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Migraine, predisposition to blood clots can increase stroke risk

Migraine, predisposition to blood clots can increase stroke risk

One essential component of preventive healthcare is the prevention of strokes. People need to be aware of their risk factors and possible ways to reduce them because strokes can be very dangerous. Even though the risk of stroke is generally lower in younger people, it is still important to understand what risk factors apply to this population, especially since stroke consequences can last a lifetime. A recent study that looked at the relationship between traditional and nontraditional risk factors for stroke and stroke in younger adults was published in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and OutcomesTrusted Source

The relationship between traditional and nontraditional risk factors and stroke risk in adults 55 years of age and younger was investigated by researchers using data from over 2,600 stroke cases and over 7,800 controls. The results of the study showed that nontraditional risk factors decreased in association with age and were primarily responsible for strokes in adults under the age of 35. Finding non-traditional stroke risk factors is crucial, especially for younger adults, as these findings demonstrate.

The possibility of brain damage makes strokes such a serious medical emergencyTrusted Source. Ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes are the two main types. The brain’s blood supply is blocked in some way during an ischemic stroke. Blood clots in the brain, possibly due to an artery burst, during a hemorrhagic stroke. High blood pressure, diabetes, inactivity, and smoking are just a few of the many risk factors that can raise a person’s risk of having a stroke.

Additional risk factors include having an AB blood type or a family history of stroke. To find out their level of stroke risk, people can seek medical advice and guidance. The Colorado All-Payer Claims Database was the source of data for this retrospective case-control study. To examine conventional and nontraditional stroke risk factors, researchers examined models stratified by biological sex and age. During the period under investigation, 2,628 stroke cases were reported. 52 percent of these were in women, and 73.3% of the total were ischemic strokes. These stroke cases were contrasted with 7,827 controls by researchers.

The traditional risk factors associated with stroke cases were more likely to be noticed by researchers. They found that high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use were the most prevalent traditional risk factors. Headache, renal failure, and thrombophilia were the most prevalent nontraditional risk factors in men. Among females, thrombophilia, migraine, and malignancy diseases in which defective cells infiltrate healthy tissue—were the most prevalent nontraditional risk factors. The youngest age group’s stroke risk was found to be more influenced by nontraditional risk factors than by traditional risk factors, according to research.

Nontraditional risk factors were linked to 31.4 percent of strokes among men and 42.7 percent of strokes among women aged 18 to 34. On the other hand, traditional risk factors were responsible for 25.3% of strokes in men and 33.3% in women. Additionally, the researchers discovered that the risk from nontraditional factors decreased with age and that the risk from traditional factors peaked among participants in the 35–44 age group.

We aimed to gain more insight into the risk factors that contributed most significantly to the risk of stroke in young adults. We discovered that nontraditional risk factors held equal importance to traditional risk factors among adults aged 18 to 34. In fact, a nontraditional risk factor for stroke was more likely to cause the patient’s stroke if they were younger at the time of the event. We were taken aback to discover that among adults [between the ages of 18 and 34], migraine was the most significant nontraditional stroke risk factor. Although the link between migraines and strokes has long been known, this study is the first to demonstrate the precise magnitude of this contribution.

The findings certainly emphasize how crucial it is to screen for non-traditional stroke risk factors, especially in younger people. The study clarified lesser-known risk factors for stroke in young patients, such as migraines, autoimmune disorders, and thrombophilia, in addition to well-known risk factors like hypertension, according to Adi Iyer, MD, a neurosurgeon and interventional neuroradiologist at Pacific Neuroscience Institute who was not involved in the research.

This study is intriguing because it sheds light on the risk factors for stroke in young patients, which are ultimately just as significant as the well-known risk factors like heart disease and hypertension. Physicians should screen younger patients for stroke risk if they have nontraditional risk factors like autoimmune disorders, migraines, or thrombophilia. The researchers noted some important limitations to their study even though this research revealed some important information about stroke risk factors.

To start, when participants did not seek care, the researchers did not consider uncoded diagnoses or risk factors due to how they identified risk factors. Furthermore, there exists a possibility of residual confounding and unmeasured bias. How the study was carried out probably prevented the risk of specific factors from being fully captured. Researchers pointed out that their assessment of nontraditional risk factors may have been underestimated and that the study did not address every possible risk factor for stroke.

The research team also warned that the study’s findings might not apply to other contexts because it was carried out in a Colorado claims database, which has a higher altitude and might have impacted the study sample. A sickle cell pain crisis, for instance, might be brought on by the altitude. This could account for the small number of participants who had sickle cell disease.

