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Category: Allergy and Infections

How bacteria can occupy the skin and elevate eczema growth?

How bacteria can occupy the skin and elevate eczema growth?

Researchers looked into how bacteria might impact the histology of eczema in a recent study. They claimed that S. aureus bacteria change in eczema patches, speeding up their spread.

Eczema, the most prevalent type of atopic dermatitis, is an itchy, dry skin condition that is not communicable. In the US, 30% of the population is affected by the illness.

Although there is no known cure for eczema, there are drugs available to treat its symptoms. These include topical emollients, topical immunosuppressants, and topical corticosteroids.

Eczema is believed to result from a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. A flare-up of eczema may occur when the immune system is triggered by irritants found in soaps and surface cleansers, for instance.

Variants in the gene that makes the protein filaggrin may cause lower production in eczema patients. Filaggrin is crucial for boosting skin elasticity.

People who have eczema may have breaks in their skin, which bacteria can enter and develop in. The immune system may try to stop this colonization by escalating the inflammation, which aggravates the itching and further damages the skin.

The creation of new medications to treat eczema may be aided by knowing more about how germs grow into eczema sufferers’ skin and how it causes inflammation.

Recent studies looked into how Staphylococcus aureus adjusts to the skin of eczema sufferers. They claimed that the bacteria undergo alterations that cause them to lose their cellular capsule, allowing them to grow more quickly on the skin.

Dr. Alain Michon, the medical director of Project Skin MD Ottawa in Canada and a non-participant in the study, was consulted by specialists over the results.

What kind of bacteria is S. aureus?

According to earlier studies, S. aureus can frequently be found on the skin of eczema sufferers. Their eczema tends to be more severe the more bacteria they have.

By secreting toxins and drawing in immune cells, S. aureus is hypothesised to contribute to the pathophysiology of eczema and worsen the condition of the skin barrier.

S. Aureus is present in the nasal passages of up to 30% of persons. While the majority of infections are not serious, they can result in pneumonia, bone and joint infections, and serious bloodstream infections.

Information from the study on bacteria and eczema

The 23 children in Mexico between the ages of 5 and 15 who had moderate to severe eczema were the subjects of this longitudinal study by the researchers.

Standard medical care, such as topical steroids, emollient moisturisers, and bleach baths, were given to all of the subjects.

The children’s skin microorganisms were sampled by the researchers once per month for three months, and then again at nine months. Samples were collected from common eczema-affected areas such as the inside of the elbows and the backs of the knees. Additionally, they collected samples from the noses and forearms, which are often unaffected by the bacterium.

After that, the scientists cultivated S. aureus cells from every location, producing nearly 1,500 different colonies. This allowed them to more closely track the evolution of the certain cells.

At the end of the trial, they discovered that the majority of participants had only one lineage of S. aureus, indicating that new strains did not develop over time from the environment or other participants. However, they observed that throughout the trial, each lineage underwent significant mutation.

A gene called caps, which codes for an enzyme required for synthesizing polysaccharide a capsule-like shell that protects S. aureus from immune cells suffered several changes that lowered or abolished function, the researchers found in particular.

In a third of the subjects, the researchers discovered that capD mutations completely dominated the S. aureus microbiome population over the course of the study.

The researchers initially identified four distinct capD mutations in one youngster. By the time the trial was through, one of the variations had taken over and had expanded throughout the entire microbiome.

Increased eczema immunodetection

Dr. J. Wes Ulm of the National Institutes of Health, who was not involved in the study, was interviewed by Medical News Today about how mutations that make S. aureus more detectable by the immune system increase the spread of the bacteria and eczema on the skin.

Ulm remarked that from some angles, S. aureus becoming more readily identifiable by the immune system could appear to be a drawback. But he went on to say that if capD expression is lost or reduced, the bacteria may be better able to grow and spread since the energy that would have been used to create a useful capsule can now be used to fuel development.

Additionally, the absence of a capsule would make it simpler for the bacterium to adhere to the skin’s surface, improving its ability to spread throughout the skin.

Its lack of capD makes it easier for the immune system to detect and target the capD-deficient strain when it becomes more prevalent on the [skin’s] microbiome, Ulm said. Consequently, “and this, in turn, can enhance the immune response and magnify the inflammatory reaction giving rise to the characteristic rash and symptoms of eczema.”

Problems with the eczema research

The study’s tiny sample size, according to Michon, limits how broadly these results may be applied to other populations.

The results, he continued, might have been impacted by the fact that certain individuals’ microbiomes may have changed among those who took antibiotics both before and during the trial.

Other restrictions were also mentioned by Cameron K. Rokhsar, FAAD FAACS, a dermatologist and fellowship-trained cosmetic and laser surgeon in Manhattan and Long Island, New York, who was not associated with the study.

The drawback of these discoveries, according to Rokhsar, is that bacterial overgrowth only accounts for a portion of the overall puzzle. “The malfunctioning barrier specific to these people is the real problem with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics are given to patients to reduce atopic dermatitis flare-ups, but they do not treat eczema.


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Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by some gut bacteria, particularly certain strep species that are typically found in the mouth and digestive tract.

Gut bacteria in particular, according to researchers, may be connected to the development of plaque, which can result in clogged arteries.

According to experts, the new research expands on other studies that suggest a connection between gut flora and cardiovascular health. A new study reveals that the mouth and gut may be the origin of several cardiac issues.

A key contributor to heart attacks are deposits of fat, cholesterol, and other chemicals called atherosclerotic plaques, also referred to as clogged arteries.

According to Swedish researchers, a higher prevalence of these plaques is linked to the presence of specific oral bacteria, mainly Streptococcus, in the gut.

The research, conducted by scientists at Uppsala and Lund University and reported in the journal Circulation, was based on an examination of the gut flora and cardiac imaging of 8,973 persons between the ages of 50 and 65 who had no history of heart disease.

We found that oral bacteria, especially species from the Streptococcus genus, are associated with increased occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques in the small arteries of the heart when present in the gut flora,” said Dr Tove Fall, a study author and professor of molecular epidemiology at the department of medical sciences and the SciLifeLab at Uppsala University.

Information from the gut bacteria and heart health study

The development of plaque in the blood arteries of the heart was detected early by researchers using cutting-edge imaging technologies.

They coupled the details with genetic sequencing information on a variety of bacteria that live in the stomach (as well as the mouth and throat).

In addition to the link between Streptococcus anginosus and atherosclerotic plaque, researchers also noted that Streptococcus oralis appeared to be connected to plaque accumulation.

According to the study’s findings, levels of some Streptococcus species in the mouth and the gut were associated with fatty deposits in the arteries.

Dr. Marju Orho-Melander, a senior author of the study and a professor of genetic epidemiology at Lund University, said, “We have just begun to grasp how the human host and the bacterial community in the various compartments of the body affect one other.”

