved in this study, stated in an interview:

“I believe the technique for promptly testing these medications in cell culture is the largest advancement in this paper. In terms of discovering new medicines or pharmaceuticals that would be helpful, I believe it could be a very significant development.”

Rewinding time by three years is allegedly possible.

The authors of the latest study subjected skin cells to a mixture of chemicals that had previously been proven to have an impact on the transcription of genes related to aging. One of the substances was valproic acid, which is used to treat epilepsy as well as other neurological and mental disorders.

They assert that their findings show that, contrary to what has previously only been shown with more than a year of regenerative treatment in people in published trials, the age of cells exposed to the chemical cocktails was reversed by 3 years in just 4 days.

Nevertheless, these tests were conducted in a lab rather than on live subjects. These cells were from a progeria patient, a 94-year-old donor, and two donors who were 22 and older. The paper omitted information about the subjects’ sex and ancestry, which might have an impact on the results.

Can humanity benefit from these discoveries?

In an email, Dr. Xiaojing Yang, the director of the Yang Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago, who was not involved in the study but co-authored one with Prof. Sinclair earlier this year, stated: “This is a good initial study and something we will follow with interest, but concerning the claims about reversing aging by 3 years in 4 days, it’s crucial to interpret these results within the context they were generated.”

“This study used a cell culture model to screen for potential anti-aging compounds, which is a fundamental part of the drug development process,” the researcher said. That being said, it’s crucial to keep in mind that it takes time and uncertainty to go from promising in vitro results to viable therapy in people.

Thus, even while this finding represents a fascinating development in the study of ageing, it is only one component of a challenging jigsaw. Before these findings can be applied to real-world anti-aging therapies, more study and validation, particularly in whole organisms, is required, according to Dr. Yang.

In agreement with this statement, Dr. Harvanek continued, “I think the fact that this particular cocktail seems to reverse aging in cell culture is a very preliminary finding. There is now, in my opinion, no proof that this will make humans or other animals age more slowly.”

Therefore, he emphasized, “I think the biggest takeaway from this paper is the methods they use, not necessarily the subsequent findings.”


For Overall health medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Scientists use genetic rewiring to increase cells’ lifespan

Scientists use genetic rewiring to increase cells’ lifespan

Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, human lifespans have increased, but those increases are slowing down, so researchers are still looking for ways to extend life.

Researchers are now focusing on genetics after examining how healthy meals, hygiene, and medical treatment have all contributed to the gains in lifespan.

By genetically rewiring the circuit that regulates aging, researchers in a recent proof-of-concept study nearly doubled the lifespan of yeast cells. Their research could lead to increased longevity in more advanced organisms, including perhaps even humans.

Can you extend your life? Everyone wants to live long, healthy lives. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) advise us that the best method to lengthen lifespan is to eat a healthy diet, get enough sleep, exercise frequently, have routine checkups with a doctor, and abstain from unhealthy habits like smoking and binge drinking alcohol.

Worms, mice, and even monkeys have lived longer thanks to research being done by scientists to slow down the aging process. Could they, however, do the same for people?

Now, by altering the genetic circuit that regulates aging, a team from the University of California, San Diego, has succeeded in extending the lifespan of a simple organism by about 80%.

The role of synthetic biology in cell ageing

The UC San Diego research team has been investigating the aging process of cells for several years and has found that cells undergo a series of chemical changes as they age, leading to their eventual degeneration and death. But they discovered that not all cells deteriorate in the same way, and this was the subject of their most recent study.

Before making changes to the aging circuits in the single-celled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, they first tested their theories using computer models of cell aging.

They found that there were two ageing processes that the cells went through. For almost half of the cells, ageing was characterised by a loss in the stability of their DNA (nucleolar ageing); for the remaining cells, ageing was characterised by a decline in their mitochondria, the organelles that produce the cell’s energy (mitochondrial ageing).

Increasing lifespan via manipulating gene expression

The expression of two conserved transcriptional regulator molecules, which govern which genes are active in the cell, was altered to control the aging of the cells. Heme activator protein 4 (Hap4) is connected to mitochondrial function, while silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) promotes nucleolar decrease (resulting in DNA instability).

The researchers created a synthetic gene oscillator to rewire this system such that when one of these regulators is expressed and consequently active, it prevents the other from being expressed. They stopped the cells from progressing along either of the two ageing pathways by creating long-lasting oscillations between the two types of cellular degeneration in individual cells. These cells lived longer than usual.

