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Treating hypertension with help of the ultrasonic device.

Treating hypertension with help of the ultrasonic device.


The findings of a recent meta-analysis of prior studies looking into a novel method of blood pressure control seem promising. It explains a treatment that “mutes” overactive kidney nerves, a sign of hypertension frequently observed in middle-aged adults.

Participants’ blood pressure was dramatically reduced after the procedure, dropping by an average of 8.5 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Follow-ups two months later and three years later supported the effectiveness of this advantage.

One of the primary causes of death on a global scale is hypertension or high blood pressure. In addition to heart, brain, and renal disorders, it can cause strokes. Since an estimated 46% of people with hypertension are unaware that they have it, it is frequently referred to as the “silent killer”.

Many hypertension medications, may be helpful in addition to a healthy lifestyle and dietary adjustments in managing the illness. Many folks find this to be adequate. Nonetheless, some people’s blood pressure continues to be consistently high.


According to a recent meta-analysis, the 506 hypertensive participants in three randomized clinical trials had considerably lower blood pressure when therapeutic ultrasonography was used to reduce kidney-nerve hyperactivity.

The exact etiology of hypertension is unknown. Scientists speculate that it may be a result of a mix of genetics, lifestyle, aging, and other processes.

Middle-aged hypertension is typically accompanied by hyperactive renal nerves, which can raise blood pressure in several different ways. It could cause salt and water retention as well as the production of hormones that raise blood pressure.

Even though there are many different medications for treating hypertension, none explicitly target this renal overactivity. So, the “renal denervation” ultrasound approach investigated in the present study provides clinicians with an extra instrument. Thi was made to support patients in maintaining their health.

Researchers from the Université de Paris in France and Columbia University in New York City carried out the study. You can find it in JAMA Cardiology.

How blood pressure is measured?

Millimeters of mercury, or mmHg, is used to measure blood pressure. This is because early precise blood pressure gauges and some contemporary systems rely on mercury.

Two blood pressure readings are usually displayed, one above the other or to the left of the other. Systolic blood pressure, or the pressure the heart puts off when pumping blood, is the first value. The pressure in arteries between heartbeats is shown by the second value, called the diastolic value.

The American Heart Association defines good blood pressure as having a systolic reading of less than 120 mmHg over a diastolic reading of less than 80 mmHG. A value of 130–139/80–89 mmHG indicates stage 1 hypertension. Higher results indicate hypertension in stage 2.

The current study discovered that renal denervation dramatically decreased participants’ blood pressure, by 5 to 10 mmHG, with an average decrease of 8.5 mmHg.

kidney nerves and high blood pressure

It is believed that overactive renal nerves induce water and sodium retention and produce hormones that can elevate blood pressure. They are a contributing factor in the development of hypertension in middle age. As blood arteries stiffen in older adults, hypertension frequently develops.

Antihypertensive medications lower blood pressure in a variety of methods, such as by dilation of blood vessels, removal of extra fluid, or blockage of hormones that elevate blood pressure. Yet, none of these drugs specifically target the renal nerves.

By calming hyperactive nerves in the renal artery, ultrasound treatment blocks the signals that cause hypertension. A thin catheter that is placed into a vein in the wrist or leg and sent to the kidney delivers the therapy to the nerves.

Renal denervation

A tiny catheter that is placed into a vein in the leg or wrist and threaded into the kidney makes up the renal denervation device addressed in the study. During the operation, ultra-high-frequency sound waves are used to treat the kidney’s nerves. This causes minute amounts of scar tissue to form, which reduces the nerve activity. “Ablation” is the name of this procedure.

Lead author Dr. Ajay J. Kirtaine predicted that the surgery would be performed as an outpatient, similar to cardiac catheterization.

“Ultrasound-renal denervation’s ablation portion is less than one minute, and the whole procedure is less than an hour, with conscious sedation/local anesthetic,” he said.

In the research, participants were divided into two groups: the ultrasound denervation group and the control group, which had a sham operation with no therapeutic benefit.

The number of participants in the study arm who received the therapy to lower blood pressure to 135/85 was twice as high. This outcome was the same in all three investigations, which included a population of different racial backgrounds, indicating the technique is probably valuable to many people.

The investigations indicated that the reduction in blood pressure persisted for at least 2 months following the operation and that participants’ blood pressure was improved. The result of the surgery “appears to be durable with follow-up out to 3 years,” according to Dr. Kirtaine.

Not yet, at least not for everyone.

The device is experimental so far, having not acquired permission for usage in the United States. The study’s authors plan to apply it to people whose blood pressure is still uncontrolled despite modifying their lifestyles and taking medication.

Dr. Jayne Morgan, a cardiologist who was not involved in the study, concurred and viewed the procedure as perhaps a secondary treatment rather than a first-choice therapy. But she noted, “I envision that this might certainly be reversed in the future with continued trials and information/data.

According to Dr. Morgan, the surgery may be especially beneficial for Black people and other minorities who have high rates of hypertension and heart disease.

This is a terrific reason why Black volunteers should be recruited, she said, since it may offer a more long-lasting option for blood pressure control in the future. 17% of participants in the meta-analysis were Black Americans.

Dr. Devin Kehl, who was not involved in the research, issued a warning: “The trials have been quite limiting in their inclusion and exclusion criteria,” despite the fact that the technique has an outstanding long-term safety profile and is probably safe.


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Important food tips to consider for lower cholesterol.

Important food tips to consider for lower cholesterol.

What is cholesterol?

To function effectively, your body requires some cholesterol. But, if there is too much in your blood, it can adhere to the artery walls and constrict or even block them. You run the risk of developing coronary artery disease and other heart disorders as a result.

On a class of proteins known as lipoproteins, cholesterol moves through the blood. LDL, one type, is referred to as the “bad” cholesterol. The accumulation of cholesterol in your arteries is caused by a high LDL level. The “good” cholesterol is frequently referred to as another type, HDL. It transports cholesterol back to your liver from other places of your body. The cholesterol is then eliminated from your body by your liver.

You can take actions to increase your HDL (good cholesterol) and decrease your LDL (bad cholesterol). You can reduce your chance of developing heart illnesses by maintaining normal cholesterol levels.

