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Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

Blunders we usually make when using Antibacterial wipes.

In the present pandemic, many people are looking for hand wipes that destroy viruses as an alternative to gel. These wipes are suited for a number of applications and surfaces. Disinfectant wipes are the most convenient way to clean effectively. But did you know that antibacterial wipes can be useless if used improperly. This includes wrong contact time or the inappropriate cleaning technique.

In this post, we’ll examine some of the frequent errors people make when purchasing, keeping, and utilising wipes, as well as how you may stay clear of them. We’ll go over some important advice on the most common wipe kinds so you can choose wisely. Also, storage and usage strategies to get the most out of your cleaning routine.

The wrong product

In actuality, a lot of the problems begin even before you open the package because you choose the incorrect product. I don’t intend to imply that you accidentally brought a bottle of bleach home from the store instead of a pack of wipes. It’s more probable that you fell for a common ruse employed by many domestic companies to convince you that these wipes are all you need to complete the task at hand.

The likelihood is that the pack claims to eliminate 99.9% of germs. They actually only leave out the fact that they haven’t been scientifically confirmed to be antiviral. Also, the contact time is only 10 minutes; we’ll talk more about contact time when we discuss cleaning methods.

You might also wonder if all wipes are antibacterial given the vast array of wipe brands available. No, they are not; it is crucial to ensure that wipes making antibacterial claims have adequate testing to support those claims. The European Standard EN1276, which certifies a product as antibacterial, serves as a minimum standard.

Incorrect storage

You may rest easy knowing that you have the appropriate tools for the job and that they are prepared for deployment at a moment’s notice. You can store the wipes in a cabinet with the lid tightly covered until you need them. It’s crucial to keep the lid closed when the wipes aren’t being used in order to prevent drying out.

For them to be effective, there must be plenty of moisture available for them to disperse over the area you are cleaning; otherwise, they are useless. A great storage suggestion is to store the pack on its side so that all of the wipes will still retain an equal quantity of moisture if moisture does collect in the pack.

Many applications with same wipe

It’s standard practise to use the same wipes to clean several different surfaces; this is acceptable as long as a new wipe is used for each different surface. If not, there is a considerable risk of cross-contamination since germs spread more widely when they are transferred from the wipe to the new surface. Use a fresh, moist wipe to clean each new surface, and dispose of dirty wipes properly in the trash can.

Improper cleaning methods

Using improper cleaning methods is arguably the most frequent error people make. They use wipes that are overly dry, which spreads germs rather than eliminating them; they use the same wipe on several surfaces; and they don’t let the area naturally air dry, which gives cleaning chemicals less time to work.

Leaving them in a hot place

It could be tempting to keep a container of hand wipes or cleaning wipes in your car’s glove box or a cup holder on a hot, sunny day. They will dry out in the heat, so that is a bad idea. Store wipes at room temperature, which is roughly 70°F.

Not reading the label

Labels, as we all know, are tedious. But, the best way to utilise your antibacterial wipes is to read the label. According to Karen Daw, a dental and medical OSHA and Infection Control coach and speaker, the label contains information regarding “how long the product must remain wet on a surface to inactivate all the germs.” This is something you’ve probably never even considered. According to her, the label will usually state that the area should stay wet for at least three to four minutes in order to eradicate any bacteria present.

Additionally, the wipes’ labels may really indicate which kinds of bacteria they are efficient against. Don’t just assume that any wipe will kill anything. After all, since they are antibacterial wipes, they are prepared to kill bacteria rather than necessarily viruses.

Flushing it down the toilet

This error has been particularly common in 2020 as a result of individuals utilising wipes instead of toilet paper due to a lack of supplies. Wipes can undoubtedly be used, but dispose of them instead of flushing them down the toilet. Indeed, even if the wipes are marked “flushable” on the packaging, discard them.

Despite what we just said, you can and should ignore this portion of the label even though we just stressed the need of reading the label. The wipes can get caught in the pipes and could cause blockages or worse, overflows because they are thicker than toilet paper and don’t degrade as easily.

Using it on visibly dirty surfaces

Since its sole aim is cleaning, this may initially seem weird. Nevertheless, if you use it on a surface that is already unclean, you can merely end up moving the dirt. Surface cleaning should be carried out in a different manner than wiping down surfaces to disinfect them. Cleansing becomes more challenging when a surface is unclean, says Daw. So, it might be necessary to scrub the surface thoroughly with one wipe (or just soap and water), then grab a second wipe to disinfect.

Using it after its expiration date

Antibacterial wipes may not seem like they would have an expiration date, but Ghildayal points out that occasionally they do not. You might not be able to see an expiration date on your wipes, but in general, you shouldn’t use them more than two years after purchase, at the most, he said

How would you determine when to cease using something if it had no expiration date? Ghildayal advises that if they smell weaker than usual when you reopen them for use, they are perhaps too old to be put to use. That won’t be an issue right away, of course, as the majority of people don’t leave their wipes lying around unused, but it’s still good to know that it’s one of the unexpected things that exists.

Using it as your only cleaner

Even though it might seem clear, this merits discussion. Wipes with antibacterial properties are useful for immediately disinfecting a surface. It won’t perform a “deep clean” or clean particular surfaces that call for a particular cleaning agent. Jon Gibbons of Smart Vacuums clarifies, “They are not good enough to be the only cleaner for your kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Antibacterial wipes are excellent for a quick clean-up, but they won’t make the kitchen or bathroom truly spotless.


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Bacterial vs. viral conjunctivitis: What is the difference?

Bacterial vs. viral conjunctivitis: What is the difference?

Eye redness, weeping, and discharge are signs of conjunctivitis caused by both bacterial and viral infections. The eyelids may stay together due to a heavier discharge brought on by bacterial conjunctivitis, though. It could also result in eyelid pain and edoema.

Differentiating between bacterial and viral conjunctivitis can be challenging. However, those who develop viral conjunctivitis typically have either experienced a viral disease themselves or have just come into touch with someone who has. This can aid medical professionals in differentiating.

While both types of conjunctivitis can improve on their own, bacterial conjunctivitis may require antibiotic eye drops. Fewer common bacterial conjunctivitis strains can spread quickly and necessitate immediate medical attention.