Professor Nan Hao, the study’s principal author, and co-director of the Synthetic Biology Institute at UC San Diego, stated, “Our research serves as a proof-of-concept, demonstrating that, just as mechanical engineers can repair and improve our cars so they last longer, we can also apply the same engineering method to modify and improve our cells so they live longer. The key to this is how we went about doing it: by simulating the natural aging process on computers to inform the engineering of the system and increase longevity.

Life expectancy nearly quadrupled following genetic rewiring

The scientists forced the yeast cells to alternate between the two ageing pathways on a constant basis by engineering the gene oscillator. By doing this, they prevented the yeast cells from choosing their predetermined course of decline and death and slowed the cells’ ageing process.

The longevity of yeast cells that were artificially rewired and aged under the supervision of the artificial oscillator increased by 82% in comparison to control cells.

And genetic engineering did not appear to hurt them, according to Prof. Hao, told: “The yeast cells survive nicely with a fast growth rate.”

Application that might lengthen life

Theoretically, a similar strategy may be effective in human cells because all cells include gene regulatory circuits that are in charge of numerous physiological processes, including aging.

The goal might not just be to increase the lifespan of more complex species but also to increase the lifespan of particular cells inside those organisms to stave off degenerative diseases.

Prof. Hao issued a warning, noting that it is unknown whether lengthening life might have further effects on cells.

“That is a complex biological query. The length of the cell is not a property that has been selected through evolution, according to our current theory. First, cells must be capable of surviving in an unpredictable, harsh environment that is always changing.

“There is a chance that our long-lived modified cells won’t be as resilient to particular environmental pressures. In other words, extending longevity may lose some common functions, but it is only a theory,” he continued.

Implications for prolonging human healthy life years

There might be a promise for this strategy in people, according to Prof. Hao, “Since both of the two regulators have human equivalents, I think that human cells could benefit from the same approach. In actuality, it will be our next move.”

Aside from the study, Prof. Howard Salis, Principal Investigator at the Salis Lab at Penn State University, concurred:

The risk and morbidity of age-related diseases will decrease if the overall goal of these interventions is to preserve better cell states, according to the study.

Though this study demonstrates that it is possible to turn off the ageing process in a single-celled organism, it is still very early in the development of the technology, and many questions need to be resolved before it can be used on humans.


For Nerve cell medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Can stress really cause biological aging and reverse it?

Can stress really cause biological aging and reverse it?

According to a study that was published in the journal Cell Metabolism, biological age rises when under stress but falls back to its normal level once the stress has subsided.

According to experts, stress can speed up ageing by causing inflammation and damage to cells’ DNA.

A lower biological age is associated with a lower risk of immunological dysfunction, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and other age-related illnesses.

Your biological age can be slowed down by eating a nutritious diet, exercising frequently, managing your stress, and getting enough sleep. Your age is always represented by the number of candles on your birthday cake. But exactly how old are you?

The number of years you have lived is your chronological age. That one is simple. On the other hand, your biological age is what determines how old your body feels and behaves. It is frequently regarded as a sign of general health and is susceptible to lifestyle influences.

According to a recent study that was published in the journal Cell Metabolism, people’s biological ages rapidly rise in response to various types of stress. However, it also discovered that after a time of stress recuperation, this ageing can be stopped.

James White, a co-senior study author from Duke University School of Medicine, commented on the findings, stating that “previous reports have hinted at the possibility of short-term fluctuations in biological age, but the question of whether such changes are reversible has, until now, remained unexplored.”

Studies on biological age and stress revealed

In one experiment, the researchers underwent heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical technique in which they connected pairs of mice aged 3 and 20 months to share a common circulation.

The heterochronic parabiosis, a stressful circumstance, the researchers claimed, might cause the biological age of the younger mice to rise relatively quickly. The younger mice’s biological age was restored once the mice were divided, though.

The researchers then proposed the hypothesis that naturally occurring instances of physical or emotional tension would result in the same response, causing reversible changes in biological age.

They reported that following emergency surgery, the biological age increase returned to normal within a few days. Postpartum recovery followed the same pattern, though women recovered at different speeds. Immunosuppressive medications improved the biological clock recovery in COVID-19.

