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Can protein predict mental decline before Alzhiemer’s sign?

Can protein predict mental decline before Alzhiemer’s sign?

A protein called NPTX2 that is present in the cerebrospinal fluid may be able to forecast the onset of memory and cognitive issues, according to recent research.

Researchers evaluated people who had initially been in normal mental health but later experienced dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

According to the study, the quicker start of MCI symptoms was linked to lower levels of NPTX2. The results also demonstrated that NPTX2 levels, like other Alzheimer’s disease-related indicators, appear to fluctuate over time.

Findings from a recent study could be useful for understanding cognitive decline and early Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis.

The levels of a protein called NPTX2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or more simply put, the fluid surrounding the brain, were evaluated by the researchers in order to better understand the brain changes connected to moderate cognitive impairment and dementia.

Lower levels of NPTX2 were discovered to be associated with a more rapid beginning of cognitive deterioration. Along with other Alzheimer’s disease-related indicators, NPTX2 levels evolved with time.

Alzheimer’s disease indicators in cerebrospinal fluid measurement

The 269 participants in the BIOCARD Study who were initially in good mental health had their brain fluid (CSF) taken by the research team.

These patients were followed for an average of 16.3 years, and their average age at the start of the study was roughly 57.7 years.

Out of these people, 77 subsequently experienced dementia or Moderate cognitive impairment (MCI).

Quantitative parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used by the researchers to evaluate three similar peptides that make up the NPTX2 protein.

Three other markers—A42/A40, p-tau181, and t-tau—that are frequently linked to Alzheimer’s disease were also measured. These measurements were made using a Lumipulse automated electrochemiluminescence test on the identical CSF samples.

The goal of this data analysis was to help the researchers better understand how these indicators changed over time and whether they might be related to the onset of MCI and dementia in the patients under study.

NPTX2 levels and cognitive issues over time

They discovered that people with lower NPTX2 protein levels in their brain fluid (CSF) exhibited cognitive issues and memory deterioration (MCI) earlier than people with higher NPTX2 protein levels.

Both those who acquired MCI within seven years of the study’s beginning and those who did so later found this link to be substantial.

Even after accounting for other well-known Alzheimer’s disease markers detected in the CSF, the researchers observed that the baseline levels of NPTX2 were able to predict when the symptoms of MCI would manifest.

This implies that the amounts of these markers may be associated with modifications in NPTX2 and may contribute to the emergence of cognitive issues.

According to the study’s first author, Anja Soldan, Ph.D., an associate professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins University, “our study shows that low levels of the protein ‘neuropentraxin 2’ (or NPTX2) measured in the cerebrospinal fluid among cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults may predict later onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).”

[NPTX2] has been connected to learning and memory in mice in the past. Our findings add to the mounting evidence that low levels of this protein in individuals could signal MCI years before symptoms manifest. Notably, our results demonstrate that low levels of the protein enhance the prediction of cognitive impairment even when traditional Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers (such as those linked to amyloid plaques and tau tangles) and well-established genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease are taken into account,” according to Dr. Anja Soldan.

According to Dr. Soldan, NPTX2 is “predictive of subsequent symptoms of MCI both within and beyond seven years before symptoms occurred.”


The study does have a few drawbacks.

Namely that the majority of the participants were white, educated people with a history of dementia in their families. Therefore, it is uncertain whether the results apply to other populations, according to Dr. Soldan.

Without taking part in the study, Santosh Kesari, Ph.D., a neurologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California, and the regional medical director for the Research Clinical Institute of Providence Southern California, told that “identifying blood or CSF biomarkers that predict developing dementia is critical to intervene earlier by preventative approaches or treat at the earliest onset of cognitive issues or even before when patients are aware they have dementia.”

Could this indicate new Alzheimer’s medications?

There is now just one FDA-approved treatment on the market that is known to even slightly reduce the signs of Alzheimer’s disease in its early stages, and there are no known therapies or strategies to avoid the disease, according to Dr. Soldan.

Our research demonstrates that reduced NPTX2 levels exist for many years before MCI or dementia brought on by Alzheimer’s disease, which increases the prospect of creating therapies that specifically target NPTX2.

Additionally, Dr. Soldan added, “Our findings may be relevant to other neurodegenerative diseases since this protein does not appear to be a specific marker for Alzheimer’s disease.”

Although significant work is being done to create sensitive methods of testing NPTX2 in blood rather than cerebrospinal fluid, we are not yet able to routinely measure brain levels of the substance in clinic settings. Another crucial area of research, according to Dr. Anja Soldan, is the factors that affect the levels of NPTX2 in the brain. However, we know very little about these factors.

Dr. Kesari concurred, stating that “NPTX2 may turn out to be a good target of drug development to prevent cognitive decline and will need to be further tested and validated in future studies.”

Future research will examine NPTX2 in more detail. In the end, additional study is required.


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Discover the best sources of prebiotics for our body.

Discover the best sources of prebiotics for our body.

Prebiotics are fibers that your body cannot digest but which can promote the development of healthy bacteria in your stomach. These plant fibers enter your lower digestive tract where they serve as food for the good bacteria in your gut because your body cannot digest them. Though both probiotics and prebiotics are beneficial microorganisms, your digestive system benefits more from probiotics.

Dietary fibres are not all considered prebiotics. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of well-known prebiotics. Prebiotics can help maintain a healthy digestive system, strengthen your immune system, and encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria in your stomach if you include them in your diet regularly.

Why Prebiotics Are Important?

Although more research is required to fully understand all the ways prebiotics can benefit your body, they are crucial to your health. Prebiotics are occasionally added to diets, but they are naturally present in several high-fiber foods. Additionally, they are offered as dietary supplements.

The amount of food that should be consumed daily is not officially suggested. According to studies, consuming 3 to 5 grammes of prebiotics daily may improve intestinal health. You can probably be confident you’re receiving enough dietary fibre if you consume the required amount.

Leading five prebiotic foods

Researchers examined the prebiotic data of 8,690 distinct food categories in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies for this investigation.

According to researchers, prebiotics were present in 37% of the foods in the database. The five items with the highest prebiotic content ranged in concentration from 79 to 243 milligrammes per gramme of food and included:

  • Green dandelion
  • Artichokes of Jerusalem
  • garlic
  • leeks
  • onions

We weren’t surprised to find that these foods ‘packed the greatest prebiotic punch,’ per se, given that our prior literature review had shown these foods to be high in prebiotics,” said Cassandra Boyd, a master’s student and the study’s presenting author. This research was done in collaboration with Dr. John Gieng, an assistant professor of nutritional sciences in the Department of Nutrition, Food Science & Packaging.