Viral conjunctivitis

The conjunctiva, a thin membrane lining the inner surface of the eyelids and the white area of the eyeball, becomes inflamed as a result of conjunctivitis, sometimes known as “pink eye,” an eye infection. Conjunctiva serves as a defence against infections and keeps the eye moist.

The conjunctiva itself, however, can occasionally become infected. Doctors refer to the ailment as viral conjunctivitis when a virus is to blame. Viral conjunctivitis can be brought on by a number of viruses.

  • respiratory infections are brought on by the adenovirus
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV), which can lead to genital herpes or cold sores
  • Virus called varicella-zoster, which causes chickenpox
  • Measles is brought on by the rubeola virus.
  • picornaviruses

The conjunctiva can become infected by a virus, which can then multiply and cause symptoms like:

  • Having red eyes or eyelids
  • scorching and itching
  • tears or a watery sputter
  • the impression of something strange in the sight
  • sensitivity to light

Adenovirus is the most typical cause of viral conjunctivitis. While suffering from a typical cold, some people can get conjunctivitis. The symptoms of a cold typically go away on their own without medical intervention. It could take 14–30 days for viral conjunctivitis to go away.

Bacterial conjunctivitis

When bacteria invade and irritate the conjunctiva, bacterial conjunctivitis develops. This form of conjunctivitis is more likely to affect certain individuals, such as:

  • children
  • older people
  • wearers of contact lenses
  • individuals with compromised immune systems

The most typical bacterial species that cause bacterial conjunctivitis in kids are:

  • the influenza virus
  • pneumococcal streptococcus
  • Catarrhal Moraxella

Staphylococcal bacteria are the most frequent species to cause the disease in adults. These germs can enter the eye via:

  • interaction with an individual suffering from bacterial conjunctivitis
  • touch with items that the affected person has used in the past
  • exposure to respiratory droplets from sneezes or coughs
  • alterations in the conjunctival bacteria

Similar to viral conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis can also cause the following symptoms:

  • eyelids clump together because to a thick green or yellow discharge
  • edoema of the cornea
  • Painful and swollen eyelids
  • reduced vision

Viral pink eye vs. bacterial pink eye

Viral pink eye can be contracted when someone sneezes or coughs and the droplets come into contact with your eyes, or it can spread from the nose to the eyes.

Pink eye caused by bacteria exists. Usually, the bacteria enters your eyes through your skin or respiratory system. Additionally, bacterial pink eye can develop if you:

  • Use dirty hands to contact your eyes.
  • application of bacteria-contaminated cosmetics
  • sharing private goods with a pink eye sufferer

When an upper respiratory infection, such as a cold (virus) or sore throat, first develops, both types of pink eye frequently follow (virus or bacteria).

The same general signs and symptoms are present in both bacterial and viral pink eye, including:

  • White of the eyes are pink or crimson.
  • tearing
  • itchiness or scratchiness in the eyes
  • swelling
  • burning or annoyance
  • eyelids or lashes that are crusted, especially in the morning
  • fluid coming from the eye

Here are several methods for determining the sort of pink eye you have.

Viral pink eye:

  • typically begins in one eye but can progress to the other
  • begins with a respiratory illness or cold
  • produces ocular discharge due to water

Pink eye due to bacteria:

  • can begin with an ear infection or respiratory infection
  • one or both eyes are affected
  • causes the eyes to clump together and produce a thick discharge (pus).

A sample of the discharge from your eye can be taken by your doctor and sent to a lab for testing to determine whether you have a bacterial or viral infection.

Treating pink eye

The majority of bacterial and viral pink eye illnesses will clear up on their own in a few days to two weeks. In the meanwhile, treat the symptoms as follows:

  • To avoid dryness, use artificial tears or lubricating eye drops. (Eliminate the bottle once your infection has subsided to prevent self-reinfection.)
  • To reduce swelling, apply warm, moist compresses or cold packs to your eye.
  • Use a wet washcloth or tissue to wipe away the discharge from your eyes.

Your doctor may recommend the following medications if your pink eye is more severe:

  • Antiviral medications may be effective in treating viral pink eye brought on by the herpes simplex or varicella-zoster virus.
  • Pink eye caused by germs can be cleared up with the aid of antibiotic eye drops or ointment.

Once pink eye has cleared completely, follow these instructions to prevent reinfection:

  • If you used eye makeup or cosmetic implements while you were afflicted, throw them away.
  • Discard any disposable contact lenses and pink eye treatment you used.
  • Clean and sanitise cases, glasses, and hard contact lenses.

Pink eye prevention

Pink eye spreads quickly. To prevent acquiring or spreading the infection:

  • Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or often wash your hands with soap and warm water throughout the day. Before and after using eye drops or inserting contact lenses, wash your hands. If you come into contact with an infected person’s eyes, clothes, or other private items, you should also wash your hands.
  • Avoid rubbing or touching your eyes.
  • Share personal stuff like towels, blankets, pillowcases, cosmetics, and makeup brushes sparingly.
  • After using them, wash your sheets, towels, and washcloths in hot water.
  • Clean your glasses and contact lenses thoroughly.
  • Stay at home from work or school if you have pink eye until your symptoms subside.



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Tips to avoid dehydration when dealing with sickness.

Tips to avoid dehydration when dealing with sickness.

What is dehydration?

When you lose more fluid than you consume, you get dehydrated. Even though water makes up over two thirds of our bodies, even a small loss of water can have negative repercussions. In actuality, water is vital to human life and plays a significant role in regular bodily activities.

Humans can’t survive for very long without water, unlike camels, according to physician leader at Banner Urgent Care Daniel Bates, MD. “We constantly need water to support biologic processes and health. It aids in the removal of pollutants, food digestion, and body temperature regulation. You don’t have to lose a lot of weight before your body starts making sacrifices to make up for it.

Signs and symptoms of dehydration

Although vomiting and diarrhoea are frequently regarded as symptoms in and of themselves, the fundamental effect of both is dehydration. The challenging issue is that some dehydration symptoms may differ depending on your age and that you may not realise you’re dehydrated until it’s too late. For children and elderly people in particular, early detection is crucial to prompt treatment and the avoidance of a more serious illness that could be fatal.

