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Month: June 2023

Insulin may boost cognition in cognitive disorder people.

Insulin may boost cognition in cognitive disorder people.

According to research, certain individuals with dementia-related illnesses may benefit from utilising intranasal insulin.

They claimed that those with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most from the insulin therapy.

However, other medical professionals claimed that they believed the study to be defective and are not yet prepared to endorse insulin as a treatment for these illnesses.

According to a report published in the journal PLOS ONE, intranasal insulin may have some favourable cognitive effects, especially for those with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment.

Intranasal insulin and cognitive performance were studied in 29 research with 1,726 participants for a review and meta-analysis. The studies’ publications span the years 2001 and 2021.

The average insulin dosage was 40IU. The results of a single dose were investigated in ten trials. The other studies had a median duration of eight weeks and involved multiple doses over a longer period of time. The participants’ average age was around 53.

The subjects were categorised into four categories of disorders by the researchers:

  • illnesses of the mind, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder
  • Mild cognitive impairment with Alzheimer’s disease
  • metabolic conditions like diabetes
  • Other illnesses

Additionally, a pool of healthy, cognitively unimpaired people was used.

In persons with mental health illnesses, metabolic diseases, and other conditions, the researchers found no discernible difference in cognitive performance following dosages of intranasal insulin, according to their findings.

Participants who had mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease showed considerable improvement, according to the researchers.

The potential link between insulin and brain function

According to Dr. Gayatri Devi, a neurologist at Northwell Lenox Hill Hospital in New York who was not involved in the study, “Patients with Alzheimer’s may have impaired glucose processing in the hippocampus (an area of the brain involved in human learning and memory).” Insulin administered intravenously may help with this and enhance cognition.

One explanation for why insulin can help with memory and cognition is that the brain’s memory centres are either defective or unable to handle sugar.

According to Dr. Shae Datta, co-director of NYU Langone’s Concussion Centre and director of cognitive neurology at NYU Langone Hospital-Long Island, “It could be plausible that the amount of insulin receptors in the memory centres in the brain become defective or are simply insufficient to handle sugar.

“Insulin replacement improves brain metabolism. resulting in the hypothesis that brain insulin resistance can cause cognitive problems, according to Datta, a researcher who was not involved in the study.

Intranasal insulin side effects include:

  • Hypoglycemia may cause heart attacks and strokes.
  • Irritation or rhinitis of the nose
  • Lightheadedness
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • a nosebleed

The study’s authors came to the conclusion that intranasal insulin can be safely tolerated and may enhance memory by directly interacting with brain areas involved in the control of cognition.

Response to the study on insulin and cognitive decline

The researchers did say that additional study is required to comprehend therapy response.

Not all medical practitioners find the research to be compelling.

“Overall, I wasn’t impressed with the study,” said Dr. Clifford Segil, DO, a neurologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California who was not engaged in the study. “Intranasal insulin for diabetes has been tried, but it failed.”

“I find it unsettling to provide insulin to someone who shows no signs of diabetes. Giving insulin to a person who does not have diabetes carries the danger of hypoglycemia, he told us. This could make them more vulnerable to a heart attack or stroke.

Segil continued, “I think that it is good to repurpose medications as it can increase therapy options. But this research does not back up using this medication for memory loss. It was never employed in my practise.

“This is a meta-analysis, so a statistical compilation of multiple studies, most of them quite small,” Devi explained. “This is never as good a big double-blind placebo-controlled study as that would be crucial in patient-related decisions,” the author writes. However, each patient must be handled uniquely, and decisions about the best course of treatment must be made with that patient in mind.

Devi continued, “Intranasal insulin treatment for patients with biomarker-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease still needs a large placebo-controlled study.” Up to a third of individuals who were clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer’s did not have it on pathology, which was a concern in prior Alzheimer’s clinical studies.


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Increased risk of total mortality linked with loneliness.

Increased risk of total mortality linked with loneliness.

According to a comprehensive new meta-study, social isolation and loneliness both raise the risk of all-cause mortality.

Additionally, loneliness and social isolation are connected to an increased chance of passing away in cancer patients.

Social isolation, not loneliness, is linked to a higher mortality risk in people with heart disease. A link between social isolation, loneliness, and death has been confirmed by a recent study.

The authors looked into the connections between the two events and deaths from breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all other causes.

According to the extensive meta analysis, having a socially isolated lifestyle was linked to a 26% higher chance of dying from any cause than persons who did not have a socially isolated lifestyle.

Although the impact of loneliness was slightly less severe, it was nonetheless alarming: compared to those who were not lonely, those who were lonely for an extended period of time had a 14% increased chance of dying.

An increase in the probability of dying from any cause or from cancer was associated with both social isolation and loneliness. For those with cardiovascular illness, social isolation was likewise linked to an increased chance of passing away.

The meta-study examined the results of 90 distinct research with 2,205,199 participants.

Social isolation vs. loneliness

The study’s finding that social isolation had a bigger impact on mortality than loneliness is one of its more intriguing findings. The two ailments could appear to be similar. But they are not equivalent:

The term “social isolation” is used in the study to describe “an objective lack of (or limited) social contact with other people, and is characterized by a person having a small social network, having infrequent social contacts, or possibly living alone.”

On the other side, “loneliness” is “a subjective feeling of distress, emerging when there is a mismatch between desired and actual social relationships.”

For instance, it is possible to feel lonely in a group of people, even if those people are known, and it is also possible to be socially isolated without experiencing emotions of loneliness.

Effects of social isolation on health

According to Dr. Rosanne Freak-Poli, a senior research fellow in epidemiology at Monash University who was not involved in the study, “two landmark meta-analytical studies have identified that social isolation is a stronger risk factor for mortality than loneliness.”

Without being part in the study, Dr. Angelina R. Sutin, a professor at Florida State University’s College of Medicine, informed us that social isolation can be detrimental for at least a few reasons even when it does not result in loneliness in the individual.

One is that socially isolated person might not have somebody to drive them to the doctor regularly, either because they don’t have transportation or because some procedures call for an assistant.

People are not always aware of changes that are happening to them or when it is time to consult a doctor, Dr. Sutin continued.

Others may be better able to spot changes and obtain the care they require. Dr. Sutin noted that “delaying care can have significant consequences in both cases.”

According to Dr. Freak-Poli’s research, social isolation might lead to some of the harmful reactions linked with loneliness. According to her studies, social isolation and loneliness both have negative consequences on one’s health, including:

  • a high blood pressure level
  • elevated triglycerides
  • obesity and excess weight
  • a lower standard of living
  • unsound mental state

Someone who is socially isolated or lonely is more likely to engage in harmful lifestyle choices, which may exacerbate their situation and make them feel even more alone and alienated, said epidemiologist Dr. Rosanne Freak-Poli.

The impact of technology on social isolation

Our growing reliance on online connections is one reason for social isolation that is frequently brought up in discourse.