Having said that, we were astonished to find that relatively small quantities of these meals contained the 5 grams of prebiotics that the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) recommends consuming daily. For instance, if a small onion weighs around 4 ounces, eating about half of one would provide the recommended 5 grams of prebiotics per day,” according to Boyd.

The study also identified onion rings, creamed onions, cowpeas (commonly known as black-eyed peas), asparagus, and Kellogg’s All-Bran cereal as probiotic-rich foods. Prebiotics are present in all of these foods in amounts of 50–60 milligrams per gram.

Researchers discovered that diets containing wheat had a low prebiotic content. Additionally, the prebiotic content of dairy, eggs, oils, and meat was minimal at best.

What distinguishes prebiotics from probiotics?

Probiotics are microorganisms that are applied to or consumed by humans. They are supposed to provide health benefits such as aiding in the digestion of food and maintaining the balance of your entire body because they are frequently the same “good” bacteria that reside in your gut microbiome.

Alcohol and various drugs, such as antibiotics, can occasionally destroy healthy bacteria, leaving the person with an imbalanced stomach. The microbiota can be brought back into equilibrium by consuming probiotic-rich fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, kefir, and kimchi or by adding probiotics back into the body through supplements.

The probiotic bacteria one consumes as well as the “good” bacteria found in the gut microbiome both require food in order to survive. Prebiotics can help with that.

Prebiotics are types of dietary fibre that the body cannot digest. Probiotics consume them as they pass through the digestive tract in order to survive and develop.

Prebiotics are healthy precisely because they have been indicated to improve the microbiome,” asserted Boyd. “They are substrates that beneficial bacteria can directly use to confer health benefits on the host, as these bacteria perform functions that are advantageous to human health.”

Prebiotics are known to assist with the following in addition to supporting probiotics:

Prebiotics may aid people with specific conditions including obesity and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as prevent some cancers like colorectal cancer, according to ongoing research.

Additional health advantages of prebiotics

It is not surprising that the five items listed are high in prebiotics, according to Allison Tallman, a registered dietitian and the founder of Nourished Routes, who reviewed this research.

She continued, “These foods are also high in fiber, which is good for gut health as well. Given that these delicacies might not be as well known to the average consumer, I believe people will be interested in learning more about dandelion and Jerusalem artichokes.”

The chief of the gastroenterology division at Hackensack University Medical Centre, Dr. Rosario Ligresti, concurred.

I was not surprised at all because each of these foods (has) been shown to have many health benefits, so it would make sense they are also good for our gut and our digestion,” the man said.

Many of these foods, especially Jerusalem artichokes, are high in the indigestible dietary fibre inulin that, when broken down in the gut, release the healthy prebiotic nutrients that get to work to support our digestive health in so many different ways,” explained Dr. Rosario Ligresti.

Can eating prebiotics reduce depression?

The next stage in this research, according to Boyd, is to determine whether there is a connection between prebiotic use and depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), a validated instrument.

Tallman stated that she would like to see further research on the effects of consuming these particular meals and other foods that are high in prebiotics on the human microbiota.

Some randomized controlled trials should be conducted to determine the actual health benefits of prebiotics on the human microbiota and to determine its relationship with different disease states. Additionally, there is still a tonne of research to be done on prebiotic use and the relationship between the gut and the brain,” according to registered dietitian Allison Tallman.

And while there is a tonne of existing evidence to suggest that these foods are excellent providers of prebiotics, Dr. Ligresti noted that there can never be enough significant studies conducted over extensive time periods to confirm what we may already suspect.

He continued, “More research into the advantages of a healthy microbiome fostered by these nutrients are also necessary, particularly how changing the microbiota can help cancer patients and those with autoimmune illnesses.”


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Pregnancy: Low fiber may cause neurodevelopmental delays.

Pregnancy: Low fiber may cause neurodevelopmental delays.

Low fiber intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of neurodevelopmental impairments in offspring, according to a recent study.

An essential part of a nutritious, well-balanced diet, particularly while pregnant, is fiber. With the right advice from nutritionists, pregnant women can increase their fiber consumption as necessary.

The complex period of pregnancy can have an impact on a variety of health consequences.

Researchers are still trying to figure out how behaviors and the environment during pregnancy affect the offspring’s later years.

The baby’s health and growth can be impacted by nutrition throughout pregnancy, but researchers are still trying to determine how various dietary details will affect the baby’s development.

Fiber intake during pregnancy was the subject of a recent study published in Frontiers in Nutrition.

According to the study’s findings, consuming less fiber during pregnancy increases the likelihood of neurodevelopmental impairments in the progeny.

Low fibre during pregnancy slows brain development

Researchers for the study observed that earlier research on animals had connected a reduced fiber diet during pregnancy to delayed brain development in children.

The data from 76,207 mother-infant pairs were evaluated by the researchers using information from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study.

They examined participants’ fiber consumption while pregnant and divided them into one of five groups according to how much fiber they consumed.

They then evaluated three-year-olds for developmental impairments. Parents or other primary carers were asked to complete questionnaires that measured children’s communication, fine and gross motor abilities, problem-solving, and personal-social skills to achieve this. With a lower score, there was more developmental delay.

In contrast to the group of moms who consumed the most total dietary fiber, the researchers discovered that those with the lowest fiber intake had the highest linked risk of having children with neurodevelopmental delays.

They discovered four crucial regions linked to slowed newborn brain development as a result of inadequate fibre intake:

  • communication
  • problem-solving
  • personal-social
  • small-motor abilities

The group with the lowest consumption of dietary fibre still carried significant risks for developmental delays, even when taking folic acid intake into consideration.

According to research author Kunio Miyake, Ph.D., of the University of Yamanashi, “most pregnant women in Japan consume far less dietary fiber than what is recommended intake; thus, this maternal nutritional imbalance during pregnancy may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of their offspring.”

Therefore, providing nutritional advice to expectant moms is essential to lowering the likelihood that their offspring would experience future health issues.

The authors of the study hypothesize that the results are due to the interaction of fiber with the brain’s microbiome and the gut microbiota.

Dietary fiber is known to affect the regulation of gut microbiota and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs),” Dr. Miyake said.