Here are some things to watch out for:

For every age group

  • Thirst
  • Dry lips and tongue that feel slimy and sticky
  • dried-up mucous membranes
  • Skin that is less supple or elastic
  • altered blood flow; chilly, pallid hands and feet
  • urine with a deep colour

In children and infants

  • No soiled nappies for more than 12 hours.
  • feverish or warm
  • Several or no tears when sobbing
  • Sunken-looking eyes
  • drowsy or queasy

In adults

  • reduced frequency of urination
  • fatigue or lightheadedness

In elderly

  • recessed eyes
  • bewilderment and vertigo
  • reduced blood pressure

Hydration during sick

A crucial recommendation is always included in doctor’s orders, whether you have the common cold, a virus, or an infection: “Stay hydrated” or “Drink lots of fluids!” There is a cause behind this. Water consumption keeps your body functioning at its best and aids in the removal of pollutants. On the other hand, dehydration can exacerbate symptoms and lengthen the duration of your illness.

One thing you should know before stocking up on fluids is that not all drinks are created equal when it comes to hydrating you.


By far, this advice is the most elementary. But it’s crucial to maintain simplicity. You should drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water every day, whether you’re healthy or not.

Eat some ice.

This is essentially the same advice as tip #1. However, a different method of staying hydrated if you’re feeling heated or want a change is to chew on frozen filtered water.


While you might be tempted to go for your preferred sugary beverage, resist the urge. Avoid sports drinks, sodas, sweet teas, and fruit juices. Fluids high in fructose lack the nutrients and electrolytes your immune system needs, and the sugar in them can make you more prone to inflammation.

Your water can be supplemented with fruit or vitamins.

Try adding fruits, veggies, or flavor-enhanced vitamin supplements if you’re sick of drinking purified water and yearn for a sweet beverage. Lemons, limes, and oranges are examples of citrus fruits that are rich in vitamin C, which is crucial when you’re feeling under the weather. Antioxidants and vitamins are abundant in berries like blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries, which is very beneficial. In addition, fruits and vegetables have natural sugars that can turn water into a tasty beverage.


Caffeine-free teas are your best option if you’re looking for a hot beverage. Teas with tremendous health benefits when you’re sick include mint, chamomile, ginger, and turmeric. The taste can be improved and additional health advantages can be obtained by adding lemon and/or honey.


You can increase the amount of fluids and nutrients in your diet by eating soups. Many soups are rich in vitamins and nutrients, including chicken noodle soup. Additionally, if you have a sore throat or congestion, a warm soup (or hot tea) will help.

Note: Avoid eating canned soups. Many canned soups include a lot of sodium, which can raise blood pressure and cause inflammation. Choose low-sodium soups instead, or prepare your own.

AVOID Liquors.

Correct, put the hot toddy away. Alcohol can make it harder for your body to fight against illness.



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Mistakes People Make When They’re Getting Sick

Mistakes People Make When They’re Getting Sick

Anytime, wherever, bacteria and viruses can proliferate close to you. Any illness, from the common cold to a serious viral fever, can be contracted when using public transportation or while working in an air-conditioned environment.

Yes, there are readily available medical facilities to help you get better as soon as possible. However, many of us continue to do several blunders that prolong and occasionally exacerbate our illnesses. To fully heal, though, requires both basic awareness and perseverance.

You want to feel better as soon as possible when you are ill. However, some of your habits can be aggravating your symptoms. So that you can continue on the path to recovery, avoid making these typical cold and flu mistakes.

Here are a few of those mistakes that you need to stop making in order to get well soon:

You make an effort to persist.

Don’t continue with your regular schedule. In order to fight off the cold or flu virus, your body needs energy. Give sleep first priority. Refuse to carry out those arrangements and opt to skip work or school. You’ll prevent the transmission of harmful infections while also assisting your body in healing.

You ignore flu symptoms.

A common cold normally doesn’t require a visit to the doctor. But if you get flu-like symptoms like a high fever, body aches, or weariness, you should contact them. They could administer an antiviral medication like zanamivir or oseltamivir (Tamiflu) to you (Relenza). You can lessen your symptoms and cut the length of your illness if you take one within the first 48 hours after becoming ill by 1-2 days.

You sleep too little.

Your immune system will get weakened if you don’t get enough, making it more difficult for you to fight off the infection. According to one study, persons who get less than 6 hours of sleep every night have a four times higher risk of being ill than those who receive at least 7 hours. So, get a good night’s sleep and nap during the day. Do your symptoms keep you up at night? Run a humidifier to help you breathe easier and use some honey to soothe a nightly cough.

You pester your doctor to prescribe an antibiotic.

Your condition won’t improve with the medication. Only bacteria can be killed by antibiotics, however viruses are what cause colds and the flu. Antibiotic prescriptions are unneeded in about one-third of cases. You may be more susceptible to adverse effects including diarrhoea and allergic reactions as a result. Additionally, it helps fuel the major global health issue of antibiotic resistance. When germs become accustomed to the medications, they stop working.

You don’t consume enough fluids.

It’s harder to gulp down liquids when your throat hurts. However, staying hydrated will help you thin your mucus and relieve congestion. Additionally, it prevents headaches. Make sure you get enough water. Drink a warm beverage, such as herbal tea or broth, for additional comfort. According to research, it can lessen cold symptoms like weariness and sore throats.

You don’t eat meals or snacks.

Even if you don’t feel particularly hungry, you should nonetheless eat something. The immune cells that fight off cold and flu viruses will be fueled by calories and nutrients. As a result, you might recover more quickly. Take a bite of some chicken soup. According to research, this timeless song may help with some of those symptoms.

Your eyes shine.

Smoking causes throat irritation and lung damage. Your cold symptoms may worsen as a result. So stop using vaping devices and cigarettes, and avoid being around those who are smoking.

You become stressed.

The immune system is negatively impacted by a hormone your body produces when you’re stressed. Additionally, it worsens inflammation, which can exacerbate your stuffy nose. If you make an effort to concentrate on unwinding and healing, you might get better more quickly.

Overuse of decongestants.