For some people, using devices can be socially isolating, while for others it can be a lifeline.

The difficulty now is figuring out when and how online interactions can be good, as well as who will get the most from real-world social interaction as opposed to virtual interaction, she continued.

Dr. Freak-Poli pointed out that the method of internet communication affects whether it is beneficial or harmful.

“Social media can have advantages if it is being used to directly and meaningfully communicate with people,” she said.

According to study, apps like Teams, Zoom, or FaceTime that allow users to see each other’s faces while speaking can increase social interaction, reduce loneliness, and improve overall wellbeing.

Social connections and relationships are beneficial to health

The current meta-study, according to Dr. Sutin, is “a nice summary of that literature and calls attention to the harmful effects of both loneliness and social isolation.”

Additionally, it provides more detailed evidence showing, among particular patient populations, social isolation and loneliness raise the risk of cause-specific mortality. The study emphasises the importance of relationships and social connection as well as the serious implications of not meeting social requirements, according to Dr. Sutin.

Dr. Freak-Poli remarked, “Since they are a part of the human condition, experiencing social isolation and loneliness are regrettably likely inevitable at some point in one’s life.”

Dr. Freak-Poli declared that she thought “initiating social interaction is an achievable goal.”

She claimed to have discovered that engaging in community events at least once a month and keeping in touch with five or more close family members or friends each month can have a significant positive impact on one’s health.

Health effects of severe loneliness

According to Dr. Sutin, loneliness can have a negative impact on health in a number of ways. She noted that lonely people frequently adopt harmful lifestyle habits like:

  • smoking
  • misuse of drugs
  • a rise in sedentary behaviour
  • abandoning activities that stimulate the mind

Dr. Sutin issued a warning that lonely persons “may also be less likely to participate in preventive care and screenings that can both prevent and detect disease at its earliest possible stage, when it is most likely to be treatable.”

We learned about the negative impacts of loneliness on mental health from Dr. Mary Louise Pomeroy, Ph.D., MPH, a postdoctoral research fellow at Johns Hopkins University:

“Loneliness is of particular concern for poor mental health (depression, stress, anxiety), which may lead to a higher risk of mortality through negative health behaviors, either directly (i.e., suicide) or indirectly (e.g., smoking as a social activity or to alleviate boredom or distress).”

Of course, being alone is unpleasant, and persistent stress has been related to a number of health problems.

Although the study’s authors concluded that social isolation posed a higher risk to health than loneliness did, they did not downplay the negative effects of chronic loneliness, which can have an impact on anyone.

Extreme versus infrequent loneliness

Dr. Freak-Poli made the observation that the study is focused on extreme loneliness. “For instance, from a health perspective, feeling lonely one day a week, even if it is regular, is not all that concerning.”

However, Dr. Freak-Poli said, “There is evidence that it is likely to have an impact on their health and well-being if they experience lonely three or more days a week over time. Other studies have shown that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increase in loneliness.”

The majority, if not all, COVID-related social constraints, however, no longer apply depending on where you live. She also mentioned that, in contrast to pre-pandemic days, we are now more aware of how we communicate and socialise.

For instance, after getting perspective from their previously overly busy lives, some people may prefer to socialise less.

In spite of this, the U.S. Surgeon General has issued a warning about a “loneliness epidemic” and a recommendation on the value of social connection. According to Dr. Freak-Poli, she is not shocked.

“COVID-19 altered the way we live our daily lives and increased our awareness of interpersonal interactions. It is now impossible to ignore this awareness of human social interaction, she remarked.

Dr. Freak-Poli came to the conclusion that community services and programmes are gradually being reestablished, and that this may enable people who have recently experienced loneliness make social ties.


For Mental disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

People with blocked arteries may get stroke during exercise

People with blocked arteries may get stroke during exercise

Exercise may cause a stroke in patients with severely blocked arteries, according to research. The study, according to experts, is intriguing but they point out that it is based on a computer model.

They also point out that the majority of people who don’t have clogged arteries still benefit from exercise.

It turns out there is a purpose for the recommendations to visit a doctor before beginning new workout programs that are typically included with them.

In people with blocked or restricted carotid arteries, exercise may increase the risk of stroke. This is according to a recent study published in Physics of Fluids.

Even so, carotid stenosis, which is another name for this ailment, only affects about 3% of the general population.

According to the study, those who have moderate to severe artery blockage should exercise with caution. But the majority of people gain from regular exercise, which is advised for heart health.

The researchers also concluded that exercise is still helpful for preserving healthy blood flow in those who are in good health. Also, in those whose arteries are only mildly clogged.

Exercise increases heart rate and can increase stroke risk.

Researchers examined the relationship between exercise-induced heart rates and resting heart rates for the study.

They stimulated blood flow in carotid arteries in the following stages of stenosis using a computational model:

  • without obstruction
  • a little 30% obstruction
  • having a medium 50% obstruction

According to the research, exercise increased stress in the arteries’ obstructed region in persons with mild blockages. This increased the risk of stenosis rupture.

A stroke that is ischemic could result from this blockage once it enters the brain. But exercise helped the stimulated carotid in people with no stenosis or modest blockage.

Dr. Somnath Roy, Ph.D., an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India, is the study’s lead author. “Intense exercise shows adverse effects on patients with moderate or higher stenosis levels,” he stated in a statement.

It significantly raises the shear stress at the stenosis zone, raising the risk of the stenosis rupturing. The blood from the ruptured plaque may then reach the brain’s blood supply and result in an ischemic stroke.

The study team also suggested that a high heart rate would make it more likely for another stenosis to emerge.

How dangerous are blocked carotid arteries?

The brain and the tissues of the face are nourished by carotid arteries that are situated on either side of the neck.

A plaque that forms inside the inner carotid walls as a result of the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, and other particles can constrict the artery.

This narrowing, known as stenosis, is risky because it restricts blood flow and oxygen to the brain and may result in a stroke. Detecting it at an early stage of development might also be challenging.

In a healthy individual, the increased heart rate that comes with exercise stabilizes the drag force acting on the artery wall. This lowers the likelihood of stenosis.

The authors of the study noted that for those already dealing with stenosis, the outcome might be different.

Exercise truly increases the risk of stroke?

According to Dr. Adi Iyer, a neurosurgeon and interventional neuroradiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, medical professionals have long recognized that having a greater resting heart rate increases a person’s chance of having a stroke.

Iyer argued that the study’s suggested link between exercise-induced elevated heart rate and stroke in individuals with moderate or severe carotid stenosis is novel “and still remains unclear.”

This study used computer modeling, which is not a perfect representation of actual human physiology. For instance, the circle of Willis, a system of collateral circulation in the human brain, joins the arteries that run from the left to right and front to back of the brain.

The stroke risk for actual patients will eventually be determined by the patency of these collaterals and a host of other variables, according to neurosurgeon Dr. Adi Iyer.

