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Consuming strawberries has been associated with better mood and cognitive function in overweight adults.

Consuming strawberries has been associated with better mood and cognitive function in overweight adults.

A recent randomized, controlled study found that eating strawberries in middle age may help prevent depression and cognitive decline in later life. Participants in the study were middle-aged individuals who self-reported as having mild cognitive decline and who were overweight and insulin resistant. According to the study’s authors, the neuroprotective agent may be anthocyanins, which are bioactive compounds found in berries like blueberries, strawberries, and others. A neurologist endorsed strawberries as a nutritious food, but he was dubious about the study’s conclusions. A recent study found that middle-aged adults with obesity and insulin resistance who ate strawberries for 12 weeks experienced less depression and memory impairment. Because cognitive disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease, progress slowly over years starting in midlife, the authors of the study looked into dietary changes that might improve mood and slow the progression of dementias. The nutritional substance found in strawberries called anthocyanins is the subject of the study. The lead author of the study found that anthocyanins, which are also found in blueberries, may have enhanced executive brain function in earlier studies.

This investigation was a small-scale, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. There were 25 women and 5 men present. Two groups were formed out of them: one got a placebo and the other got strawberries. Prior to the commencement of the 12-week trial, the individuals’ neurocognitive health and mood were evaluated by the researchers. The experimental group was given instructions to consume one packet of powder mixed with liquid during the trial. The powder was made from freeze-dried and milled whole strawberries. The California Strawberry Commission, which provided funding for the study, determined that one cup of whole, fresh strawberries was the equivalent of one strawberry packet. The strawberry powder’s taste, appearance, and carbohydrate load were all replicated in the formulation of the placebo by the researchers. To avoid skewing the results of the study, neither group consumed any other berries during the trial period. This is because other berries might contain their own unique neuroprotective compounds. The study’s authors determined that participants’ self-reported mood and the frequency of intrusion errors were the main effects to be measured following the trial period. Repetition or memorization of words not included in a word-learning task are referred to as intrusion errors.

Following the study, the researchers saw a decrease in the number of intrusion errors as well as a decrease in the occurrence of depression. According to preventive cardiology dietitian Michelle Routhenstein, RD, CDE, CDN, who was not involved in the study, strawberries are rich in anthocyanins, which may have positive effects on cognitive and emotional health. The red color of strawberries is attributed to anthocyanins. Strong antioxidants with anti-neuroinflammatory qualities, anthocyanins are good for mental and emotional well-being. According to Routhenstein, anthocyanins are also present in other fruits, including mulberries, blackberries, blueberries, bilberries, and black currants. For many, frozen strawberries are the only options available for much of the year. According to Routhenstein, frozen strawberries are just as nutritious as fresh strawberries and, given their seasonality, may often be more tasty and convenient to eat, so there’s no need to worry. In order to prevent the vitamin C content from being destroyed when it is exposed to heat, like when microwaving, it is best to thaw them naturally, like in the refrigerator overnight. The authors of the study postulate that the anti-inflammatory properties of strawberries’ anthocyanins may provide protection against cognitive decline by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

It’s very hard as a clinical neurologist to say that food that’s going to be anti-inflammatory is going to protect you from memory loss, expressed skepticism from neurologist Dr. Clifford Segil. This is because we give people anti-inflammatory drugs like Motrin, Advil, and Alleve. How is a smart anti-inflammatory food going to affect you if those don’t protect you against memory loss? Strawberries seem like a good option. Dr. Segil continued. However, it’s difficult to say whether it would have neuroprotective effects. Dr. Studies like this one, according to Segil, frequently come across his desk, My favorite study to date has been one on syrups and how maple syrups are protective. My only wish is that syrup would be neuroprotective because my kids adore it. Nevertheless, some studies have linked the consumption of strawberries and their bioactive compound, pelargonidin, to a lower risk of the tau tangles that are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.


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How studies on tiny blood vessels could aid in the prevention of vascular dementia and stroke.

How studies on tiny blood vessels could aid in the prevention of vascular dementia and stroke.

Small blood vessel models are being grown in a lab to help researchers investigate the possible causes of cerebral small vessel disease. They stated that they hope to find viable treatments for the ailment, which can affect patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Although the results are encouraging, experts warn that there is still much work to be done in this area of study. In order to determine what causes small blood vessel-like models to leak in people with specific medical conditions that raise the risk of vascular dementia and stroke, scientists at Cambridge University in England have grown the models in a lab. The journal Stem Cell Reports published the study’s findings today.

Small vessel disease (SVD) of the brain primarily occurs in two forms. The most prevalent usually affects people in their middle years and is linked to type 2 diabetes and elevated blood pressure. People in their mid-30s are typically found with the other rare form, which is inherited. A COL4 gene mutation is one of the causes. Researchers at Cambridge’s Victor Philip Dahdaleh Heart and Lung Research Institute used skin samples from patients suffering from a rare form of SVD brought on by COL4 gene mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cells, which can differentiate into nearly any type of cell in the body, were produced using these. By using these cells to create new cells, the researchers were able to model the disease that affects the brain vessels. The complex support system that surrounds cells, known as the extracellular matrix, was disrupted by the mutations in this particular form of SVD, according to the scientists. Tight junctions were especially affected by this disruption, which made the blood vessels leaky. The overproduction of molecules known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are required to preserve the extracellular matrix’s structure, was also linked to the disturbance that the researchers saw. The group used medications that block MMPs to treat the cells. To do this, they employed the anti-cancer medication marimastat, the antibiotic doxycycline, or both. According to the researchers, blocking the MMPs with medication halted the leak and undid the harm. They did point out that these medications can have harmful side effects.

SVD patients are routinely treated by Dr. Sean Savitz, a professor and the director of the Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases at UTHealth Houston. He expressed his admiration for the study’s conclusions to Medical News Today, but he issued a warning, noting that the researchers only examined rare genetic mutation cases. This is a very well-done study that raises some interesting questions about the biological and molecular alterations that may be underlying some of the pathologies observed in brains affected by small vessel disease (SVD). Not involved in the study, Savitz stated, SVD is very common, especially in older patients with vascular risk factors. He continued, It’s very interesting to use skin cells to recapitulate the conditions in small vessel disease. The fact that a common antibiotic could undo some of the changes seen was intriguing. But we must remember that the patients from whom the cells were taken had uncommon genetic mutations.

According to the researchers, approximately half (45%) of dementia cases globally and roughly one-fifth of ischemic strokes are caused by SVD. These happen when the brain’s blood and oxygen supply are cut off by a blood clot. They represent the most prevalent kind of stroke. According to an article published in Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, cerebral small vessel disease is the most prevalent, progressive, and chronic type of vascular disease. It impacts the capillaries, arterioles, and tiny veins that supply the brain’s deep structures, including the white matter. According to Dr. Shae Datta, director of cognitive neurology at NYU Langone Hospital—Long Island and co-director of NYU Langone’s Concussion Center in New York, SVD causes cognitive impairment, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, problems with mobility, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Datta, who was not involved in the study, told Medical News Today that regular exercise, healthy diet, Mediterranean diet, folic acid, and vitamin B12 and avoiding adverse lifestyle factors like smoking, excess alcohol, or high dietary sodium, are all associated with having fewer SVD features in observational studies.