According to our study, people who carry streptococci in their stomach have changed cardiovascular health. We must now look into whether these bacteria have a significant role in the emergence of atherosclerosis, she added in a press release.

Plaque buildup is facilitated by two different bacteria species.

One of the most important links the researchers discovered after looking at cardiac imaging and gut flora was with two particular bacteria.

Streptococcus species and indicators of systemic inflammation in the blood have a close relationship. Researchers connected the bacteria with diseases of the oral cavity because they were the same species that were discovered in the mouth.

According to Mesilhy, “Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus oralis subsp. Oralis were the most prevalent in [this study group] patients with coronary atherosclerosis.”

Mesilhy continued, “Previous research in mice suggest that oral exposure to Streptococcus species induces plaque formation.

How do gut microbes affect heart health?

Dr. Kezia Joy, an advisor for the UK-based online healthcare company Welzo who was not involved in the study, said that “emerging evidence suggests that alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota, commonly referred to as dysbiosis, may contribute to various health conditions, including cardiovascular diseases.”

According to studies, specific gut bacteria can create metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which has been linked to the onset and development of atherosclerosis. “TMAO has been linked to increased oxidative stress, atherosclerotic plaque development, and inflammation. Furthermore, the development of physiological systems including lipid metabolism, inflammation, and immunological responses all of which are important contributors to the development of cardiovascular diseases can be influenced by the gut microbiota.”

Dr. Bina Joe, chair of the physiology and pharmacology department at the University of Toledo in Ohio and founding director of the school’s Centre for Hypertension and Precision Medicine, stated that “the strength of this study is that it’s a large cohort [of participants], the researchers have done a very careful analysis of them at an early stage of cardiovascular disease, and the use of biomarkers” to identify particular gut bacteria that may contribute to plaque formation.

The significance of studying gut microbes

The Swedish study, according to Joe, who has previously led research into the connections between gut bacteria and high blood pressure, is a significant advancement in a field of study where the link between bacteria and cardiovascular illness is more hypothesized than established.

For instance, flossing is now recommended by dentists as a technique to reduce the buildup of mouth germs that may increase the risk of heart disease.

We don’t know why, but it works,” said Joe.

Further investigation into the exact bacteria that affect cardiovascular disease and the execution of longitudinal studies that could demonstrate a causation rather than an association between gut flora and heart health are questions for future study, according to Joe.

Streptococcus bacteria, for instance, present in both the mouth and the gut, but it’s doubtful that just one strain is to blame for plaque formation because bacteria cannot thrive in both an anaerobic environment like the gut and an oxygen-rich one like the mouth.

Joe remarked, “It’s unclear whatever species of Streptococcus [the researchers] are referring to. In the end, a large community of bacteria may be at play rather than a specific strain.


A link between gut flora and coronary atherosclerotic plaques has been demonstrated by a recent study.

Researchers studied gut flora and cardiac imaging, and the results showed a strong connection between two different kinds of bacteria.

The study also demonstrated a connection between certain of the species linked to levels of the same species in the mouth and the accumulation of fatty deposits in heart arteries. These findings imply that microorganisms affect several biological systems.


For Heart disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Can antibiotics help in reducing endometriosis symptoms?

Can antibiotics help in reducing endometriosis symptoms?

Researchers discovered that compared to less than 10% of individuals without the ailment, approximately two-thirds of patients with endometriosis have higher levels of a particular bacterium around their uterus.

The researchers observed that the levels of the bacteria and the development of endometriosis-related lesions were decreased after administering antibiotics to endometriosis-affected mice.

To determine whether the results apply to people, however, more research is required.

In the disorder known as endometriosis, uterine lining-like cells proliferate outside of the uterus. Along with symptoms like discomfort and nausea, this can result in the production of scar tissue and inflammation in the pelvic area as well as different organs.

In the entire world, endometriosis affects about 10% of people of reproductive age who were born female. There is presently no cure for the illness, though various therapies can assist control it. Additionally, there is no method to avoid the illness.

Millions of people worldwide could have their health and quality of life improved as a result of further endometriosis research.

Recently, scientists discovered that treating mice with a particular bacterium may lessen lesions related to endometriosis. Science Translational Medicine included the findings in one of its issues.

Not a part of the study, Dr. Marc Winter, medical director of Hoag’s minimally invasive surgical gynaecology, told us:

Fusobacterium, a type of bacteria, is implicated in this study from Japan as a potential agent encouraging the development of inflammatory cells that cause inflammation, scar tissue, and pain related to endometriosis. This finding may prompt the addition of particular antibiotics as an essential component of endometriosis therapy.

Fusobacterium in endometriosis

Starting with fibroblasts from four patients with endometriosis and four individuals without, the researchers performed a genomic study. Cells known as fibroblasts help repair wounds and create connective tissues.

They discovered that individuals with endometriosis had much higher levels of the transgelin (TAGLN) gene. It also codes for a protein known as transgelin, which is involved in cell reproduction and is crucial for the growth of the illness.

The expression of TAGLN, which may result from a bacterial infection, can be upregulated by inflammation. According to prior studies, patients with endometriosis have much higher levels of some bacterial genera than healthy people.

The researchers next evaluated the frequency of a bacterium known as Fusobacterium within and outside of the uteruses of 79 people with and 76 people without endometriosis to examine how the presence of these bacteria in the uterine effects endometriosis.

Fusobacterium was found in higher concentrations in the uterine endometrial tissue of 64.3% and the endometrial tissue that had grown outside the uterus of 52.4% of patients with endometriosis. Only 7.1% of those without the disease had higher concentrations of the bacteria in their uteri.

The scientists then looked into whether Fusobacterium encouraged endometriosis in nine mice models of the disease. They discovered that Fusobacterim-exposed animals had higher uterine lesions than control mice.

In contrast, animals without Fusobacterium did not produce as many uterine lesions. This discrepancy persisted even after oestrogen stimulation, which medical professionals believe may induce tissue resembling uterine lining to develop outside of the uterus.

Treatment with antibiotics lessened symptoms

The final goal of the study was to see whether antibiotics could eliminate Fusobacterium in mice and lessen endometriosis symptoms.

To do this, scientists treated endometriosis-affected mice models with metronidazole and chloramphenicol for a total of five days. After a week, they discovered that the mice no longer had Fusobacterium and that transgelin expression had decreased close to the uterus.

They added that animals given antibiotics had less and smaller endometrial lesions than mice not given antibiotics.

According to the researchers’ findings, both antibiotics might be effective in treating endometriosis. However, they pointed out that it is uncertain why Fusobacterium infects some people.

Endometriosis bacteria are unknown.

We discussed the limits of the study with Dr. Karnika Kapoor, a family doctor from Medical Offices of Manhattan who was not engaged in it.