Iyer stated that “temporary weakness or numbness on one side of the face or body, or even temporary vision loss from one eye. This can be the most common signs of a narrowed carotid artery.”

“Patients should seek physicians’ recommendations on lifestyle modifications, including exercise regimens when there is a moderate or severe blockage in the carotid artery,” Iyer advised.

Patients should seek surgical consultations because there are now several extremely effective. Minimally invasive procedures are available to them for unblocking their obstructed carotid arteries.

Exercise with clogged arteries should be avoided.

Exercise is frequently advised to avoid cardiovascular disease, according to study author Dr. Somnath Roy, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur in India.

According to existing research, exercise-induced faster pulse rate reduces pressure on the arterial wall and delays the development of stenotic occlusion. Through our numerical projections, “we have seen similar characteristics for healthy arteries.”

The oscillatory shear index (WSS) showed increased oscillation levels for artery models with advanced stenosis or constriction, according to Roy.

The likelihood of additional stenosis advancement and extremely high shear stress may increase with higher levels of these oscillations.

If levels are very high, stenotic plaque may begin to fracture and form blood clots or emboli (a foreign body blocking an artery). This may travel to the brain, obstruct weaker blood arteries, and trigger a stroke.

“By using computer simulations based on physiologically relevant data, the authors have described the impact of higher heart rates on hemodynamics in healthy and stenosed carotid arteries. According to Dr. Joseph C. Maroon, clinical professor, vice chairman, and Heindl scholar in neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh’s Department of Neurosurgery, “It is not clinical research.

“I find the observations interesting. They are arguing that stenotic lesions that are 50% or more likely to be obstructive of blood flow may be more likely to cause a heart attack or stroke.

According to Roy, the research team intends to examine the consequences of high heart rates at additional arterial models. This includes coronary artery, aorta, and others, in subsequent studies.

How stenosis is impacted by exercise?

As seen in the study, patients with moderate or more severe stenosis may experience negative effects from vigorous activity.

“Although flow volume is not reduced until an artery has 90% or greater stenosis. The suggestion is that the shear and flow disturbances caused by a 50% narrowing of an artery can disrupt the lining of the artery (the intima). Also, precipitate clotting and obstruction despite a normal flow,” Maroon said.

This is a crucial finding that requires confirmation and more research. It’s crucial to take into account any potential variations between a computer model and a human heart rate while learning more about the connection between exercise and stenosis.

“Substantial variability in human heart rate (as compared to a computer model) can occur during different-impact workouts, sports, and isometric exercises,” said Dr. Sandra Narayanan, a board-certified vascular neurologist, and neuro-interventional surgeon at the Pacific Stroke & Neurovascular Centre at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California.

The length of sustained heart rate elevation and its detrimental effects on cerebrovascular risk in individuals with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis are related. Although further research is required to fully understand this relationship.

Additionally, Narayanan said it would be useful to determine whether a particular activity is more likely to increase lifestyle risk. Also, if the risk is more closely linked to tachycardia and is independent of cause.


In patients with severely clogged carotid arteries, an elevated heart rate can result in a stroke, claims a recent study.

However, carotid stenosis is not very common in the general populace. Exercise keeps the blood flowing normally in patients with no or little obstruction.

For the majority of people, regular exercise continues to provide some of the best protection against heart disease. The relationship between exercise-induced heart rate and stenosis has to be further studied.

For individuals with moderate or more severe stenosis levels, experts advise walking, yoga, and balance exercises.


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Time constraint breakfast might improve blood sugar levels.

Time constraint breakfast might improve blood sugar levels.

When someone restricts their daily meals to the first 6 to 8 hours of the day, this practise is known as early time-restricted feeding.

This eating behaviour may help stabilise variations in blood glucose levels and reduce the chance of developing prediabetes, according to research.

According to experts, one reason early time-restricted feeding is successful is because it enables people to engage in physical activity even after they have completed eating for the day.

The blood glucose variations can be improved by early time-restricted eating (TRE). This is supported by a study that was presented today at the annual conference of the Endocrine Society.

Researchers indicate that this type of intermittent fasting can lessen the amount of time that blood glucose levels are above normal levels in their findings, which have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

According to a press release from Dr. Joanne Bruno, a study author and endocrinology fellow at NYU Langone Health in New York, “our research shows that just one week of following this diet strategy reduces fluctuations in blood sugar levels and reduces the time that the blood sugar is elevated above normal levels.”

This indicates that early time-restricted meals may be a useful strategy for people with prediabetes or obesity to maintain their blood sugars in a normal range and stop them from developing type 2 diabetes, she continued.

How prediabetes eating schedules were examined?

A type of eating called early time-restricted feeding limits meals to just the first six to eight hours of the day.

The researchers created a study in which they contrasted early time-restricted eating with a typical diet pattern to investigate the effects of this approach of dieting on blood glucose levels.

Ten participants with prediabetes or obesity were randomly assigned to the regular eating pattern group, where they consumed 50% of their calories after 4 p.m., or the early time-restricted feeding group, where they consumed 80% of their calories before 1 p.m.

After following this diet for 7 days, they switched to the other strategy for the following week.

Throughout the whole research, individuals wore continuous glucose monitors. Additionally, they had tests of their glucose tolerance before the trial started, as well as on days 7 and 14.

The subjects’ weight remained constant during the whole two-week study, according to the researchers. When compared to the regular eating pattern, the early time-restricted feeding method of eating resulted in a lower amount of time spent over the normal blood glucose range.

Dr. Bruno explained that eating the majority of calories earlier in the day shortens the duration that blood sugar is raised and enhances metabolic health.

If early time-restricted feeding could be utilised as a successful intervention technique for preventing obesity, the experts suggested more research is required.

Time-restricted eating advantages

The study’s results, according to Dr. Pouya Shafipour, a family and obesity medicine specialist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, are not unexpected and corroborate his own advice to patients.

Since 2015, I have advocated for time-restricted eating. I also began using it myself. According to studies, time-restricted meals and prolonged fasting can improve insulin sensitivity and lower blood sugar levels. Thus, it either puts the body into or increases the state of ketosis that we enter in the evening. So in a sense, ketosis improves blood sugar control by reducing highs and lows, peaks and valleys in blood sugar. Family and obesity physician Dr. Pouya Shafipour

One type of intermittent feeding is early time-restricted feeding. Other examples include the 5:2 diet, which calls for eating regularly five days a week but consuming only 500 to 600 calories on two of those days.

The 16:8 diet is an additional strategy that calls for 16 hours of fasting and 8 hours of eating.

Advantages of eating breakfast

Dr. Marilyn Tan, an endocrinologist at Stanford University in California, claims that having time to exercise after eating may be an advantage of consuming the majority of calories earlier in the day.