Food tips to lower your cholesterol

These ten methods include foods that lower cholesterol, suggestions for modest exercise, and more. These can all be used to lower cholesterol without the need of medicine.

To prevent trans fats, read the nutrition labels.

Reading nutrition labels is one of the simplest things you can do to help control your diet, so you’ve definitely heard this advice repeated time and time again. You can use nutrition labels to identify the healthy elements you consume and to steer clear of trans fats, which are among the worst ingredients for your cholesterol levels.

Trans fats, commonly referred to as “hydrogenated oils” or “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil,” are cunning substances that may benefit food producers but are bad for you.

Trans fats make things more durable, which makes them simpler to ship and store. They can be found in a lot of processed foods and many baked items made with margarine or shortening. Sadly, they also increase levels of dangerous LDL cholesterol while lowering levels of good HDL cholesterol.

Thus, read labels and make an effort to avoid trans fats whenever you can if you genuinely want to lower your cholesterol. Cutting them out of your diet can have a significant impact because they are among of the worst culprits when it comes to high cholesterol.

Choose fish or chicken or other meats that contain lower saturated fats.

Lookin’ a little bit more bare in the fridge than usual? When you leave to restock, take a moment to go through your shopping list to see if there are any simple protein substitutions you can make.

Start by cutting back on the red meat. Saturated fats, which are prevalent in a lot of red meats, can cause unhealthy LDL cholesterol levels to rise. Choose skinless chicken or skinless turkey more frequently and stay away from processed meats for healthier choices. Adding additional seafood to your diet is another option.

Fish is low in saturated fats and contains a variety of omega-3 fatty acids that are beneficial for your heart and can raise your levels of the good HDL cholesterol. You can try including the following fish varieties in your diet:

  • oily fish such as tilapia, Atlantic mackerel, or salmon from the Atlantic or Pacific
  • Shellfish include crab and shrimp
  • Lake herring and trout are examples of freshwater fish.
  • Whitefish from the sea, such as cod and grouper
  • Light tuna steaks or fillets in a can

Despite this, it can be difficult to resist eating hamburger and steak. Choose thinner meat pieces when grilling outside. Like anything else, it’s acceptable to consume certain saturated fats. Just remember to consume them in moderation.

Kidney beans, quinoa, whole grain bread, and other foods are good sources of soluble fibre.

You undoubtedly already know that fibre can improve your intestinal health. But, if you believed that fibre was only useful for digestion, reconsider; it can also improve your cardiovascular health.

Soluble fibre is abundant on a list of foods low in cholesterol (fiber that can dissolve into water). To lower levels of harmful LDL cholesterol, soluble fibre absorbs cholesterol in the gut before it enters the bloodstream.

Among the foods high in soluble fibre are:

  • Oats
  • Barley
  • Quinoa
  • granola bread
  • mung beans
  • Lentils
  • Chickpeas

Adding more of these food categories to your diet is simple. For lunch, try curried lentils, and for dinner, try turkey chilli with kidney beans. For morning, try oats and whole grain toast.

But, it’s crucial to keep in mind that not all “healthy” foods are made equal. In general, the more processed a grain or bean is, the less likely it is to be nutritious and provide health advantages. Try to stock up on fresh ingredients whenever you can.

Snacking on fruits, veggies, and nuts will increase your intake of unsaturated fats and fibre.

Having a snack between meals to increase energy or calm an upset stomach is perfectly acceptable. Yet, frequent snacks like crackers, cookies, pastries, microwave popcorn, chips, and other baked goods are high in trans and saturated fats.

On the other hand, snacking on fruits, veggies, and nuts helps you receive both good fats and fibre in addition to helping you avoid toxic fats.

Unsaturated fats, the healthiest sort of fats, are abundant in raw nuts. Due to their ability to increase levels of the beneficial HDL cholesterol and decrease levels of the harmful LDL cholesterol, nuts are a fantastic addition to a heart-healthy diet. Olives and avocados are two further examples of foods high in unsaturated fat.

In addition to numerous fruits and vegetables, nuts can be a fantastic source of soluble fibre. A double dosage of cholesterol-lowering effects may result from including as many of these foods in your diet as you can.

Uncertain about where to begin? Here are a few ideas:

  • Avocados
  • Apples
  • Strawberries
  • Blueberries
  • Oranges
  • Grapes
  • Olives
  • Peas
  • Broccoli
  • Carrots
  • Okra
  • Eggplant
  • Walnuts
  • Peanuts
  • Almonds
  • Cashews
  • Pistachios

Keep in mind that more processing equals less benefit, much like with meats and whole grains. For instance, eating an apple whole will provide more benefits than eating applesauce. Hence, try to obtain raw fruits, vegetables, and nuts if you can (unsalted if you can).

Take advantage of low-fat milk, cheese, and yoghurts.

Making better choices is all it takes to lower your cholesterol; you don’t have to give up everything you love in order to accomplish it. Choosing a healthier alternative when it comes to dairy is a significant area where success can be achieved quickly.

Choose low-fat dairy products rather than the standard varieties for foods like cheese, milk, cream, and yoghurt. Try soy milk as well if you’re up for some experimentation. Exactly what? That can develop into your upcoming craving.

Because full-fat dairy products contain saturated fat as well as cholesterol, making these changes is beneficial. By choosing a low-fat (or non-fat) option, you’re boosting your blood’s cholesterol levels.

Try preparing your food in a new way.

Not only what you eat matters, but also how you eat. The same way you may alter what you purchase at the grocery store, you can also decide on healthier cooking methods that naturally lower your cholesterol. For instance:

While preparing meat or fish, take into account reducing the fat and removing the skin (either before cooking or before eating). This enables you to consume less fat while still getting the protein.

Put your attention on boiling, broiling, baking, poaching, or grilling. These preparation techniques are superior to deep-frying and breading, which might increase fat content.

Consider eating one vegetarian meal a week.

Don’t be alarmed by the phrase “vegetarian.” By selecting a carefully prepared vegetarian dinner, you can simultaneously lower your cholesterol by increasing your intake of soluble fibre and consuming healthy fats. Also, a lot of vegetarian dishes are just as tasty and filling as their meat-based counterparts.