The researchers found that the following factors could affect biological age in both human and animal models:

  • disease
  • addiction recovery
  • alterations in way of life
  • ecological exposures

According to them, the study’s findings challenge the widespread belief that age advances only in one direction by showing that biological age may be fluid, changing, and flexible.

According to senior study author Vadim Gladyshev, Ph.D., a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the director of redox medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, “the findings imply that severe stress increases mortality, at least in part, by increasing biological age.”

This idea instantly implies that lowering biological age may reduce mortality and that the capacity to bounce back from stress may be a key factor in successful aging and longevity. Finally, biological age may be a helpful metric in evaluating physiological stress and its alleviation, the author continued.

How the body responds to stress?

According to Harvard Health, there is a fight-or-flight reaction when presented with a stressor, whether it is actual event perceived.

The body responds to instructions from the brain by getting ready to either fight or run from the threat.

Some physical responses include:

  • Blood pressure and heart rate rise.
  • Breathing accelerates
  • Diffuse pain response
  • pupils widen
  • Increased awareness and observation
  • You experience an increase in energy and power as adrenaline is pumped through your body.

To support sustained awareness in the face of a threat, the body produces cortisol.

“The flight or fight response is a psychological reaction when we are experiencing something dangerous or terrifying — mentally or physically,” explained Babita Spinelli, LP, a private practice psychotherapist and workplace mental health specialist. It is brought on by the hormones that are released when one is in danger or running from it.

“Although this behaviour is designed to survive a situation that feels ‘dangerous’ and may be helpful [short-term], a continuous, unaddressed flight or fight can create a negative physical reaction in the body,” Spinelli continued. “When in a state of flight or fight, everything is briefly stopped. Constantly being in flight or fight mode can lead to chronic stress, which can cause brain changes, anxiety, depression, sleep problems, high blood pressure, and other health problems.

Chronic stress is when a person’s response to stress cannot be slowed down and they continue to be hyperalert even after the stressor has subsided.

Long-term exposure to high cortisol levels can cause the following:

  • increased appetite and fat tissue accumulation
  • elevated blood pressure
  • Heart and lungs under strain
  • inhibiting the immune system
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • tense muscles
  • Headaches

Your body and health may be negatively impacted by all of this. The new study comes to the conclusion that it can also shorten your life.

How to delay biological ageing?

A younger biological age has several advantages. It is associated with a decreased chance of acquiring metabolic diseases, immunological dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and other age-related problems.

You might be wondering how to determine your biological age since it is a significant predictor of general health and longevity.

Officially, you’ll require a biological age test that evaluates blood and urine samples, DNA methylation, and telomere length. You can also assess your biological health by taking a close look at your daily routine.

It’s probably safe to assume that your biological age is a few years younger than your chronological age if you maintain a healthy weight range, get enough sleep, manage stress well, and don’t lead a sedentary lifestyle.

You may be wondering if there is any way to slow down or even reverse biological ageing. You won’t be surprised to learn that leading a healthy lifestyle is important.

A nutritious diet, moderate alcohol use, and quitting smoking are all excellent strategies to raise your general health and, thus, reduce your biological age.

Because stress seems to have such a significant impact on biological age, it’s important to learn appropriate stress management techniques. Because we fast while we sleep, relaxation and sleep are crucial for the body’s ability to cope with stressors. This activates the body’s natural process of removing cellular waste, which slows down the aging process, according to Noble.

Any activity that makes you happy and excited—singing, dancing, walking—is a fantastic idea. Activating the vagus nerve, which is connected to all the main organs and tells them to rest, relax, and repair, is another advantage of singing, according to him.

Lessening the negative effects of stress

Incorporating a healthy mental and physical lifestyle, Spinelli remarked, “I have found that stress increases one’s biological age and can be positively impacted or restored.” “Paying attention to one’s mindset is also extremely powerful in reducing stress, which ultimately positively impacts the body.”

“Experiences like trauma and other significant life stresses have an impact on ageing. One’s mental and physical health suffer as a result of trauma, Spinelli continued. Regardless of age, the effects of illness, surgery, and other traumatic events have an impact on how people feel and navigate their lives. When faced with obstacles and problems, people in their twenties may feel older.