Recommendations for fibre during pregnancy

Fibre is a crucial part of a balanced diet and is especially necessary during pregnancy. Dr. Brian Power, Ph.D., an author of a non-study and nutritionist at Atlantic Technological University in Sligo, Ireland, explained to us:

Numerous studies show that increasing dietary fiber intake during pregnancy benefits many women by lowering the risk of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and uncontrollable weight gain.

The current USDA recommendation is for people to consume 14 grammes of fibre for every 1,000 calories they consume.

Therefore, with 2,000 calories per day, consumers should have roughly 28 grammes of fibre daily. A “low residue diet” or “low fibre diet” typically contains 10 to 15 grammes of fibre per day.

Only 8.4% of study participants exceeded the recommended daily intake of 18 grammes of fibre in Japan, where the recommendations range somewhat. The study’s findings may potentially indicate a risk from consuming too much fibre after accounting for folic acid.

It’s crucial to have open lines of communication with your medical team during your pregnancy in order to identify any potential nutritional deficits and how to make up for them.

How to increase your intake of fiber?

Your doctor might advise boosting your intake by eating more fiber-rich foods or taking supplements if your diet is lacking in the substance. High-fiber dietary examples come in the form of:

  • whole-grain cereal with kernels
  • artichokes
  • beans
  • a few fruits (such as raspberries, blackberries, and apples)

Dr. Al-Shaer stated, “Increasing fibre can be done simply by integrating more whole meals throughout the day, such as vegetables, legumes, nuts [and] seeds, and fruit.

Many fruits, such as berries or bananas, are excellent sources of fibre, and all nuts and seeds are high in fibre. Try to fill half of your plate with non-starchy vegetables at each meal, which is a generally good rule of thumb I suggest to my patients. Except for potatoes, corn and peas, practically all vegetables are non-starchy. We can get enough fibre this way throughout the day. And a simple method to enhance our fibre intake is to sprinkle sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, flax seeds, or beans on salads or breakfast bowls,” according to registered dietician Abrar Al-Shaer, PhD.


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Hearing loss: Can Omega-3 fatty acid prevent it?

Hearing loss: Can Omega-3 fatty acid prevent it?

Hearing declines with age; in the US, 50% of persons 75 and older have a debilitating hearing loss. There is presently no cure for hearing loss brought on by ageing.

Increased blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids and a reduction in age-related hearing problems have been found by researchers from Tufts University and the University of Guelph.

Some of our senses, such as vision, hearing, and taste can become less effective as we become older.

In fact, studies have shown that hearing loss occurs more frequently as people age. In the United States, about half of seniors 75 and older and around 25% of people in the 65 to 74 age range have hearing loss that is disabling.

Although there is currently no cure for age-related hearing loss, people can take precautions to protect their hearing, such as avoiding loud noises and wearing hearing protection in noisy environments.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is associated with hearing health. Now, researchers from the University of Guelph and Tufts University/Fatty Acid Research Institute have discovered that middle-aged and older adults with higher levels of DHA were 8–20% less likely to report age-related hearing issues than those with lower DHA levels.

What are Omega-3 fatty acid?

The body requires omega-3 fatty acids as a sort of “good” fat for a number of purposes, making them “essential” fats.

Omega-3 fatty acids come in three primary categories:

  • ALA (alpha-linolenic acid)
  • EPA, or eicosapentaenoic acid
  • DHA, or docosahexaenoic acid

Omega-3 fatty acids are necessary for the organism to:

  • construct and maintain healthy cell membranes
  • start the process of producing the hormones necessary for blood clotting and maintaining the function of the arterial walls.
  • help regulate genetic activity

The effects of omega-3 fatty acids on other aspects of bodily health, such as lowering inflammation, enhancing eye health, and preventing age-related neurodegeneration, have been the subject of extensive research over the past several years.

Additionally, prior research suggests omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial for treating a variety of illnesses, including depression, autoimmune disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and even some cancers.

The body cannot produce omega-3 fatty acids on its own, despite the fact that it needs them. It must instead rely on taking supplements and eating foods high in omega-3 fatty acids to get them.

Omega-3 fatty acid-rich foods include:

  • fatty, oily fish such as tuna, sardines, anchovies, salmon, and mackerel
  • walnuts
  • flaxseed
  • the chia seed
  • Algae and seaweed
  • edamame
  • a few oils, like soybean and canola

Is there a connection between Omega-3s and hearing loss?

The lead author of this study, Dr. Michael I. McBurney, a senior scientist with the Fatty Acid Research Institute and an adjunct professor in the Department of Human Health & Nutritional Sciences at the University of Guelph and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, explained that they chose to investigate the impact of omega-3s on age-related hearing issues because they were intrigued by findings that hearing develops in offspring in animals.

Furthermore, he added, “omega-3s affected animal cochlear metabolism.” Finally, increased fish and omega-3 dietary intake was negatively correlated with age-related hearing loss in people.

So, Dr. McBurney continued, “we chose to investigate the association between plasma omega-3 levels and self-reported hearing loss in the UK Biobank cohort a very large cross-sectional study.”

DHA and age-related hearing loss research

More than 100,000 participants aged 40 to 69 from the UK Biobank’s self-reported hearing status and blood DHA levels were used in this study by Dr. McBurney and his team.

Following examination, scientists discovered that people with blood DHA levels in the highest quintile were 16% less likely to respond “yes” to the question “Do you have difficulty hearing?” compared to people with DHA levels in the bottom quintile.

Participants in the highest quintile were also 11% less likely to say “yes” in response to the question, “Do you find it difficult to follow conversations when there is background noise?” weighed against the bottom quintile.

Researchers discovered that middle-aged and older persons with greater DHA levels were between 8 and 20 percent less likely to report age-related hearing problems than those with lower DHA levels.

In relation to age- and sex-adjusted hearing loss, “we had hypothesised that there would be an inverse relationship between plasma omega-3 concentrations and hearing loss,” Dr. McBurney remarked. Even after further adjusting for socioeconomic deprivation (Townsend Deprivation Index), behavioural traits (BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake), and inflammation biomarkers (C-reactive protein, neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio), it was satisfying to find support for this theory.

Research on EPA, DHA, and omega-3 to move forward

According to Dr. McBurney, this study did not establish a link between poor omega-3 status and hearing loss.

This determination will require randomized, placebo-controlled, omega-3 intervention trials in humans,” he added. “However, there is strong evidence linking high omega-3 status low EPA+DHA concentrations to benefits for cardiovascular, brain, and visual health. Low omega-3 intake and status are linked to an increased risk of several chronic illnesses, preterm delivery, and all-cause death.”