Decongestants can undoubtedly help you feel better and even sleep better, which may help your cold last less time, according to Dr. Burruss. A nasal decongestant could cause problems if it is used for more than one or two days. Topical decongestant nasal sprays, according to Dr. Anagewa, “may produce rebound or exacerbated congestion when used beyond three days.”

Denying your illness to yourself.

If you’ve always believed that you can recover from a cold by using your mind instead of your body, give it up. Presuming you’re healthy might not prompt you to reduce your activities, which could lead to overexertion, which would exacerbate your symptoms and prolong your recovery. Worse? If you go to work or the gym when unwell, Dr. Tan warns, you’re exposing people to your condition. The best advice is to pay attention to your body and give it the rest it requires. And by all means, stay at home if you have a high fever, nausea, an upset stomach, a persistent cough, or considerable nasal congestion and a runny nose.



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Characteristics of peptic ulcers and its complications.

Characteristics of peptic ulcers and its complications.

What are peptic ulcers?

If you have open sores in your stomach or upper small intestine, you may have a peptic ulcer. That occurs when the mucus lining your digestive tract’s protective layer is removed by stomach acids. There can be no symptoms, or there might be discomfort or a sharp ache. Internal bleeding brought on by peptic ulcers can occasionally need receiving blood transfusions in a medical facility.

Researchers predict that 8.09% of people worldwide experienced at least one peptic ulcer in 2019; which is a 25% increase since 1990. According to the same study, fewer occurrences have been documented in the US since the first half of the 20th century. Between 1990 and 2019, they started to rise once more.

Peptic ulcers come in three different varieties:

  • Internal stomach ulcers are referred to as gastric ulcers.
  • Esophageal ulcers are so named because they appear inside the oesophagus.
  • Duodenal ulcers are ulcers that form in the duodenum, the upper portion of the small intestine.

Symptoms of peptic ulcers

Peptic ulcers may not show any symptoms at all or they may just produce minor discomfort. Others can feel a stomach ache that is both dull and searing.

Additional signs can include:

  • meal is tough to swallow
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • feeling full or bloated
  • sticky, dark stool (if bleeding)

Ulcers can result in severe symptoms, bleeding, and indications. These are symptoms of an ulcer that is bleeding:

  • throwing up blood
  • faeces that are dark crimson in colour or that are black and tarry
  • nausea and vomiting that is particularly intense and continuous

A medical emergency is indicated by these symptoms. The patient has to see a doctor right away or dial 911.

Causes of peptic ulcers

There are numerous potential causes of peptic ulcers, however the two most frequent ones are as follows:

H. pylori cause ulcers

It is unclear why H. pylori bacteria only cause ulcers in some people, despite the fact that many people naturally carry them. H. pylori spread via water and food. They reside in the mucus that covers the lining of the stomach and duodenum and generate the enzyme urease, which reduces the acidity of stomach acid, neutralising it.

The stomach creates more acid to make up for this, which irritates the stomach lining. Additionally, the germs irritate the stomach and impair its immune system.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause ulcers

NSAIDS are a class of drugs frequently used for headaches, menstrual cramps, and other symptoms. They can also aid in lowering inflammation and fever. Ibuprofen and aspirin are two examples. Many NSAIDs are accessible over-the-counter.

They lessen the stomach’s capacity to produce a thick layer of mucus for protection. As a result, stomach acid has a greater potential to harm Trusted Source. NSAIDs may also hinder blood flow to the stomach, which would hinder the body’s capacity to repair cells.

Other causes of peptic ulcers

Among the additional probable causes of peptic ulcers are:

  • Genetics: Many people who have peptic ulcers have relatives who also have the condition, indicating that hereditary factors could be at play.
  • Smoking: It’s possible that people who smoke tobacco frequently have a higher risk of developing peptic ulcers than people who don’t smoke, though it’s unknown how smoking affects peptic ulcers specifically.
  • Alcohol consumption: Alcohol consumption can aggravate the lining of the stomach and raise acidity.
  • Use of corticosteroids: Studies have shown that those who use high or ongoing dosages of corticosteroids are also at higher risk.

Studies on the link between stress and an increased risk of ulcers are contradictory, but one study revealed that psychological stress may make peptic ulcers more common in a way that cannot be explained by other factors like NSAID use.

Complications of a peptic ulcer

Ulcers that are left untreated may worsen over time. They may trigger additional, more severe health issues like:

  • Perforation: An infection results from a hole that forms in the stomach or small intestine lining. A perforated ulcer can cause abrupt, excruciating stomach pain.
  • Internal bleeding: Because bleeding ulcers can cause severe blood loss, hospitalisation is often necessary. Lightheadedness, wooziness, and dark stools are symptoms of a bleeding ulcer.
  • Scar tissue: After an accident, thick tissue known as scar tissue forms. Food has a tough time moving through your digestive tract because of this tissue. Vomiting and weight loss are indications that there is scar tissue.

All three issues are significant and might necessitate surgery. If you suffer any of the following symptoms, get emergency medical help right away:

  • unexpectedly acute abdominal ache
  • extreme perspiration, fainting, or confusion, as these could be symptoms of shock
  • blood in the stool or vomit
  • a difficult-to-touch abdomen
  • stomach ache that gets better when lying perfectly motionless but gets worse when you move around

Diagnosis of peptic ulcers

During a regular exam, a doctor will frequently become suspicious of a peptic ulcer due to a patient’s description of their symptoms.

The following tests can support a diagnosis:

  • an H. pylori blood test, while a positive result does not usually indicate a current infection
  • a breath test that detects H. pylori using a radioactive carbon atom.
  • a stool antigen examination to find H. pylori in the stools
  • using a GI (upper gastrointestinal) X-ray) to look for ulcers

The most popular device used by doctors to make diagnoses is Upper endoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. In order to check for the presence of an ulcer in the stomach and upper intestine, a tube must be inserted through the mouth.

The doctor may take a biopsy (a small sample of tissue) to be examined under a microscope if the test reveals an ulcer. A biopsy can check for cancerous tissue and test for H. pylori. A second endoscopy may be required a few months later to check on the ulcer’s progress.