The researchers finally admitted that some confounders were impossible to account for and that there were gaps in some of the racial and ethnic data. Therefore, to collect additional data, researchers encouraged the study to be replicated in various population-based cohorts. The study’s authors acknowledged some important limitations even though their research revealed some important information regarding stroke risk factors. First off, uncoded diagnoses or risk factors that were present when participants chose not to seek treatment were not taken into consideration by the researchers due to how they identified risk factors. Additionally, there is a chance of residual confounding and unmeasured bias. Because of the way the study was carried out, it’s possible that the risk from specific factors was not fully captured.

Additionally, not all possible stroke risk factors were examined in the study, and the researchers acknowledged that their evaluation of nontraditional risk factors might have been underestimated. The study was carried out in a claims database in Colorado, which has a higher altitude, which may have affected the study sample, the authors added, warning that the results might not be generalizable. For instance, a sickle cell pain crisis could be brought on by the altitude. This could be the reason for the small number of sickle cell disease participants. Lastly, the researchers acknowledged that some confounders were impossible to account for and that some racial and ethnic data were missing.

Consequently, to collect additional data, researchers promoted the study’s replication in various cohorts drawn from different populations. We discovered that young adults’ strokes may be greatly influenced by migraine headaches. On the other hand, we are unsure of the initial cause of migraine [attacks] and stroke. Stroke prevention for migraineurs is currently untreated clinically. We can create more effective clinical interventions in the future by improving our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying migraines that result in strokes.


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Ibuprofen may not be the most effective medication for migraines.

Ibuprofen may not be the most effective medication for migraines.

Triptans are the most successful drugs for treating migraine attacks, according to research. The second most effective drugs were discovered to be ergots and antiemetics. The researchers emphasize that there are numerous, efficient methods for treating migraine episodes. The most successful treatment for migraine attacks is triptans, which are marketed under brands like Imitrex, Zomig, and Maxalt, according to a study that was just published online in the Neurology journal. Ibuprofen, which is marketed under the brands Advil and Motrin, has been found to be two to three times less effective than other classes of medications, such as ergots and antiemetics. Comparing 25 drugs from seven different drug classes, researchers looked at which ones worked best for treating migraine attacks when compared to ibuprofen. Using a smartphone app, the scientists gathered data on over 4.7 million treatment attempts made by almost 300,000 people over the course of six years. Based on user input, frequency, triggers, symptoms, medication, and medication effectiveness, the app gathered data. The top three drug classes, according to the researchers, were: Triptans; Ergots (Migranal, Trudhesa, Cafergot, Ergomar, Ergostat); Antiemetics (Reglan, Compro); and 42 percent of the participants said ibuprofen was effective.

Dr. Noah Rosen, the vice chair of neurology at Northwell Health in New York and an unaffiliated third party, stated that underdosing on ibuprofen raises the risk of recurrence. Underdosing is frequently done to minimize side effects such as stomach irritation. Furthermore, Rosen told Medical News Today that the drug’s halflife—the amount of time it remains active in your body—is relatively brief. Some similar drugs, such as naproxen, remain in the body for a lot longer and stop headaches from coming back. Ibuprofen has a moderate benefit, especially for those who experience less frequent events or who also have neck or jaw pain, but there are other more targeted options that may be more effective and less likely to cause a recurrence of the headache. Eletriptan (6 times more effective than ibuprofen), Zolmitriptan (5 times more effective than ibuprofen), and Sumatriptan (5 times more effective than ibuprofen) were the top three medications, according to the study. The participants reported that eletriptan was helpful 78% of the time, zolmitriptan 74% of the time, and sumatriptan 72% of the time. Other medication classes, including acetaminophen (Tylenol) and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), were also examined by the researchers. The effectiveness of the NSAIDs other than ibuprofen was 94% higher. A popular mix of aspirin, caffeine, and acetaminophen was found to be 69% more effective than ibuprofen. Only acetaminophen proved beneficial 37% of the time.

I am not surprised by these results, said Dr. Medhat Mikhael, a pain management specialist and medical director of the nonoperative program at the Spine Health Center at Memorial Care Orange Coast Medical Center in California. The scientists looked at other NSAIDs and found that all of them were more effective than ibuprofen. Ketorolac (Toradol) was helpful 62 percent of the time. Indomethacin (Tivorbex) was helpful 57 percent of the time. Diclofenac (Flector, Cambia, Zipsor) was helpful 56 percent of the time. Since migraines are brought on by artery vasodilation, triptans and ergots are excellent treatments. By narrowing the arteries, these drugs reduce pain. Inflammation is treated by ibuprofen. Medical News Today was informed by Mikhael, who was not involved in the study, that it is beneficial for inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. Ibuprofen typically doesn’t completely eliminate migraine pain, but it may lessen its intensity. The speed at which ibuprofen leaves your system is another issue. It may begin to relieve symptoms, but after two hours the pain might return. The authors point out that there are numerous migraine relief treatment options available. Dr. ChiaChun Chiang, a study author and neurologist at the Mayo Clinic in Roch, stated, “Our hope is that this study shows that there are many alternatives that work for migraine and we encourage people to talk with their doctors about how to treat this painful and debilitating condition.”.