Since mice don’t have a menstrual cycle and don’t naturally develop endometriosis, the mouse model employed in this study has some inherent limitations, according to the researcher.

She said that there is insufficient evidence in the study to support the theory that endometriosis is promoted by Fusobacterium near the uterus after retrograde menstruation, which occurs when the period flows upward via the fallopian tubes and is thought by some researchers to be a possible cause of the disorder.

The authors were careful to make it clear that their analysis could not establish causation, Dr. Stringfellow did observe. This is an important distinction.

“More research is required to prove that Fusobacterium is a causal agent. To ascertain whether other microbial species might have a harmful function, more investigation is also required, he added.

Treatment with antibiotics can slow the spread of endometriosis.

These two studies provide evidence that antibiotic therapy can slow the spread of endometriosis and stop the early development of endometriotic lesions.

The bacterial ecosystem in the mice given antibiotic treatment was also examined by the researchers. Mice with endometriosis who were not given antibiotics had a greater variety of bacteria in their guts.

The mice that received antibiotic treatment had the least bacterial variety.

For endometriosis, metronidazole might be more efficient.

The effectiveness of metronidazole and neomycin as a stand-alone endometriosis treatment was also investigated by the researchers. Lesions on the mice receiving metronidazole were less severe than those on the mice receiving neomycin.

Additionally, the lesions in the mice receiving metronidazole exhibited fewer inflammatory components.

Finally, mice with endometriosis treated with metronidazole were fed endometriotic mouse faeces. Endometriotic lesions developed and resembled those from endometriosis animals given aspartame in their drinking water in terms of mass and volume.

This shows that the bacterial population in the gut can affect how endometriosis develops and spreads.

Future treatments for endometriosis

Dr. Kapoor discussed the limitations of the available endometriosis treatments today.

The current endometriosis treatment options rely on hormone medication, which prevents women from becoming pregnant while receiving care. The removal of endometrial lesions raises concerns since there is a high recurrence rate, which is an option for people with recurring pelvic pain, she said.

“This research appears to point to a possible Fusobacterium-related mechanism of endometriosis, and that antibiotic elimination is a treatment possibility. If antibiotic therapies for endometriosis are found to be beneficial in subsequent research, we could be able to use them in our clinical practise. Karnika Kapoor, M.D.

Dr. Winter concurred that the discoveries might result in fresh therapeutic approaches. “The function of Fusobacterium in promoting endometriosis may result in a completely new strategy for treating it. Further research is required to understand the contribution of Fusobacterium to the development of endometriosis, according to him.

He said, “The use of a widely prescribed antibiotic metronidazole may be a key in improving the efficacy of endometriosis treatment.”

Further research is required.

If similar effects also occur in humans, more research is needed to confirm this. There may be new endometriosis treatments developed if gut bacteria can affect the onset and course of endometriosis in humans.


For Antibiotic medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Is cranberry juice really effective for UTIs?

Is cranberry juice really effective for UTIs?

Over 50% of women experience urinary tract infections (UTIs) at least once, and a third of them experience recurrent UTIs.

A recent meta-analysis by Australian researchers with approximately 9,000 participants supports the notion that cranberries are an effective dietary supplement for those trying to prevent recurrent UTIs.

According to the researchers’ data, cranberries have a preventive effect against UTIs in women, kids, and individuals who are susceptible to them after receiving medical treatment.

In some persons who experience recurrent UTIs, the authors claim that their research provides compelling evidence that cranberry juice can lower the incidence of UTI infections.

For many years, cranberries have been used to treat or prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, research has thus far shown contradictory proof of its efficacy.

In a recent study, researchers from Flinders University and The Children’s Hospital at Westmead in Australia found that cranberry products may in fact lower the risk of UTIs in specific populations.

A review that was first published in 1998 and most recently updated in 2012 is now in its sixth iteration. The Cochrane Reviews mention it.

The research conducted by Prof. Jonathan Craig and his team “shows a very positive finding that cranberry juice can prevent UTI in susceptible people,” according to Prof. Craig, the study’s senior author.

UTI with E. coli

The urethra, bladder, ureter, and kidney are all parts of the urinary system, which is where UTIs originate from when bacteria enter and infect them. The most frequent cause of UTIs is the expansion of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the urinary system.

This particular type of bacteria is normally found in the gut, but it has the potential to spread to the bladder when faeces are contaminated. Then it attaches to the bladder walls and starts to proliferate.

The study’s principal author, Dr. Gabrielle Williams, told that the symptoms shouldn’t be taken lightly: “People with recurrent UTI symptoms are occasionally desperate for something that heals them. Having a treatment option that they can attempt is a good thing because I’ve seen mothers in tears over their children’s UTIs.

Dr. Jacqueline Stephens, a co-author of the study, claims that untreated UTIs can spread to the kidneys and result in problems like sepsis. The greatest way to reduce these hazards, according to her, is through preventive.

Cranberries’ potent antioxidants, polyphenols

Prescriptions for antibiotics are the most common form of prevention and treatment, and this has led to an increase in infections that are resistant to antibiotics.

Proanthocyanidins (PAC), a kind of polyphenol, are found in cranberries. These “offense and defense” nutrients have exceptional antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

Researchers from Canada discovered that PAC may aid in preventing the development of bacterial biofilm in the lining of the urinary system in a 2022 study article. Additionally, they demonstrated how PAC could prevent the early activation of uropathogenic E. coli “virulence genes in the gut reservoir.”

A review of 50 studies

The Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register was searched up until March 2023 by the researchers. Results from randomised controlled trials comparing cranberry products to placebos, probiotics or antibiotics, or no specific treatment for UTI prevention were analysed.

This version now includes 50 research with 8,857 individuals after the team incorporated 26 new studies.

Doctor Stephens stated, “The trials we examined used a variety of techniques to ascertain the advantages of cranberry products. The overwhelming majority of studies compared cranberry products with a placebo or no treatment for UTI and found that cranberry juice or capsules reduced the number of UTIs in women with recurrent cases, in children, and in people susceptible to UTIs after medical interventions like bladder radiotherapy.”

Consuming cranberry juice has many advantages.

In women with recurrent UTIs, consumption of cranberry products was strongly associated with a lower risk of symptomatic, culture-verified UTIs, according to the study’s authors.

The use of therapies like bladder irradiation among children and people at risk of UTIs was found to have a considerable protective advantage, according to the study. It was unclear which treatment for UTIs was more effective—cranberry juice, pills, or various PAC dosages.

Few consumers who used cranberry products mentioned any negative effects. The most frequent adverse effect was upset stomach. But according to the study, the proportion of people who had these side effects “probably does not differ between those taking cranberry products and those receiving placebo or no specific treatment.”

How much to consume?