According to Dr. Catherine Arnold, a neurologist at Northwell Lenox Hill in New York who was not involved in the study, there are typically multiple coexisting conditions with SVD. These may obstruct the course of therapy. In an interview with Medical News Today, Arnold stated, The results of this study allow a better understanding of some of the potential mechanisms behind the development of small vessel disease (SVD) and potential mechanisms for future treatments. However, this study alone does not provide enough clarity or insight to change practice entirely, given the likelihood of multiple co-existing processes that contribute to the disease, the speaker continued. Future research is necessary to determine whether the findings hold true for the majority of patients with cerebral small vessel disease who also have vascular risk factors like diabetes and hypertension, according to Savitz. Therefore, the results of these experiments cannot be immediately applied to a clinical setting; however, the study lays the groundwork for particular future treatment development directions. Other than vascular risk factor modifications, which include blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and adherence to a healthy diet, we do not currently have any specific treatments.

Treating the underlying cause of a condition, such as an ischemic stroke, is often the first step in treatment. According to Morales, secondary prevention strategies often involve the use of statins, glycemic control, antihypertensives, antithrombotics, and other medications in addition to encouraging social interaction, a Mediterranean diet, and frequent exercise. Medication side effects can contribute to compliance issues, which can arise frequently. Is it effective? Evidence suggests that some of the effects and progression of vascular disease can be mitigated by our current strategies; however, more effective precision-based medical strategies that target these mechanistic pathways are clearly needed.


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Brain Bleeding: Can daily low-dose aspirin increases risk?

Brain Bleeding: Can daily low-dose aspirin increases risk?

Researchers looked into how low-dose aspirin affected older person’s risk of stroke. They discovered that low-dose aspirin increased the risk of cerebral bleeding by 38% but did not significantly reduce the risk of stroke.

Before administering aspirin to prevent stroke, doctors should examine patients for cardiovascular and head injury risks.

An ischemic stroke, also known as a blocked blood vessel in the brain, or a hemorrhagic stroke, often known as an unexpected burst of bleeding in the brain, both constitute strokes.

Every year, more than 795,000 people in the US experience a stroke. Stroke is a factor in about 1 in 6 deaths from cardiovascular diseases.

The incidence of stroke must be decreased through preventive measures. Aspirin, a common pain reliever, is currently used extensively to prevent the condition.

The risk of intracranial and intracerebral haemorrhages, or bleeding in the skull and brain, may increase even if meta-analyses suggest that low-dose aspirin may lower the risk of stroke.

Due to the fragility of their small blood vessels and their higher risk of injury from incidents like falling, older people are particularly vulnerable to haemorrhaging. These elements could change how aspirin’s risks and benefits balance out.

Stroke prevention measures may be influenced by knowing how low-dose aspirin impacts older person’s risk for stroke and hemorrhage.

Recent studies looked into how low-dose aspirin affected older persons’ risk for stroke and haemorrhage. Low-dose aspirin increased the incidence of cerebral haemorrhage by 38% while having no effect on stroke risk.

Low-dose aspirin’s effects on stroke risk

The average age of the 19,114 persons whose data were analysed for the study was 74. None of the participants, who made up about 56% of the total, had a history of cardiovascular diseases like:

  • stroke
  • AFib, or atrial fibrillation
  • chest pain

The individuals were divided into two groups at random and given a daily dose of 100 mg of aspirin or a placebo. They were monitored for 4.7 years on average.

Low-dose aspirin use was discovered to be associated with marginal, clinically inconsequential decreases in the incidence of ischemic stroke.

Stroke occurred in 1.5% of those who received aspirin (146 people), whereas it happened in 1.7% of the placebo group (166 people). Additionally, there was no statistically significant decrease in hemorrhagic strokes after using aspirin.

A hemorrhagic stroke occurred in 0.5% of aspirin-assigned participants (49 people), although 0.4% of placebo-assigned participants (37 people) also experienced one. The researchers also discovered that aspirin users had a markedly increased risk of cerebral hemorrhage compared to those taking a placebo.

Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1.1% of aspirin-taking participants (108 people), compared to 0.8% of placebo-taking participants (79 people). Dr. Arun Manmadhan, an assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University’s Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons who was not engaged in the study, provided the following information to us:

This study adds to the growing body of evidence showing that routine aspirin usage to prevent first-time cardiovascular events in the general adult population has minimal benefits and may even be harmful due to increased bleeding, especially in older persons. This study supports previous recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force that persons over 60 should not regularly take aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Although aspirin is a blood thinner, low doses may cause more brain bleeding.

Experts discussed how aspirin may lower the risk of stroke with Dr. Hardik P. Amin, associate professor of neurology at Yale School of Medicine who was not involved in the study.

He claimed that individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases may develop little clusters of blood platelets, a type of blood cell that facilitates clotting, inside their blood arteries.

Aspirin stops platelets from aggregating inside blood arteries, which results in its blood-thinning action and lowers the chance of a heart attack or stroke, according to Dr. Amin.

Experts also enquired about how aspirin might raise the risk of cerebral hemorrhage Dr Walavan Sivakumar, a board-certified neurosurgeon and the director of neurosurgery at Pacific Neuroscience Institute-South Bay in Torrance, California was not involved in the study.

Aspirin may enhance the risk of brain haemorrhage in the same manner that it lowers the likelihood of blood clots developing and travelling to the brain, according to Dr. Sivakumar.

One of the ways that the body stops bleeding is by forming blood clots. As a result, aspirin also makes it harder for the body to stop bleeding once it starts,” the doctor explained.

Need for larger investigations on the dangers of aspirin at low doses

Dr. Maria Parekh, an expert on stroke and an assistant professor of neurology at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston who was not involved in the study, was consulted by experts regarding its limitations.

She pointed out that because there weren’t many episodes of cerebral hemorrhage and stroke in the study overall, the conclusions could have been tainted by random and intentional mistakes.

Aspirin is also known to help those who have experienced an ischemic stroke, in which the blood supply to the brain is halted or diminished, as it prevents blood clots from developing that could cause another stroke, Dr. Parekh continued. She stated that this is referred to as “secondary prevention.”

However, this research focused on the use of aspirin as “primary stroke prevention,” specifically in healthy older persons “free of overt cardiovascular disease,” to prevent first-time ischemic stroke. As a result, it excludes those who would most likely benefit from taking low dose aspirin, Dr. Maria Parekh pointed out.

Dr. Ziad Hage, a cerebrovascular and endovascular neurosurgeon at Novant Health in Charlotte, North Carolina, who is board-certified and fellowship-trained, was also questioned by experts about the study.

He said that groups at high risk of stroke or secondary stroke prevention may not be affected by the findings. He cautioned that the results might not apply to more varied demographics because the study’s participants were mostly older, white, and had easy access to blood pressure and lipid-lowering drugs.

Do you need to quit using low-dose aspirin?