One of the study’s limitations, according to the researchers, is that the results were self-reported by the participants, meaning that a variety of factors, such as the participants’ expectations of the medication, could have an impact. Another drawback is that the study did not include more recent migraine drugs, such as ditans (Lasmiditan) and gepants (ubrogepant, atogepant, and rimegepant), because there was insufficient information available about them at the time of the investigation. According to UC Davis Health, migraine is a neurological disorder or syndrome rather than just a headache. Although they are a crucial symptom, headaches do not always accompany migraines. The membrane separating the brain and the skull, known as the dura, is inflamed under nerve control, which is what causes headache pain. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke describes it as occurring on one side of the head and characterized by recurrent episodes of moderate to severe throbbing and pulsating pain. Rosen pointed out that migraine is more than just severe headaches. It is frequently distinguished by the accompanying symptoms. The classic migraine pain is sharp, one-sided pain that lasts in a typical way for two to twenty-four hours. These are usually moderate to severe in intensity, and they usually get worse when moving. These incidents are linked to either nausea and vomiting or sensitivity to light and sound. Prodromal or postdromal states, which occur before or after the actual head pain, can cause behavioral abnormalities, yawning, food cravings, and changes in energy levels in a lot of people. Hormonal fluctuations may play a role in the prevalence of migraines in adult women.


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Is it possible for children to get migraines ?

Is it possible for children to get migraines ?

About 3–10% of kids suffer from migraines. Up until puberty, when roughly half of these kids or young teens stop having migraine episodes, the prevalence rises with age. Alternatively, if a person develops migraines in their adolescence, they are more likely to carry the illness into adulthood. Males and females are equally likely to experience migraines prior to puberty. Females are more likely to experience it after puberty. Many of the symptoms experienced by adults with migraines also affect children. The symptoms can include a headache that lasts for two to seventy-two hours, a headache on one side of the head, moderate to severe pain, pain that worsens with physical activity, nausea or vomiting aura, and sensory disturbances like flashing lights in the field of vision, which may be the first symptom. According to the National Migraine Centre of the United Kingdom, children are more likely than adults to experience pain in multiple locations or throughout the entire head. Children’s episodes might also be shorter than adults’. Since they might not be able to articulate their symptoms, young children can be challenging to diagnose with migraines. The subjectivity of pain intensity presents another difficulty because there may be little to no comparison between children and their parents or other caregivers. For these reasons, migraines in children under the age of two are rarely diagnosed by physicians.

Lastly, it is important to remember that a headache may not occur at all or only be a minor symptom for some migraine sufferers. Why certain children suffer from migraines while others do not is a mystery to researchers. There may be a genetic component to migraine, though, as many children who suffer from the disorder have family members who also have it. It is recognized by experts that specific genetic mutations can predispose children to specific migraine types. A mutation in any of the following genes could be the cause of hemiplegic migraine, for instance, which is a form of the disease that results in momentary weakness and paralysis in children. Research into the causes of other migraine types is still ongoing. Migraine sufferers frequently discover that particular meals, circumstances, or outside elements set off migraine attacks. Finding these triggers can frequently aid in averting the episodes. Finding the triggers, though, can take some time. It’s also important to remember that a migraine episode can develop as a result of multiple triggers overlapping. Recording a child’s migraine symptoms and any potential causes can be beneficial.

In the section below on home care, we provide detailed instructions on what to write down. A child may experience an episode if they sleep too much or too little. These are common triggers to take into account. Creating and adhering to a regular sleep schedule could be beneficial. Making sure a child drinks enough water can help lessen the symptoms of migraines, especially after physical activity. Certain foods and insufficient eating can both cause symptoms. When a child exhibits symptoms, record what they’ve eaten and look for patterns. Overstimulation and stress can aggravate migraines. A child who experiences stress and anxiety on a regular basis might find it helpful to have a quiet area where they can decompress. Children’s mindfulness exercises could be beneficial as well. Changes in the weather, secondhand smoke, and bright lights, such as those on computer or phone screens may be among them.

While avoiding certain migraine triggers can help lessen the frequency of episodes, not all migraine triggers can be avoided. A doctor may prescribe an appropriate over-the-counter (OTC) medication if a child is having migraine symptoms. Examples of OTC medications include acetaminophen (Tylenol) every 4-6 hours, ibuprofen (Advil) every 6-8 hours, and naproxen (Aleve) every 8-12 hours. However, not all children can take these medications or use the recommended dosages. Before giving any over-the-counter medication to a child, have a conversation with a doctor or pharmacist. A child may also be prescribed a medication from the triptan family if they have severe or frequent migraine attacks. These are especially effective in averting migraine attacks.