We consume the majority of our calories during dinnertime, at least in America. We frequently eat our largest meal of the day at that time, then sit down in front of the TV or computer to watch something, before going to bed and sleeping for eight hours. Therefore, after that, we really don’t have a chance to exercise and increase our insulin sensitivity, she explained.

We don’t fully understand how moving that time-restricted feeding to earlier in the day improves metabolic benefit. The fact that humans are more active throughout the day is one possibility, though. Therefore, she continued, “If people are moving about more and engaging in greater physical activity soon after eating, that may improve the glycemic response”.

This study indicates that a considerable effect may not only result from a time restriction but also from the timing of that restriction. There hasn’t been a significant randomized trial, but there have been other studies looking at this and suggesting that exercising early in the day offers additional metabolic advantages, doctor of endocrinology Marilyn Tan said

Time-restricted eating can be advantageous for cardio-metabolic health, but it should only be carried out under a doctor’s supervision, according to Dr. Anne Peters, an endocrinologist at Keck Medicine of USC in California.

Advice for eating well

When it comes to dieting, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises finding a strategy that can be adhered to for life.

A smart place to begin is with a plan that emphasises healthy eating and is also something that can be maintained.

The CDC offers 12 recommendations for eating well. They involve planning ahead for periods of the day when snacking can be alluring, including right after a long day at the office.

Time-restricted eating is one of the simplest diets to follow, especially for people who are busy, according to Tan’s clients.

Because you’re not as focused on the meal content, per se, as you are on the timing, many of my patients find this to be one of the most maintainable diets, she said. “And honestly, time-restricted feeding works out better for those who are busy since you don’t have to think about your meals throughout the day. Many patients actually discover that having this small window of time to eat is far easier and more enduring than adhering to many highly strict diets.”

Tan continued, “You don’t have to concentrate so much on the macronutrient breakdown of the food. “Although a ketogenic diet, for example, may be quite helpful in the short term at helping people lose a lot of weight, maintaining that kind of diet over the long run is very challenging. Whereas with time-restricted eating, all you’re actually doing is changing when you eat. For long-term safety, I don’t see any pressing issue as long as you talk to your doctor about when to take your medications and how much to take before starting a diet.”


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A trial of fecal transplant offers hope for liver illness.

A trial of fecal transplant offers hope for liver illness.

Fecal transplants may be a successful treatment for persons with end-stage chronic liver disease. This is according to research from Europe.

The “good” bacteria from a healthy donor are used to replace the “bad” bacteria in the gut microbiome.

The use of fecal transplant pills to treat C. difficile infection is authorized in the US. Numerous more potential uses for fecal transplantation exist in addition to cirrhosis studies.

For those with chronic liver disease, a new study into fecal transplants may change the game. After promising results from the first experiment, known as the PROFIT trial. A team led by King’s College London is about to start a clinical trial there known as the PROMISE trial.

Today at the 2023 EASL (European Association for the Study of the Liver) Congress in Vienna, Austria, the results of the PROFIT experiment. These have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed publication, were presented.

Although fecal transplants are safe and effective, there are other therapy choices for cirrhosis patients. According to the trial’s researchers, who believe their data will open up more possibilities.

Using a capsule to deliver a fecal transplant

Gastroenterologist and internal medicine specialist Dr. Daniel Freedberg is a member of the Peggy Lillis Foundation’s scientific advisory council and an assistant professor of medicine and epidemiology at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York.

Records of fecal transplants date back centuries, according to Freedberg, who is not a participant in the clinical trial, who spoke to us.

“More recently, we have two decades of experience using faecal transplants for recurrent Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection,” the doctor said. “Faecal transplants transfer stool from a healthy person to a sick person. The theory is that the injured gut bacteria will be replaced by normal, healthy bacteria, aiding in the recovery of health. Faecal transplants can be performed orally, colonoscopically, upper endoscopically, or through an enema. Faecal transplants can be delivered in all of these ways with success.”

The PROFIT trial’s researchers discovered that patients preferred taking a tablet to the other, more invasive techniques. Even though each one may be successful.

Patients told researchers that they would rather take pills than undergo an endoscopy to provide the fecal transplant, according to Debbie Shawcross, chief investigator of the PROMISE trial and professor of hepatology at Kings College London.

She noted that for patients with cirrhosis who have exhausted all other therapy choices, “the ‘capsules,’ as they are sometimes called. This have no taste or smell as the name suggests, may offer new hope.”

The “bad” bacteria that is present in the bodies of persons with cirrhosis of the liver may be effectively replaced by taking the capsules. These are filled with freeze-dried stool rich in “good” bacteria, according to the research.

While further research is required, fecal transplants may one day be a viable alternative to liver transplantation for some patients.

Trial of faeces transplant will be expanded

There will be 300 individuals with liver disease participating in the new experiment, which will begin in the UK. The current trial is different from the last one in that there are 300 participants instead of 32, a larger study sample. Half of the patients will ingest freeze-dried fecal matter capsules, or “crapules,” instead of having an endoscopy. The other half will take a placebo.

Fortunately, the ‘capsules’ don’t taste or smell as their name might imply. This kind of treatment is far less invasive than an endoscopy, which is advantageous to patients.

Over 21 days, the participants will take five capsules of medication (either FMT or placebo). Each at intervals of 91 days (every three months).

In contrast to the prior study, which only tracked patients for 90 days, the current trial permits the researchers to evaluate participants over 2 years. This provides for a more thorough investigation of the medication’s impact.

A healthy donor is used to provide the feces, who is then thoroughly examined for bacterial and parasite diseases, Covid-19 and other infections, as well as their risk factors.

Samples of blood, feces, and urine will also be taken at the time of recruitment and again after three, six, and twelve months. Following that, the samples will be examined for a variety of biomarkers,. This includes cytokine production, indicators of barrier integrity, a global metabolite profile, and fecal proteomics.


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The link between Omega3 rich diets & slowed ALS progression

The link between Omega3 rich diets & slowed ALS progression

Numerous health advantages of omega-3 fatty acids are well documented. Harvard University researchers have discovered that those with ALS who consume meals strong in omega-3 fatty acids may experience a slower pace of physical deterioration and a longer survival time.

Additionally, researchers discovered that participants in the trial who consumed more omega-6 fatty acids had a lower risk of passing away. Omega-3 fatty acids have long been known to have several positive effects on health, according to a study.

According to earlier research, these good fats, which may be found in various plants and shellfish, may help stave off diseases like metabolic syndrome, autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer’s, age-related macular degeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Now, researchers from Harvard University have discovered that those who consume foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids may experience a slower rate of physical decline and a longer survival time if they have the incurable, degenerative neurological disease known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Consuming omega-6 fatty acids, according to the researchers, was also linked to a lower chance of passing away among study participants.

ALS: What is it?

A condition affecting the body’s central nervous system, namely the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, is ALS, sometimes referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease.