Here is one concept for a recipe with reduced cholesterol: Consider a freshly made salad with grilled, seasoned tofu and a sesame vinaigrette. For dessert, mix low-fat vanilla yoghurt with some fresh blueberries, strawberries, and oats.

Establishing a routine is crucial in this situation; for example, make every Tuesday night vegetarian night. As that becomes customary, consider adding more nights or include a weekly vegetarian lunch as well. You can also be a “flexitarian” by just consuming less meat. These adjustments could truly pay off in the long run.

Add additional movement to your daily activities.

By keeping your body active, you’re assisting it in doing what it was designed to do, which can have benefits for your general health. This includes increasing the heart-healthy HDL cholesterol, controlling blood pressure, and many other advantages.

Do I have to start going for runs every day? Do I need to purchase a lot of home exercise equipment or join a gym? You can if you want to! There are, however, a variety of alternative options, and it’s crucial to establish a schedule that works for you. The workout you will stay with is ultimately the one that is best for your heart.



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Latest list of foods that can lower blood pressure?

Latest list of foods that can lower blood pressure?

All individuals with high blood pressure, including those using blood pressure-lowering medication, are advised to maintain a heart-healthy diet. It may be especially beneficial to consume foods rich in minerals like magnesium and potassium.

High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is the most prevalent risk factor for heart disease that may be avoided.

A person with high blood pressure is one who has a systolic blood pressure (SBP) reading of 130 mm Hg or higher. Also, a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reading of more than 80 mm Hg, or both. High blood pressure affects more than 1 billion individuals worldwide.

Blood pressure medications, such as ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors, are frequently utilised. However, making dietary changes and other lifestyle adjustments can help lower blood pressure to healthy levels. It can also minimise your risk of developing heart disease.

For decreasing blood pressure and maintaining ideal levels, a balanced diet is crucial. According to research, consuming some foods in your diet, particularly those high in certain nutrients like potassium and magnesium, lowers your blood pressure.

Numerous studies have revealed that some foods help lower high blood pressure. We examine several foods that could be beneficial and how to eat them. Generally speaking, a serving is what the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines as:

  • 1 cup of fruit or vegetables, either raw or cooked
  • 100% fruit juice in one cup
  • two cups of leafy salad greens, raw
  • a cup and a half of dry fruit

The USDA suggests eating about 2 cups of fruit and 3 cups of vegetables per day for most people, however this varies slightly by sex and age.

Citrus fruits

Citrus fruits, such as grapefruit, oranges, and lemons, may significantly reduce blood pressure. They include a wealth of vitamins, minerals, and plant chemicals that may help maintain the health of your heart. This decreases the risk factors for heart disease like high blood pressure.

A 5-month study including 101 Japanese women found a strong correlation between daily lemon juice consumption and walking and decreases in SBP. The result was attributable to the citric acid and flavonoid content of lemons.

Consuming orange and grapefruit juice has also been linked in studies to lower blood pressure. However, before including this fruit in your diet, speak with your doctor because grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with common blood pressure-lowering drugs.

Fatty seafood such as salmon

Omega-3 fats, which offer considerable advantages for heart health, are a good source in fatty fish. These fats may lower blood pressure by reducing inflammation and oxylipin levels, which are substances that constrict blood vessels.

Increased consumption of fatty fish rich in omega-3 has been associated in research to decrease blood pressure readings.

Those with the greatest blood levels of omega-3 fats had considerably lower SBP and DBP than those with the lowest levels of these fats, according to a study of 2,036 healthy individuals. A decreased risk of hypertension has also been linked to higher omega-3 intake.

Green leafy vegetables

The high nitrate content of leafy green vegetables helps control blood pressure.

Consuming at least 1 cup of green leafy vegetables each day may help lower blood pressure and lower the chance of developing cardiovascular disease, according to some study.

Leafy greens include, for instance:

  • cabbage
  • greens, collard
  • kale
  • dandelion greens
  • spinach
  • Swiss chard


Berries have a number of remarkable health advantages, including the potential to lower risk factors for heart disease like high blood pressure. Antioxidants, such as anthocyanins, the pigments that give berries their vivid colour, are abundant in berries.

Anthocyanins have been demonstrated to raise blood levels of nitric oxide and decrease the synthesis of blood vessel-restricting molecules, which may aid in lowering blood pressure. However, to corroborate these proposed pathways, more human study is required.

lentils and beans

Fiber, magnesium, and potassium are just a few of the minerals found in beans and lentils that help control blood pressure. Eating beans and lentils may help lower high blood pressure levels, according to numerous research.

In comparison to other diets, beans and lentils significantly lowered SBP and average blood pressure in persons with and without hypertension, according to an analysis of 8 trials including 554 participants.

Dark chocolate

Flavonoids, an antioxidant, are found in cacao, a component of dark chocolate. According to the AHA, flavonoids may assist in lowering blood pressure. It does point out that a person might not be able to eat enough flavonoids from dark chocolate for it to have appreciable advantages.

According to the AHA, a modest quantity of chocolate every so often can be a healthy addition to a diet. However, it suggests that people eat it for enjoyment rather than for health.


According to a 2015 study, eating kiwis on a regular basis may help control modestly elevated blood pressure.

For 8 weeks, people who had 3 kiwis daily exhibited a greater decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than those who consumed 1 apple daily. The authors of the study speculate that this might be because of the bioactive compounds in kiwis.

Kiwis contain a lot of vitamin C. According to an earlier study, people’s blood pressure levels significantly decreased after taking 500 mg of vitamin C daily for roughly 8 weeks.


Oats include beta-glucan, a type of fibre that may be good for blood pressure and heart health.

Beta-glucan and avenanthramide C, both contained in oats, have been shown in a 2020 rodent study to lower levels of malondialdehyde, a sign of oxidative stress in hypertensive rats. These findings imply that components found in oats may help lower blood pressure and safeguard the heart in other ways.

Fermented food

Probiotics are good bacteria that are abundant in fermented foods and may help control blood pressure.

Researchers looked at information on 11,566 Korean people who are 50 years of age or older from 2020. The findings imply that menopausal women who consumed fermented soy foods had a lower incidence of hypertension. For men, it didn’t seem to be the case, though.