Both rizatriptan (Maxalt) and sumatriptan (Imitrex) have been given FDA approval for use in pediatric patients. In addition to giving medication and assisting in preventing exposure to triggers, caregivers and children can also use other strategies to manage migraine symptoms. When a child experiences migraine symptoms, try moving them to a quiet, darkened room, applying cool or warm compresses to their head, offering them an eye mask to block out any light, massaging any tense or sore muscles, and encouraging them to sleep, if this helps. Anyone keeping a symptom diary should record the time and date that the symptoms occurred, the length and severity of the episode, and whether any treatments or strategies help.

Having a plan in place before experiencing a migraine may lessen its effects. One may create one or more migraine kits with supplies like medicine, water, hot or cold packs, an eye mask, and a symptom log. Acquire knowledge about plausible triggers and pinpoint particular ones. Assist in finding any early warning indicators of the onset of symptoms. Notify daycare facilities, schools, and other caregivers about the child’s experiences and what to do in the event of a migraine attack. It’s important to remember that giving painkillers as soon as you can might help halt the migraine episode’s progression.

Determining the severity of a child’s migraine symptoms can be challenging. Depending on how old they are, they might not comprehend or be afraid of their condition. Being comforting and composed is crucial during an episode. After that, educating the child about the ailment or having a doctor explain it to them may be beneficial. Certain fears may be allayed if one knows what a migraine is and that every episode ends eventually. The child may also benefit from taking the initiative to manage the illness, such as by maintaining or assisting with a symptom diary. Speak with a physician regarding a child’s migraine symptoms. In order to lessen the intensity and frequency of episodes, they might recommend medicine. It’s crucial that they rule out any other potential reasons for the symptoms. Certain symptoms of migraines can be mistaken for more serious medical conditions. If a child has any of the following symptoms: stiff neck, confusion, seizure, loss of consciousness, sudden, severe headache without other migraine symptoms, headache with the worst pain they have ever experienced, headache after a head injury, or any combination of these, seek emergency medical attention. Consult a doctor immediately if a child has migraine symptoms along with changes in vision, balance, or coordination, excessive vomiting, persistent pain, or a recent change in personality or behavior. Migraine is a common condition in children, and the symptoms can start early. As soon as symptoms appear, taking over-the-counter painkillers may reduce or eliminate their effects. Alternatively, a physician might recommend specific migraine drugs. If you experience any migraine symptoms, it’s critical to see a doctor. Certain symptoms can mimic those of other health problems, so a doctor needs to be certain of the cause. Apart from recommending medication, the physician can offer advice on recognizing triggers and controlling episodes.


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Why does drinking red wine give me headaches?

Why does drinking red wine give me headaches?

A recent study found that a red wine compound influences the way the body metabolizes alcohol, which may contribute to headaches. Because red wine contains more histamine, tannins, and quercetin than white wine, red wine is more likely to give headaches. Experts advise consuming white wine, drinking plenty of water, and avoiding drinking right before bed to reduce headaches. Wine is usually the preferred alcoholic beverage during the holidays. Unfortunately, some people can get a headache from even a small amount of wine—red wine in particular. A recent investigation into the causes of headaches associated with red wine as opposed to other alcoholic beverages that don’t have the same effect was published in the journal Scientific Reports. It has been found by researchers that the high flavonoid content of red wine, specifically quercetin, affects the way the body metabolizes alcohol, which can cause headaches. It’s interesting to note that fruits and vegetables alike contain the antioxidant quercetin. However, it may have unfavorable side effects if combined with alcohol.

Wine chemist and corresponding author Dr. Andrew Waterhouse, professor emeritus in the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology, told Medical News Today, “The most interesting aspect of this project is that the effect is not direct.”. To put it another way, we discovered that quercetin glucuronide was the “culprit,” but if you ate it in another meal, you wouldn’t experience a headache. Our hypothesis states that a headache can only happen if alcohol and quercetin are consumed at the same time. That, in my opinion, explains why things have taken so long to resolve, stated Dr. Waterhouse. According to Cleveland Clinic neurologist Dr. MaryAnn Mays, “red wine contains more tannins and histamines compared to white wine, which are contributing factors of headaches.”. Another possible factor, quercetin, may be the cause of red wine headaches in humans. In particular, when quercetin is metabolized with alcohol, its form changes. According to Carolyn Stolte, a certified nurse practitioner with Mercy Personal Physicians in Baltimore, Maryland, “questercetin converts to a different form—quercetin glucuronide—when it interacts with alcohol during metabolism.”. Researchers discovered that acetaldehyde, a known toxin, accumulates as a result of this metabolism. She clarified, “This results in the traditional red wine side effects of flushing, headaches, and nausea.