8 to 10 ounces (240 to 300 mL) of cranberry juice per day may be the most efficient dosage if you’re using it to help prevent a UTI from recurring, according to study.

In 373 women with a history of recent UTI, a 2016 high-quality study examined the results of cranberry juice consumption on a regular basis. It was discovered that people who consumed 8 ounces (240 mL) of cranberry juice every day for 24 weeks experienced fewer UTIs than those who took a placebo.

In contrast to the 67 diagnosed UTIs experienced by the women in the placebo group, the women in the cranberry group had a total of 39 diagnosed UTIs.

The dosage for cranberry supplements varies according to the contents. According to studies, cranberry extract doses of 200 to 500 mg per day may help some people experience fewer UTI recurrences.

There are many different kinds of cranberry supplements available, so it’s crucial to read the instructions on your particular product for recommended dosage information.

It’s best to first consult with a healthcare provider if you frequently have UTIs and are interested in utilising cranberry juice or supplements to help avoid them.

Although some research does indicate that certain individuals may be helped by cranberries in preventing UTIs from recurring, other treatments might be more suitable and successful.

Other natural UTI remedies

Try out any of these scientifically supported suggestions if you frequently develop UTIs and are looking for natural ways to keep them from recurring:

  • Remain hydrated. According to certain research, some persons may be protected from recurrent UTIs by consuming at least 6 to 8 cups (1.5-2 litres) of water daily.
  • Reduce your consumption of certain foods and drinks. Diets rich in animal proteins, artificially sweetened beverages, coffee, soda, and alcohol may raise the risk of UTIs and exacerbate their symptoms. More study is, however, required in this field.
  • Front to back, wipe. After using the loo, women should wipe from front to back rather than back to front to help lower their risk of getting a UTI.
  • Don’t wait to urinate. Women who wait to void or go to the toilet more frequently have a higher chance of developing recurrent UTIs. Bacteria might build up in the urinary tract if you don’t urinate regularly enough.
  • Increase your level of activity and keep a healthy weight. Recurrent UTI rates are associated with being overweight and inactive.
  • Maintain body weight. You may lower your risk by maintaining a healthy body weight and engaging in adequate physical activity (if you are able to).
  • Other treatments and supplements that could be beneficial. For some patients, other dietary supplements including D-mannose, particular probiotic strains, cranberry products with propolis, as well as vaccines and immunomodulating drugs, may be a possibility.

Consult a medical practitioner if you believe you have a UTI. UTIs can develop into serious, sometimes fatal illnesses.

If you frequently experience UTIs, collaborate with a reputable healthcare provider to develop a treatment strategy based on your individual medical requirements.

The conclusion

According to research, some persons may experience a lower risk of UTI recurrence when using cranberry products like cranberry juice and pills with cranberry extract. However, there isn’t enough proof to support the claim that these products can assist treat an existing UTI.

If you frequently experience UTIs and wish to stop them from recurring, engage with your healthcare provider to develop a plan that may include taking vitamins and making other lifestyle changes.

Your quality of life may be negatively impacted by recurring UTIs. If you do, create a preventative strategy with the help of a healthcare provider. It could involve altering your diet, getting more exercise, using supplements, and other things.


For Urinary Tract Infection medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Is Covid-19 linked to a rising risk of developing diabetes?

Is Covid-19 linked to a rising risk of developing diabetes?

The question of whether or not viral infections can raise the chance of getting diabetes has been the subject of research for some time.

The virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, has now prompted scientists to investigate whether diabetes risk can be raised by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

According to recent data, the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to a 3-5% rise in the overall disease burden of diabetes in the Canadian population.

In order to prevent further injury to those who have been harmed, this evidence supports requests for greater observation of blood sugar levels in COVID-19 survivors.

The complete impact on the health of the worldwide population has not yet been fully appreciated, although the COVID-19 pandemic has so far caused close to 7 million fatalities, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO).

COVID-19 and diabetes association

This is not the first time that research has drawn attention to a possible connection between diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

American retrospective cohort research that was published in the BMJ in May 2021 showed that people who become infected have a considerably higher risk of diabetes. A prior article in Nature demonstrated an increased likelihood of metabolic diseases, including diabetes, being diagnosed after an illness.

The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect human pancreatic cells—which produce insulin and are harmed and eventually destroyed in diabetics—was proven later that year in a study published in the journal Cell Metabolism. The loss of these cells could potentially be caused by infection, suggesting a potential underlying mechanism to explain the relationship.

Since then, cohort studies have indicated a greater incidence rate of type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, after infection. One such study was reported in Diabetologia. Another retrospective cohort study employing Veterans Health Administration data, which was published in Diabetes Care, revealed that males, but not women, saw a rise in the incidence of all diabetes diagnoses following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Children are more likely to be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes than adults are, according to a cohort study that was published in PLOS One. The risk of type 1 diabetes diagnosis after infection was also found to be higher in American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Black populations.

Diabetes is 22% more likely to develop

Now, a study involving 629,935 persons, with an average age of 32, has found that men who tested positive for SARS-COV-2 between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2021, had a 22% higher risk of developing diabetes in the eight months after infection than men who hadn’t been exposed.

Based on age, sex, and date of infection, researchers matched pairings of individuals with a confirmed case of COVID-19 and those who hadn’t, using data from the British Columbia COVID-19 Cohort, a database of SARS-CoV-2 infection in British Columbia, Canada.

When the results were stratified by the severity of the disease, researchers discovered that those who had COVID-19 when they were admitted to the hospital had a 2.4-fold increased risk of developing diabetes compared to those who hadn’t been infected, and those who were admitted to intensive care had a 3.29-fold increased risk.

When these cases were taken into account, the data revealed that women were also more likely to acquire diabetes following infection with SARS-CoV-2, albeit this tendency was not significant when only moderate cases were taken into account.

The scientists were unable to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes using the data they had access to since this link was only discovered for non-insulin-dependent diabetes.

Risk of diabetes with viral infections

It is unclear precisely how SARS-CoV-2 infection causes these long-term consequences, as it is with other long-term side effects. It is not the first time that a viral infection has been connected to a higher chance of acquiring diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying the association are still unknown.

The effect of Coxsackievirus B infection on the risk of type 1 diabetes has been extensively investigated, along with the effects of mumps, rubella, and cytomegalovirus, according to Dr. Fares Qeadan, associate professor of biostatistics at Loyola University Chicago who was not involved in the study.

Researchers have also looked into the potential roles of inflammation, insulin resistance, and impacts on pancreatic cells in the relationship between hepatitis C virus infection and the risk of type 2 diabetes.

In conclusion, viral infections have been linked to a higher risk of developing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The evidence for type 1 diabetes is stronger and includes a wider range of viruses, but the data for type 2 diabetes is more limited and mostly concentrates on particular viral diseases like the hepatitis C virus. Dr. Fares Qeadan stated that more study is required to pinpoint the precise processes by which viral infections influence the onset of diabetes and to create preventative measures.