It does catch up physically and speeds up ageing if a person doesn’t make time to heal and move through those traumas. However, there are reversals in the biological ageing process through restoration, which I regard as paying and devoting active attention to recovery, both physical and mental. One can manage and control stress by incorporating good habits into their daily lives as opposed to letting stress rule their lives.

The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) claim that even 10 minutes of exercise a day can help lower stress.

Results of the new study

The findings of this research are not shocking to Tunc Tiryaki. According to scientific data, it is generally known that stress has negative impacts on our physical and mental health and can quicken the aging process.

The discovery that biological age is recovered following stress, according to Tiryaki, is also intriguing but not altogether surprising.

He pointed out that numerous research indicate that stress-relieving practises including mindfulness meditation, regular exercise, and sound sleep help enhance a number of molecular indicators linked to ageing.

Tiryaki reasoned that since our bodies are capable of recovering from harm brought on by stress, it stands to reason that this process of recovery may also bring back our biological age.

Stress is not always harmful to your health.

Noble shares Tiryaki’s perspective, but asserts that the most recent study’s findings do not provide the “full picture.”

He pointed out that some types of stress, such as those you encounter while in a hot sauna, an ice bath, or while engaging in vigorous exercise, might really be beneficial for you.

“Stress can, of course, kill organisms that are not resistant to it. However, how organisms handle stress is the secret to good health. Or, to put it another way, how quickly they can bounce back and return to being “on top,” he said.

Noble pointed out that the fact that humans adapt and learn is one of the reasons biological age is restored after recovery.

He noted that “athletes are well aware of this phenomenon.” “High-performance gymnasts and runners, under the direction of their coaches, push their tolerance of stress to increase levels, which leads to improvements in muscle strength and function.”

Although this type of stress may result in physical improvements, cumulative stress, a type of chronic, emotional stress, may cause the most harm.

An rise in cumulative stress was linked to faster ageing, according to a study published in Translational Psychiatry in 2021, and emotional management decreased it.


For Stress medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Lets Discover all the medical myths about aging.

Lets Discover all the medical myths about aging.

The human species diverged from an ancient predecessor that we share with chimpanzees some 300,000 generations ago. Human life expectancy at birth has doubled since that time.

The life expectancy at birth has doubled once more during the past 200 years. Humans are among the longest-living animals. The percentage of the world’s population over 60 years old will double between 2000 and 2050, from around 11% to 22%. This is a prediction by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Given these facts, it seems more important than ever in the course of human evolution to refute the numerous myths surrounding ageing. We shall dispel fallacies about exercise, mental capacity, sex, and other topics in this essay.

Physical ageing is unavoidable.

It’s not entirely false, though. Our bodies do deteriorate with age as a result of years of use. Physical decline need not be complete, though, and it is frequently possible to slow it down.

According to the WHO, “changing diet and increasing physical activity can successfully manage many of the disorders commonly linked with old age.” Reduced bone density, increased body fat, high blood pressure, and decreased strength are some of these issues.

According to several studies, even anticipating physical decline increases the likelihood that it will really happen. In one study, 148 older persons were polled about their expectations for ageing, lifestyles, and overall health.

Those over 60 shouldn’t exercise

This is a myth, as was made very obvious in the preceding section. Maintaining an active lifestyle can increase muscle strength, reduce fat, and enhance mental health, according to Neuropsychobiology paper.

Some people feel that exercise is useless once they reach a particular age since they don’t believe it will have any positive effects. Another myth is this one. In one study, experts subjected 142 seniors between the ages of 60 and 80 to a 42-week weight-lifting regimen.

The course improved “dynamic muscular strength, muscle growth, and functional capability,” according to the investigators.

Additionally, there is strong proof that regular exercise can lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. Regular exercise was “related with a delay in onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease,” according to a study involving 1,740 older persons.

However, if a person has a medical condition, they should speak to their doctor before starting a new fitness programme. For instance, the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom advises against doing high impact exercise if you have a condition like osteoporosis that is age-related.

Elderly people may require less (or more) sleep.

It’s a common misconception that older people like to snooze, some people think older people need more sleep than younger ones do. Others claim that elderly people require less sleep. This could be due to the myth that older people get up earlier in the morning.

Because there are so many different factors at play, it can be challenging to dispel these fallacies. Undoubtedly, older folks have more trouble falling asleep and tend to have more interrupted sleep. Reliable Source.