Over time, a person loses the ability to control their leg, arm, and face movements due to ALS, which damages the neurons necessary for movement. People with ALS may eventually lose the ability to talk and swallow, in severe situations.

Within a population of 100,000 individuals, there are “two new ALS cases each year,” according to the ALS Association. Males are more likely to get ALS than females, and it often strikes persons between the ages of 40 and 70.

ALS symptoms include:

  • weakness in the hands, legs, feet, or ankles
  • having trouble walking
  • falling or stumbling
  • discomfort in the shoulders or arms
  • having trouble swallowing
  • muddled speech
  • fatigue
  • cognitive problems.

Although the actual etiology of ALS is still unknown, researchers think genetics and environmental risk factors may be involved.

ALS presently has no known cure. Certain treatments can aid with symptom relief. With some individuals living longer, the typical life expectancy for someone with ALS is frequently between 2 and 5 years.

A diet for ALS

The lead author of this study, Dr. Kjetil Bjornevik, assistant professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health at Harvard University, says he and his research group chose to investigate the relationship between diet and ALS because they were interested in identifying modifiable risk factors for neurological disorders, such as dietary factors.

He told Medical News Today, “We have done studies in the past that have shown that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic acid, may decrease the risk of developing ALS.”

Therefore, he continued, “we were interested in investigating whether a diet high in these fatty acids is also connected with a slower rate of disease development in those who have already been given an ALS diagnosis.

This is not the first time that scientists have looked at how essential fatty acids affect ALS. A 2017 study indicated that maintaining motor neuron activity in ALS requires a mix of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

Additionally, according to study from 2019 that was published, omega-3 fatty acids could be used to make drugs to treat neurological diseases.

ALS research on omega-3 fatty acids

Dr. Bjornevik and his team gathered 449 ALS patients with an average age of 58 years for this study. Participants in the study were monitored for 18 months. 126 people, or 28% of the participants, died over that time.

Researchers measured each participant’s blood concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Additionally, each participant earned a score between zero and 48 on 12 physical tasks, such as speaking, chewing, and swallowing, with higher values indicating higher function.

The subjects with the greatest levels of omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid had an average score of 38.3 at the beginning of the trial, according to analysis. The average score for those with the lowest amount was 37.6.

The research team also discovered that only 21 of the 126 deaths happened in the group with the highest levels of alpha-linolenic acid in their bodies, as opposed to 37 deaths that occurred in the group with the lowest levels of omega-3 fatty acids.

Dr. Bjornevik and his team discovered research participants with the highest quantity of alpha-linolenic acid had a 50% lower risk of death during the trial, compared to those in the lowest amount group, after accounting for age, sex, and ethnicity.

According to Dr. Bjornevik’s research, some omega-3 fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid, may benefit those who have ALS. He did, however, issue a warning: “Randomised clinical trials are required to establish whether supplementation with this fatty acid is beneficial.”

Omega-6 fatty acids might be helpful.

A lower chance of passing away during the study period was linked by the research team to linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid.

Dr. Bjornevik noted that linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid linked to a lower risk of death in his study, is also an essential fatty acid that can only be received by food.

However, it is less apparent whether and how this fatty acid benefits ALS patients. Since omega-3 fatty acids were linked to a lower chance of developing ALS in prior studies, we largely focused on them in this work,” the researcher said.

Cautious optimism

We also discussed this study with Dr. Stephen Johnson, a Mayo Clinic expert in neuromuscular diseases.

He said, “I read the study with great curiosity and cautious optimism since I am always eager for the next breakthrough that might slow down, stop, or even reverse the progression of the ALS disease“.

The study’s results are intriguing and open the door for more research, which is necessary to more precisely answer the question of whether or not specific fatty acids can prolong life and halt the advancement of ALS disease. We already have an association, but we need to do our homework to determine whether it can be replicated in the context of a more thorough scientific investigation,” according to Dr. Stephen Johnson.

Dr. Johnson expressed his preference for a sizable prospective phase 2/3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to assess the identified possibly advantageous fatty acids as the next stage in this investigation.

This trial should pay particular attention to participant diet, medications/supplements, and any potential confounders, in addition to measuring longevity and participant function,” he said. However, a phase 1 clinical trial will probably need to be conducted first.

Dr. Johnson continued, “By taking these next steps, just as we would with any pharmaceutical medication, we can assess whether the association is more than just an association and whether specific dietary supplementation of fatty acids should be added to the standard of care for people with ALS.”


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How can loneliness affect bone health in males?

How can loneliness affect bone health in males?

The impact of social isolation on bone loss in mice was examined by researchers. They discovered that social isolation increased bone loss in male mice, but not in female mice.

To determine whether the same occurs in humans, more research is required. Poorer health outcomes, such as an increase in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular issues, and mental health issues, are associated with social isolation.

Psychological stress has also been connected to risk factors in previous studies.reputable source for information on osteoporosis and weak bones.

Social isolation, which is closely related to loneliness, can cause mental suffering. The relationship between social isolation and bone health is still unclear, though.

Researchers recently looked into how social isolation impacts the bone health of male and female mice. They discovered that in male mice, but not in female mice, social isolation was linked to bone loss.

The research was introduced in Chicago at ENDO 2023, the Endocrine Society’s annual meeting. The study’s non-participant assistant professor of geriatrics at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston, Dr. Nahid Rianon, was our source for information on the results.

Lead author of the study and postdoctoral fellow at MaineHealth Institute for Research’s Centre for Molecular Medicine, Dr. Rebecca Mountain, also provided the following information to us.

Future research is required to fully understand the effects on humans, but the findings “may also have clinical implications as we grapple with the long-term health impacts of the rise in social isolation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.”

The bone density was decreased in isolated mice.

32 male and female mice aged 16 weeks were divided into two groups for this investigation. One mouse per cage was used in one group’s simulation of social isolation. Four mice shared one cage in the other group.

The mice were observed by the researchers in their separate environments for 4 weeks. Finally, the bone mineral density of solitary male mice decreased. Less dense and therefore more likely to break, bones with fewer minerals are less dense.

Additionally, the researchers discovered that in solitary male mice, bone volume fraction and cortical bone thickness decreased by 26% and 9%, respectively. Both measurements point to a decline in bone quality.

Further investigation found that male mice showed impaired bone remodelling, which includes the production of new bone and raises the risk of fracture.

The scientists observed that the bone loss seen in guys who were kept alone was comparable to that shown in earlier studies after orchiectomy (removal of the testicles) and ovariectomy (removal of the ovaries).

In contrast, there was no bone loss after social isolation in the present study’s female mice.

However, despite the fact that their bone mass was unaltered, the researchers discovered that isolated females exhibited higher bone resorption-related gene expression. Increased bone resorption can cause bones to degrade more quickly than they can regenerate, raising the risk of fracture.