“It is important to eat foods rich in EPA+DHA and/or use an omega-3 supplement,” Dr. McBurney continued. “I recommend measuring blood EPA+DHA levels, then following dietary advice and making changes as necessary to reach recommended EPA+DHA status.”

Further research on this subject is required, according to Dr. Eliott Kozin, a hearing loss specialist at Mass Eye and Ear who was not involved in this study.

He said, “The current study investigated whether there may be a relationship between blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids and subjective hearing complaints.” Omega-3 fatty acids may reduce hearing loss, although the current study only demonstrates a probable link. The results may be explained by additional, untested causes. For instance, people with higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids might be more health-conscious, and other factors might be directly related to hearing health.

Dr. Kozin continued, “Future high-prospective research is needed to better understand the effect diet has on our hearing health. This kind of excellent nutrition-focused research is supported by the current study.”

Findings on the benefits of omega-3

Dr. Courtney Voelker, a board-certified neurotologist and director of the Adult & Paediatric Cochlear Implant Programme at Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California, was among the experts who discussed this study with him.

The research was encouraging to Dr. Voelker since omega-3 fatty acids “strike again.”

We know that omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have an effect on the heart, brain development in utero with babies, as well as when we get older with cognitive impairments,” she said. And currently, a connection with better hearing or at least halting hearing loss appears to exist.

Dr. Voelker continued, “The strength of this study is that it is a large population. The study’s flaws include the fact that participants only self-reported their hearing loss. Therefore, it is uncertain if there is a direct connection or not.”

Dr. Voelker claimed that increasing your intake of omega-3 fatty acids through diet is the best way to reap the potential health advantages of these fats.

Fish, such as mackerel or salmon, as well as other seafood, like oysters, are great sources of omega-3 fatty acids,” she explained. If you don’t eat a lot of seafood, flaxseed, chia seeds, walnuts, and soybeans are all excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids.

Dr. Voelker continued, “There needs to be a randomised control trial utilising omega-3 fatty acids to look at long-term hearing loss in very large populations in order to identify if there is a strong link (between) omega-3 fatty acids and hearing loss.”


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A large study links vitamin D to the severity of psoriasis.

A large study links vitamin D to the severity of psoriasis.

An inflammatory skin condition called psoriasis is characterized by elevated, irritated, scaly areas of skin that can also be unpleasant and itchy.

From person to person, psoriasis severity varies widely. According to recent studies, having more severe psoriasis may be linked to having low vitamin D levels.

In the US, psoriasis is a disorder that affects more than 7.5 million people. Low vitamin D levels may be linked to more severe psoriasis, according to recent research from the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

Scientists believe that psoriasis is an autoimmune illness, which means that it results from the immune system mistakenly attacking your body instead of protecting it. The specific etiology of psoriasis is still unknown. In psoriasis, this immunological activity speeds up the production of new skin cells, which leads to the development of thick, scaly patches on the skin’s surface.

Psoriasis symptoms can range from minor to severe. The National Psoriasis Foundation reports:

  • Less than 3% of the body is affected with moderate psoriasis.
  • 3–10% of the body is affected by mild psoriasis.
  • More than 10% of the body is affected by severe psoriasis.

The connection between psoriasis and vitamin D

Experts enquired as to the biological relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis from Eunyoung Cho, ScD, research team head and associate professor of dermatology and epidemiology at Brown University.

Your skin’s keratinocytes, which are cells, have vitamin D receptors. Currently, topical vitamin D analogs are used to treat psoriasis because they bind to vitamin D receptors on keratinocytes and stop their proliferation. These analogs replicate the effects of vitamin D. Dr. Eunyoung Cho explained that this multiplication causes the thick plaques that are typical of psoriasis.

Italian, Brazilian, and Nepalese researchers found that psoriasis patients have significantly lower serum levels of vitamin D, and that these levels are correlated with the severity of the condition.

Dr. Cho and her associates wanted to determine whether this association would hold true in a sizable, nationally representative US population because the majority of earlier investigations have been carried out outside of the US.

Vitamin D deficiency associated with more severe psoriasis

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were utilised by Dr. Cho’s team to determine the number of psoriasis cases between 2003 and 2006 and between 2011 and 2014. Out of the 40,401 people that were evaluated, they discovered 491 cases, including 162 from 2003 to 2006 and 329 from 2011 to 2014.

The amount of vitamin D in the blood, the body surface area affected by psoriasis (a measurement of the severity of psoriasis on the body), and other details including age, gender, race, body mass index, and smoking habits were also recorded.

The researchers employed a mathematical technique known as “multivariate linear regression” to evaluate the connection between low vitamin D levels and the severity of psoriasis.

They discovered that the severity of psoriasis increased as blood levels of vitamin D declined. The mean serum vitamin D levels of those with the least amount of psoriasis-affected body surface area were highest (67 nmol/L), whereas those with the most amount of psoriasis-affected body surface area had the lowest levels (56 nmol/L).

When they separated the population into groups based on the body surface area affected by psoriasis and examined the proportion of individuals with vitamin D deficiency in each group, the researchers observed a similar trend. Vitamin D deficiency affected 39% of the group with the most severe psoriasis compared to 25% of the group with the least severe psoriasis.

The new study adds to our understanding of psoriasis.

Lim was reported in a press release as saying, “Only one prior study, published in 2013, used NHANES data to analyse the relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis.” Our results are more current and statistically significant than those obtained from previously accessible data because we were able to include more recent data, which more than tripled the number of psoriasis cases analysed.

The University of California, San Francisco’s Dr. Tina Bhutani, an associate professor of dermatology, co-director of the Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Centre, and head of the dermatology clinical research unit, noted that these findings are not new because “similar associations have been reported in the past.”

Nevertheless, “the advantage of NHANES is that it is likely to be more representative of the US population vs. other prior studies,” Dr. Bhutani noted.

The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine’s James J. Leyden Professor of Dermatology and Epidemiology, Dr. Joel M. Gelfand, stated that the study “shows a modest association between vitamin D levels and psoriasis severity” but cautioned that it cannot be used to establish a causal relationship.

According to this study, “We cannot say whether slightly lower vitamin D levels cause more severe psoriasis or whether slightly higher vitamin D levels cause less severe psoriasis,” stated Dr. Gelfand.

What does this signify for those who have psoriasis?

Dr. Cho stated that even though “topical vitamin D analogs are already used to treat psoriasis, further research, such as large randomized clinical trials of oral vitamin D supplementation, is warranted before any firm medical recommendations are made on the use of oral vitamin D supplementation among psoriasis patients.”