These results indicate that advocating aspirin use can hurt patients who are healthy and have no cardiovascular risk factors, according to Dr. Sivakumar.

“At that point, patients may choose to make more conservative lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and exercising frequently.”

Dr. Hage concurred that individuals who had a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases like stroke should take aspirin. He said that unless required, aspirin should also be avoided by individuals who have a higher risk of falling.

In conclusion, it’s critical that the public comprehend that aspirin can be helpful in some circumstances, thus speaking with an expert on the subject is of the utmost importance. Stroke symptoms include sudden onset, facial, arm, or leg weakness, speech slurring or difficulty speaking, sudden loss of vision in one eye, and sudden loss of balance, among other symptoms. Dr. Ziad Hage, a cerebrovascular and endovascular neurosurgeon, advised patients to get medical attention if they experience any of these symptoms.


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Is placebo just as good as opioids for lower back?

Is placebo just as good as opioids for lower back?

For the treatment of neck pain and low back pain, researchers examined the effectiveness of opioids with a placebo. After six weeks of therapy, there were no appreciable differences in pain scores between the opioids group and the placebo group. After a year later, the placebo group had somewhat lower pain scores.

The results imply that opioids might not be successful in treating some types of pain.

The greatest cause of disability worldwide is lower back pain. 619 million people worldwide would be impacted by the illness in 2020. This number is projected to rise to 843 million by 2050.

According to estimates of “years lived with disability,” neck discomfort is the fourth most common cause of impairment globally and a major contributor to disability.

When alternative treatments have failed to relieve a person’s lower back or neck pain, clinical guidelines advise turning to opioid medicines. According to studies, many people with the disorders, including two-thirds of those in Australia, may first try opioids.

Despite this, there isn’t much proof that opioids work well for treating neck and lower back pain. It is also well known that using opioids as a treatment raises the chance of unfavourable outcomes like opioid dependence, abuse, and overdose.

Treatment options may be influenced by additional research on the effectiveness of opioids in treating lower back and neck pain.

Researchers from the University of Sydney in Australia recently looked into the effectiveness and safety of brief opioid treatment regimens for treating neck and lower back pain.

They discovered that the risk of abuse rose with subsequent opioid treatments and that opioids did not provide better pain relief than a placebo.

There is no discernible difference between opioids and a placebo.

The average age of the 347 people the researchers enrolled in the study was 44,7. Nearly half of the participants were female, and all had experienced lower back pain, neck pain, or both for 12 weeks or less.

The patients were divided into two groups at random and either received the indicated treatment plus the opioid oxycodone-naloxone or the recommended treatment plus a matching placebo for up to six weeks.

Care that was advised by guidelines included assurance and suggestions to be active. Participants could seek additional care if needed after six weeks.

There was no discernible change in pain levels between the opioid and placebo groups, after 6 weeks of treatment. After accounting for the location of the pain and the number of days after the pain started, the results remained unchanged.

After 12 weeks, there was little difference in the pain scores between the placebo and opioid groups, but by week 52, individuals in the placebo group had slightly lower pain scores.

At week 6, the opioids and placebo groups’ average pain scores were 2.78 and 2.25, respectively. At 52 weeks, the opioids group’s pain score was 2.37, compared to 1.81 for the placebo group.

They also discovered that there was no difference in the groups’ physical quality of life. At 6 and 12 weeks, however, the placebo group’s mental health showed a modest but substantial improvement.

The number of participants reporting adverse events was the same in both groups, but the opioid group was more likely to develop opioid misuse.

On the Current Opioid Misuse Measure Scale, 20% of the opioid group and 10% of the placebo group were categorized as “at risk” after 52 weeks.

Why don’t opioids work?

Dr. Wang Lushun is a senior consultant orthopedic surgeon at Arete Ortho in Singapore and a non-participant in the study. He was questioned about the potential ineffectiveness of opioids for treating lower back and neck pain.

Opioids are typically used to treat pain, but recent research suggests that they might not be as beneficial for neck and lower back pain. This is because opioids primarily target pain perceptions rather than the underlying causes of pain, according to Dr. Wang.

The medications aid in reducing pain perception by attaching to opioid receptors in the brain. However, the main causes of these pains inflammation or physical harm are not actually relieved,” he said.

The body can get tolerant to opioids over time, necessitating the use of greater doses to provide the same amount of pain relief”. Dr. Wang Lushun warned that this could result in adverse effects and perhaps reliance. One such side effect is a condition known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia, which can make pain worse.

What are the research’s constraints?

Dr. Joel Frank is a licensed psychologist at Duality Psychological Services in California who was not engaged in the study. He responded to our inquiry regarding the study’s shortcomings:

First off, although 42% of the sample failed to follow the treatment strategy, which was medication-focused. Second, they claimed that the care was “not monitored,” even though their “guideline care” recommended physical activity.

Thirdly, Dr. Frank noted that the BPI, a self-report measure, was used as their main indicator of pain intensity. Self-report assessments are by nature subjective. To obtain a more complete picture of the subjective experienced pain Lee patients, it is recommended to integrate extra measures that assess pain catastrophization when using self-report measures for pain.

Additionally, we had a conversation with Dr. Vernon Williams, a sports neurologist, pain management expert, and founding leader of the Centre for Sports Neurology and Pain Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Kerlan-Jobe Institute in California who was not affiliated with the study.

Your body’s reaction to the anticipation of the active treatment and your body’s reaction to the possible benefit or anticipation of the placebo both have physiological effects. The study revealed that the opioid did not perform better than the placebo, not that it was ineffective. It’s a small but important difference,” he said.

A senior research scholar at the University of Sydney in Australia who was not involved in the study, Dr. Gustavo De Carvalho Machado, was also questioned about its shortcomings. He issued the following advice:

The results do not necessarily apply to emergency rooms and pre-hospital situations, where patients need an ambulance. The outcomes of this research were examined weeks after recruitment, and in emergency settings, prompt analgesia within hours is critical for management and discharge planning. Patients who present to these settings have more severe pain and disability.

Alternatives to traditional medicine for back pain

De Mesa was also asked about possible treatments for neck and lower back problems.

More efficient solutions for neck and lower back pain deal with the underlying problems. For instance, a doctor can assist in identifying the precise muscles and/or surrounding tissues, such as tendons and ligaments, that are involved. Exercise, better ergonomics, and physical treatment may be advised,” he said.

Since spinal pain frequently has multiple causes, a holistic approach to treatment can aid in the patient’s long-term healing. Acupuncture, diet, cognitive behavioral therapy, and educational programs are all helpful in addition to physical fitness. As required, over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs can be taken. Depending on the needs and circumstances of the individual, the optimum treatment strategy will change, he said.

De Mesa stated that spine surgeons, pain specialists, and board-certified physiatrists may be suggested for chronic spinal pain.

Arthritis of the spinal joints or inflammation of the vertebral endplates may be the source of chronic pain. It may be advised to administer injections to locate the source of the pain and treat it,” the doctor said.

Basivertebral nerve ablation and radiofrequency ablation of the spinal medial branch nerves are two examples of interventional therapies that may lessen pain and enhance quality of life. Surgery is only used as a last resort and is only done when it is judged medically essential,” he added.