Experts recommend that people restrict their salt intake because it raises the risk of high blood pressure. Even though salt-fermented vegetables have a high sodium content, a 2017 study did not indicate that consuming them increased the risk of high blood pressure.

Organic yoghurt

Fermented dairy products include yoghurt. Data from individuals with and without high blood pressure were analysed in a 2021 study to see whether there was a connection between fermented dairy products and hypertension.

The participants with high blood pressure who ate more yoghurt had reduced systolic and arterial blood pressure compared to the non-participants.

Spices and herbs

Strong chemicals found in some herbs and spices may help blood arteries relax and lower blood pressure.

Animal and human studies have demonstrated the potential for a number of herbs and spices to lower blood pressure, including celery seed, cilantro, saffron, lemongrass, black cumin, ginseng, cinnamon, cardamom, sweet basil, and ginger.

Research suggests that including foods like leafy greens, berries, beans, lentils, seeds, fatty fish, citrus fruits, and carrots in your meals and snacks may help you achieve and keep your blood pressure readings at an ideal range.

Incorporating a couple of the foods suggested in this article into your diet may be beneficial if you have high blood pressure or want to maintain healthy blood pressure.



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Quick peek of study in the Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Quick peek of study in the Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Blood clots commonly form in a deep vein in the leg, which is where deep vein thrombosis occurs. The disorder can also affect pelvic veins in addition to leg veins. The condition known as venous thromboembolism includes the conditions of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).

A medical emergency is DVT. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 10–30% of persons with DVT in the leg die within a month of their diagnosis due to severe consequences.

What is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)?

Blood clotting known as DVT occurs in deep veins, frequently in the pelvis or leg. Doctors refer to a thrombus or blood clot breaking off as an embolus. A PE can develop if emboli reach the lung.

As in the case of those who have Paget-Schotter illness, clots can also form in the arm veins. DVT is the most frequent reason for maternal death in the industrialised world, according to a 2017 analysis.

DVT in children is incredibly uncommon. The most recent statistics, according to a 2016 study, indicate that 0.30 of every 100,000 children under the age of nine and 0.64 of every 100,000 children between the ages of 10 and 19 get DVT.

DVT symptoms

Only about half of DVT patients, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), experience symptoms. Typical DVT signs include:

  • swelling on one side of your leg, ankle, or foot
  • cramping pain, which typically starts in the calf, in the affected leg.
  • acute, irrational foot and ankle pain
  • a patch of skin that feels warmer than the rest of the body
  • depending on skin tone, the skin over the affected area becomes pale, reddish, or bluish in hue.

People who have an arm blood clot or an upper extremity DVT may not exhibit any symptoms. If they do, typical signs include:

  • a stiff neck
  • shoulders hurt
  • the hand or arm swelling
  • deeper or bluer tinge to the skin
  • from the arm to the forearm moving discomfort
  • fragility in the hand

It’s possible for someone to discover they have DVT only after receiving emergency care for a pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lung).

A DVT clot that has entered the lung from the arm or leg may cause a pulmonary embolism. It is life threatening and necessitates immediate medical attention when an artery in the lung becomes blocked.

Causes and risk factors

A blood clot is the root cause of DVT. The clot prevents blood from flowing through a vein and into your body normally. Various things can cause a DVT or raise the chance of getting one.

They consist of:

  • Injury: Blood flow can be restricted or blocked when a blood vessel’s wall is damaged. As a result, a blood clot may develop.
  • Surgery: Blood vessels may be harmed during surgery, which may cause a blood clot to form. Following surgery, bed rest with minimal to no activity may potentially raise your chance of developing a blood clot.
  • Reduced mobility or inactivity: Blood can accumulate in your legs, especially the lower ones, when you sit regularly, such on a lengthy flight. The blood circulation in your legs may dwindle if you are immobile for a lengthy amount of time. This may lead to the formation of a clot.
  • A few drugs: Some medications make it more likely for your blood to clot. These include antidepressants, glucocorticoids, hormone treatment medications, and birth control pills.
  • Age: DVT can occur at any age, however it is more common as people get older. DVT only occurs in 1 in 10,000 people under the age of 20, whereas it occurs in 1 in 100 people beyond the age of 80.
  • Trauma: A blood clot may form as a result of a wound that weakens your veins, such as a bone fracture.
  • Obesity. Being overweight might increase strain on the veins in your pelvis and legs.
  • Pregnancy: DVT risk is higher during pregnancy. Actually, compared to non-pregnant people, pregnant people have a 5–10 times higher risk of developing DVT.
  • Family history: If you have DVT, you may be more prone to get it.
  • Catheter: Inserting a catheter into a vein can make it more likely for a blood clot to form.
  • Smoking: This is linked to an increased risk of DVT.

Additionally, a number of other medical disorders can raise the risk of DVT.

These consist of

Complications of DVT

Pulmonary embolism is one of the main side effects of DVT. If a blood clot travels to your lungs and clogs a blood vessel, you could have a pulmonary embolism.

Your lungs and other organs could suffer severe harm as a result. Immediately seek medical attention if you experience any pulmonary embolism symptoms. These indicators include:

  • dizziness
  • sweating
  • coughing or taking big breaths causes chest pain that intensifies
  • quickly breathing
  • spitting blood
  • quick heartbeat

Treatments of DVT

Some DVT sufferers may require inpatient treatment. Others might be eligible for outpatient care.

Compression stockings, elevating the affected leg(s) during the day, and taking anticoagulant drugs (blood thinners) are all forms of treatment. In rare instances, intrusive therapies (catheter-based procedures) may be necessary when the DVT is severe.

The main objectives of treatment include:

  • Ensure that the clot doesn’t spread or include other veins.
  • Avoid having a venous clot fragment escape and travel to your lungs.
  • reduce the possibility of a new blood clot.
  • Prevent long-term complications from the blood clot (like chronic venous insufficiency).