Diabetes or long COVID, which is it?

As the clinical characterisation of long-COVID is still being developed, experts cautioned that it was a complicated topic to determine whether the onset of diabetes following infection with SARS-CoV-2 might be regarded a symptom of long-COVID.

Dr. Morgan Birabaharan, a physician and virus researcher from the University of California, San Diego’s Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health who was not involved in the study, stated:

The onset of diabetes may fall within the category of protracted COVID, which is used to characterise a variety of symptoms and illnesses that appear after the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection (>30 days).

To classify what side effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection are ‘long COVID’ vs. some other process, he said, “is difficult because we are still trying to understand the pathophysiology of long COVID, whether it be persistent viremia, dysregulated immune response, or some other phenomenon.”

This most recent article backed suggestions for aggressive management of this, saying that the population-level effects of a rise in diabetes cases caused by the COVID-19 pandemic could also be considerable.

In any case, Dr. Qeadan said, “Recognising the potential link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the onset of diabetes is important for healthcare professionals as it highlights the need for careful monitoring of blood glucose levels and early intervention in people who have had COVID-19.”

“This can help lessen the long-term effects of diabetes on the affected individuals and reduce the overall burden on healthcare systems,” he continued.

After COVID, diabetic symptoms

Increased thirst and hunger, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, exhaustion, and hazy eyesight are all typical early indicators of diabetes, according to Ricordi.

If you had COVID-19 and any of these symptoms, it would be worthwhile to request a diabetic screening from your doctor, especially if you have risk factors or a family history of the disease.

One should see their primary care physician if any of these symptoms or indicators are present, according to Ricordi.

The conclusion

An increased risk of diabetes has been linked with COVID-19, according to recent research. Diabetes may be another factor contributing to extended COVID, according to the study. Endocrinologists think COVID-19 may harm the pancreas and affect how it releases insulin, though additional research is required to fully understand the association.


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Dementia risk may increase with frequent colds and flu.

Dementia risk may increase with frequent colds and flu.

According to studies done on humans, a greater lifetime exposure to microbial illnesses is linked to a slower decline in cognitive function as people age.

By intermittently giving mice the inflammation-causing bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide, a recent animal study examined the effect of inflammation brought on by recurrent microbial infections on cognitive function.

The study discovered that early middle-aged mice with mild-to-moderate inflammation brought on by repeated lipopolysaccharide treatment had deficiencies in memory and learning.

These results in ageing mice imply that mild-to-moderate illness brought on by microbial infections may require more vigorous therapy than the existing standard of care, particularly in populations susceptible to cognitive impairment, such as the elderly.

The standard medical advise for those with mild to moderate infections is to obtain enough rest and drink more fluids. It’s interesting to note that a recent study in the journal Brain, Behaviour, and Immunity claims that repeated inflammation brought on by giving a bacterial toxin to middle-aged rats led to cognitive deficiencies. Along with these cognitive deficiencies, the hippocampus, a part of the brain important for learning and memory, experienced changes in the plasticity of its neurons.

Elderly people are more prone to microbial infections, which could exacerbate the decline in cognitive function in elderly people and result in dementia or moderate cognitive impairment.

The results of this study point to the possibility that older persons may require more intensive therapies in order to avoid these illnesses’ long-term consequences on cognitive function. It is crucial to remember that since this study used a mouse model, it is unknown whether the conclusions apply to people as well.

Brain aging contributed by inflammation

As a result of the biological changes brought on by brain ageing, a loss in several cognitive capacities is shown during the course of normal ageing. Similar to this, cognitive impairment seen in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease is connected to pathological brain ageing.

According to studies, several variables, including inflammation brought on by microbial infections, may accelerate the aging of the brain. For instance, higher lifetime exposure to infectious agents is linked to worse cognitive function and a faster decline in cognitive function in older people.

Additionally, research using animal models has demonstrated that inflammation brought on by microbial exposure might affect cognitive function. Animals are injected with the toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, to study the effects of inflammation brought on by microbial infections.

These investigations on animals have demonstrated that LPS injection can elevate cytokine levels in the brain, a family of inflammatory proteins, and result in abnormalities in cognitive function. Additionally, as people age, these negative effects of LPS become more obvious.

The majority of these studies have looked at how LPS affects brain and cognitive function when it is given continuously or in single doses. According to these research, even a single dose of LPS-induced inflammation can alter the brain permanently.

However, little study has been done on the effects of lifetime exposure to microbial illnesses on alterations in the brain and cognitive function. In genetically modified mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, there is some indication that repeated injection of LPS can raise the risk of cognitive impairment.

EFfects of LPS-induced inflammation

In the current investigation, mice were given escalating dosages of LPS every 15 days for 2.5 months. Repeated injection of the same amount of LPS causes tolerance to develop, which includes the absence of an inflammatory reaction, according to prior studies.

The researchers worked around this problem by gradually increasing the LPS dose over the course of the five injections. The mice experienced mild illness after each LPS treatment, but they recovered within 15 days.

Two weeks after giving the last dosage of lipopolysaccharide, the researchers then tested the animals’ behaviour to see how well they could think. At 5–6 weeks after the last injection, the researchers also put the animals to death to look at how inflammation brought on by lipopolysaccharide affected the brain.

Saline-treated mice made comprised the control group. The mice were 10 months old when the study began, which corresponds to the transition from late adulthood to middle age.

The scientists discovered that mice given LPS injections displayed cognitive abnormalities in learning and memory retention of information acquired the day before.

Researchers observed alterations in the hippocampus in mice who received LPS injections on a sporadic basis. In Alzheimer’s disease, the hippocampus, which is important for memory and learning, exhibits the illness’s initial signs of degradation.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression was upregulated in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice as one of these modifications. This is in line with other research that found higher IL-6 levels following LPS treatment in cognition-related brain areas.

Additionally, the researchers discovered that giving LPS affected neuronal plasticity but not baseline signal transmission. Particularly, the LPS-treated animals displayed reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) between neurons in the hippocampus.

Linking flu frequency to dementia risk

Dr. Elizabeth Engler-Chiurazzi, a behavioral neuroscientist at Tulane University and co-author of the study, said the conclusions have significant ramifications for human brain health and disease.

“At the moment, staying in bed, getting lots of rest, drinking soup, and allowing your body to do its work of eradicating the infection is the standard of care for the common cold or the flu virus. According to my knowledge, this advice is offered to the entire population and is given regardless of the likelihood that dementia will develop in the future.

Dr. Elizabeth Engler-Chiurazzi stated, “Our results may be the first in a series of studies that could indicate that treatment for the common cold or other sources of intermittent infection among patients at high risk for cognitive decline/dementia may need to be more aggressive than the standard recommendations of rest and fluids.”