Treatment of peptic ulcers

The goal of treatment will be to either completely eradicate the H. pylori infection or reduce stomach acid levels to allow the ulcer to heal. The following are typical treatments that a doctor might suggest:

  • Antisecretory substances. To help reduce the production of stomach acid, these include proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists.
  • Triple treatment. To get rid of H. pylori, two antibiotics plus a proton pump inhibitor are used.
  • Staying away from NSAIDs. If someone regularly uses NSAIDs, doctors advise against using them.
  • Surgery. A doctor may advise surgery in cases of bleeding, with an average recovery time of 8 to 12 weeks.


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Aspects of Kidney infection(Pyelonephritis) and its remedy.

Aspects of Kidney infection(Pyelonephritis) and its remedy.

An unexpected and serious kidney infection is known as acute pyelonephritis. The swelling it produces to the kidneys could result in long-term harm. Pyelonephritis poses a serious risk to life. The illness is referred to as chronic pyelonephritis when attacks happen frequently or persistently. Although the chronic form is uncommon, it tends to affect kids or persons who have urinary blockages more frequently.

The lower urinary system, particularly the bladder (cystitis), the prostate (prostatitis), or the upper tract and kidney can all be infected (pyelonephritis). Typically, it is a bacterial illness. In the United States, three to seven people out of every 10,000 are affected by the condition. About 2 percent of pregnant women experience it. If caught early, it is easily curable.

Ninety percent of kidney infections are brought on by a bacteria known as Escherichia coli (E Coli). The germs move up the tubes (ureters) that connect the bladder to the kidneys from the genital area through the urethra, which is the tube that drains urine from the body. Some bacteria can enter the kidneys through the bloodstream, such as staphylococcus infections.

Symptoms of Pyelonephritis

In most cases, symptoms start to show two days after infection. Typical signs include:

  • a temperature of 102°F (38.9°C) or higher
  • abdominal, back, side, or groyne pain
  • scorching or uncomfortable urinating
  • murky urine
  • pee with pus or blood in it
  • frequent or hurried urinating
  • urine that smells fishy

Additional signs can include:

Children and older individuals may experience distinct symptoms than other people do. For instance, mental confusion is a frequent symptom in older persons and is frequently the only one. People who have chronic pyelonephritis may only have minor symptoms or possibly no discernible symptoms at all.

Causes of kidney infections

Normally, the passage of urine flushes out bacteria. A kidney infection can, however, be made more likely by a number of issues. These issues could involve:

  • obstruction of urine flow due to structural anomalies (strictures, stents, stones, surgery).
  • a urethra that is being compressed by a benign prostatic hyperplasia, or enlarged prostate.
  • Urine recirculation (reflux) from the bladder to the kidneys.
  • if you experience immune system issues (low white blood cell count, use of certain medications, HIV, cancer, an organ transplant).
  • pregnancy, when the growing uterus might constrict the ureters and lessen urine flow, enabling the germs to go to the kidneys.
  • uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

Risk factors for kidney infection

Pyelonephritis acute

Acute pyelonephritis is more likely to occur when there is an issue that prevents urine from flowing normally. For instance, acute pyelonephritis is more likely to result from a urinary tract that is unusually large or shaped.

Additionally, because women have shorter urethras than males do, bacteria can enter their bodies more easily. Because of this, women are more likely to contract kidney infections and develop acute pyelonephritis.

Other individuals at higher risk include:

  • anyone who has recurring kidney stones or other renal or bladder issues, especially older people
  • those with immune systems that are weakened, such as those who have cancer, diabetes, or HIV/AIDS
  • Individuals who have vesicoureteral reflux(a condition in which a tiny volume of urine backs up from the bladder into the kidney and ureters)
  • individuals with enlarged prostate

Additional elements that may increase your susceptibility to infection include:

  • using a catheter
  • cystoscopic analysis
  • urological surgery
  • certain medicines
  • spinal cord or nerve injury

Persistent pyelonephritis

People with urinary blockages are more likely to develop chronic versions of the illness. These can be brought on by anatomical malformations, vesicoureteral reflux, or UTIs. Children are affected by chronic pyelonephritis more frequently than adults.

Kidney Infection Diagnosis

Following a discussion of your symptoms, your doctor may order tests such as:

  • Urine testing to look for bacteria, pus, and blood in your poop
  • to determine the type of bacteria in your urine

Additionally, your doctor might carry out the following tests:

  • CT or ultrasound. These check for obstructions in the urinary tract. If treatment doesn’t work after three days, your doctor may prescribe these.
  • Cystourethrogram voiding (VCUG). This kind of X-ray is used to check for urethral and bladder issues. These are frequently prescribed by doctors to kids with VUR.
  • Digital rectal examination (for men). To check for a large prostate, your doctor inserts a finger that has been greased into your anus.
  • DMSA scintigraphy uses dimercaptosuccinic acid. This shows kidney infection using radioactive material.

Kidney Infection Treatment

You may require antibiotics for a week or two, which your doctor will likely prescribe. Within a few days, your symptoms ought to become better, but be sure to take the entire prescribed dosage. If you have a serious illness, you will require hospitalisation and intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatment.

If you have recurrent kidney infections, there may be a problem with the design of your urinary system. Your physician might refer you to a specialist, like a urologist. Many times, surgery is required for these problems.

Kidney Infection Prevention

Bladder infections are not fully preventable. However, you might have a lower chance if you:

  • Avoid using deodorant douches or sprays to your genitalia.
  • Condoms and diaphragms shouldn’t be used with spermicide since they can encourage bacterial growth.
  • Use condoms with lubricant. Other varieties can irritate the urethra, increasing the risk of infection.
  • Get plenty of water.
  • As soon as you have an urge, use the restroom.
  • Pee after sexual activity.
  • After using the restroom, wipe the door to the back.


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Distinct ways to treat & prevent Salmonella Food poisoning.

Distinct ways to treat & prevent Salmonella Food poisoning.

Salmonella food poisoning is caused by certain bacteria in the Salmonella bacterium group. Both humans and animals’ intestines contain these microorganisms. When consumed, contaminated food or water with infectious excrement can cause human infection.