Prevention of DVT

Many required modifications are included into a healthy lifestyle to stop blood clots from forming. This entails increasing physical activity, giving up smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight. Your risk of developing DVT can also be decreased by:

  • control of blood pressure
  • quitting smoking
  • keeping a healthy weight

In order to reduce your risk of getting clots following surgery, take whatever blood thinners your doctor recommends. When you sit for longer than four hours, your chance of getting DVT increases.

When you’ve been sitting for a while, moving your legs around will also keep your blood circulating. After being confined to bed, getting up and moving around can stop clots from developing. During long travels, get out of the vehicle and take regular breaks to stretch.


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Issues in an individual’s life dealing with thalassemia

Issues in an individual’s life dealing with thalassemia

What is thalassemia?

A blood illness called thalassemia causes the body to produce an abnormal kind of haemoglobin. The protein component in red blood cells that carries oxygen is called haemoglobin.

Anemia is brought on by the disorder’s excessive red blood cell oxidation. Your body doesn’t produce enough normal, healthy red blood cells, which is a condition known as anaemia.

Since thalassemia is hereditary, at least one of your parents must have the condition. It results from either a genetic mutation or the loss of specific important gene segments.

A less serious variation of the condition is called thalassemia minor. There are primarily two more severe kinds of thalassemia. At least one of the alpha globin genes has a mutation or other aberration in alpha thalassemia. The beta globin genes are impacted by beta thalassemia.

Different subtypes of these thalassemias exist. The severity of your symptoms and your prognosis will depend on the specific kind you have.

Types of thalassemia

Both the severity of the ailment and the portion of the haemoglobin damaged can be used to classify thalassemia. An individual’s particular kind of thalassemia is typically caused by genetic factors.

Alpha and Beta

Hemoglobin is made up of two beta-globin and four alpha-globin protein chains. Alpha and beta thalassemia are the two primary kinds.

Both parts of the haemoglobin can be impacted by thalassemia, which is sometimes referred to as that part. The term “alpha thalassemia” designates an abnormality of the hemoglobin’s alpha globin chain.


The degree of the condition is denoted by the phrases “trait,” “minor,” “intermedia,” and “major.” For instance, whereas serious thalassemia may result in severe symptoms necessitating substantial blood transfusions, having the underlying genetic feature for the condition may not cause any symptoms.

Defined terms for identification

The haemoglobin does not create enough alpha protein in people with alpha thalassemia.

Four genes, two on each of the 16 chromosomes, are required for the production of alpha-globin protein chains. Each father gives two to each child. Alpha thalassemia will develop from the absence of one or more of these genes.

The number of mutated genes determines how severe thalassemia is.

  • The individual with one mutant gene shows no symptoms. A carrier is a healthy person who has a child exhibiting thalassemia signs. The name for this variety is alpha thalassemia minimum.
  • Two genes were altered: He or she has a slight anaemia. It is referred to as minor alpha thalassemia.
  • Three genes were altered: Hemoglobin H illness, a form of chronic anaemia, affects the person. Throughout their lifecycle, they will require frequent blood transfusions.
  • Four genes were changed: The most severe type of alpha thalassemia is called major. It is understood to induce hydrops fetalis, a dangerous disorder in which fluid builds up in various regions of a fetus’s body.

Four defective genes make it impossible for a foetus to create healthy haemoglobin, making survival even with blood transfusions difficult.

In southern China, Southeast Asia, India, the Middle East, and Africa, alpha thalassemia is a more prevalent form of thalassemia.

A beta thalassemia

For a person to produce beta-globin chains, two globin genes are required, one from each parent. Beta thalassemia will develop if one or both genes are mutated.

How many genes are altered determines the severity.

  • An altered gene: It’s known as beta thalassemia mild.
  • Two genes were altered: Moderate or severe symptoms are both possible. This is referred to as major thalassemia. It was formerly known as Colley’s anaemia.

People with a Mediterranean background have a higher prevalence of beta thalassemia. In West Asia and North Africa, the prevalence is higher.

Symptoms of thalassemia

Depending on the type of thalassemia, there are different thalassemia symptoms. Symptoms typically start to show in newborns with beta thalassemia and some forms of alpha thalassemia about 6 months of age. This is due to foetal haemoglobin, a unique kind of haemoglobin seen in newborns.

After six months, “normal” haemoglobin begins to replace foetal haemoglobin, and symptoms may start to show. These consist of:

  • pale skin and jaundice
  • sluggishness and exhaustion
  • a chest ache
  • breathing difficulty
  • quick heartbeat
  • sluggish growth
  • nausea and lightheadedness
  • higher propensity to contract infection

As the body strives to manufacture more bone marrow, skeletal deformations may occur. The iron from blood transfusions may build up. The spleen, heart, and liver can all suffer from too much iron.

Gallstones and an enlarged spleen are more common in people with haemoglobin H, an alpha thalassemia-related blood type. Thalassemia problems that are left untreated have the potential to cause organ failure.

Causes of thalassemia

When one of the genes responsible for producing haemoglobin is faulty or mutated, thalassemia develops. Your parents pass on this genetic aberration to you.

You could develop a condition known as thalassemia minor if only one of your parents is a thalassemia carrier. If it does, you’ll most likely not show any symptoms, but you’ll still be a carrier. Mild symptoms might sometimes appear in patients with thalassemia minor.

You have a higher probability of acquiring a more severe form of the disease if both of your parents are thalassemia carriers.

People from Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Mediterranean nations like Greece and Turkey are those who have thalassemia the most frequently.

Diagnosis of thalassemia

Your doctor will probably request a sample of your blood to diagnose thalassemia. This sample will be sent to a lab for testing on anaemia and abnormal haemoglobin. Additionally, a lab technician will examine the blood under a microscope to check for abnormally shaped red blood cells.

Thalassemia is indicated by red blood cells with abnormal shapes. The haemoglobin electrophoresis test may also be carried out by the lab technician. By separating the various components in the red blood cells, this test can determine which kind is abnormal.

A physical examination might also assist your doctor in making a diagnosis of thalassemia, depending on the kind and severity of the condition. For instance, your doctor would suspect haemoglobin H illness if you have a substantially enlarged spleen.

Treatment options for thalassemia

The kind and severity of the underlying disease will determine the course of treatment for thalassemia. The optimal course of treatment for your unique situation will be recommended to you by your doctor.