Despite this, Dr. Cho advised that persons with psoriasis and vitamin D insufficiency “discuss this with their clinicians and treat the deficiency.”

Despite the correlation between vitamin D levels and the severity of psoriasis revealed by these data, Dr. Bhutani concurred that “we do not have enough information here to recommend the use of vitamin D supplementation in our psoriasis patients.”

Dr. Gelfand further stated that monitoring or augmenting vitamin D levels in psoriasis patients to treat or prevent psoriatic illness is not currently supported by sufficient levels or quality of data.

Drs. Bhutani and Gelfand both emphasised in their remarks that there have been conflicting outcomes from earlier research testing vitamin D supplementation for psoriasis.

According to Dr. Gelfand, a clinical trial that was conducted in 2022 “showed some evidence that vitamin D supplementation may marginally prevent the development of autoimmune diseases, with some evidence, though not statistically significant, that this includes prevention of psoriasis.”

However, a clinical trial that was released in 2023 revealed that vitamin D supplementation had no impact on the severity of psoriasis.

A cautionary tale is the experience of vitamin D and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease – after many years of intense investigation, large RCTs involving >25,000 patients showed no benefit of Vitamin D supplementation for preventing these major health outcomes,” noted Dr. Gelfand.


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Resist age-related cognitive decline with daily probiotics.

Resist age-related cognitive decline with daily probiotics.

According to the outcomes of a scientific experiment, those with mild cognitive impairment who took a probiotic for 30 days performed better on cognitive tests.

After the trial, those who took probiotics had lower levels of a type of bacteria linked to cognitive impairment in their gut microbiomes.

According to the research, altering gut flora may be a promising strategy for treating chronic illnesses like cognitive impairment.

Probiotic therapy may help persons with moderate cognitive impairment (MCI) regain cognitive function, according to a clinical investigation.

There is an urgent need for more research,” declared Mashael R. Aljumaah, the primary study author and a doctorate candidate in microbiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in light of the global rise in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

People with cognitive impairment were given daily probiotics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during the double-blind randomised study. Also, after three months, their cognitive test results improved.

The researchers examined the participants’ stool samples and discovered significant quantities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, or LGG, as well as a decrease in the quantity of Prevotella, a different family of bacteria frequently detected in individuals with cognitive deterioration.

These alterations imply a favourable change in the microbiota makeup of the subjects.

Numerous earlier animal investigations, which showed LGG’s beneficial effects on several physiological situations, led to its development as a possible therapeutic probiotic. As a probiotic, LGG is also well-known for its capacity to withstand acidity and stick to intestinal walls,” according to lead researcher Michael R. Aljumaah.

Probiotic’s effects on mild cognitive impairment

To conduct the study, researchers contrasted those who had minor cognitive impairment with those who did not.

They aimed to spot, comprehend, and try to sway the early phases of cognitive deterioration. Finding biomarkers that could indicate the onset of cognitive decline was a part of that endeavor.

The age range of the 169 participants in the clinical trial ranged from 52 to 75 years old. As a control group, those without cognitive disorders were assigned to one group. People with cognitive problems were assigned to another group.

For three months, either LGG or a placebo was given to both groups. There were no negative effects in either group.

Prevotella, one such biomarker, was discovered in adults with cognitive impairment by Aljumaah and her coworkers. The fact that receiving LGG seemed to lessen its presence points to a potential future for microbiome re-balancing.

Aljumaah added, “By developing microbiome-targeted therapies, we may be able to delay the onset of cognitive impairment.”

Prevotella bacteria and long-term illnesses

Aljumaah clarified that while the Prevotella family of bacteria is present in persons with cognitive loss, it is not totally evident that their effect is solely detrimental.

For instance, the bacteria Prevotella has been linked to autoimmune, inflammatory, and cognitive disorders. According to Aljumaah, it is frequently discovered in persons who have Crohn’s disease or inflammatory bowel disorders such rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Additionally, because it originates from plant-based diets, Prevotella bacteria may aid in the processing of fiber and is linked to metabolites that are crucial for maintaining gut health.

This raises the question of whether specific Prevotella species or strains may contribute to these illnesses, or whether a particular genetic characteristic or mechanism may be to blame, Aljumaah observed.

Greater research with LGG bacteria is required.

Board-certified neurologist Dr. Santosh Kesari, director of neuro-oncology at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California, who was not involved in the study, told MNT that he considered the participants’ receiving cognitive advantages “intriguing.”

However, Dr. Kesari urged further investigations to confirm their findings and make sure that adding LGG bacteria doesn’t have any negative side effects.

He also raised concern that an attempt to treat a condition by adding a probiotic to the gut microbiome would upset the bacterial equilibrium, leading to negative effects.

Focusing on a positive effect on brain health could have a counterproductive effect in another organ system,” Dr. Kesari warned.

Health effects of the gut-brain relationship

It’s crucial to keep in mind that our knowledge of the precise pathways tying the gut microbiome to cognitive function is still in its infancy, according to Aljumaah.

According to Aljumaah, “more specifically, our understanding about which members of the gut [microbiome] are involved remains limited.”

Aljumaah also suggested a number of potential routes for communication between the two dispersed bodily regions, including the vagus nerve and the immune system.

Additionally, metabolites like short-chain fatty acids and even neurotransmitters made by the gut flora may be implicated.

Dr. Kesari proposed that the microbiome’s influence on brain function might be more indirect.

The microbiome is really the doorway for nutrition, nutrients, and how things are metabolized, according to Dr. Kesari, therefore it has a huge impact on overall body health, including brain function. “You are what you eat, as the saying goes, and this is really the scientific proof of that,” said Dr. Kesari.

Improving health outcomes by changing the microbiome

Undoubtedly, the microbiome is medicine’s most challenging and exciting frontier in terms of human health. Prevotella serves as an illustration of how the microbiome is likewise a challenging field of research.

Whether or not researchers can ever fully comprehend the microbiome to control or rebalance its residents, Dr. Kesari said, “I think it has to get there.”

We are aware that nutrition and obesity are the main causes of morbidities in the United States. Many of these conditions are preventable, and the microbiome plays a role in some of them. There is no chance that our eating patterns will change very soon. So, in my opinion, the only solution to lessen the cost pressures of healthcare is if we can obtain a probiotic that may help us stay healthier, said neurologist Dr. Santosh Kesari.


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How much fat and carbs do you need to consume?

How much fat and carbs do you need to consume?