This may help to explain why some elderly people require daytime naps. The circadian (daily) rhythms can be upset as the human body ages.

Hence, sleep quality may be affected. The relationship is complex because, if a person’s circadian rhythms are thrown off, it can affect their sleep. Also, other facets of their physiology including hormone levels.

In addition to circadian disruptions, certain illnesses that are more prevalent in older persons, such osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, can be uncomfortable and have a negative impact on a person’s ability to fall asleep or stay asleep.

Osteoporosis only affects women.

The disorder osteoporosis causes the bones to progressively deteriorate. Some individuals think that only women are impacted. This is untrue; it can impact persons of any age and of any sex. Nonetheless, older adults, women, and persons of colour are far more likely to develop osteoporosis.

The International Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that around 1 in 3 women over 50 have osteoporosis and approximately 1 in 5 men may experience a bone fracture due to osteoporosis in their lifetime, according to an overview article.

The idea that osteoporosis is a given for older women is a related misconception. According to the aforementioned statistics, 2/3 of women over 50 do not have osteoporosis. The National Institute on Aging advises people to routinely exercise and eat foods high in calcium and vitamin D to reduce hazards.

Your brain slows down as you age.

The term “cognitive decline” refers to a steady fall in mental capacity with ageing, but before we get to the facts, let’s bust a few myths that go along with it:

When you become older, dementia is inevitable.

The WHO states that while dementia does not afflict all older persons, its risk rises with age. According to estimates, dementia affects 5-8% of adults over 60 in the world. Thus, 92%–95% of adults 60 years of age and older do not have dementia.

According to estimates, 13.9% of Americans over 71 have dementia, leaving 86.1% of those over 71 dementia-free.

Dementia is brought on by cognitive deterioration.

Contrary to common belief, cognitive decline does not always mean that dementia is about to set in.

Cognitive decline typically comes first in people who go on to develop dementia. Dementia does not necessarily occur in everyone who develops cognitive decline.

A previous study estimated that cognitive decline affects 22.2% of Americans 71 years of age or older. Each year, 11.7% to 20% of them experience dementia.

Inevitable cognitive ageing

Despite the long-held misconception that older persons endure a mental slowing down, the figures above demonstrate that cognitive decline is not unavoidable. What’s more, there are strategies to lower the danger.

The evidence of modifiable risk factors for dementia and cognitive decline was assessed by the Alzheimer’s Association in 2015. “There is adequate evidence to suggest the association between numerous modifiable risk factors and a lower risk for cognitive decline,” their report to the Global Dementia Council states.

They discovered that a lower risk of cognitive decline was highly connected with maintaining regular physical exercise and treating traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure.

Also, they discovered solid proof that a healthy diet, lifelong learning, and cognitive training all lower the risk of cognitive decline.

Giving up smoking right now would be pointless.

Several older folks claim that it makes no sense to stop smoking at “their age,” regardless of whether this is a true myth or just an excuse. That is untrue. As the NHS explains in detail:

No matter how long you’ve smoked or how many cigarettes you smoke each day, as soon as you stop, your health will begin to improve. It doesn’t matter if the health advantages are immediate or delayed; the important thing is to get started.

As age, sex becomes scarce or impossible.

Some individuals think that as people age, they lose the ability to enjoy sex and their sexual organs stop functioning properly. Thankfully, this is a myth.

Although the likelihood of erectile dysfunction (ED) and vaginal dryness increases with age, for the majority of people, these issues are not insurmountable.

In many situations, lubricants, hormone creams, and sildenafil (Viagra) can perform miracles. However, because Viagra is not appropriate for everyone, it is imperative to consult a doctor before using it.

According to a study published in the International Journal of Clinical Practice, only 0.4% of men between the ages of 18 and 29 and 11.5% of men between the ages of 60 and 69 experience ED. The fact that approximately 9 out of 10 men in their 60s do not have ED, however, turns that number on its head and makes it appear much less intimidating.

The tip

Generally, the majority of age-related misconceptions seem to focus on inevitable ageing. Many assume that as their lives get more and more intolerable, dull, passionless, and unpleasant, they will eventually disintegrate into dust.

None of the aforementioned is a given for everyone, despite the possibility that some aspects of health may deteriorate with age. As we have learned, having a positive psychological perspective on ageing can help with its physical effects.


For Age maintenance medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here