According to Stolte, red wine has historically been thought to have higher levels of tannins and histamines than white wine, which can cause sensitivity in certain individuals. Because quercetin in wine can trigger headaches in certain people, even small amounts of wine can cause headaches. Furthermore, grape cultivation affects quercetin levels; exposure to sunlight during growth may result in a higher content of quercetin. “When we drink alcohol, our bodies start working quickly to break it down into other compounds that are easier to get rid of,” said Dr. Nate Wood, a medical education fellow and instructor at the Yale School of Medicine’s department of general internal medicine. Acetaldehyde is one of these substances. Many of the unpleasant hangover symptoms that we are all familiar with, such as headaches, have been linked to acetaldehyde use. Luckily, acetaldehyde is also broken down by an enzyme that is produced by our bodies. “It’s known as aldehyde dehydrogenase,” he said. Quercetin-3-glucuronide, a derivative of quercetin found in red wine, might function similarly. Dr. Wood continued, “New research demonstrates that it is effective in blocking aldehyde dehydrogenase.”

Similar to individuals with the genetic variation, acetaldehyde accumulates, aldehyde dehydrogenase becomes less effective, and headaches result. This quercetin derivative has been found to be present in higher concentrations in red wine than in white wine, which may help to explain why red wine appears to give people headaches more often than white wine. The first thing to realize is that, according to Mays, “there are two parts of alcohol metabolism: alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.”. “Quercetin may be obstructing that metabolism, leading to an accumulation of acetaldehyde.”. It might also be necessary to account for a genetic component. According to Mays, “some people may not have the enzyme that breaks down histamines in wine to metabolize alcohol.”. “Those people are more vulnerable. For instance, about 40% of people from Eastern Asia report having negative alcohol-related side effects, such as headaches and facial flushing. In particular, their aldehyde dehydrogenase is dysfunctional. “Some Eastern Asians have higher blood levels of acetaldehyde when they drink, which can lead to more negative side effects from alcohol, such as headaches, fast heart rate, nausea, and facial flushing,” Dr. Wood said.

“Red wine will probably have the same physiological effects on them as other forms of alcohol. Since the enzyme already fails to function, the quercetin derivative cannot impede its ability to inhibit the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme, he said. But when it comes to red wine, those with functional aldehyde dehydrogenase in their bodies might experience more severe headaches than with other forms of alcohol. According to Dr. Wood, this is because the quercetin derivative is preventing their body’s aldehyde dehydrogenase from functioning properly. According to Stolte, our understanding of why some people are more susceptible to wine-induced headaches is still evolving.”. According to recent research, wine sensitivity may be influenced by genetics. There may be a genetic component to how different people metabolize substances like quercetin, tannins, and histamines,” he continued. According to Stolte, it’s also critical to consider the person’s overall health and any underlying medical conditions. For instance, compared to the general population, people with underlying migraines are more likely to suffer wine-induced headaches. The University of California scientists hope to investigate this further in the future, she said. Women are also more prone to wine-related headaches. According to Dolores Woods, a registered dietitian at the UTHealth Houston School of Public Health, “women have more body fat than men, which stores alcohol. Women metabolize alcohol more slowly than men do because they have less alcohol dehydrogenase (the enzyme responsible for alcohol metabolism) in their blood.


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Migraines increase the chance of problems during pregnancy.

Migraines increase the chance of problems during pregnancy.

A sizable prospective study was carried out by scientists at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston to learn more about the link between migraines and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes.

According to their findings, women with pre-pregnancy headaches had a 40% increased risk of preeclampsia, a 28% increased risk of gestational hypertension, and a 17% increased risk of premature delivery.

These findings, according to the researchers, point to the potential advantage of greater monitoring for pregnant women who have a history of migraines.

Compared to men, women have a 2 to 3 times higher lifetime risk of developing migraines, which are most prevalent in women between the ages of 18 and 44.

Before a migraine attack, some people see an “aura” that frequently consists of flashing lights in their range of vision.

An aura-specific migraine, in particular, has been linked to a two-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, according to a recent meta-analysis.

The molecular factors linked to cardiovascular risks in migraine sufferers may also raise the chance of pregnancy difficulties, according to a research hypothesis.

Meanwhile, little research has examined the connection between migraine and difficulties during pregnancy. Small study populations, a lack of knowledge about potential confounding variables, and the migraine phenotype (with or without aura) are the limitations of these investigations.