According to these findings, a history of more “flu-like” episodes may be a risk factor for cognitive problems in later life. According to Dr. Engler-Chiurazzi, some research conducted in people have started to investigate this connection. The results are consistent with our mouse observations.

It’s too soon to say for sure.

Dr. Engler-Chiurazzi issued a warning, noting that it’s possible that these findings won’t apply to people.

Although there are significant species differences in how these systems react, the immune system composition of mice and people is similar, according to the researcher. However, more research is required to determine how well these findings are replicated in human populations.

The mechanisms behind the cognitive losses following repeated LPS treatment will also be looked at by the authors.

Dr. Engler-Chiurazzi stated, “An immediate next step for our group is to repeat these studies and determine the extent to which common brain consequences seen in dementia, such as a leaky blood-brain barrier or activation of brain immune cells (microglia), are observed after repeated intermittent exposure to sickness-like inflammation in the body.”

Dr. Engler-Chiurazzi also mentioned that they have not looked at how viral infections affect cognitive function but are now doing so using an animal model.


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Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

In the present pandemic, many people are looking for hand wipes that destroy viruses as an alternative to gel. These wipes are suited for a number of applications and surfaces. Disinfectant wipes are the most convenient way to clean effectively. But did you know that antibacterial wipes can be useless if used improperly. This includes wrong contact time or the inappropriate cleaning technique.

In this post, we’ll examine some of the frequent errors people make when purchasing, keeping, and utilising wipes, as well as how you may stay clear of them. We’ll go over some important advice on the most common wipe kinds so you can choose wisely. Also, storage and usage strategies to get the most out of your cleaning routine.

The wrong product

In actuality, a lot of the problems begin even before you open the package because you choose the incorrect product. I don’t intend to imply that you accidentally brought a bottle of bleach home from the store instead of a pack of wipes. It’s more probable that you fell for a common ruse employed by many domestic companies to convince you that these wipes are all you need to complete the task at hand.

The likelihood is that the pack claims to eliminate 99.9% of germs. They actually only leave out the fact that they haven’t been scientifically confirmed to be antiviral. Also, the contact time is only 10 minutes; we’ll talk more about contact time when we discuss cleaning methods.

You might also wonder if all wipes are antibacterial given the vast array of wipe brands available. No, they are not; it is crucial to ensure that wipes making antibacterial claims have adequate testing to support those claims. The European Standard EN1276, which certifies a product as antibacterial, serves as a minimum standard.

Incorrect storage

You may rest easy knowing that you have the appropriate tools for the job and that they are prepared for deployment at a moment’s notice. You can store the wipes in a cabinet with the lid tightly covered until you need them. It’s crucial to keep the lid closed when the wipes aren’t being used in order to prevent drying out.

For them to be effective, there must be plenty of moisture available for them to disperse over the area you are cleaning; otherwise, they are useless. A great storage suggestion is to store the pack on its side so that all of the wipes will still retain an equal quantity of moisture if moisture does collect in the pack.

Many applications with same wipe

It’s standard practise to use the same wipes to clean several different surfaces; this is acceptable as long as a new wipe is used for each different surface. If not, there is a considerable risk of cross-contamination since germs spread more widely when they are transferred from the wipe to the new surface. Use a fresh, moist wipe to clean each new surface, and dispose of dirty wipes properly in the trash can.

Improper cleaning methods

Using improper cleaning methods is arguably the most frequent error people make. They use wipes that are overly dry, which spreads germs rather than eliminating them; they use the same wipe on several surfaces; and they don’t let the area naturally air dry, which gives cleaning chemicals less time to work.

Leaving them in a hot place

It could be tempting to keep a container of hand wipes or cleaning wipes in your car’s glove box or a cup holder on a hot, sunny day. They will dry out in the heat, so that is a bad idea. Store wipes at room temperature, which is roughly 70°F.

Not reading the label

Labels, as we all know, are tedious. But, the best way to utilise your antibacterial wipes is to read the label. According to Karen Daw, a dental and medical OSHA and Infection Control coach and speaker, the label contains information regarding “how long the product must remain wet on a surface to inactivate all the germs.” This is something you’ve probably never even considered. According to her, the label will usually state that the area should stay wet for at least three to four minutes in order to eradicate any bacteria present.

Additionally, the wipes’ labels may really indicate which kinds of bacteria they are efficient against. Don’t just assume that any wipe will kill anything. After all, since they are antibacterial wipes, they are prepared to kill bacteria rather than necessarily viruses.

Flushing it down the toilet

This error has been particularly common in 2020 as a result of individuals utilising wipes instead of toilet paper due to a lack of supplies. Wipes can undoubtedly be used, but dispose of them instead of flushing them down the toilet. Indeed, even if the wipes are marked “flushable” on the packaging, discard them.

Despite what we just said, you can and should ignore this portion of the label even though we just stressed the need of reading the label. The wipes can get caught in the pipes and could cause blockages or worse, overflows because they are thicker than toilet paper and don’t degrade as easily.

Using it on visibly dirty surfaces

Since its sole aim is cleaning, this may initially seem weird. Nevertheless, if you use it on a surface that is already unclean, you can merely end up moving the dirt. Surface cleaning should be carried out in a different manner than wiping down surfaces to disinfect them. Cleansing becomes more challenging when a surface is unclean, says Daw. So, it might be necessary to scrub the surface thoroughly with one wipe (or just soap and water), then grab a second wipe to disinfect.

Using it after its expiration date

Antibacterial wipes may not seem like they would have an expiration date, but Ghildayal points out that occasionally they do not. You might not be able to see an expiration date on your wipes, but in general, you shouldn’t use them more than two years after purchase, at the most, he said

How would you determine when to cease using something if it had no expiration date? Ghildayal advises that if they smell weaker than usual when you reopen them for use, they are perhaps too old to be put to use. That won’t be an issue right away, of course, as the majority of people don’t leave their wipes lying around unused, but it’s still good to know that it’s one of the unexpected things that exists.

Using it as your only cleaner

Even though it might seem clear, this merits discussion. Wipes with antibacterial properties are useful for immediately disinfecting a surface. It won’t perform a “deep clean” or clean particular surfaces that call for a particular cleaning agent. Jon Gibbons of Smart Vacuums clarifies, “They are not good enough to be the only cleaner for your kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Antibacterial wipes are excellent for a quick clean-up, but they won’t make the kitchen or bathroom truly spotless.


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Bacterial vs. viral conjunctivitis: What is the difference?

Bacterial vs. viral conjunctivitis: What is the difference?

Eye redness, weeping, and discharge are signs of conjunctivitis caused by both bacterial and viral infections. The eyelids may stay together due to a heavier discharge brought on by bacterial conjunctivitis, though. It could also result in eyelid pain and edoema.