The small intestine is frequently impacted by a salmonella infection. Salmonella enterocolitis or enteric salmonellosis are other names for it. One of the most typical types of food poisoning is this one.

Every year in the US, 19,000 patients with salmonella food poisoning are hospitalised. People under the age of 20 are more likely to experience it. The Salmonella bacterium develops better in warm conditions, thus it’s also more likely to happen in the summer.

What causes salmonella food poisoning?

Salmonella food poisoning is brought on by consuming food or drinking anything that has been contaminated with specific types of Salmonella bacteria. Typically, infection occurs when a person consumes raw or previously handled food.

Salmonella is frequently transferred when people don’t wash (or wash their hands incorrectly) after using the restroom. Additionally, handling pets, particularly reptiles and birds, might spread it. Salmonella bacteria are destroyed by thorough cooking or pasteurisation. Consuming foods that are uncooked, undercooked, or unpasteurized puts you at danger.

Common triggers of salmonella food poisoning include:

  • undercooked poultry such as turkey or chicken
  • beneath-cooked eggs
  • bottled juice or unpasteurized milk
  • tainted fresh produce, nuts, or fruits
  • Your chance of contracting salmonella can be influenced by a number of things, including:
  • having a foodborne illness caused by salmonella in the family
  • keeping a pet bird or reptile (they can carry Salmonella)
  • living in communal spaces like dorms or nursing homes, where you are frequently exposed to a large number of people and other people preparing your food
  • travelling to impoverished nations with subpar hygienic standards and inadequate sanitation

You are more susceptible to contracting Salmonella infection than most people if you have a compromised immune system.

Symptoms of salmonella

Salmonella food poisoning symptoms frequently appear fast, typically 8 to 72 hours after consuming contaminated food or drink. Aggressive symptoms may appear and may persist for up to 48 hours.

During this acute stage, typical symptoms include:

Diarrhea-related dehydration is a severe concern, particularly in young children and newborns. Even one day can cause serious dehydration in the very young. Death may result from this.

How to manage the symptoms of salmonella?

The most crucial step in managing salmonella symptoms is to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water. You can stay hydrated by drinking things like:

  • Water.
  • sports beverages.
  • 100% fruit juice with additional water.
  • Broth.
  • Rehydration aids for the mouth (like Pedialyte).

Diarrhea in adults can be treated with over-the-counter drugs such loperamide (Imodium) and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol, Kaopectate). Children and newborns should not be given anti-diarrheal drugs without first consulting your paediatrician.

Treating salmonella food poisoning

The basic treatment for salmonella food poisoning consists of replenishing the electrolytes and fluids that are lost during diarrhoea. Adults should sip on ice cubes or drink water. Your paediatrician could advise rehydrating beverages for kids like Pedialyte.

Additionally, change your diet to just contain items that are simple to digest. Good choices include toast, rice, applesauce, and bananas. Stay away from dairy items and get lots of sleep. Your body can then fight the illness thanks to this. You may need to visit your doctor and obtain intravenous (IV) fluids if your nausea makes it difficult for you to drink anything. Infants and toddlers may also require IV fluids.

Antibiotics and medications to stop diarrhoea are typically not advised. Both the “carrier state” and the infection may be prolonged by these treatments. The time frame during and immediately following an infection during which you can spread the infection to another person is known as the “carrier state.” In order to control your symptoms, you should talk to your doctor about certain drugs. Your doctor might recommend antibiotics if the situation is serious or life-threatening.

Preventing salmonella food poisoning

Salmonella food poisoning can be avoided by:

  • Treat food with care. Prepare food to acceptable internal temperatures, and instantly put leftovers in the refrigerator.
  • Before and after cooking high-risk items, clean the counters.
  • Clean your hands completely (especially when handling eggs or poultry).
  • Separate utensils should be used for raw and cooked food.
  • Before cooking, keep food chilled.
  • Wear gloves or wash your hands properly after touching a reptile or bird you own.

People who work in the food service business who have salmonella should not come back to work until they have been free of diarrhoea for at least 48 hours.

Symptoms should disappear in two to seven days for healthy persons. The bacteria can, however, endure longer in the body. This implies that even if you don’t have any symptoms, you can still spread the Salmonella bacteria to other people.


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What is the maturity period of infection called Norovirus?

What is the maturity period of infection called Norovirus?

The stomach and intestinal virus known as norovirus is extremely contagious. Direct or indirect contact with an infected person is all that is necessary for it to spread. In crowded places like hospitals, schools, and daycare facilities, it can spread swiftly.

The majority of people have some knowledge with norovirus. It affects the stomach and digestive tract frequently. Since the norovirus can be acquired from consuming tainted food, it can potentially cause food poisoning. Regardless of how you obtain it, the outcomes remain the same.

Vomiting and watery, non-bloody diarrhoea are the norovirus’s signature signs and symptoms. These symptoms might appear anywhere between 12 and 48 hours after exposure and continue up to three days. The majority of patients fully recover.

There is no specific therapy other than rest and rehydration. Dehydration is the most important problem. The norovirus can be dangerous and even fatal in extremely young children, elderly people, and those who already have other health issues.

There are numerous norovirus strains, so having one doesn’t shield you from contracting it again. By washing your hands thoroughly and regularly, you can reduce the chance of spreading disease.

With 685 million cases worldwide each year, norovirus is estimated to be the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis is an infection and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract brought on by any infectious agent, such as bacteria or viruses. Up to 21 million infections are brought on by norovirus each year in the United States.

How contagious is Norovirus?

The virus can remain shed for up to 8 weeks. This indicates that there is a possibility that you could harm other people. Over time, it normally becomes less contagious.

Once you have been symptom-free for 48 hours, you can often go back to work or school. Workers in the food service industry are typically advised to wait 72 hours before handling food.

Norovirus causes

When you come into contact with the virus, everything begins. It can be hiding on the food you eat. Or perhaps you grip someone’s hand or touch a contaminated light switch before touching your mouth or nose. Those minute particles enter your body at that point.

As the particles go down your oesophagus, you are unaware of it. They enter your intestines after passing through your stomach. The intestines are where noroviruses thrive and appear to reproduce quickly. Your immune system is alerted to the existence of outside intruders in the interim. To eliminate them, it orders an army of antibodies.