To fill in these knowledge gaps, scientists from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston created a significant prospective study to calculate the correlations between pre-pregnancy migraine and the risk of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, and low birth weight.

The researchers also looked at potential effect modification by aspirin use and examined whether these relationships varied by migraine phenotype in the study, which was published in the journal Neurology.

Study on migraines and pregnancy

Data from the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) were used by Brigham instructors Alexandra Cari Purdue-Smithe, Ph.D., and her team to achieve these goals.

In 1989, 116,430 registered nurses in the United States between the ages of 25 and 42 participated in this study. Questionnaires about participants’ lifestyles and health were given out. Every two years, participants in this study were required to answer questions on their lifestyle and general health.

In 2009, participants submitted information on each pregnancy they had ever had, including any unfavorable results. In 2007, participants in the NHSII were asked if they had ever experienced aura along with their migraine headaches.

Any self-reported medical diagnosis of migraine on the 1989, 1993, and 1995 NHSII questionnaires was considered a migraine for the purposes of this study, according to Purdue-Smithe’s team.

They restricted their studies to 30-555 pregnancies in 19,694 women who had no history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, or cancer. These pregnancies had to be at least 20 weeks long.

Using log-binomial and log-Poisson models, the researchers determined the relative risk and 95% confidence interval for each unfavorable pregnancy outcome. These models were adjusted for several confounding variables, including age at conception, age at menstruation’s onset, race and ethnicity, body mass index, chronic hypertension, alcohol use, physical activity, smoking status, analgesic use, oral contraceptive use, infertility diagnosis, and the number of births.

Important results of the migraine study

11% of the 19,694 female participants at baseline had ever been diagnosed with a migraine by a doctor.

According to the statistical studies, migraine was not linked to gestational diabetes or low birth weight, but it was linked to a higher risk of preterm delivery by 17%, gestational hypertension by 28%, and preeclampsia by 40%.

For migraine with and without aura, the risk of preterm birth and the risk of gestational hypertension were comparable. However, compared to women who had migraines without aura, those who had migraines with aura had a slightly increased chance of developing preeclampsia.

The researchers also discovered a 45% decreased risk of preterm birth in migraine-prone women who consistently (more than twice a week) took aspirin before becoming pregnant. Although this particular investigation had limited statistical power, the researchers did find that women who reported regularly taking aspirin before becoming pregnant had a qualitatively decreased risk of preeclampsia.

Understanding pregnancy and migraine

The results are significant, according to Dr. Matthew Robbins, an associate professor of neurology at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York who was not involved in the study.

“We already knew that the relative risk of stroke and overall cardiovascular comorbidity is higher in individuals who have migraine with aura,” he told us. “This is based on large, population-based epidemiological studies.” “Now, we know that this risk may also extend to pregnancy-related complications, such as a higher incidence of pregnancy-specific cardiovascular diseases like gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.”

He continued, “The results of this investigation imply that migraine history and, to a lesser extent, migraine phenotype, are therapeutically helpful predictors of pregnancy risks.

Likewise not taking part in the study was Dr. Sarah E. Vollbracht, an associate professor of neurology at Columbia University in New York.

Given the high prevalence of migraine in women of childbearing age, these findings suggest that migraine screening should be included in initial obstetrical assessments to determine if a woman is at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and women with migraine should be closely followed throughout pregnancy and monitored for the development of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy,” she said in a statement to us.

Aspirin use during pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth and preeclampsia, according to the study’s findings, but Vollbracht cautioned that “this finding should be interpreted cautiously” and that “more data, including placebo-controlled studies, is needed to determine the role of aspirin use in pregnant women with migraine.”

Limitations and upcoming studies

The definition of migraine utilized in this study may have understated the actual prevalence of migraine in the study population and, consequently, the relative risks, according to Purdue-Smithe and her co-authors.

Confounding effects from additional factors, such as heredity and drugs specifically designed to treat migraines, cannot be completely ruled out despite the statistical studies taking numerous potential confounding factors into account.

The Nurses’ Health Study II cohort’s limited generalizability is due to the majority of non-Hispanic white study participants.

Future research should focus on including a patient population that is more diverse in terms of racial, cultural, and socioeconomic origins, according to Vollbracht.

She went on to say that “further prospective studies are needed to determine more clearly the difference in risk based on migraine phenotype as well as understanding the influence of attack frequency on the risk of these adverse pregnancy outcomes.”

Additional study is required to better understand how aspirin alters effects, especially in terms of dosage and initiation time.

Future research may need to evaluate the use of daily aspirin during the second and third trimesters as a preventive intervention against preeclampsia for pregnant women with migraine with aura, according to Robbins.

The researchers concluded by saying that further investigation should aim to shed light on the mechanisms behind the connections found in this study.