New publications from the World Health Organisation give the most recent scientific theories on how important lipids and carbs are to a balanced diet.

The WHO continues to advise adults to consume no more than 30% of their daily calories from fat. The new recommendations emphasize the source of carbs rather than their quantity.

For parents looking to start their kids off on a good connection with food and nutrition for the rest of their lives, the new recommendations offer new knowledge.

In general, the WHO is putting greater emphasis on quality and paying less attention to the quantity of fat and carbohydrates.

Not all of what the WHO has to say is brand-new. For instance, the group still advises adults to keep their daily fat intake to 30% or less of their total calorie intake. Calories from foods like carbs, proteins, fats, and alcohol are used to calculate a person’s daily energy consumption.

However, the prevalence of obesity has nearly tripled globally since 1975, and in 2020, 39 million children under the age of 5 will be overweight or obese, affecting approximately 340 million children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 19. The WHO records show a new focus on the optimal diet for life.

For instance, according to WHO recommendations, children under the age of two should consume primarily unsaturated fats. WHO highly advises that people take no more than 10% of their total calories from saturated fats, with trans fatty acids making up no more than 1% of those calories.

Which fats are bad for you?

Michelle Routhenstein, a nutritionist who was uninvolved in the WHO publications, said that “in the past, it was just generally ‘limit fat to 30% of energy intake.'”

“And now, we’re really looking at saturated fat being a culprit in cardiovascular disease development because it’s directly correlated with an increase in LDL and an increase in insulin resistance, which are cardiometabolic risk factors,” said she.

The WHO warns against consuming saturated fatty acids, which are found in fatty meat and dairy products. Saturated fats are also present in coconut oil, palm oil, lard, butter, ghee, and palm oil.

Animals including cows, sheep, and goats as well as sources generated industrially are the main sources of trans-fatty acids. Deer, moose, camels, giraffes, and buffalo are further examples of ruminant mammals.

In the new papers, suggestions are provided for substituting polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids from plant sources for harmful saturated fats and trans-fatty acids.

Carbs, fruits, and vegetables

The latest WHO recommendations show a similar shift in thinking regarding carbs.

We are more specific about the sources of the [nutrients]. More precisely, fibers with more complex carbohydrates are of interest to us. We’re especially focusing on dietary fiber from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables since we know it has a cardiovascular protective effect,” said Routhenstein.

The use of natural fiber-rich foods such whole grains, legumes, and vegetables is currently encouraged by the WHO.

Updated recommendations for kids

While the WHO has traditionally advised adults to consume 400 grams of fruits and vegetables each day, the publications now include recommendations for kids as well.

  • Children aged 2 to 5 should consume 250 grammes or more of fruits and vegetables each day.
  • Aged 6 to 9 children should consume 350 grammes or more of fruits and vegetables each day.
  • Children aged 10 and older should consume 400 grammes or more of fruits and vegetables each day.

In a similar vein, the WHO now addresses children’s fibre requirements. Adults were formerly advised to ingest 25 grammes per day. Now:

  • At least 15 grammes of fibre per day should be consumed by children aged 2 to 5.
  • Children aged 6 to 9 should get at least 21 grammes of fibre per day.
  • At least 25 grammes of fibre per day should be consumed by children 10 and older.

Various foods, including broccoli, bananas, apples, and banana bread, contain fibre.

Healthy living starts in childhood.

The childhood obesity epidemic, which is also the reason behind [the WHO’s new emphasis], according to paediatrician Dr. Daniel Ganjian, who is also not connected to the WHO.

Dr. Ganjian added that “more and more research shows that the earlier you start teaching children about healthy nutrition and eating, the more likely it is that they will remain healthy throughout their lives.”

He especially mentioned preventing the onset of diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and even some types of cancer.

According to Routhenstein, a dietitian who specializes in cardiovascular health, “There’s this new focus that we realize to prevent cardiovascular disease, we need to be focusing on the earlier generation because that’s where it starts.”

The focus should be on prevention rather than treatment, according to Routhenstein.

Attitudes towards food that are healthy

The primary food producers in the household are the parents. Therefore, once the parents and the child are aware of it and [the child] begins consuming it, the body forms a habit and starts to crave healthy meals rather than salty, crunchy foods, according to Dr. Ganjian.

He also emphasized the significance of teaching kids about healthy eating in the right way and claimed that instructing kids to “start watching what you eat” and use the words “overweight” or “obese” was not the ideal strategy.

It is now known that, in the long run, such strategy leads to greater anxiety—and eating disorders—than a positive eating philosophy.

We need to change the topic of conversation from weight or body image to good nutrition. You always promote eating well,” said Dr. Ganjian.

The Summary

Try keeping track of how many carbs you consume on a daily basis and whether they are healthy or unhealthy before beginning the low-carb diet. There are helpful, unpaid apps available.

Fibre grammes don’t actually count as carbohydrates, so you can take them out of the total. As an alternative, use the formula: net carbohydrates = total carbs fibre.

Check out these potential causes if you’re not losing weight or your weight loss is sluggish when on a low-carb diet.


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Alzheimer’s disease and protein imbalance in middle age.

Alzheimer’s disease and protein imbalance in middle age.

Even though Alzheimer’s disease is the most prevalent form of dementia, it is not a natural part of ageing and affects an increasing number of people.

The hunt for early disease markers is ongoing because early diagnosis and treatments help both dementia patients and their carers.

Now, 32 proteins have been related to the later development of Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged persons after a lengthy investigation. The researchers advise more investigation into these proteins as potential indicators of Alzheimer’s disease.

The most prevalent type of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, affects more than 6 million people in the United States. According to the World Health Organisation, Alzheimer’s disease is to blame for 70 percent of the 55 million cases of dementia globally.

Alzheimer’s symptoms can be treated, but there is currently no known cure for the condition. Trials of new drugs, however, are encouraging.

Donanemab, lecanemab, and aducanumab, novel monoclonal antibody medications that remove amyloid proteins from the brain, appear in clinical trials to delay the onset of disease symptoms.

Early diagnosis is essential to successful therapy because studies have shown that these drugs work best when administered during the early stages of the disease. Donanemab trial data recently made public indicate that the medication dramatically slows the clinical course of Alzheimer’s when taken soon after symptoms first occur.

Proteins that are connected to the later development of Alzheimer’s have been found in a recent study of adults between the ages of 45 and 65.

What is the disease Alzheimer’s?