Differentiating between bacterial and viral conjunctivitis can be challenging. However, those who develop viral conjunctivitis typically have either experienced a viral disease themselves or have just come into touch with someone who has. This can aid medical professionals in differentiating.

While both types of conjunctivitis can improve on their own, bacterial conjunctivitis may require antibiotic eye drops. Fewer common bacterial conjunctivitis strains can spread quickly and necessitate immediate medical attention.

Viral conjunctivitis

The conjunctiva, a thin membrane lining the inner surface of the eyelids and the white area of the eyeball, becomes inflamed as a result of conjunctivitis, sometimes known as “pink eye,” an eye infection. Conjunctiva serves as a defence against infections and keeps the eye moist.

The conjunctiva itself, however, can occasionally become infected. Doctors refer to the ailment as viral conjunctivitis when a virus is to blame. Viral conjunctivitis can be brought on by a number of viruses.

  • respiratory infections are brought on by the adenovirus
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV), which can lead to genital herpes or cold sores
  • Virus called varicella-zoster, which causes chickenpox
  • Measles is brought on by the rubeola virus.
  • picornaviruses

The conjunctiva can become infected by a virus, which can then multiply and cause symptoms like:

  • Having red eyes or eyelids
  • scorching and itching
  • tears or a watery sputter
  • the impression of something strange in the sight
  • sensitivity to light

Adenovirus is the most typical cause of viral conjunctivitis. While suffering from a typical cold, some people can get conjunctivitis. The symptoms of a cold typically go away on their own without medical intervention. It could take 14–30 days for viral conjunctivitis to go away.

Bacterial conjunctivitis

When bacteria invade and irritate the conjunctiva, bacterial conjunctivitis develops. This form of conjunctivitis is more likely to affect certain individuals, such as:

  • children
  • older people
  • wearers of contact lenses
  • individuals with compromised immune systems

The most typical bacterial species that cause bacterial conjunctivitis in kids are:

  • the influenza virus
  • pneumococcal streptococcus
  • Catarrhal Moraxella

Staphylococcal bacteria are the most frequent species to cause the disease in adults. These germs can enter the eye via:

  • interaction with an individual suffering from bacterial conjunctivitis
  • touch with items that the affected person has used in the past
  • exposure to respiratory droplets from sneezes or coughs
  • alterations in the conjunctival bacteria

Similar to viral conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis can also cause the following symptoms:

  • eyelids clump together because to a thick green or yellow discharge
  • edoema of the cornea
  • Painful and swollen eyelids
  • reduced vision

Viral pink eye vs. bacterial pink eye

Viral pink eye can be contracted when someone sneezes or coughs and the droplets come into contact with your eyes, or it can spread from the nose to the eyes.

Pink eye caused by bacteria exists. Usually, the bacteria enters your eyes through your skin or respiratory system. Additionally, bacterial pink eye can develop if you:

  • Use dirty hands to contact your eyes.
  • application of bacteria-contaminated cosmetics
  • sharing private goods with a pink eye sufferer

When an upper respiratory infection, such as a cold (virus) or sore throat, first develops, both types of pink eye frequently follow (virus or bacteria).

The same general signs and symptoms are present in both bacterial and viral pink eye, including:

  • White of the eyes are pink or crimson.
  • tearing
  • itchiness or scratchiness in the eyes
  • swelling
  • burning or annoyance
  • eyelids or lashes that are crusted, especially in the morning
  • fluid coming from the eye

Here are several methods for determining the sort of pink eye you have.

Viral pink eye:

  • typically begins in one eye but can progress to the other
  • begins with a respiratory illness or cold
  • produces ocular discharge due to water

Pink eye due to bacteria:

  • can begin with an ear infection or respiratory infection
  • one or both eyes are affected
  • causes the eyes to clump together and produce a thick discharge (pus).

A sample of the discharge from your eye can be taken by your doctor and sent to a lab for testing to determine whether you have a bacterial or viral infection.

Treating pink eye

The majority of bacterial and viral pink eye illnesses will clear up on their own in a few days to two weeks. In the meanwhile, treat the symptoms as follows:

  • To avoid dryness, use artificial tears or lubricating eye drops. (Eliminate the bottle once your infection has subsided to prevent self-reinfection.)
  • To reduce swelling, apply warm, moist compresses or cold packs to your eye.
  • Use a wet washcloth or tissue to wipe away the discharge from your eyes.

Your doctor may recommend the following medications if your pink eye is more severe:

  • Antiviral medications may be effective in treating viral pink eye brought on by the herpes simplex or varicella-zoster virus.
  • Pink eye caused by germs can be cleared up with the aid of antibiotic eye drops or ointment.

Once pink eye has cleared completely, follow these instructions to prevent reinfection:

  • If you used eye makeup or cosmetic implements while you were afflicted, throw them away.
  • Discard any disposable contact lenses and pink eye treatment you used.
  • Clean and sanitise cases, glasses, and hard contact lenses.

Pink eye prevention

Pink eye spreads quickly. To prevent acquiring or spreading the infection:

  • Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or often wash your hands with soap and warm water throughout the day. Before and after using eye drops or inserting contact lenses, wash your hands. If you come into contact with an infected person’s eyes, clothes, or other private items, you should also wash your hands.
  • Avoid rubbing or touching your eyes.
  • Share personal stuff like towels, blankets, pillowcases, cosmetics, and makeup brushes sparingly.
  • After using them, wash your sheets, towels, and washcloths in hot water.
  • Clean your glasses and contact lenses thoroughly.
  • Stay at home from work or school if you have pink eye until your symptoms subside.



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Tips to avoid dehydration when dealing with sickness.

Tips to avoid dehydration when dealing with sickness.

What is dehydration?

When you lose more fluid than you consume, you get dehydrated. Even though water makes up over two thirds of our bodies, even a small loss of water can have negative repercussions. In actuality, water is vital to human life and plays a significant role in regular bodily activities.

Humans can’t survive for very long without water, unlike camels, according to physician leader at Banner Urgent Care Daniel Bates, MD. “We constantly need water to support biologic processes and health. It aids in the removal of pollutants, food digestion, and body temperature regulation. You don’t have to lose a lot of weight before your body starts making sacrifices to make up for it.

Signs and symptoms of dehydration

Although vomiting and diarrhoea are frequently regarded as symptoms in and of themselves, the fundamental effect of both is dehydration. The challenging issue is that some dehydration symptoms may differ depending on your age and that you may not realise you’re dehydrated until it’s too late. For children and elderly people in particular, early detection is crucial to prompt treatment and the avoidance of a more serious illness that could be fatal.