Several of the therapies consist of:

Your doctor might advise against taking iron-containing vitamins or supplements. This is particularly true if you require blood transfusions because those who do so build excess iron that the body finds difficult to eliminate. The accumulation of iron in tissues has the potential to be deadly.

Chelation therapy might also be required if you’re undergoing blood transfusions. Typically, a chemical that binds with iron and other heavy metals is injected into the body in order to do this. This aids in getting rid of superfluous iron from your body.


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Consequences of low cholesterol level and its treatment.

Consequences of low cholesterol level and its treatment.

High cholesterol is typically linked to cholesterol issues. This is because having high cholesterol increases your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A fatty substance called cholesterol can block your arteries and possibly result in a heart attack or stroke by impeding blood flow through the afflicted artery.

Too little cholesterol is a possibility. This is less often than high cholesterol, though. While low cholesterol may contribute to other illnesses including cancer, depression, and anxiety, high cholesterol is firmly linked to heart disease.

What exactly is cholesterol?

Despite being linked to health issues, the body need cholesterol. Some hormones can only be produced with cholesterol. It contributes to the production of vitamin D, which aids in calcium absorption. Additionally, several of the chemicals necessary for food digestion are made in part by cholesterol.

Lipoproteins, which are small fat molecules encased in protein, are the carriers of cholesterol in the blood. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are the two main categories of cholesterol (HDL).

Some people refer to LDL as “bad” cholesterol. This is so that your arteries won’t become blocked by the particular type of cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is transported to the liver by HDL, or the “good” cholesterol. The extra LDL cholesterol is eliminated from the body via liver.

Another important factor in cholesterol is the liver. Your liver produces the majority of your cholesterol. What you eat provides the remaining energy. Only foods derived from animals, such as eggs, meat, and poultry, contain dietary cholesterol. Plants don’t contain it.

Dangers of low cholesterol

Medication, like as statins, frequent exercise, and a nutritious diet can all help lower high LDL levels. There typically isn’t a concern when your cholesterol decreases for these causes. In fact, most of the time, having lower cholesterol is preferable to having high cholesterol. When your cholesterol drops for no apparent cause, you should pay attention and talk to your doctor about it.

Researchers are concerned about how low cholesterol looks to have a harmful impact on mental health, even if the precise consequences of low cholesterol on health are still being explored.

In a 1999 Duke University research of young, healthy women, it was discovered that those with low cholesterol were more prone to have anxiety and depressive symptoms. According to research, low levels of cholesterol may have an impact on your brain’s health because they are necessary for the production of hormones and vitamin D. Cell development requires vitamin D. Anxiety or despair could be a sign that your brain cells aren’t functioning properly. Research is being done to better understand the relationship between low cholesterol and mental wellness.

A 2012 study revealed a potential link between low cholesterol and cancer risk during the American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions. Cancer may be impacted by the process that modifies cholesterol levels, but further research is required.

Women who might get pregnant are another group who should be concerned about low cholesterol. You have an increased chance of having a premature delivery or a kid with a low birth weight if you’re pregnant and have low cholesterol. Discuss what to do in this situation with your doctor if you typically have low cholesterol.

What Causes Low Cholesterol?

You could have extremely low cholesterol as a result of:

  • an uncommon condition that runs in your family
  • Malnutrition (not eating enough, or not eating enough good foods) (not eating enough, or not eating enough healthy foods)
  • Malabsorption (insufficient fat absorption by your body)
  • Anemia (low red blood cell count) 
  • thyroid problems
  • liver illness
  • a few different infections (like hepatitis C)
  • severe damage or illness
  • Cancer

Low cholesterol symptoms

There are frequently no signs for persons with high LDL cholesterol until they have a heart attack or stroke. You could suffer chest pain if a coronary artery has a significant blockage because less blood is getting to the heart muscle.

When cholesterol levels are low, chest pain that indicates an arterial accumulation in fatty substances does not occur. Low cholesterol may be one of the many reasons of depression and anxiety. Depression and anxiety signs include:

Consult your doctor if you experience any of the symptoms listed above. If your doctor doesn’t suggest a blood test, ask whether you should have one.

Treating low cholesterol

The sort of low cholesterol a person has and what caused it will determine the course of treatment.

Changing one’s lifestyle to include things like:

  • giving up smoking
  • achieving a healthy weight
  • being more active physically

When low LDL cholesterol is present together with symptoms or a genetic disease, medication may be necessary. Taking vitamin E supplements and other fat-soluble vitamins may be used as treatment for the hereditary diseases that lower LDL cholesterol. A doctor could occasionally advise adding additional fat to the diet as a supplement.

Preventing low cholesterol

Individuals very rarely take action to prevent having a level of cholesterol that is too low because most people don’t worry about having it.

Get regular checks to keep your cholesterol levels in range. To avoid taking statins or blood pressure drugs, maintain a heart-healthy diet and an active lifestyle. Know whether there is a family history of high cholesterol. Finally, be aware of any signs of stress and anxiety, especially if they make you feel aggressive.


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Significance of high cholesterol level and its treatment.

Significance of high cholesterol level and its treatment.

Diet, smoking, and genetics are some of the root causes of elevated cholesterol. If you are at risk, it is crucial to have regular cholesterol examinations because high cholesterol rarely manifests as symptoms.

In the United States, high cholesterol is a rather prevalent problem. In fact, approximately 94 million American individuals age 20 and older have what can be referred to as borderline high cholesterol, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

You might not even be aware that you have this ailment until you see your doctor, though, as it frequently manifests without any obvious symptoms.

What is cholesterol?

Lipids include cholesterol. Your liver makes this waxy, fat-like substance on its own. It is essential for the production of some hormones, vitamin D, and cell membranes. Since cholesterol does not dissolve in water, it cannot independently move through your blood. Your liver generates lipoproteins to aid in the transportation of cholesterol.

Particles called lipoproteins are comprised of protein and fat. They transport triglycerides, a different kind of lipid, and cholesterol through your bloodstream. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are the two main types of lipoprotein.