A form of dementia that progresses is Alzheimer’s disease. A condition that adversely impacts memory, thinking, and behavior is referred to as dementia. The modifications make daily life more difficult. There are numerous possible causes of dementia, including diseases and brain traumas. Sometimes there is no known cause.

The Alzheimer’s Association estimates that 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease. The condition is typically diagnosed in patients over the age of 65. Alzheimer’s disease is typically described as having an “early onset” or “younger onset” if it is discovered earlier.

Alzheimer’s has no known cure, but some medications can halt the disease’s growth.

A 32 protein biomarker imbalance

The goal of this study was to find proteins that are improperly expressed in middle-aged persons (defined as those between the ages of 45 and 65) who later experience dementia.

Researchers collected blood samples from 10,981 individuals with a mean age of 60 at the beginning of the trial, between 1993 and 1995. Then, using the blood samples, they examined more than 4,800 plasma proteins.

1,874 patients (17%) had dementia diagnoses over the course of the 25-year follow-up period.

32 plasma proteins were discovered by the researchers to be linked to dementia risk. GDF15, a protein involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic and immunoregulatory regulation, showed the highest correlation.

They next looked into whether proteins were linked to dementia risk in the short-term (within 15 years of protein measurement) and long-term (beyond 15 years following protein measurement).

Seven midlife proteins, including GDF15 and others related in immunology, growth factor binding, protein breakdown, and nerve and synaptic function, were linked to a higher chance of developing near-term dementia.

Along with six other proteins that were not prominent at the 15-year mark, GDF15 was also linked to a risk of long-term dementia, indicating that the molecular pathways underlying the risk of dementia evolve with time.

Early warning signs of Alzheimer’s disease

The proteins were also discovered in some of the brain tissue. However, GDF15, which was linked to both short- and long-term risks of dementia, was not found by the researchers in the brain tissue.

They contend that rather than being an Alzheimer’s disease-specific protein, it is connected to the neuroinflammation that is linked to aging-related disease.

However, they think they have “identified several pathway-specific plasma proteins that may be relevant in the earliest phase of Alzheimer’s and related dementias.” The researchers did not discover any direct causal links between proteins and Alzheimer’s.

Do new Alzheimer’s tests result from this?

Although the dementia-associated proteins alone did not provide a highly accurate prediction of 25-year dementia risk, these proteins, in combination, did add modest predictive value to a group of demographic and clinical variables which are themselves strong predictors of dementia risk,” the study’s authors stated.

The proteins that have been discovered, according to the researchers, ought to serve as the starting point for additional study because they might be dementia risk factors.

Additionally, they assert that their findings might shed light on pertinent biological pathways and make it easier to uncover illness early signs and molecular triggers.

Therefore, with more study, these proteins might be helpful in determining a person’s risk of dementia. We will have to wait and see if they contribute to the development of new dementia diagnostic tests.


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How much protein is generally required to grow muscle?

How much protein is generally required to grow muscle?

Every cell and tissue in the body has protein. Protein is essential for muscle growth because it helps maintain and repair muscle tissue, in addition to serving many other important functions in the body.

As of right now, mildly active persons should consume 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight to avoid malnutrition. However, a more recent study indicates that those looking to gain muscle require more than this.

Less protein intake than the body requires has been associated with a reduction in muscle mass. In contrast, when combined with resistance exercise, higher protein consumption than the RDA may aid in boosting strength and lean body mass.

Why is protein necessary for muscular growth?

Amino acids, which make up protein, serve as the building blocks for the body’s cells and tissues. In order to create proteins, 20 amino acids must be combined.

Some substances can be produced by the human body, whereas others cannot. Essential amino acids are the nine amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own. These need to be consumed through food.

When a person eats protein, it is digested and broken down into amino acids, which are crucial for the body’s many functions. This includes energy production, immunological response, and tissue growth and repair.

What amount of protein do you require?

Dietary Guidelines for Americans for 2020–2025 state that the majority of healthy persons over the age of 19 should obtain between 10–35% of their daily calories from protein. 4 calories are contained in one gram of protein.

Accordingly, 50 to 175 grams of protein must be consumed daily by someone who consumes 2,000 calories daily.

Based on the amount needed to keep nitrogen balance and stop muscle loss, the current RDA for protein is 0.8 g per kg of body weight. It might not be suitable to apply these suggestions to muscle-building active people, though.

The optimal daily protein intake a person should consume varies depending on several characteristics, including age, gender, activity level, health, and other considerations.

But we now have a decent notion of how to figure out how much protein an adult needs to gain muscle weight-based on a number of research.

What have studies found?

When paired with resistance exercise, increased protein intakes are linked to gains in lean body mass and strength, according to the majority of research. However, the ideal protein intake for muscle growth is still debatable.

Here are the results of the newest research.

A 2020 meta-analysis indicated that protein intake between 0.5 and 3.5 g per kg of body weight can promote gains in lean body mass. The study was published in the journal Nutrition Reviews. Particularly, researchers found that a small daily increase in protein intake as low as 0.1 grams per kilogram of body weight can assist maintain or build muscle growth.

After 1.3 g of protein per kg of body weight was exceeded, the rate at which lean body mass increased in response to larger protein consumption rapidly dropped. An increase in strength prevented this drop. This implies that the optimum strategy for gaining lean body mass is a higher protein diet combined with strength exercise.

Another meta-analysis from 2022, which was published in the journal Sports Medicine, found that resistance training and increased protein intakes of about 1.5 g per kg of body weight daily are necessary for the best effects on muscle strength. Researchers found that at 1.5 to 1.6 g per kg of body weight per day, the benefits of higher protein intake on strength and muscle mass appear to plateau.

Last but not least, a systematic review and meta-analysis from 2022 found that young, resistance-trained individuals who consume 1.6 g of protein per kg of body weight per day or more see modest gains in lean body mass. Results for people over the age of 60 were meagre.

What are the top sources of protein?

A person can consume both animal and plant-based protein sources to achieve their daily protein requirements.

Sources of animal-based protein include:

  • lean meats, such as lamb, pig, or beef
  • poultry
  • eggs
  • seafood and fish
  • dairy ingredients
  • powdered whey protein.

sources of plant-based protein include:

  • beans
  • peas
  • nuts
  • lentils
  • seeds
  • soy-based goods
  • powders made of plant protein.

When it comes to gaining muscle mass, some nutritionists believe that animal protein sources are superior to plant-based protein sources. This is due to the fact that they sufficiently contain all of the essential amino acids the body requires. Moreover, they are simple to digest.