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Lets Understand Why You Have Migraine During Your Period.

Lets Understand Why You Have Migraine During Your Period.

According to a recent study, migraine attacks in cisgender women who are menstruating may be brought on by an increase in the peptide CGRP, which has been associated with migraines. The study found that this increase correlated with a drop in oestrogen that happens after menstruation.

In spite of the fact that these individuals may still experience migraine attacks, the study did not detect an increase in CGRP in those who used contraceptives or had undergone menopause.

Since many years ago, experts have recognised a link between the beginning of menstruation-related migraine episodes and a decline in oestrogen levels. The exact workings of this relationship, nevertheless, are still unknown.

A recent study discovered that levels of a peptide linked to migraines fluctuate along with hormonal levels during the menstrual cycle. The calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP, is present in greater amounts during the decline in oestrogen that happens at the start of menstruation.

If you get migraine attacks, you might have observed a rise in frequency around the time of your period. This is not rare, and it might also be related to the oestrogen levels dropping prior to menstruation. Hormones can cause migraine during pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause.

Menstrual migraine symptoms

The symptoms of a menstrual migraine are comparable to those of other migraine types without an aura or other sensory abnormalities. They typically start 1 or 2 days after your menstruation starts.

Menstrual migraines are frequently divided into two types:

  • Menstrual migraine: This more frequent type can have vision abnormalities as one or more of the aura symptoms. Other periods of the month may have episodes of the migraine.
  • Pure menstrual migraines: They only happen before or after your menstruation starts.

Typical menstrual migraine signs include the following:

  • one side of the head typically experiences excruciating head ache.
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to loud noises and light

Menstrual migraine attacks may be accompanied with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms as bloating, breast tenderness, nausea, and mood swings.

How do hormone levels affect migraine?

Hormone fluctuations can cause migraine episodes. Certain drugs, such as birth control pills, can also contribute to them.


The National Headache Foundation estimates that 60 percent of women who suffer from migraines also experience menstrual migraine attacks. This can occur anywhere from two days before and three days following the conclusion of the menstrual cycle.

When a person starts menstruating, migraines may start, although they can start at any moment. Through menopause and the reproductive years, your attacks may remain.

Menopause and the perimenopause

During perimenopause, decreasing levels of oestrogen and other hormones, such as progesterone, might result in migraine headaches.

Perimenopause typically begins 4 years before to menopause, however it can start as early as 8 to 10 years prior to menopause. Moreover, migraines can occur in those taking hormone replacement therapy.


The first trimester of pregnancy is when pregnancy hormone headaches are most prevalent. This is brought on by an increase in blood volume and hormone levels.

Common headaches are another condition that might affect pregnant ladies. These can be caused by a variety of factors, such as caffeine withdrawal, dehydration, and bad posture.

Is it migraine or a headache?

A migraine episode is distinct from a regular headache. They commonly affect one side of the brain and create intense, throbbing pain. There are two types of migraines: “with aura” and “without aura.”

In the 30 minutes prior to your attack, you might experience one or more of the following signs and symptoms if you have migraine with aura:

  • observing light-flashes
  • noticing odd lines or patches
  • a momentary blindness
  • Hands or face numbness
  • tingling feelings in the face or hands
  • alterations in speech
  • weakness
  • unexpected alterations in flavour, smell, or touch

Aura-related migraine symptoms might also include the following:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • intolerance to sound or light
  • discomfort behind one or both ears.
  • one or both temples are hurting

Typical headaches never start with an aura and usually hurt less than migraines. There are numerous types of headaches, such as:

  • Tension headaches. Tension headaches can be brought on by high amounts of stress and worry. They might also be brought on by strained or tense muscles.
  • Clusters headaches. These headaches are frequently confused with migraines. Usually affecting one side of the head, they can also involve other signs and symptoms like runny nose, watery eyes, and nasal congestion.

Other causes of migraine attacks

Depending on your age and family history, you may experience menstrual migraines or migraines without a clear cause. You are more vulnerable just because you are a woman.

Obviously, you have little control over your gender, age, or family history, but keeping a migraine diary can be beneficial. This can assist you in locating and averting triggers.

Possible triggers include:

  • bad sleep patterns
  • drinking alcohol
  • consuming tyramine-rich foods like smoked fish, cured or smoked meat and cheese, avocado, dried fruit, bananas, aged food of any type, and chocolate
  • consuming a lot of caffeine-containing beverages
  • exposure to unusual weather patterns or situations
  • stress
  • fatigue
  • fasting
  • exposure to extremely high, intense light levels or noise
  • smelling harsh aromas from chemicals, cleaning supplies, perfume, and automobile exhaust
  • using artificial sweeteners as food
  • ingesting artificial flavours and colours like monosodium glutamate (MSG)

How is migraine diagnosed?