Within one to three days, your antibodies will often declare victory over the infection. However, the virus may continue to leave your body for up to two weeks or more.

Symptoms of Norovirus

After being exposed to the virus, symptoms of infection typically appear somewhere between 12 and 48 hours later. They might be modest to really severe. Norovirus symptoms include, among others:

  • nauseous and dizzy
  • abdominal discomfort or cramps
  • diarrhoea
  • minimal fever
  • chills
  • headache
  • widespread body pain

The typical duration of symptoms is 24 to 72 hours. If symptoms continue after that or if you notice blood in your faeces, consult a doctor. Dehydration brought on by severe diarrhoea needs to be treated as a medical emergency. Dehydration symptoms and signs include:

  • throat and mouth are dry
  • reduced urine production or dark urine
  • newborns shouldn’t have a damp diaper for 6–8 hours.
  • no urine for children in 12 hours
  • darkened eyes
  • drowsiness and exhaustion
  • headache
  • dizziness
  • uncertainty and sluggishness
  • quick heartbeat

When a child sobs but doesn’t actually cry, they are likely severely dehydrated. Seek immediate medical attention. They may also appear picky and agitated.

Dehydration poses a serious risk to life, particularly for the following populations:

  • individuals with compromised immune systems
  • individuals with current medical conditions
  • the elderly and the young
  • beneficiaries of organ or stem cell transplants

According to estimates, the virus may occasionally—roughly 30% of the time—cause no symptoms at all. Children are particularly prone to this.

Norovirus maturity period

You most likely won’t be aware that you have a norovirus until after contact. You can catch it via eating contaminated food or from contacting a contaminated surface. It can also be acquired through interpersonal interactions. You can easily transfer it from your hands to your lips once they are clean.

The incubation period, also known as the interval between first encounter and the onset of symptoms, typically lasts between 12 to 48 hours, with 33 hours serving as the median.

Nausea could be your first indication that something is wrong. Watery diarrhoea, stomach pain, and sudden vomiting are possible side effects. If done within 48 to 72 hours of the onset of symptoms, the virus can be detected in a sample of your faeces, if necessary. Norovirus can occasionally be found in stool for up to 14 days or more.

You can spread the virus to others as long as it is still present in your stool. Given that the virus only needs a minimal amount to induce disease, doing so is simple. Even if you don’t have any symptoms, you can still spread the infection to other people.


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General causes and symptoms of Tetanus you must know.

General causes and symptoms of Tetanus you must know.

The dangerous infection known as tetanus, commonly known as lockjaw, is brought on by Clostridium tetani. This bacteria creates a toxin that damages the brain and neurological system and causes muscle stiffness. The neurotoxic produced when Clostridium tetani spores enter a wound prevents nerves from controlling muscular action.

The infection can ultimately be fatal and result in severe muscle spasms, significant breathing problems, and other symptoms. Tetanus therapy is available, however its efficacy varies. Getting the immunisation is the best method to prevent tetanus.

What is Tetanus?

A dangerous bacterial infection called tetanus damages the neurological system and causes the muscles all over the body to contract. Because the illness frequently produces muscle contractions in the jaw and neck, it is also known as lockjaw. It might later, nevertheless, spread to other bodily regions.

Without treatment, tetanus infection can be fatal. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 10 to 20 percent of tetanus infections result in death.

Tetanus is a serious medical issue that requires prompt hospital care. Fortunately, tetanus can be avoided by using a vaccine. This vaccination does not, however, last indefinitely. To maintain immunity, booster vaccinations for tetanus are required every ten years.

Tetanus is uncommon in the United States thanks to the vaccine’s widespread accessibility. In other nations without robust immunisation regimens, it is more prevalent.

Symptoms of Tetanus

The incubation period, or the amount of time between an infection and the onset of symptoms, is typically 10 days. The incubation phase may last three to twenty one days.

Tetanus is most frequently known as generalised tetanus. Over the course of two weeks, signs and symptoms steadily intensify after a modest start. Usually, they begin at the jaw and work their way down the body.

Generalized tetanus symptoms and signs include:

Repeated, agonising, seizure-like spasms that linger for many minutes are a symptom of tetanus progression (generalized spasms). Typically, the fists are clinched, the knees stiffen, the neck and back arch, and the arms are dragged up to the body. Breathing issues could be brought on by neck and abdominal muscle tightness.

Minor occurrences that activate the senses, such as a loud noise, a physical contact, a draught, or light, might cause these severe spasms.

Other symptoms and indicators that may appear as the condition worsens include:

Localized Tetanus

Muscle spasms are a symptom of this uncommon type of tetanus that affects the area around a wound. Although it normally manifests in a less severe form, it can develop into generalised tetanus.

Cephalic Tetanus

This uncommon type of tetanus develops after a head injury. It causes the muscles in the face to weaken and the muscles in the jaw to spasm. Additionally, it may develop into widespread tetanus.

Causes of Tetanus

Tetanus is caused by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani. The bacteria’s spores can be found in dirt, animal droppings, and dust. Spores are tiny reproductive structures that some species create. They frequently withstand difficult environmental conditions, like extreme heat.

When these spores get into the bloodstream through a severe cut or wound, a person can get sick. Once inside the brain, the bacteria spores create tetanospasmin, a toxin that affects the neurological system.

The nerve signals travelling from your spinal cord to your muscles are blocked by this poisonous toxin. Serious muscle spasms may result from this.

Infection with tetanus has been linked to:

  • crush wounds
  • damage involving dead tissue
  • burns
  • puncture wounds from injuries, medication injections, tattoos, or body piercings (such as stepping on a nail)
  • wounds that are filthy, feces- or saliva-contaminated

It has a less common connection to:

  • creature bites
  • dental disease
  • mosquito bites
  • persistent infections and sores

Nobody can spread tetanus to another individual. Although the virus spreads globally, it is more prevalent in hot, humid locations with rich soil. It’s also more common in densely populated areas.


Tetanus infections can be avoided through vaccination, but only if you get your booster shots on time. Children in the United States receive the tetanus vaccine as part of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTap) vaccination series. This combination vaccine guards against tetanus, pertussis, and diphtheria. But it doesn’t offer everlasting defence.