Some plant-based proteins are more difficult to digest and less bioavailable. Additionally, the profiles of their amino acids vary. But those who choose plant-based diets can easily make up the difference by consuming more protein overall and choosing a range of foods.

People can pair foods like rice and beans, hummus with pita bread, or peanut butter on whole wheat bread to get all the essential amino acids in a plant-based diet.

Soy is one notable exception, as it is highly bioavailable, has an excellent amino acid profile, and is simple to digest.

When is too much protein too much?

According to most medical professionals, healthy persons may sustain a long-term protein intake of up to 2 g per kg of body weight per day without experiencing any negative side effects. Athletes who are in good health and have received proper training, for example, may endure up to 3.5 g per kg of body weight.

The majority of research indicates that consuming more than 2 g of protein per kg of body weight per day may eventually lead to health problems.

Potential dangers

Symptoms of consuming too much protein include:

  • diarrheal discomfort
  • nausea
  • dehydration
  • fatigue
  • gaining weight
  • irritation
  • headache.

Chronic protein overconsumption has more serious dangers, such as:

Protein intakes over the recommended daily allowance (RDA) can support muscle growth when paired with resistance training.

Lean meat, fish, beans, nuts, and legumes are the healthiest food choices to help you achieve your daily protein requirements.

Since the ideal protein intake for an individual depends on age, health, and activity level, you might want to consult a qualified dietitian or a healthcare professional to find out how much protein is right for you.


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Can you prevent heart attack with monthly Vitamin D dose?

Can you prevent heart attack with monthly Vitamin D dose?

A crucial fat-soluble vitamin for supporting the immune system and bone health is vitamin D. Australian researchers monitored a group of elderly individuals. This is to determine whether vitamin D supplements could lower the incidence of serious heart disease events.

For five years, the test group received a monthly vitamin D supplement from the researchers.

The participants who took vitamin D supplements did have a slight risk decrease for several major cardiovascular events, even though it was not as significant as the researchers had hoped.

According to a study that was recently published in the BMJ, an Australian research team conducted a clinical trial. This was to see if vitamin D may help prevent major heart disease events like heart attacks and strokes.

The older persons were tracked by the researchers between the ages of 60 and 84. Heart disease is thought to be more likely to strike people in this age bracket.

When comparing the control and test groups, the researchers found that vitamin D had no effect on strokes. However, they did discover that the rate of major cardiovascular events was 9% lower in the vitamin D supplement group.

What is Vitamin D?

In addition to supporting the immune system and other processes, vitamin D is crucial for strong bones. The human body responds to sun exposure by producing vitamin D. A person can increase their vitamin D intake by eating particular foods or taking supplements.

For strong bones and teeth, vitamin D is necessary. In addition, it performs a variety of other crucial functions in the body, including controlling immunological response and inflammation.

Despite its name, vitamin D is actually a hormone or prohormone rather than a vitamin.

Detailed research on vitamin D

The leading cause of death in the United States is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although CVD can affect adults of any age, those 65 and beyond have the highest illness rates.

CVD can be dangerous and may be and the potential strain it may have on the healthcare system. Researchers have been exploring strategies to both treat and prevent the illness.

The authors of the study noted that earlier studies had limitations and did not demonstrate a link between vitamin D and lowering the risk of CVD. Because of the author’s observation, vitamin D has biological effects which suggest it could influence cardiovascular disease. Therefore, they conducted a more thorough investigation.

21,315 participants in the study ranged in age from 60 to 84. Participants who were already taking vitamin D supplements or had a history of diseases like sarcoidosis and hypercalcemia were excluded from the study.

A 60,000 IU vitamin D-3 pill was given to the test group once a month for five years. The control group consumed a sugar pill.

In order to understand the individuals’ socioeconomic level, way of life, and eating habits, the researchers gathered baseline data. They collected surveys, tested blood samples, and kept an eye out for adverse events throughout the trial. This is to ensure sure the participants were taking their supplements as prescribed.

The individuals also allowed researchers access to their medical records. So that they could gather data on mortality, prescribed drugs, and cardiovascular events.

Does vitamin D aid the heart?

A few previous observational studies have hinted at a potential link between reduced incidence of CVD and higher blood levels of vitamin D.

This new study suggests that vitamin D supplementation may have some advantages, even if clinical studies have not yet conclusively shown that it improves heart health.

When compared to the placebo group, the number of heart attack events among people taking vitamin D was 19% lower. Additionally, the vitamin D group had decreased rates of coronary revascularization, which might involve treatments like a heart bypass or a coronary artery bypass graft.

Although the rate of major cardiovascular events was 9% lower overall in the groups receiving vitamin D, the study’s results did not indicate a lower rate among minor cardiovascular events.

The scientists cautioned about the 9% decline, saying it’s likely that users of statins or other cardiovascular medications may have contributed to it.

“For total major cardiovascular events, there was some indication of a stronger effect in those who were using statins or other cardiovascular drugs at baseline,” the authors wrote.

Because of this, the authors state that additional research is necessary before they can state with certainty that vitamin D alone prevents CVD.

The authors conclude that their research “indicates that supplementation with vitamin D may reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events, particularly myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization.”

“Those who were taking statins or other cardiovascular medications at the outset may have noticed this beneficial impact more clearly. The authors write, “Subgroup studies in other major trials might assist to explain this issue.

Does vitamin D suffice to lower the risk of CVD?

We had a discussion about the study with Dr. Yu-Ming Ni, a cardiologist from MemorialCare Heart and Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in Fountain Valley, California. Dr. Ni did not believe that the study’s findings were yet significant enough to demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation can lower rates of CVD.

“After reading this study, it is tempting to draw the conclusion that there may be a trend towards a benefit for vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, especially as it relates to the prevention of heart attacks myocardial infarction,” he stated.

According to Dr. Ni, the new study “did not demonstrate a significant benefit of Vitamin D supplementation, even if there was a small benefit” when compared to previous studies on vitamin D and CVD.

Dr. Ni stated that vitamin D is still an essential supplement for bone health even though she did not believe the study offered hope for using it to lower the incidence of CVD.

When we discussed the report with Dr. Dmitriy Nevelev, associate director of cardiology at Staten Island University Hospital in New York, he had a somewhat different perspective on it.

Dr. Nevelev added that although earlier sizable studies on vitamin D and CVD had not revealed a “significant effect,” “many of these studies had limitations such as suboptimal adherence with daily therapy, an insufficient dose of vitamin D, or an overall lower risk population.”


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