For Bone disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Higher doses of Ozempic improve blood sugar, weight loss?

Higher doses of Ozempic improve blood sugar, weight loss?

According to experts, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) medications like Ozempic, often referred to as semaglutide, can aid in weight loss in those who are obese.

For weight loss, Ozempic is not FDA-approved. There is also the brand Wegovy, which is semaglutide.

Wegovy and Ozempic should not be used by persons who are not diabetic or obese for any reason, including to shed minor amounts of weight, according to experts.

In the latter part of 2017, the FDA approved the use of the GLP-1 medication Ozempic in people with type 2 diabetes. But lately, it’s made news for other reasons as well: Benefits of purported weight loss and scarcity.

“People are talking about them because there is a trend where celebrities and influencers are increasingly turning to off-label use of GLP-1 medications like Ozempic for weight loss by people who are not obese or diabetic,” claims Dr. Rekha Kumar, an endocrinologist in New York City and the head of medical affairs at the weight management program Found.

This, according to Kumar, is very troubling.

“The trend of medispas, boutique weight-loss clinics, and illegal telehealth businesses liberally prescribing to people who don’t meet criteria is not only irresponsible prescribing, but it may also prevent the medication from reaching those who need it most,” Kumar claims.

By responding to the following frequently asked questions regarding Ozempic, Kumar and other professionals distinguished fact from fantasy.

What is Ozempic?

Dr. Angela Fitch, FACP, FOMA, president of the Obesity Medicine Association and chief medical officer of knownwell, a weight-inclusive healthcare firm, says that Ozempic is a brand name for the medication recognised as semaglutide.

Ozempic is an injectable medicine for persons with type 2 diabetes, according to Kumar. The FDA first approved it for 0.5 mg or 1 mg dosages. The FDA authorized a higher dose of 2 mg in 2022.

According to Kumar, it helps the pancreas produce insulin, which decreases blood sugar levels.

Adverse effects of semaglutide

All GLP-1 medications, as pharmacological agents, have the potential to have side effects, according to Dr. Jay Shubrook, professor of the Primary Care Department at Touro University in California.

According to Dr. Shubrook, these “are frequently dose-dependent and can be more obvious during dose changes.”

In any case, typical adverse effects of semaglutide “include an excessive loss of appetite, nausea, and less frequently, vomiting or diarrhoea. Most patients only experience temporary adverse effects, he noted.

He pointed out that teaching patients to eat slowly and mindfully, as well as how to control their portions, can lessen the negative effects of semaglutide.

Is Ozempic an FDA-approved weight-loss product?

No. “Ozempic is only approved for diabetes,” claims Dr. Charlie Seltzer, a Philadelphia-based medical professional who is board-certified in both internal medicine and obesity.

But here’s where some of the ambiguity arises. “The active ingredient, semaglutide, is approved for weight loss under the trade name Wegovy,” claims Seltzer.

Elon Musk tweeted about Wegovy’s assistance with his weight loss in October 2022.

Distinction between Wegovy and Olympic

Semaglutide and injectables are both sold under the trade names Ozempic and Wegovy. They aren’t precisely the same, though.

“Wegovy is FDA-approved for the treatment of overweight and obesity,” claims Kumar. “Wegovy was developed specifically for the treatment of overweight and obesity,” according to the manufacturer. “It contains a higher dose of semaglutide, [2.4 mg], than Ozempic.”

Does Ozempic aid in shedding pounds?

Kumar points out that Wegovy’s dosing was employed in the studies on semaglutide and weight loss, including one from 2021 that showed that once-weekly doses of 2.4 mg of semaglutide could lower body weight when paired with dietary and lifestyle modifications.

“[In the] study,] those who took the medication and made lifestyle changes lost almost 15% of their body weight, on average, compared to 3% in the placebo group,” Kumar claims.

So certainly, semaglutide may aid in weight loss, at least at a greater dose of 2.4 mg. Although Seltzer observes that the two medications function similarly, it is uncertain whether the 0.4 mg dosage difference between Ozempic and Wegovy is significant.

As food takes longer to leave the stomach and suppresses hunger, ozempic prolongs satiety, according to Seltzer. “It does nothing magical to the metabolism.”

In addition, Kumar points out that despite what some celebrities and social media influencers may say, these medications are not intended for those who just want to drop a few pounds.

“Normal-weight patients without diabetes might lose weight if they take GLP-1s, but the risks of the medication outweigh the benefit of weight loss just to be thin versus treating a disease,” says Kumar. “GLP-1s have not been studied in this population, and with this type of inappropriate use, we probably will see more side effects.”

Is Ozempic safe?

For adults with type 2 diabetes, ozempic is typically regarded as safe in doses up to 2 mg, however doctors agree that some people shouldn’t take it.

“It should be avoided in many populations, including but not limited to people with a history of pancreatitis, people who have had medullary thyroid cancer, or who are at increased risk for medullary thyroid cancer,” says Seltzer.

If you are a good candidate for Ozempic, your doctor can help you decide. Furthermore, some persons might suffer negative effects. According to Fitch, typical ones include:

  • nausea
  • constipation
  • dizziness
  • reduction in appetite
  • diarrhea

Can you regain weight after using semaglutide?

Patients who quit taking 2.4 mg dosages of semaglutide had gained back two-thirds of the weight they had lost one year after stopping, according to a trial of nearly 2,000 patients published in 2022.

The same problems that got the people into difficulty in the first place will still exist once the drug is stopped or loses its effectiveness, according to Seltzer, and the weight will quickly regain.

Fitch concurs,

Whatever you do personally to aid in weight loss, Fitch advises, “You have to keep doing it, or the weight will come back.” “The human body was created in this manner. It is constructed to safeguard its weight at all costs. Care for the elderly is crucial.

“Since obesity is a chronic disease, you must treat it chronically, ongoingly, and in a coordinated, comprehensive way,” adds Fitch. For a comprehensive approach to metabolic health, weight control, and primary care, patients must collaborate with their doctor.

What other therapies are there for obesity?

First, Fitch emphasises the need of being nonjudgmental and emphasising joint decision-making in all obesity treatments.

According to Fitch, “obesity is a lifelong chronic disease and should be treated in a compassionate and thorough patient-centered way, such as shared decision making around taking medication or having surgery with the risks and benefits in mind.”

Although diet and exercise are frequently suggested as first-line therapy, they are not always effective.

“Obesity is a complex disease with many factors,” explains Fitch. “We add in other treatments to help patients live longer, healthier, better quality lives when lifestyle changes are not enough.”


For Weight loss medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Experimental drugs could improve several cancer therapies.

Experimental drugs could improve several cancer therapies.

In order to combine medication with diagnostics, researchers have found a novel radioactive compound named CB-2PA-NT as a possible possibility.

The chemical exhibits strong uptake and retention in tumors while maintaining a distinct difference from surrounding tissues. It works by targeting neurotensin receptors, which are prevalent in numerous malignancies.

Shortly, researchers intend to carry out human imaging investigations utilizing CB-2PA-NT, which may have an impact on personalized cancer treatment for patients. Regulatory approval is still waiting.