Any cholesterol transported by low-density lipoproteins is referred to as LDL cholesterol. You might be given a high cholesterol diagnosis if your blood has an excessive amount of LDL cholesterol. High cholesterol can cause a number of health problems, such as heart attacks and strokes, if left untreated.

Cause of High cholesterol

Consuming an excessive amount of meals high in cholesterol, saturated fats, and trans fats may make you more likely to acquire high cholesterol. Additionally, your risk can go up if you are obese. Inactivity and smoking are two more lifestyle choices that might raise cholesterol.

Your likelihood of getting high cholesterol may also be influenced by your heredity. Parents pass on their genes to their offspring. Your body receives guidance from specific genes on how to digest lipids and cholesterol. You may be more likely to develop high cholesterol if your parents do.

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a rare cause of elevated cholesterol. Your body is unable to eliminate LDL due to this hereditary condition. The majority of persons with this illness have total cholesterol levels above 300 milligrammes per deciliter and LDL levels above 200 milligrammes per deciliter, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Your chance of acquiring high cholesterol and associated consequences may also be increased by other medical diseases like diabetes and hypothyroidism.

How does high cholesterol affect my body?

High cholesterol causes plaque to accumulate inside of your blood vessels over time. Atherosclerosis is the medical term for this plaque development. Atherosclerosis increases the likelihood of developing a wide range of illnesses. This is due to the crucial role that your blood vessels perform throughout your entire body. There are therefore consequences when there is an issue with one of your blood vessels.

Your body’s blood arteries are like a sophisticated system of pipes that keep blood flowing through it. Plaque is similar to the crud that clogs your home’s plumbing and causes your shower drain to run slowly. Your blood vessels’ inner walls become adhered with plaque, which reduces the amount of blood that can pass through.

Plaque begins to build inside your blood vessels when your cholesterol level is high. The plaque enlarges the longer you continue without treatment. Your blood arteries narrow or obstruct as the plaque grows larger. Your blood arteries could continue to function for a very long period even if they are partially obstructed. However, they won’t function as effectively as they ought to.

Depending on which blood vessels are blocked, high cholesterol increases your risk of developing various medical disorders.

Risk factors for high cholesterol

You can be more vulnerable to getting high cholesterol if you:

  • are affected by obesity
  • eat a lot of trans and saturated fats, such as those found in fast food
  • have a minimal level of exercise
  • tobacco products are smoked
  • have a history of elevated cholesterol in your family
  • have kidney problems, diabetes, or hypothyroidism

High cholesterol can affect people of various ages, genders, and ethnicities.

Complications of high cholesterol

Without therapy, elevated cholesterol can lead to artery plaque buildup. This plaque might constrict your arteries over time. Atherosclerosis is the name given to this condition.

A dangerous condition is atherosclerosis. It may restrict how much blood can flow through your arteries. Additionally, it increases your risk of getting harmful blood clots.

Many potentially fatal consequences from atherosclerosis include:

  • stroke
  • chest pain
  • Chest pain, or angina
  • blood pressure is high.
  • disease of the peripheral vessels
  • long-term kidney disease

A biliary imbalance brought on by high cholesterol increases your risk of gallstones. See how your body may be affected by high cholesterol in various ways.

How to lower cholesterol?

Your doctor could suggest lifestyle modifications if you have high cholesterol to help lower it. For instance, they can advise making adjustments to your daily schedule, exercise routines, or food. If you smoke, they’ll probably tell you to stop.

To assist lower your cholesterol levels, your doctor may also recommend drugs or other treatments. They might suggest you get extra care from a specialist in specific circumstances.

Dietary cholesterol reduction

Your doctor could suggest dietary adjustments to help you reach and maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

For instance, they might suggest that you:

  • Limit the amount of cholesterol-, saturated-, and trans-fat-containing foods you eat.
  • Pick lean protein sources including chicken, fish, and lentils.
  • eat a variety of high-fiber foods, including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • choose fried cuisine over baked, broiled, steaming, grilled, and roasted options.
  • When possible, stay away from fast meals and sugary, pre-packaged foods.

High-cholesterol, saturated-fat, or trans-fat foods include:

  • Red meat, organ meats, egg yolks, and dairy items with a high fat content
  • prepared foods made with palm oil or cocoa butter
  • meals that are deep-fried, including fried chicken, onion rings, and potato chips
  • a few baked products, such a few cookies and muffins

Consuming fish and other meals high in omega-3 fatty acids may also assist in reducing your LDL cholesterol levels. For instance, omega-3s are abundant in fish like salmon, mackerel, and herring. Omega-3s can also be found in walnuts, almonds, ground flaxseeds, and avocados.

cholesterol-lowering drugs

Your doctor may occasionally recommend drugs to assist lower your cholesterol levels. The most frequently given drugs for elevated cholesterol are statins. They prevent your liver from making additional cholesterol.

Statin examples include:

  • atorvastatin (Lipitor)
  • fluvastatin (Lescol)
  • rosuvastatin (Crestor)
  • simvastatin (Zocor)

Other drugs for high cholesterol that your doctor might recommend include:

  • niacin
  • Bile acid resins or sequestrants such cholestyramine(Prevalite), colestipol, or colesevalam (Welchol)
  • Inhibitors of cholesterol absorption, such as ezetimibe (Zetia)
  • PCSK9 inhibitors like evolocumab (Repatha) and alirocumab (Praluent) 

Some products comprise a mix of medications that work to lessen the amount of cholesterol your body absorbs from meals and the amount of cholesterol your liver produces. A combination of ezetimibe and simvastatin is one instance (Vytorin). Find out more about the prescription medications for high cholesterol.


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Complications of Sickle cell disease and its treatment.

Complications of Sickle cell disease and its treatment.

An umbrella term for a collection of hemoglobin-related hereditary diseases is sickle cell disease. There are techniques to control the symptoms of many conditions, even though they can be fatal. Hemoglobin, a substance found in red blood cells, transports oxygen to the body’s tissues. Hemoglobin issues in sickle cell disease result in sticky, C-shaped red blood cells that resemble sickles.

They may therefore become stuck in the cardiovascular system. Additionally, they are unable to adequately distribute oxygen. The body may be impacted in several ways by this.