Here are some things to watch out for:

For every age group

  • Thirst
  • Dry lips and tongue that feel slimy and sticky
  • dried-up mucous membranes
  • Skin that is less supple or elastic
  • altered blood flow; chilly, pallid hands and feet
  • urine with a deep colour

In children and infants

  • No soiled nappies for more than 12 hours.
  • feverish or warm
  • Several or no tears when sobbing
  • Sunken-looking eyes
  • drowsy or queasy

In adults

  • reduced frequency of urination
  • fatigue or lightheadedness

In elderly

  • recessed eyes
  • bewilderment and vertigo
  • reduced blood pressure

Hydration during sick

A crucial recommendation is always included in doctor’s orders, whether you have the common cold, a virus, or an infection: “Stay hydrated” or “Drink lots of fluids!” There is a cause behind this. Water consumption keeps your body functioning at its best and aids in the removal of pollutants. On the other hand, dehydration can exacerbate symptoms and lengthen the duration of your illness.

One thing you should know before stocking up on fluids is that not all drinks are created equal when it comes to hydrating you.


By far, this advice is the most elementary. But it’s crucial to maintain simplicity. You should drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water every day, whether you’re healthy or not.

Eat some ice.

This is essentially the same advice as tip #1. However, a different method of staying hydrated if you’re feeling heated or want a change is to chew on frozen filtered water.


While you might be tempted to go for your preferred sugary beverage, resist the urge. Avoid sports drinks, sodas, sweet teas, and fruit juices. Fluids high in fructose lack the nutrients and electrolytes your immune system needs, and the sugar in them can make you more prone to inflammation.

Your water can be supplemented with fruit or vitamins.

Try adding fruits, veggies, or flavor-enhanced vitamin supplements if you’re sick of drinking purified water and yearn for a sweet beverage. Lemons, limes, and oranges are examples of citrus fruits that are rich in vitamin C, which is crucial when you’re feeling under the weather. Antioxidants and vitamins are abundant in berries like blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries, which is very beneficial. In addition, fruits and vegetables have natural sugars that can turn water into a tasty beverage.


Caffeine-free teas are your best option if you’re looking for a hot beverage. Teas with tremendous health benefits when you’re sick include mint, chamomile, ginger, and turmeric. The taste can be improved and additional health advantages can be obtained by adding lemon and/or honey.


You can increase the amount of fluids and nutrients in your diet by eating soups. Many soups are rich in vitamins and nutrients, including chicken noodle soup. Additionally, if you have a sore throat or congestion, a warm soup (or hot tea) will help.

Note: Avoid eating canned soups. Many canned soups include a lot of sodium, which can raise blood pressure and cause inflammation. Choose low-sodium soups instead, or prepare your own.

AVOID Liquors.

Correct, put the hot toddy away. Alcohol can make it harder for your body to fight against illness.



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Mistakes People Make When They’re Getting Sick

Mistakes People Make When They’re Getting Sick

Anytime, wherever, bacteria and viruses can proliferate close to you. Any illness, from the common cold to a serious viral fever, can be contracted when using public transportation or while working in an air-conditioned environment.

Yes, there are readily available medical facilities to help you get better as soon as possible. However, many of us continue to do several blunders that prolong and occasionally exacerbate our illnesses. To fully heal, though, requires both basic awareness and perseverance.

You want to feel better as soon as possible when you are ill. However, some of your habits can be aggravating your symptoms. So that you can continue on the path to recovery, avoid making these typical cold and flu mistakes.

Here are a few of those mistakes that you need to stop making in order to get well soon:

You make an effort to persist.

Don’t continue with your regular schedule. In order to fight off the cold or flu virus, your body needs energy. Give sleep first priority. Refuse to carry out those arrangements and opt to skip work or school. You’ll prevent the transmission of harmful infections while also assisting your body in healing.

You ignore flu symptoms.

A common cold normally doesn’t require a visit to the doctor. But if you get flu-like symptoms like a high fever, body aches, or weariness, you should contact them. They could administer an antiviral medication like zanamivir or oseltamivir (Tamiflu) to you (Relenza). You can lessen your symptoms and cut the length of your illness if you take one within the first 48 hours after becoming ill by 1-2 days.

You sleep too little.

Your immune system will get weakened if you don’t get enough, making it more difficult for you to fight off the infection. According to one study, persons who get less than 6 hours of sleep every night have a four times higher risk of being ill than those who receive at least 7 hours. So, get a good night’s sleep and nap during the day. Do your symptoms keep you up at night? Run a humidifier to help you breathe easier and use some honey to soothe a nightly cough.

You pester your doctor to prescribe an antibiotic.

Your condition won’t improve with the medication. Only bacteria can be killed by antibiotics, however viruses are what cause colds and the flu. Antibiotic prescriptions are unneeded in about one-third of cases. You may be more susceptible to adverse effects including diarrhoea and allergic reactions as a result. Additionally, it helps fuel the major global health issue of antibiotic resistance. When germs become accustomed to the medications, they stop working.

You don’t consume enough fluids.

It’s harder to gulp down liquids when your throat hurts. However, staying hydrated will help you thin your mucus and relieve congestion. Additionally, it prevents headaches. Make sure you get enough water. Drink a warm beverage, such as herbal tea or broth, for additional comfort. According to research, it can lessen cold symptoms like weariness and sore throats.

You don’t eat meals or snacks.

Even if you don’t feel particularly hungry, you should nonetheless eat something. The immune cells that fight off cold and flu viruses will be fueled by calories and nutrients. As a result, you might recover more quickly. Take a bite of some chicken soup. According to research, this timeless song may help with some of those symptoms.

Your eyes shine.

Smoking causes throat irritation and lung damage. Your cold symptoms may worsen as a result. So stop using vaping devices and cigarettes, and avoid being around those who are smoking.

You become stressed.

The immune system is negatively impacted by a hormone your body produces when you’re stressed. Additionally, it worsens inflammation, which can exacerbate your stuffy nose. If you make an effort to concentrate on unwinding and healing, you might get better more quickly.

Overuse of decongestants.

Decongestants can undoubtedly help you feel better and even sleep better, which may help your cold last less time, according to Dr. Burruss. A nasal decongestant could cause problems if it is used for more than one or two days. Topical decongestant nasal sprays, according to Dr. Anagewa, “may produce rebound or exacerbated congestion when used beyond three days.”

Denying your illness to yourself.

If you’ve always believed that you can recover from a cold by using your mind instead of your body, give it up. Presuming you’re healthy might not prompt you to reduce your activities, which could lead to overexertion, which would exacerbate your symptoms and prolong your recovery. Worse? If you go to work or the gym when unwell, Dr. Tan warns, you’re exposing people to your condition. The best advice is to pay attention to your body and give it the rest it requires. And by all means, stay at home if you have a high fever, nausea, an upset stomach, a persistent cough, or considerable nasal congestion and a runny nose.



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