The University of Wisconsin and the University of North Carolina worked together to create the anti-cancer medication candidate CB-2PA-NT, which has the potential to be used widely.

This study lays the framework for future investigations that will use CB-2PA-NT in human imaging, albeit these studies still require regulatory approval in order to start.

New research positions CB-2PA-NT as a promising candidate for an original theranostics method, according to data presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Annual Meeting (SNMMI 2023).

Therapy and diagnostics are combined in theranostics.

Correct diagnosis is a prerequisite to choosing the best course of action. A precise diagnosis is even more crucial in the era of personalized medicine. This is where treatments can be tailored to a person’s unique biomarkers.

This is especially true in the field of cancer, where it is crucial to get a precise diagnosis.

Theranostics offers a potent method for battling cancer by fusing two crucial components. It entails locating cancer cells throughout the body and removing them with specialized radiation.

Positron emission tomography (PET) is used to localise the malignancy, and then medicine is given to kill it. Theranostics’ astounding accuracy greatly reduces the possibility of damaging nearby healthy tissues.

CB-2PA-NT has the potential to significantly advance the field of precision medicine by particularly targeting neurotensin receptors (NTSRs) present in diverse cancer types.

Researchers pursue the receptors on cancer cells

When it comes to many malignancies, including lung, colorectal, breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancers, NTSRs are more prevalent receptors.

A radioactive chemical that can precisely bind to NTSR1, one of these receptors, has been developed by scientists.

In terms of how well they are absorbed and retained by tumors, earlier attempts to synthesize these compounds have had mixed results.

One of the study’s authors and doctorate candidate at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, Xinrui Ma, gave us an explanation of the main conclusions.

“This [study] abstract reports] a novel theranostic agent targeting neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) and its application in cancer imaging and therapy,” said Ma.

The optimization of NTSR1-related compounds has already been attempted by numerous organizations, including our own. In fact, we have been working on this topic since 2012. Challenges include limited serum stability, significant liver absorption, some ligands’ agonistic character, and/or quick washout, she added.

The cross-linked propylamine moiety, Ma continued, “can significantly improve tumor uptake and retention, building on previous research and experience.”

“The tumor absorption increased 10-fold as compared to the peptide-based ligand while still maintaining the high contrast. The high uptake was also sustained at 24 and 48 hours following injection, which is more significant, the researcher said.

We have a rare chance to create theranostic drugs for patient treatment because of the much better tumor absorption and retention. Indeed, to investigate the theranostic potential of these novel compounds in a variety of cancer types, such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and PSMA-negative prostate cancer, we have forged a close partnership with Prof. Jonathan Engle’s team at the University of Wisconsin, said Xinrui Ma.

Which NTSR1 inhibitor is most effective?

The best NTSR1 antagonist for imaging and therapy was determined by the researchers’ investigation, which looked at a variety of NTSR1 antagonists.

They then carried out studies to radioactively designate these compounds. They verified that the NTSR1 receptor was in fact present in the lung cancer cells (H1299 cells) using a procedure known as western blot.

The compounds were also examined for stability in test tubes and on living lung cancer cells. Also, for their capacity to bind to lung cancer cells in laboratory settings and on animals.

Finally, to examine how the chemicals were dispersed throughout the body, they used PET and CT imaging on tiny animals.

Western blot analysis of the results revealed that the NTSR1 receptor was substantially expressed in the H1299 lung cancer cells. The chemical known as CB-2PA-NT has shown a potent ability to bind to the H1299 lung cancer cells among the NTSR1 antagonists.

Small animal imaging provided proof that CB-2PA-NT was taken up by the tumor in large numbers. Clearly contrasted with the surrounding tissues, and stayed in the tumor for a considerable amount of time.

CB-2PA-NT was chosen for additional research because it stood out as the most promising compound when compared to the other NTSR1 antagonists.

There is a “need to confirm application in humans”

If this theranostic strategy is successful, it may provide a reliable method for imaging to detect the presence of NTSR1 in many cancer types.

This would be helpful for making diagnoses, selecting patients, and keeping track of how well treatments were working. It might also function as a radioactive material used in therapy.

We were informed by Yale resident doctor Dr. Tejasav Sehrawat. He was unrelated to the experiment, that “theranostics is a young discipline for diagnosing and treating malignancies. The growth of the field overall is quite intriguing and has a lot of potential. The competent execution of this investigation and the good preclinical findings are encouraging.

“While the authors have already demonstrated their findings in animal models, application in people still has to be verified. We should all be eagerly awaiting the findings of the authors’ next human investigations. Because there is significant inter-species heterogeneity in these studies, according to Dr. Tejasav Sehrawat.

Possibly negative future effects for cancer patients

This finding, according to Ma, “is important because it could offer personalised medicine for cancer patients,”

She informed us that, in terms of the disease, NTSR was discovered to be overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues. Specifically in PSMA-negative prostate cancer tissues.

This shows that NTSR1-targeted theranostics may be a prostate cancer treatment option in populations that are ineligible for PSMA-based methods. Lung, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers are only a few of the tumors that could potentially benefit from NTSR-targeted theranostics, says Ma, Xinrui

“A broad spectrum of patients may benefit from the newly developed agents,” Ma noted. The researchers are still awaiting regulatory authorization to carry out the first-ever human imaging tests with CB-2PA-NT, and more study is required.


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long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

Following a heart attack, beta-blockers are frequently prescribed to patients to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

According to a recent study, taking drugs over the long term after a heart attack doesn’t seem to benefit cardiovascular health.

The observational study, according to experts, offers useful data, but they also point out that beta-blockers continue to be helpful for a large number of people.

Research in the journal Heart found no evidence that long-term beta-blocker use improved cardiovascular health or decreased the risk of further heart attacks.

Researchers looked at the medical records of persons who had a heart attack between 2005 and 2016 and required hospital treatment using the Swedish national registry for coronary heart disease.

Records from 43,618 persons, with an average age of 64, were included in the study. There were about 1 in 4 women. None of them had left ventricular systolic dysfunction or cardiac failure.

One year after being hospitalized for a heart attack, of the participants, 34,253 (78%) were using beta-blockers, whereas 9,365 (22%) were not.

For an average of 4.5 years following their hospitalisation, the researchers followed up with the participants.

Researchers evaluated the two groups in terms of:

  • Death rates from all causes
  • Additional heart attacks
  • Getting re-vascularized, a procedure to bring back blood flow to certain areas of the heart
  • Heart attack

2,028 (22%) and 6,475 (19%) of the beta-blocker users had one of these occurrences during the observation period.

There was no noticeable difference in the rates between the two groups, according to the researchers, who took demographic factors and pertinent co-morbid disorders into account.

According to real-time data, the use of long-term beta-blockers after a heart attack in persons without heart failure or left ventricular systolic dysfunction was not linked to better cardiovascular outcomes.

Physician response to beta-blocker research

The interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in California, Dr. Hoang Nguyen, recommended beta blockers for patients with left ventricular dysfunction since they had a demonstrable mortality benefit.