At 11 or 12, children need to have a booster shot. Following that, adults require a Td booster shot (for tetanus and diphtheria) every 10 years. If you’re unsure whether you have all of your immunisations up to date, speak with your doctor.

The infection can also be avoided by giving wounds the proper care and cleanliness. Call your doctor and inquire about your risk of contracting tetanus if you sustain an injury outside and believe it has come into touch with soil.

Treatment for Tetanus

Your symptoms’ severity will determine how you are treated. Tetanus is routinely treated with a range of procedures and drugs, including:

  • medications like penicillin to get rid of the microorganisms inside your body
  • tetanus immune globulin (TIG) to eliminate the poisons that your body’s germs have produced
  • muscle relaxants to prevent spasms
  • a tetanus shot given along with the remedy
  • washing the wound to remove the bacterial source

Debridement, a surgical treatment, is occasionally done to remove contaminated or dead tissue. You could require a breathing tube or ventilator if you have trouble breathing and eating (a machine that moves air in and out of the lungs).


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Risk factors involved with Primary immunodeficiency disease

Risk factors involved with Primary immunodeficiency disease

Immune deficiencies make it difficult for your body to fight off illnesses and infections. You are more likely to contract viruses and bacterial illnesses if you have this kind of condition.

Disorders of the immune system can be either inherited or acquired. You are born with a congenital, or primary, disease. A secondary or acquired disorder is one that develops later in life. Congenital disorders are less frequent than acquired disorders.

The following organs are part of your immune system:

  • spleen
  • tonsils
  • blood marrow
  • lymph glands

Lymphocytes are processed and released by these organs. These are T cells and B cells, two types of white blood cells. Antigen-based intruders are fought by B and T lymphocytes. B cells release antibodies that are tailored to the illness your body has identified. Some T cells eliminate abnormal or alien cells.

Your B and T cells may need to defend themselves against various antigens, for instance:

  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • melanoma cells
  • parasites

Your body’s capacity to fight itself against these antigens is interfered with by an immunodeficiency condition.

What is a weak immune system?

You are immunocompromised if your immune system is impaired. This indicates that, compared to healthy individuals, your body is less capable of fending off viruses or diseases.

A weakened immune system can momentarily be brought on by treatments like anticancer therapies and radiation therapy, despite the fact that it is primarily brought on by certain illnesses, starvation, and specific genetic problems.

A stem cell or organ transplant may also momentarily impair your immune system.

Signs of an immunodeficiency disorder

Immunodeficiency illnesses come in many different shapes and sizes. Each illness has distinct symptoms that may be recurrent or persistent. There are, however, a few red flags that suggest your immune system may be malfunctioning.

Those who suffer from immunodeficiency disorders frequently get infections of certain illnesses, such as:

  • red eye
  • sinus problems
  • thrush
  • colds
  • persistent gum disease (gingivitis)
  • pneumonia
  • Candida infections

Immunodeficiency condition sufferers may experience chronic stomach pain as well as weight loss over time. Your doctor may do an immunodeficiency disorder test if you notice that you are susceptible to illnesses and viruses, and that you have trouble recovering from them.

Types of immunodeficiency disorders

When the immune system is not functioning as it should, an immune deficiency disease or disorder develops. It is referred to as primary immunodeficiency disease if you are born with a deficiency that has a hereditary aetiology. Primary immunodeficiency disorders number over 200.

Primary immunodeficiency disorders include, for example:

  • common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
  • severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is also known as alymphocytosis
  • chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)

When your body is weakened by an external factor, such as a chemical or virus, secondary immunodeficiency problems develop. A secondary immunodeficiency condition can result from the following:

  • a lot of burns
  • chemotherapy
  • radiation
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • malnutrition

Secondary immunodeficiency disorders include, for example:

  • AIDS
  • immune system malignancies, such as leukaemia
  • immune-complex diseases, like viral hepatitis
  • multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells, which produce antibodies)

Causes of immunodeficiency disorders

Numerous primary immunodeficiency diseases are inherited and are acquired from either one or both parents. Many of these immune system flaws are brought on by issues with the DNA, which serves as the body’s blueprint for genetic construction.

More than 300 different primary immunodeficiency illnesses have been identified so far, and new ones are constantly being discovered. Based on whatever immune system component is impacted, they can be roughly divided into six groups:

  • Lack of B cells and antibodies
  • defects in T cells
  • a combined lack of B and T cells
  • flawed phagocytes
  • Deficits in the complement
  • Unknown (idiopathic)

Risk factors

A larger risk of acquiring primary immunodeficiency disorders in oneself exists in those with a family history of such conditions. An additional immunodeficiency condition can result from anything that impairs your immune system. As an illustration, exposure to HIV-infected bodily fluids or organ excision and replacement are both potential causes.

Additionally, ageing can impair your immune system. Some of the organs that make or process white blood cells decrease and perform less effectively as you age. Proteins are essential for maintaining immunity. Your immune system may become weakened if you don’t consume enough protein.

While you sleep, your body also generates proteins that aid in the body’s ability to fight infections. Because of this, getting too little sleep can weaken your immune system. Additionally, cancer and chemotherapy medications can lower your immunity.

Prevention of immunodeficiency disorders

There is no method to prevent primary immunological illnesses because they are brought on by genetic alterations. However, there are precautions you can do to avoid infections if you or your child has a compromised immune system:

  • Maintain proper hygiene. Use a light soap to wash your hands after using the restroom and before eating.
  • Maintain good oral hygiene. At least twice a day, brush your teeth.
  • Proper diet, An illness can be avoided with a healthy, balanced diet.
  • Be active physically. Your whole health depends on maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Find out what activities are suitable for you by asking your doctor.
  • Get adequate rest. Try to get the same amount of sleep each night and try to go to bed and wake up at the same time each day.
  • Stress management. According to certain research, stress may weaken your immune system. Massage, meditation, yoga, biofeedback, or hobbies can help you manage your stress. Figure out what works for you.
  • Prevent exposure. Avoid crowds and persons who have colds or other diseases.
  • Consult your doctor regarding vaccines. Learn which ones you ought to have.