Underlying processes

Dr. Mountain pointed out that it is unknown exactly how social isolation may cause bone loss. Her team is investigating many hypotheses, including the function of various stress hormones and the sympathetic nervous system of the body.

We also discussed the mechanisms underlying the effects of social isolation on bone health with Dr. William Buxton, a board-certified neurologist and the director of Neuromuscular and Neurodiagnostic Medicine and Fall Prevention at Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California, who was not involved in the study.

“My initial reaction to the connection is that performing weight-bearing workouts is one of the finest methods to preserve bone health and fend off osteoporosis. One is less inclined to leave their home if they are isolated, and as a result, they are less likely to be on their feet, he explained.

Both depression and weight loss can result in frailty, disability, and decreased mobility, which can contribute to bone loss,” continued Dr. Rianon. Future study is required to understand the underlying metabolic alterations that cause bone loss in various medical diseases, as they are all risks for bone loss.

Why is there a sex difference?

Dr. Mountain mentioned that they are currently looking into why social isolation had distinct effects on men and women. She mentioned that oestrogen is known to protect bones, suggesting that it might be involved.

It’s also plausible that male and female mice experience solitude on different time scales or in various ways, she added.

We also discussed the sex disparities with Dr. Douglas Landry Jarvis, an orthopaedic surgeon with Novant Health in Charlotte, North Carolina, who was not involved in the study.

The synthesis of testosterone and hormonal balances may have been disrupted by a lack of social engagement, which would have had a negative impact on bone metabolism. Over a 4-week period, the female hormonal cycle may be less impacted.

Study restrictions

The study’s weaknesses, according to Dr. Mountain, are its small sample size and lack of behavioural information on how isolation influenced mice’s depressive or anxious behaviour.

Dr. Buxton said that the study’s use of caged animals meant that it was not a perfect representation of human behaviour. I don’t know if the authors documented how frequently the animals in the cages were on their feet, but I would anticipate that the community animals would be more mobile.

Dr. Rianon continued by saying that although the study suggested that male and female mice may have different bone-forming processes, it does not specify how these variations arise.

Nevertheless, she added, “It’s pretty normal to not have [such] details in the early stages of any research.”

Research implications for the future

Dr. Buxton added, “I also guess that alcohol plays a role if these results are later demonstrated in humans.”

We are aware that drinking makes osteoporosis more likely. Alcohol is probably a link between isolation and lower bone mineral density in individuals because isolation is a risk factor for increased alcohol consumption“, the scientist hypothesized.

According to the study, no one should alter their routines, Dr. Jarvis continued. The study’s sole recommendation is that more research be done. The variable of social engagement is too broad. The amount by which the mice’s cortisol levels changed will determine if the study can be generalized to primates and perhaps even humans.


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Latest note on dry eye treatment with probiotics.

Latest note on dry eye treatment with probiotics.

Dry eye, a disorder in which the eyes are unable to sufficiently lubricate themselves, affects about 12% of the world’s population. The dry eye condition is now incurable.

Researchers from Houston, Texas’ Baylor College of Medicine have discovered a probiotic bacterial strain that enhanced dry eye in a mouse model.

Dry eye is a disorder where the eyes do not produce enough tears to keep them adequately lubricated, resulting in pain, and affects about 12% of the world’s population.

The symptoms of dry eye disease can be managed with a variety of treatments even if there is currently no cure for the condition.

These remedies include over-the-counter eye drops, prescription drugs, and surgical procedures including inserting punctual plugs into the tear ducts of the eye.

Currently, scientists from Houston, Texas Baylor College of Medicine have discovered a probiotic bacterial strain that enhanced dry eye using a mouse model.

Dry eye: what is it?

Even though most people equate tears with sobbing, healthy eyes constantly generate tears. These tears, collectively referred to as the tear film, lubricate the eye, clear away any foreign objects, and shield the eyes from infection as a person blinks.

Dry eye illness can occasionally be brought on by an individual’s eyes not producing enough natural tears. There are several causes for this, including:

  • an issue with the tear film
  • tears that dry up too soon
  • age greater than 50
  • taking specific prescription drugs, like antihistamines
  • environmental problems such as wind, smoke, and arid weather
  • eyelid abnormality
  • prolonged use of contact lenses

having certain illnesses, such as thyroid problems, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, or Sjögren’s syndrome.

Dry eye disease symptoms include:

  • feeling of stinging, stinging, or scratchiness in your eyes
  • like there is something in your eye
  • mucous around or in the eyes
  • sensitivity to light
  • inflamed or red eyes
  • Using contact lenses is challenging
  • fuzzy vision
  • eyes that are very wet.

Dry eye can result in eye infections and even damage to the cornea if it is not properly recognized and treated. Severe corneal injury may possibly result in visual loss.

The tummy and dry eyes

Previous studies suggest that dietary modifications may help manage dry eye in addition to medication interventions.

Omega-3 supplements dramatically reduced the symptoms and indicators of dry eye disease in patients with the condition, according to a 2019 study.

In 2019, another study found that giving persons with dry eye conditions short-term vitamin A supplements helped to improve the quality of their tears.

Finding innovative treatments for dry eye is crucial, according to Dr. Laura Schaefer, assistant professor of molecular virology and microbiology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, and study’s lead author.

Only a few medications are now available to treat dry eye, and for some individuals, these medications do not perform very well to alleviate symptoms, she explained. In the U.S., dry eye affects about 1 in 20 people.

Since their prior research demonstrated a functional connection between gut bacteria and the symptoms of dry eye disease, Dr. Schaefer said she and her team chose to concentrate on studying a probiotic bacterial strain in the gut to treat dry eye.

She explained, “We conducted a number of trials utilising gut bacteria taken from Sjögren syndrome patients who have severe dry eye, from healthy patients with no eye disease. In dry settings, mice colonised with gut bacteria from Sjögren patients exhibit worse dry eye symptoms than mice colonised with gut bacteria from healthy patients.

“This suggests that the gut bacteria from healthy people protect the surface of the eye in dry conditions, and therefore one possible treatment avenue for dry eye would be probiotic bacteria that have similar protective effects,” Dr. Schaefer continued.

Probiotic bacteria research for dry eye

Dr. Schaefer and her team used a mouse model of dry eye for this study. First, mice received an antibiotic to eradicate “good” bacteria from their digestive tracts. After that, they were given either the probiotic bacterial strain Limosilactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 or a saline solution as a control before being placed in extremely dry conditions.

After 5 days, researchers discovered that mice fed the probiotic bacterial strain had ocular surfaces that were healthier and more intact than mice given saline fluid.

The mice given the probiotic bacteria also had more goblet cells in the tissue of their eyes. The cells known as goblet cells are responsible for producing mucin, a crucial component of tears.

“Our hypothesis was that the probiotic would be protective of the eye, and it was exciting to prove that is true,” stated Dr. Schaefer. It has been demonstrated via extensive research that the probiotic strain DSM17938 reduces inflammation in other tissues, most notably the gut, and enhances intestinal barrier function. However, it hasn’t previously been assessed in relation to the eye.