According to him, beta blockers are a lifetime in this patient population. “Beta blockers are necessary for patients with a history of coronary artery disease who are not candidates for bypass surgery or stents to lower angina symptoms and hospitalizations for this symptom. I might try to wean them off of beta blockers, especially if they have serious adverse effects if they have undergone revascularization (either with stents or bypass surgery) or have normally left ventricle function.

This study has prompted some doctors to reconsider their methods, but not all of them are presently prepared to do so.

According to Dr. Devin Kehl, a non-invasive cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, “this study suggests that a long-term continuation of beta-blockers following myocardial infarction may not be of significant benefit in patients without any of those factors and with normal cardiac function.” However, because it was an observational study, the results might have been impacted by unrecognized confounders.

To be more clear about whether beta-blockers should be continued or stopped after one year following myocardial infarction, randomized trials are required, according to Kehl, who spoke to us. “Caution is needed in interpreting the results of this type of analysis and applying this clinical practice,” Kehl said.

In conclusion, it is still necessary for a patient’s cardiologist to exercise careful clinical judgement when deciding how long beta-blocker therapy should be administered after myocardial infarction.


Beta-blockers are used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

They accomplish this by preventing the negative effects that stress hormones have on the heart and can lower heart rate. They are also beneficial for migraines.

Beta-blockers are typically regarded as secure and efficient. However, there are some adverse effects, such as:

  • Fatigue
  • easily running out of breath
  • Unsteadiness or faintness
  • Depression

Nguyen notes that side effects of the drugs include memory loss and impaired sexual function.

Perhaps we should try to wean patients off beta blockers if a beta blocker is not needed after one year, especially if the patient’s heart function is normal,” Nguyen suggested.

Some people might not be able to take them or might quit taking them because of the negative effects.

The use of beta-blockers

After the first year of treatment, Miller typically stops prescribing beta-blockers to heart attack survivors with intact cardiac function.

They are only kept on the drug if there is another condition, like hypertension, that calls for it.

Those with heart failure, irregular cardiac rhythm, hypertension, and recurring palpitations that happen without a known trigger (like caffeine), are candidates who can benefit from beta-blockers.

“The patient should always discuss with their physician whether or not a beta-blocker is a suitable treatment and/or should be discontinued,” he said.

Reduce the dosage gradually rather than stopping the drug all at once if a patient decides to stop taking it.

Considering the future

Medication observation studies examine participants’ responses to a drug or treatment without changing their circumstances.

Observational studies are not regarded by medical practitioners as being as reliable as randomised, controlled trials. However, when prescribing medications, they provide important information for doctors and other medical professionals.

Beta-blockers have long been and will continue to remain a cornerstone medical therapy following a myocardial infarction as they have been clearly demonstrated to reduce the risk of recurrent events and death,” said Kehl. However, clinical trials have not examined the benefit of beta-blockers in patients with normal cardiac function beyond three years after a myocardial infarction, and their benefit is strongest in the early period post-myocardial infarction, according to the study.

Additionally, patients with and without cardiac dysfunction were included in a mixed cohort in clinical trials looking at the benefits of beta-blockers, the author continued. “It is unclear if long-term use of beta-blockers after myocardial infarction benefits people with normal cardiac function. Due to a lack of data from clinical research, the American College of Cardiology guidelines do not directly address the issue. Currently, a long-term continuation of beta-blockers depends on carefully examining the patient’s cardiac history and determining whether there are any other distinct indications for using beta-blockers, such as arrhythmias, angina, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, or hypertension.”


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Is moderate exercise safe for the muscles of statin users?

Is moderate exercise safe for the muscles of statin users?

According to a recent study, statin users are concerned about exercising. Because they think it can cause muscle damage and shouldn’t be. Both the statin-taking participants and the control participants in the research reported similar muscle soreness after moderate activity.

Nonetheless, statin users are not advised to engage in vigorous activity. Those on statins who are reluctant to exercise out of concern that it could harm their muscles should take heart from a recent study.

Some persons using the cholesterol-lowering medication claim to have muscle pain, and they may stop engaging in cardiovascular-healthy physical exercise.

The study reveals that statin users, regardless of whether they have muscle issues or not, have the same muscle-related consequences from moderate-intensity exercise.

Everybody who engages in such exercise is likely to experience brief muscle soreness and weariness. For those using statins, this is also accurate. Statin users, however, recovered slightly more slowly than trial participants who did not take any medication.

The effects of exercising at a moderate intensity were examined in this study. According to other studies, patients using statins are more likely to have skeletal muscle injuries when engaging in eccentric, or high-intensity, activity.

The most recent research results have been published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The study’s results are crucial for the cardiovascular health of statin users, as is highlighted in an editorial that is included with the paper.

An analysis of the effects of walking

100 people took part in the study as a participant. This comprised 31 individuals not taking statins as a control group. 34 individuals on statins who did not display any muscle difficulties. And 35 individuals taking statins who had statin-associated muscular symptoms.

Before the research, those taking statins had been doing so for at least three months. The following health conditions were omitted from the study: diabetes, hypo or hyperthyroidism, and genetic skeletal muscle disease. Supplement users of CoQ10 were also not included.

Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, levels of physical activity, and vitamin D3 levels were identical at the beginning of the trial. Those who had symptoms at the start of the trial scored higher on muscle soreness and fatigue.

The researchers looked at those who participated in the 4Days Marches, a four-day event in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Participants walk anything between 18 and 30 miles each day.

“During four days, participants walk 30, 40, or 50 kilometers (18, 24, or 31 miles) each day. Accordingly, participants walk anywhere from 120 (74 miles) to 200 (124 miles) km over four days, according to the study’s lead author, Dr. Neeltje A.E. Allard of the Radboud Institute for Health Sciences and the Department of physiology at Radboud University Medical Center in the Netherlands.

The participants prepare beforehand because there is a lot of walking. In actuality, it was first held as a military exercise in 1909 and has since developed into the biggest walking competition in the world, in which both active duty personnel and casual walkers compete.

The effects of walking on muscular damage in people who experienced symptoms and those who did not were compared by the researchers.

What are statins?

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as “bad cholesterol,” can be reduced by using the statin drug class. The best treatment for hyperlipidemia is statins.

According to cardiologist Dr. David Lee from Oregon Health & Study University (OHSU), who was not engaged in the study, “high cholesterol” and a significant treatment after a heart attack.

He emphasised that they are crucial preventative measures against repeat heart attacks and strokes.

Further stating that statins “have been a primary reason that heart disease and strokes have declined dramatically since their debut in the early 1990s,” Emilee Taylor, a doctor of pharmacy who works at OHSU but is not involved in the present study, was quoted.

They have significant enough effects to lower all-cause mortality in persons with even modest cardiac disease, according to the researcher.

Workout volume matters.

The study included 31 non-statin users, 34 asymptomatic statin users, and 35 symptomatic statin users—those who experienced muscle issues as a result of taking statins.

Eighty percent of the participants with symptoms were men, and their average age was 64. The participants in the control group were all of the same age, and 62% of them were men. The asymptomatic participants were 82% male and slightly older, at 68 years old.