The only known treatment for sickle cell disease is a stem cell transplant, but groups like the Sickle Cell Disease Association of America are attempting to increase public awareness of the condition and support financing for future research.

Sickle cell disease disproportionately affects “people whose ancestors come from Africa; Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Turkey, and Italy; the Arabian Peninsula; India; and Spanish-speaking regions in South America, Central America, and parts of the Caribbean,” according to Genetics Home Reference.

Types of Sickle cell disease

The protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells is called haemoglobin. It typically consists of two beta chains and two alpha chains. Different mutations in these genes are what lead to the four basic forms of sickle cell anaemia. 

SS-hemoglobin disease

The most prevalent form of sickle cell disease is haemoglobin SS disease. It happens when both of your parents pass along copies of the haemoglobin S gene to you. As a result, Hb SS haemoglobin is produced. People with the most severe form of SCD also tend to exhibit the worst symptoms more frequently.

Hemoglobin SC disease

The second most prevalent form of sickle cell disease is haemoglobin SC illness. It happens when you receive both the Hb S and Hb C genes from one parent. Similar symptoms can be seen in those with Hb SC and Hb SS. The anaemia is less severe, though.

Hemoglobin SB+ (beta) thalassemia

The generation of beta globin is impacted by haemoglobin SB+ (beta) thalassemia. Less beta protein is produced, which results in smaller red blood cells. Hemoglobin S beta thalassemia is a condition that can be inherited if the Hb S gene is present. The symptoms are not as bad.

Hemoglobin SB 0 (Beta-zero) thalassemia

The fourth variety of sickle cell disease is known as sickle beta-zero thalassemia. Additionally, the beta globin gene is involved. It has signs like Hb SS anaemia. However, beta zero thalassemia might occasionally present with more severe symptoms. It’s linked to a worse prognosis.

Hemoglobin SD, hemoglobin SE, and hemoglobin SO

These sickle cell diseases are more uncommon and typically do not present with severe symptoms.

Sickle cell trait

Sickle cell trait refers to individuals who only have one parent have a mutant gene (haemoglobin S). They could have no symptoms at all or fewer symptoms.

Causes of Sickle cell disease

A genetic disorder is sickle cell disease. It can only be inherited from one or more defective genes from a person’s biological parents.

A person will have sickle cell trait but not sickle cell illness if they only inherit a defective gene from one parent. A person will develop sickle cell disease if they receive a defective gene from each parent.

How does sickle cell anemia affect people?

Sickle cell anaemia in newborns can last months without showing any signs. When they do, anemia-related symptoms such as severe fatigue or irritability, excruciatingly swollen hands and feet, and jaundice manifest. Injuries to the spleen in babies might impair their immune systems and increase their vulnerability to bacterial infections.

Older sickle cell anaemia sufferers may change and experience more severe medical complications as a result of the lack of oxygen reaching organ tissues. Sickle cell anaemia patients are more likely to suffer from liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and renal damage.

Symptoms and complications of Sickle cell disease

Numerous symptoms and issues may develop if the body’s cells do not obtain adequate oxygen. These can occur at any age and differ from person to person.

Compared to healthy red blood cells, sclerotic cells degrade more quickly. Anemia, or reduced amounts of red blood cells, may develop from this.

Early signs could include:

  • Jaundice, also known as a yellowing of the skin and eye whites
  • fatigue
  • Hands and feet ache and edoema

Additional signs and issues might include:

  • occurrences of pain
  • the hands and feet swelling
  • chest pain suddenly
  • seeing less
  • increased spleen
  • leg sores
  • stroke
  • profunde vein thrombosis
  • harm to the liver, heart, or kidneys
  • gallstones
  • malnutrition (in young people)
  • infertility (in males)
  • Priapism, which is a term for a protracted and uncomfortable erection
  • Blood pressure that is too high in the lungs is known as pulmonary hypertension.
  • blood arteries that feed the lungs
  • heart disease
  • bone and joint injury brought on by inadequate blood flow
  • a greater chance of infections, which could present with serious symptoms
  • fever

For further information on some of the most common signs and side effects of sickle cell disease, see the list below:

  • Pain: Sickle cells become caught during a pain episode and block the flow of blood to a specific area of the body. The intensity and duration of the discomfort might vary, from minor to severe.
  • Infections: The CDC cautions that, regardless of age, people with sickle cell disease may be more susceptible to developing a serious infection from COVID-19.
  • Chest symptoms: Acute chest syndrome symptoms include chest pain, coughing, fever, and breathing difficulties.
  • Enlarged spleen: Symptoms of an enlarged spleen include weakness, pale lips, rapid breathing and heartbeat, extreme thirst, and stomach pain.

Anyone who exhibits any of these symptoms requires immediate medical attention. They could also need to stay in the hospital for some time.

In children

Sickle cell illness is present before birth since it is inherited. If the problem is present at birth, a normal blood test will reveal it.

Aplastic crises, in which the bone marrow stops generating red blood cells and causes severe anaemia, can occur in infants in extreme cases. Due to red blood cell entrapment, they could also have an enlarged spleen. Low appetite and sluggishness are symptoms.

Sickle cell anemia Treatment

There are several different SCD treatments available, including:

  • Intravenous fluid rehydration aids in the normalisation of red blood cell function. If you’re dehydrated, your red blood cells are more prone to swell and take on the sickle shape.
  • Infections that are underlying or related with the crisis must be treated since the stress of an infection might cause a sickle cell crisis. An infection could develop as a crisis’s side effect.
  • Transfusions of blood facilitate the delivery of nutrients and oxygen when necessary. Patients receive packed red cells that have been extracted from donated blood.
  • Through a mask, more oxygen is administered. It facilitates breathing and raises blood oxygen levels.
  • During a sickle crisis, painkillers are used to reduce the pain. You might require over-the-counter medications or potent prescription painkillers like morphine.
  • (Droxia, Hydrea) aids in boosting foetal haemoglobin synthesis. The necessity for blood transfusions might decline.
  • Immunizations can aid in illness prevention. Immunity is typically reduced in patients.
  • Sickle cell anaemia has been treated by a bone marrow transplant. The best candidates are children under the age of 16 who have serious difficulties and have a matching donor.


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