Future therapeutic options

We also discussed this study, in which he was not engaged, with Dr. Benjamin Bert, an ophthalmologist at Memorial Care Orange Coast Medical Centre in Fountain Valley, California.

“It was actually a pretty fascinating study to see the multi-components that are involved with both our understanding of the dry eye and then also our future abilities to treat dry eye,” he said.

Taking supplements, such as omega-3 supplements, has previously been found to be helpful for treating people with particular forms of dry eye. So it’s exciting to consider the gut microbiome as a potential therapy target, Dr. Bert said.

He explained that since this study was conducted using a mouse model, a human study would be required as the next phase in the investigation.

“It would be really interesting to see this used as a supplement in a human trial to really prove what their hypothesis is, of this being a significant benefit or a possible treatment that could be used for patients with dry eye,” he continued.


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Alcohol abuse may hasten the stream of Alzheimer’s disease.

Alcohol abuse may hasten the stream of Alzheimer’s disease.

According to recent studies conducted by researchers from Scripps Research and the University of Bologna, the occurrence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in combination with a genetic predisposition may hasten the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

The study, which was carried out on mice, shows that repeated episodes of alcohol intoxication in rodents with a hereditary propensity for Alzheimer’s cause changed gene expression patterns, indicating a quicker advancement of the disease in their brains.

Regardless of alcohol usage, these findings illuminate the molecular mechanisms driving memory loss and could have wider ramifications for comprehending and treating Alzheimer’s disease.

According to a recent study, mice exposed to regular high amounts of alcohol showed signs of cognitive loss about two months earlier than they would have otherwise.

The onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is sped up by several months or perhaps a few years when ethanol is added to a genetically predisposed population.

While there hasn’t been much research on how alcohol affects Alzheimer’s disease progression, epidemiological studies have found a link between alcohol use disorders and an increased risk of dementia in general.

The researchers carried up an experiment where mice were repeatedly exposed to alcohol over months, simulating the levels of alcohol exposure reported in people with alcohol use disorders. This was done to study the effect of alcohol on Alzheimer’s disease.

They compared the actions of mice with three particular gene mutations linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease to animals without these abnormalities.

Is there a link between alcohol use and dementia?

The director of the Mary S. Easton Centre for Research and Care at UCLA and a professor of neurology at UCLA, Dr. Keith Vossel, who was not involved in the study, told us that the current research appears to support earlier results about dementia and alcohol use.

According to Dr. Vossel, drinking too much alcohol—more than 21 units per week—has been linked to an increased risk of dementia.

The new study is “fascinating, and the more research that can be done on neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, the more answers that can then be obtained,” said Dr. Nima Majlesi, an emergency medicine physician and director of Medical Toxicology at Staten Island University Hospital who was also not involved in the study.

There has never been any question in the medical community that excessive alcohol consumption and frequent intoxication [are] unhealthy. On occasion, people have questioned if consuming a small amount of alcohol each day can be healthy. Excessive alcohol consumption and recurring drunkenness [have] many negative impacts on human health, even in patients who are not at risk for [Alzheimer’s disease],” Dr. Nima Majlesi is a doctor.

Dr. Majlesi nevertheless expressed concern, saying that “in this study, they exposed mice to ethanol vapors, which is not the typical route for human consumption.”

We are aware that drinking by inhalation can result in higher brain alcohol concentrations than drinking by mouth. When exposure to ethanol avoids the [gastrointestinal] tract, the metabolism is altered. This may result in some variables that make it a little more challenging to understand the study, according to Dr. Majlesi.

Drinking alcohol and genetic risk may accelerate Alzheimer’simer’s

The current study’s findings showed that mice exposed to alcohol showed a steady loss in their capacity to learn and retain spatial patterns. In addition, these cognitive deficits were present in the alcohol-exposed mice at a younger age than in the control group.

Before the traditional period when such deficits would show, the researchers saw cognitive impairments in the mice treated with alcohol about two months earlier.

The researchers examined gene expression in the brains of mice that had been exposed to alcohol and mice that had not in great detail in order to comprehend the underlying mechanisms of alcohol use disorder.

They compared the gene expression profiles of over 100,000 different cells under examination. The findings showed that prefrontal brain gene expression was significantly altered after alcohol intake.

In particular, the mice that had been exposed to alcohol showed elevated expression of genes linked to inflammation, neurodegeneration, and neural excitability.

Supporting cells including astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells also showed altered gene expression patterns in response to alcohol exposure, indicating that these modifications weren’t just restricted to neurons.

Before, it was thought that only neurons could account for the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. These other cell types have just lately been found to have a part in the progression of the disease.

Alcohol changes gene expression may lead to memory loss

The gene transcription profiles of alcohol-exposed mice and control mice at various ages and stages of Alzheimer’s disease but with the same genetic background were compared by the researchers.

They found that the alcohol-exposed mice’s gene transcription profiles resembled older mice who were exhibiting more severe cognitive deterioration rather than mice their own age.

The researchers found that alcohol exposure changed the gene expression patterns in a way that was typically associated with advanced stages of the disease when they compared the alcohol-exposed mice to the same type of mice at various stages of Alzheimer’s disease progression, including mice without any impairments and severely compromised mice.

The significant findings were emphasized for us by Dr. David Hunter, an assistant professor of neurology at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston who was not involved in the study. He explained:

“In this investigation, mice were given alcohol. Some of the mice had the Alzheimer’s disease-causing human genes. Normal control mice were the others. In comparison to sober mice, mutant mice exposed to alcohol experienced cognitive damage early. Neither alcohol nor the control mice were affected.

Dr. Hunter continued, “The researchers also examined gene expression in the mice and discovered that the mutant group that had alcohol had some differences from the sober mutants.”

Mice do not naturally develop Alzheimer’s disease, therefore creating animal models of the condition is intrinsically difficult. We must introduce numerous lethal mutations to them,” said Dr. Hunter.

Does drinking affect dementia in other ways?

According to Dr. Majlesi, “Common sense tells us if we eat clean healthy foods daily, maintain a healthy weight, exercise daily, sleep well, and have little stress, we decrease our risk for several diseases.”

In his statement, Dr. Hunter noted that “neurologists are well aware that chronic and excessive alcohol consumption is bad for the brain.”

Alcohol is a statistical risk factor for all dementia causes, as this article’s opening states. Even in sporadic patients, it appears likely that it speeds up the development of Alzheimer’s pathology. This article clarifies how that link’s mechanism works. The primary takeaway for the general population is that cutting back on alcohol consumption is great advice for keeping in shape.

There is a condition known as alcoholic dementia, a neurodegenerative illness unrelated to Alzheimer’s. It manifests as alterations in visuospatial processing and executive function. The signs are similar to those of Alzheimer’s, according to Dr. Hunter.