Each person took part in a moderate exercise regimen that involved walking 30, 40, or 50 kilometers (km) per day for 4 straight days at a pace of their choosing.

One or two days before the start of the walking experiment, researchers took the participants’ baseline measurements of height, weight, and waist circumference. Every 5 kilometers on the first walking day, their heart rates were recorded.

Participants’ weights were measured after the first, second, and third days to gauge their level of hydration. The researchers were able to gauge their walking pace and workout duration based on their start and finish times. An estimate of exercise intensity was provided using a heart rate-based calculation.

Finally, participants discussed how their muscles felt both before and after exercise. The effects of exercise were similar in both groups, the researchers discovered, except the fact that statin users required more time to recover from post-exercise muscle weakness than the control group.

Participants’ levels of CoQ10 were also monitored in the trial. CoQ10 has been suggested as a potential contributor to statin-related muscular issues.

The levels of CoQ10 were not different between the three groups, and they were also unrelated to muscular function, reported muscle problems, or injury signs.

Statin-associated muscle symptoms

SAMS, which stands for “statin-associated muscular symptoms,” is the aggregate term used to describe muscle issues that have been documented while taking statins. Myalgia, cramps, and a feeling of weak muscles are a few of these.

Due to worries about SAMS, some individuals who could benefit from statins choose not to take them or do not take the recommended amounts.

Regarding how common SAMS are, there is some disagreement. According to the American Academy of Cardiology, clinical observation studies show a substantially higher frequency of SAMS than randomized controlled trials do.

According to one survey of former statin users, 62% of them stopped using the medication due to negative effects.

The National Lipid Association (NLA) reports that research indicates the true incidence of SAMS is approximately 10%, with several studies indicating its prevalence among statin users to range from 5% to 25%. While the symptoms that patients experience are real, 80% of them, according to the NLA, are not brought on by statins.

For patients to be more aware of what to watch out for, Dr. Lee believes it is crucial that doctors adequately inform them of how SAMS often manifest.

Exercising on statins

The current advice for those taking statins was summarised by board-certified interventional cardiologist Dr. Michael S. Broukhim of Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California. He was not involved in the study.

“Patients should establish a regular exercise regimen, with a preference for a moderate-intensity exercise programme,” he advised. “Patients should continue to take their statins at their maximally tolerated dose following discussion with their healthcare professionals.”

Dr. Broukhim noted that he advises 150 minutes of moderate activity each week, the same amount of exercise as is advised for those who do not take statins.

He advised against high-intensity exercise since it can increase the levels of muscle enzymes that can cause muscle damage in statin-using individuals.

Exercises with a moderate level of intensity include:

  • rapid walking
  • Cycling
  • Aquatic exercise
  • general exercises
  • Tennis pairs
  • tango dancing

According to Masi, doctors advise a mix of resistance training and cardiovascular exercise for people who wish to start working out. Everyone should begin at their own pace and abilities and progressively increase both duration and resistance, according to Masi.


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New drug combination reduces Lung cancer tumors.

New drug combination reduces Lung cancer tumors.

The second most frequent type of cancer in the world is lung cancer. Around 2 million people are given a lung cancer diagnosis each year, and 1.8 million people pass away from the condition.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are the two forms of lung cancer, with NSCLC accounting for the majority of instances. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are all effective treatments for NSCLC, although it is rarely curable.

Today, studies have discovered that a combination of two medications reduces the size and quantity of tumours in mice with NSCLC, a finding that could result in human clinical trials.

Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer diagnosed in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society. Moreover, it is the main cause of cancer mortality, accounting for one in five cancer-related deaths, more than colon, breast, and prostate cancers put together.

The typical age of diagnosis for lung cancer is 70 years old, with most cases being found in older patients. The good news is that cases are declining as fewer individuals smoke tobacco, which is responsible for more than 80% of lung cancer cases. A diagnosis of lung cancer is still given to over 2 million people annually worldwide.

Lung tumours other than small cell comprise 85% of cases (NSCLCs). There is an urgent need for novel therapies because immunotherapy and chemotherapy are not very successful against this kind of lung cancer.

Now, researchers from the Salk Institute and Northwestern University have discovered that treating NSCLC-affected mice with a cocktail of two drugs—one of which is already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the other is undergoing clinical trials—reduced the size and frequency of the tumours.

Need for new treatments

According to Dr. Lillian Eichner, a principal author of the study and an assistant professor of biochemistry and molecular genetics at Northwestern University, “This medication might be helpful for patients with KRAS/LKB1 mutant lung adenocarcinoma.”

About 20,000 new cases of this disease’s molecular subtype are reported each year in the United States, she said. “Patients with this terrible disease currently have an average survival duration of 10 months after diagnosis, and improved therapeutic techniques are desperately needed.”

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been suggested as a possible therapy for this particular form of lung cancer by the researchers. Animal tumour growth has been demonstrated to be slowed by HDAC inhibitors, which are epigenetic regulators.

After proving that HDAC3 was essential for the development of difficult-to-treat LKB1-mutant cancers, the study’s authors investigated if pharmacologically inhibiting HDAC3 may have an impact on tumour growth.

In this study, they treated KRAS/LKB1 mutant NSCLC in mice with two different medications: the FDA-approved MEK inhibitor trametinib and the HDAC1/HDAC3 inhibitor entinostat, which is currently in clinical development.

Lung tumor study

The LKB1 genetic mutation is present in NSCLCs, and Salk researchers were interested in investigating a novel targeted therapeutic option.

According to Dr. Andrew McKenzie, vice president of personalised medicine at Tennessee’s Sarah Cannon Research Institute and scientific director at Genospace, targeted therapies are medicines created for certain molecular subtypes of NSCLCs.

Since that these treatments are “tailored,” he explained, “it is preferable to administer a targeted therapy rather than immunotherapy or immunotherapy and chemotherapy if you test a patient and discover a mutation.

Initially, the Salk team demonstrated that the body’s histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) protein is essential for the development of NSCLCs with the LKB1 mutation.

This was unexpected, according to co-lead of the study Lillian Eichner, PhD, a professor at Northwestern University in Illinois who was a postdoctoral researcher at Salk during the research.

She said, “We believed the entire HDAC enzyme class was intimately related to the origin of LKB1 mutant lung cancer.

“We didn’t know the exact involvement of HDAC3 in lung tumour formation,” Eichner stated. She then moved to two drugs with the assistance of the team.

The potent drug combination

Entinostat was the first medication. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved this medication, clinical tests have demonstrated that it targets HDACs.

Trametinib was the second medication and it works by preventing the growth of cancer cells. Trametinib is FDA-approved for the treatment of NSCLCs, but it must be used in conjunction with the medication dabrafenib, McKenzie added.

These two medications are only permitted for use in NSCLCs with the BRAF V600E mutation, the author continued.

According to McKenzie, “Trametinib on its own has not been very effective and requires to be paired with dabrafenib to see the clinical outcomes associated with FDA approval.” Because trametinib might cause tumours to become resistant, dabrafenib is often used in conjunction with it.