If you have migraine symptoms, your doctor will frequently begin by performing a physical examination and asking you about your family’s medical history to rule out any potential underlying illnesses.

Your doctor may suggest additional testing, such as the following if they believe anything other than hormones is causing your migraine attacks:

  • test of blood
  • an MRI
  • CT scan
  • Spinal tap, lumbar puncture


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Innovative ways to manage the migraine naturally.

Innovative ways to manage the migraine naturally.

The excruciating headache pain associated with migraines is not unknown to all fo us, but did you know that one in seven people also suffer from them. Out of every four migraine sufferers are female, and that migraine is the leading cause of disability among youths?

You’d think that modern medicine would have found a cure for migraine by now given how widespread it is. Also, how many people are affected worldwide, but alas, this is still a problem.

There are many various medications that doctors can recommend to treat or prevent symptoms. However, there are also several highly effective non-drug alternatives that can assist manage this crippling condition.

Drug free approach for migraine

There may be valid reasons to avoid drugs if you can, despite the fact that they can be a useful tool.

Due to adverse effects, some medications are not safe to take during pregnancy or while nursing. Also, some have negative drug interactions with those used to treat other conditions. This means that not everyone can take migraine treatments.

It makes perfect sense to investigate alternative methods to lessen the suffering of migraine episodes given that they can be pricey and non-drug alternatives can offer effective control over the illness.

Let’s go over some of the most important methods for treating migraines naturally, as determined by the most recent scientific findings.

Discover your occurrences

Most likely, you’ve already heard that certain things might trigger migraine attacks in certain people. However, do you know what it is that triggers your migraines? The first step in creating non-drug measures to minimise your exposure and lessen migraine attacks is being aware of what for you turns the switch.

Stress and anxiety, irregular sleep patterns, menstruation, hunger and skipping meals, dehydration, chocolate, alcohol, excessive caffeine use, loud noises, bright lights, exhaustion, too much physical activity, changes in the weather and altitude, and strong odours and smoke are some of the most common trigger factors.

Although we cannot completely avoid all triggers, knowing your particular trigger and minimising your exposure to it—or attempting to avoid a mixture of triggers—can have a good impact.

Drop some pounds

In addition to the many additional health advantages of losing a few pounds, research have shown that doing so can aid in the avoidance of migraines.

Altering one’s diet may result in weight loss, which may help people avoid migraine attacks. This is due to the possibility that fat could cause migraines in some persons.

Typical instances of meals that can cause migraines include:

  • refined meats
  • alcohol
  • chocolate
  • caffeine

By keeping a symptom journal and scanning for patterns, people might attempt to pinpoint potential migraine causes.

Recognize and treat linked conditions

We are aware that conditions like worry, stress, and depression are linked to a rise in migraine attacks. A migraine can be treated and managed by determining whether you have any of these linked conditions and treating them.

Developing natural relaxation techniques can be a useful migraine management tool because stress and worry can be major migraine triggers. Try numerous methods for stress reduction and mindfulness, CBT, or stress management. There are several apps available today for meditation that can be helpful.

More than 80% of migraine sufferers claim that stress is a migraine trigger, according to the American Headache Society. You may experience a reduction in migraine frequency by learning better stress management techniques.

Nerve stimulation devices and acupuncture

Devices that stimulate the central or peripheral nervous system are available and have been shown to have some beneficial impacts on migraine outcomes. Neuromodulation treatments are generally regarded as safe, but keep in mind that not everyone is a good candidate for them. To learn more, consult your physician. If you prefer anything else, acupuncture has shown some encouraging outcomes in some individuals.

With acupuncture, very small needles are injected into specific points on your skin to promote relief from a wide range of medical ailments.

In a 2020 randomised controlled research, it was discovered that manual acupuncture, administered over the course of 20 sessions, was superior to sham acupuncture, administered over the course of normal treatment, in terms of avoiding migraines in patients with a history of episodic migraine without aura. The needles are not put as deeply during a procedure called sham acupuncture.

Nutritional supplements

Natural supplements including magnesium, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and riboflavin (vitamin B2) have been shown to be effective in treating migraines. Once more, discuss with your doctor whether these strategies would be beneficial for you.

It’s crucial to keep in mind that not every intervention for treating migraines will be effective for everyone and that both drug and non-drug treatments should be taken into consideration.

The idea is to educate yourself as much as you can on the condition and spread awareness among everyone who can—not just migraine sufferers themselves, but also their friends and relatives.

Even while we may not be able to eradicate migraine worldwide, by working together, we can raise awareness of the condition and help the local community better manage migraine victims.



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