Dr. Vossel concurred and said, “There is also a rare form of dementia called Marchiafava-Bignami Disease associated with excessive alcohol intake and malnutrition.”

“More study on this subject is necessary. According to Dr. Vossel, this study “provides evidence that excessive alcohol consumption can affect genetic changes in the brain related to Alzheimer’s disease.”


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Can antibiotics help in reducing endometriosis symptoms?

Can antibiotics help in reducing endometriosis symptoms?

Researchers discovered that compared to less than 10% of individuals without the ailment, approximately two-thirds of patients with endometriosis have higher levels of a particular bacterium around their uterus.

The researchers observed that the levels of the bacteria and the development of endometriosis-related lesions were decreased after administering antibiotics to endometriosis-affected mice.

To determine whether the results apply to people, however, more research is required.

In the disorder known as endometriosis, uterine lining-like cells proliferate outside of the uterus. Along with symptoms like discomfort and nausea, this can result in the production of scar tissue and inflammation in the pelvic area as well as different organs.

In the entire world, endometriosis affects about 10% of people of reproductive age who were born female. There is presently no cure for the illness, though various therapies can assist control it. Additionally, there is no method to avoid the illness.

Millions of people worldwide could have their health and quality of life improved as a result of further endometriosis research.

Recently, scientists discovered that treating mice with a particular bacterium may lessen lesions related to endometriosis. Science Translational Medicine included the findings in one of its issues.

Not a part of the study, Dr. Marc Winter, medical director of Hoag’s minimally invasive surgical gynaecology, told us:

Fusobacterium, a type of bacteria, is implicated in this study from Japan as a potential agent encouraging the development of inflammatory cells that cause inflammation, scar tissue, and pain related to endometriosis. This finding may prompt the addition of particular antibiotics as an essential component of endometriosis therapy.

Fusobacterium in endometriosis

Starting with fibroblasts from four patients with endometriosis and four individuals without, the researchers performed a genomic study. Cells known as fibroblasts help repair wounds and create connective tissues.

They discovered that individuals with endometriosis had much higher levels of the transgelin (TAGLN) gene. It also codes for a protein known as transgelin, which is involved in cell reproduction and is crucial for the growth of the illness.

The expression of TAGLN, which may result from a bacterial infection, can be upregulated by inflammation. According to prior studies, patients with endometriosis have much higher levels of some bacterial genera than healthy people.

The researchers next evaluated the frequency of a bacterium known as Fusobacterium within and outside of the uteruses of 79 people with and 76 people without endometriosis to examine how the presence of these bacteria in the uterine effects endometriosis.

Fusobacterium was found in higher concentrations in the uterine endometrial tissue of 64.3% and the endometrial tissue that had grown outside the uterus of 52.4% of patients with endometriosis. Only 7.1% of those without the disease had higher concentrations of the bacteria in their uteri.

The scientists then looked into whether Fusobacterium encouraged endometriosis in nine mice models of the disease. They discovered that Fusobacterim-exposed animals had higher uterine lesions than control mice.

In contrast, animals without Fusobacterium did not produce as many uterine lesions. This discrepancy persisted even after oestrogen stimulation, which medical professionals believe may induce tissue resembling uterine lining to develop outside of the uterus.

Treatment with antibiotics lessened symptoms

The final goal of the study was to see whether antibiotics could eliminate Fusobacterium in mice and lessen endometriosis symptoms.

To do this, scientists treated endometriosis-affected mice models with metronidazole and chloramphenicol for a total of five days. After a week, they discovered that the mice no longer had Fusobacterium and that transgelin expression had decreased close to the uterus.

They added that animals given antibiotics had less and smaller endometrial lesions than mice not given antibiotics.

According to the researchers’ findings, both antibiotics might be effective in treating endometriosis. However, they pointed out that it is uncertain why Fusobacterium infects some people.

Endometriosis bacteria are unknown.

We discussed the limits of the study with Dr. Karnika Kapoor, a family doctor from Medical Offices of Manhattan who was not engaged in it.

Since mice don’t have a menstrual cycle and don’t naturally develop endometriosis, the mouse model employed in this study has some inherent limitations, according to the researcher.

She said that there is insufficient evidence in the study to support the theory that endometriosis is promoted by Fusobacterium near the uterus after retrograde menstruation, which occurs when the period flows upward via the fallopian tubes and is thought by some researchers to be a possible cause of the disorder.

The authors were careful to make it clear that their analysis could not establish causation, Dr. Stringfellow did observe. This is an important distinction.

“More research is required to prove that Fusobacterium is a causal agent. To ascertain whether other microbial species might have a harmful function, more investigation is also required, he added.

Treatment with antibiotics can slow the spread of endometriosis.

These two studies provide evidence that antibiotic therapy can slow the spread of endometriosis and stop the early development of endometriotic lesions.

The bacterial ecosystem in the mice given antibiotic treatment was also examined by the researchers. Mice with endometriosis who were not given antibiotics had a greater variety of bacteria in their guts.

The mice that received antibiotic treatment had the least bacterial variety.

For endometriosis, metronidazole might be more efficient.

The effectiveness of metronidazole and neomycin as a stand-alone endometriosis treatment was also investigated by the researchers. Lesions on the mice receiving metronidazole were less severe than those on the mice receiving neomycin.

Additionally, the lesions in the mice receiving metronidazole exhibited fewer inflammatory components.

Finally, mice with endometriosis treated with metronidazole were fed endometriotic mouse faeces. Endometriotic lesions developed and resembled those from endometriosis animals given aspartame in their drinking water in terms of mass and volume.

This shows that the bacterial population in the gut can affect how endometriosis develops and spreads.

Future treatments for endometriosis

Dr. Kapoor discussed the limitations of the available endometriosis treatments today.

The current endometriosis treatment options rely on hormone medication, which prevents women from becoming pregnant while receiving care. The removal of endometrial lesions raises concerns since there is a high recurrence rate, which is an option for people with recurring pelvic pain, she said.

“This research appears to point to a possible Fusobacterium-related mechanism of endometriosis, and that antibiotic elimination is a treatment possibility. If antibiotic therapies for endometriosis are found to be beneficial in subsequent research, we could be able to use them in our clinical practise. Karnika Kapoor, M.D.

Dr. Winter concurred that the discoveries might result in fresh therapeutic approaches. “The function of Fusobacterium in promoting endometriosis may result in a completely new strategy for treating it. Further research is required to understand the contribution of Fusobacterium to the development of endometriosis, according to him.

He said, “The use of a widely prescribed antibiotic metronidazole may be a key in improving the efficacy of endometriosis treatment.”

Further research is required.

If similar effects also occur in humans, more research is needed to confirm this. There may be new endometriosis treatments developed if gut bacteria can affect the onset and course of endometriosis in humans.


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