The goal of the study was to determine whether trametinib and the HDAC3-targeting drug entinostat would reduce resistance in the same way. Mice with LKB1-mutated NSCLC were treated with the medication cocktail for 42 days, and then the tumours were examined again.

Tumors in recipient mice have shrunk by 79% in size compared to mice not receiving the medication treatment. The researchers also noted a 63% decrease in lung cancers in the treated animals.

Human trials needed

Cancers are already being treated with these medications. For the first time, the FDA approved trametinib in 2013 to treat metastatic malignant melanoma. In 2017, it received approval for the treatment of NSCLC.

Entinostat has undergone phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials but has not yet received FDA approval for clinical usage. Phase 3 trials in people with breast cancer are also still being conducted. People have typically tolerated the medication well during the studies.

The medications have not yet been combined in human subjects. The following stages in evaluating the combined therapy were described by Dr. Eichner.

She said that in order to determine the safety of this combined therapeutic method, a phase 1 clinical research would be conducted first.

“Based on the known safety profiles of both medications, we are hoping that this would also be the case in people,” said Dr. Eichner. “Our preclinical investigations were extremely encouraging with regard to the safety of this pharmacological combination.”

A phase 2 research would then determine whether this combination inhibits tumour growth and lengthens the patients’ lives, she continued.

New hope for cancer patients

On average $1.3 billion is spent to bring a new treatment to market, according to a recent study, making drug development a time-consuming and expensive process.

Also, it often takes 6 to 12 years for new cancer medications to be approved. So, it is quicker and more cost-effective to identify new ways to use existing medications.

According to our research, cancer treatments that were previously unsuccessful might be successful if they are modified. In some cases, understanding basic tumour biology can result in novel cancer therapy strategies without the need to first create new medications, which can be a lengthy process, according to Dr. Lillian Eichner.

Although it is still early, their discoveries might result in new lung cancer medicines for this difficult-to-treat disease. Dr. Eichner is upbeat, but more study is required to validate the results.

According to “our findings,” treating patients concurrently with both of these already-approved medications “may significantly limit the growth of lung tumours for this set of patients.”


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Medications that Seniors Should Use With Caution.

Medications that Seniors Should Use With Caution.

There is a higher likelihood of developing unfavourable drug side effects in older persons since they frequently have chronic health conditions that call for treatment with several medications. Moreover, older persons may react more strongly to some drugs.

The American Geriatrics Society’s Health in Aging Foundation advises older people to use caution when using the following types of medications. This includes some that can be purchased without a prescription. In order to help you make better-informed decisions about your medications and to reduce your chances of overmedication and serious drug reactions (over-the-counter).

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Be wary of long-lasting NSAIDS such indomethacin and piroxicam (marketed under the brand name Feldene) (Indocin).

The issue: NSAIDs are prescribed to treat pain and inflammation. Older persons who take them run the risk of developing indigestion, stomach or colon bleeding, renal damage, high blood pressure, and worsening heart failure. They can also increase the risk of blood pressure and kidney damage. The quicker-acting ibuprofen (Motrin) and salsalate are preferable options if NSAIDs are required (Disalcid).

Use caution when combining NSAIDs with aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dabigatran (Pradaxa), dipyridamole (Persantine), prasugrel (Effient), ticlopidine (Ticlid), or warfarin due to the increased risk of bleeding (Coumadin).

You might need to take a prescription medication like misoprostol (Cytotec) or a proton pump inhibitor like omeprazole to prevent stomach bleeding. Only if you regularly take NSAIDs, have a history of ulcers, or are 75 years of age or older. These drugs can help stop stomach bleeding (Prilosec).

Drugs that relax the muscles

Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), methocarbamol (Robaxin), carisoprodol (Soma), and other comparable drugs should be avoided.

The issue: These drugs may make you feel sleepy and dazed, raise your risk of falling, and result in constipation, dry mouth, and urine issues. However, there is little proof that they are effective.

Drugs that treat anxiety and sleeplessness

Avoid using benzodiazepines like diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), or chlordiazepoxide (Librium, Limbitrol, Librax). Also, nonbenzodiazepine sleeping medications like zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien).

The issue: Certain medications can make you more likely to fall and can also make you confused, especially in older folks. You may experience drowsiness and grogginess for a long time because it takes your body a long time to eliminate these medications from your body.

Medications for Anticholinergics

Be cautious of: medications including the antidepressants amitriptyline (Elavil) and imipramine (Tofranil). The anti-drug Parkinson’s trihexyphenidyl (Artane), the irritable bowel syndrome drug dicyclomine (Bentyl), the overactive bladder drug oxybutynin (Ditropan) and diphenhydramine, an antihistamine (Benadryl) often included in over-the-counter sleep medicines such as Tylenol PM.

Anticholinergic medications run the risk of causing low blood pressure, constipation, urinary issues, confusion, and other side effects.

Heart Medications

Digoxin (Lanoxin) in doses larger than 0.125 mg should be avoided.

Digoxin, a drug used to treat heart failure and irregular heartbeats, raises safety concerns because it can be harmful for older adults and those with impaired renal function.

Medications for diabetes

Glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase) and chlorpropamide should be used with caution (Diabinese).

These can result in extremely low blood sugar in elderly persons, which is a worry.

Opioids as painkillers

Meperidine (Demerol) and pentazocine should be avoided (Talwin).

The problem: These opioid analgesics, often called narcotic analgesics, can lead to confusion, falls, seizures, confusion, and even hallucinations, especially in elderly people.

Antipsychotic medication

Avoid anti-psychotic medications such haloperidol (Haldol), risperidone (Risperdal), and quetiapine unless you are being treated for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or some types of depression (Seroquel).

Antipsychotic medications raise the possibility of a stroke or possibly death; they also raise the possibility of tremors and falls.


Pay close attention to: Estrogen patches and pills, which are frequently prescribed to treat hot flashes and other menopause-related symptoms.

The issue: Estrogen can raise your chances of dementia, blood clots, and breast cancer. Female urine incontinence caused by oestrogens might also become worse.


These medications may be recommended by your doctor to help treat disorders like Parkinson’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and depression. Anticholinergics, however, can make people feel confused, have a dry mouth, and have hazy vision, especially in older people.

The likelihood of their causing urination issues is higher in older men. Antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, cimetidine, muscle relaxants, and several cold medicines are additional common pharmaceuticals with anticholinergic characteristics.

Ask your doctor the reason for any drug changes or new prescriptions that are made.

For instance, consider if it makes sense to continue taking the medicine that is causing the negative reaction if a new prescription is prescribed to lessen the adverse effects of one you are already taking.

When taking five or more medications already, it is extremely important to ask your doctor or pharmacist to verify any new prescriptions in a database of possible drug interactions.

Review your medication schedule.

Ask your doctor or other health care provider to examine the prescription drugs, dietary supplements, and vitamins you are taking once or twice a year. Check to see if you still need to take each one at the prescribed dosage.

Try to have the same pharmacy fill all of your medications if at all possible. Most pharmacies employ computer programmes that alert them to potential drug interactions.

Inform your medical professionals of any prior drug allergies you may have experienced.


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