Browsed by
Month: April 2023

Important note on dementia affected by music.

Important note on dementia affected by music.

There is growing evidence that listening to music helps reduce anxiety and improve happiness in those who are living with dementia. What is it about music, though, that has such a strong impact on our brains? Does this effect last a long time, too?

You may have seen a video of an elderly person with dementia who, while not remembering their family members, starts playing the notes to a tune they used to know on the piano or violin, or who sways to the music while bringing back a flood of memories.

Many people’s questions concerning dementia, a neurological illness, are confused by this phenomenon. How can someone forget their kids’ names but recall something as difficult as a piece of classical music?

Our April podcast “In Conversation: Investigating the Power of Music for Dementia” set out to respond to of questions, including this one. Dr. Kelly Jakubowski, an assistant professor of music psychology at Durham University, and Beatie Wolfe, a musician, and spokesperson for the non-profit organization Music for Dementia, joined the discussion this month.

Health benefits of music

Music is a creative fusion of rhythm, harmony, and emotion expression, whether instrumental or lyrical. Its many health advantages have also been supported by numerous studies.

For instance, a 2013 study discovered that listening to music before stressful situations can assist the nervous system unwind and recover more quickly. In the same year, another study discovered that children in hospitals who were listening to music experienced less pain and anxiety.

In addition to its physiological advantages, research has shown that music has a good effect on cognitive health.

According to a recent study, persons between the ages of 62 and 78 may see a slower deterioration in cognitive function if they actively practice and listen to music. The ability of the brain to rewire itself, which is essential for learning and memory formation, was found to increase with participation in musical activities in particular parts of the brain.

In terms of actively learning music, a study from 2023 revealed that regular music training might offer the brain considerable functional advantages and help keep it young.

These findings suggest that music therapy may be an effective method for treating dementia, a condition that is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including memory loss and issues with thinking, language, and problem-solving.

Being in complete silence

However, the absence of sound and music—silence—has an impact on our health that is at least as great as that of sound and music. Silence can be soothing and restorative, reducing brain wave frequency while also lowering blood pressure, according to a 2020 study.

In fact, studies have shown that excessive noise and loud sounds are harmful to cognitive health. According to a 2022 study, dementia may have a particular risk factor for people who are exposed to loud noises regularly, such as noisy traffic.

Beatie, one of our guests, talked about her experiences recording her “Raw Space” album in the Bell Labs anechoic chamber, which was the world’s quietest room, and how it affected her.

“It was one of the most life-changing events I believe I’ve ever had, and I keep going back to it. Even now, it seems to have almost gained relevance. We are being barraged from every direction with social media and notifications, and all of these things that are hitting us are kind of frazzling us, as the world has simply become noisier, both literally in terms of sound as well as information, she added.

The engineers usually had to take breaks because it was so intense, but I was assured that I’d be able to stay in there for about 15 minutes since you can hear your blood racing through your veins. I ended up working for at least 100 hours, she claimed.

Recognising songs over names

Dr. Guite brought up the issue of persons with dementia remembering song lyrics but not their own children’s names and emphasized repetition and how music can simultaneously activate several brain regions and networks.

We’ve spoken about how music affects the brain globally, but the repeating of a child’s name occurs throughout a lifetime, whereas a song may only be played once a month or once a year. She questioned, “How can we explain that?

According to Dr. Jakubowski, procedural memory is related to the capacity to fill in the words of songs.

The ability to remember motor sequences, such as how to ride a bike, is an example of procedural memory, correct? People still have this kind of memory for the motor sequence of singing along to lyrics even though they may not have this kind of semantic memory for names and locations, she explained. This is likely because they have sung along to that song many times before, or at least have done so in their minds many times.

She said that the brain might preserve some of this form of memory, which might help to explain why some people with dementia are still able to sing along or play an old song on an instrument.

If a person had previously played the piano, they frequently could still play those well-known compositions rather late in the condition, according to the expert.

Observing how music affects dementia

In 2014, Beatie started a study called “The Power of Music” in a chain of care facilities run by the Priory Group in the UK.

The video and photos from that encounter make it clear how the dementia patients in such care homes begin to tap their feet, clap their hands, and sing along—some with their eyes gleaming.

She explained to us how it all began after she performed original English songs in a Portuguese elderly home. “In the case of my father-in-law, I was going to play just for him, but I wound up playing to this whole ward of about 100 people with dementia and Alzheimer’s, who were all sitting around the table listening to me play,

Except for this relative, none of them were fluent in English. And I was playing brand-new English tunes that they had no prior familiarity with. People were clapping, waking up, and singing along as much as they could, she continued.

Beatie was inspired by this to investigate the claim that music, whether you were familiar with it or not, had strong emotional effects. She was motivated by the neuroscientist Oliver Sacks, who wrote in his book Musicophilia that music appreciation was not necessary for its influence.

One particular song’s impact on the audience stood out when she performed original songs for residents of care homes in the U.K.

How long does music have an impact?

Dr. Jakubowski pointed out that while the acute health benefits of music are pretty clear, sustained exposure is required to discuss long-term benefits.

“You can’t anticipate that listening to music will always be beneficial years from now just because you listened to one song three years ago. It is more advantageous to engage with music more frequently than to hear it once and then never again”, according to her.

She also emphasized the different ways in which listeners might interact with music.

“Even listening to recorded music regularly offers long-term advantages for people with dementia—reducing agitation, decreasing apathy, boosting mood, occasionally enhancing [a] feeling of identity, etc. So, in my opinion, there are various ways to interact with music,” she said.


For Dimentia medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Longer naps may increase the risk of obesity & hypertension

Longer naps may increase the risk of obesity & hypertension

According to research, those who nap during the day for longer than 30 minutes appear to be more likely to be obese and have high blood pressure.

They observed that persons with shorter naps are less likely to develop high blood pressure.

Longer naps, according to specialists, may play a role in these illnesses because they can disturb both eating and sleeping patterns at night.

More than 30-minute naps during the midday may raise blood pressure, increase body mass index, and worsen diabetes and heart-related diseases, according to research.

The prevalence of high blood pressure was lower among people who took what are known as “power naps,” which are midday sleep sessions lasting 30 minutes or fewer.

Researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston evaluated more than 3,000 adults from a Mediterranean population—where midday naps, known as “siestas,” are common—for a recent study that was published in the journal Obesity.

The duration of siestas and their association with metabolic syndrome and obesity were investigated by the researchers.

According to studies, those who take siestas of at least 30 minutes are more likely than those who don’t to have higher blood pressure, a higher body mass index, and other diseases linked to diabetes and heart disease.

Additionally, compared to people who did not take a siesta, those who took brief naps were less likely to exhibit elevated systolic blood pressure. “Not all siestas are the same,” said Marta Garaulet, Ph.D., MS, a senior study author and a visiting professor in the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders. “The health effects of a nap can depend on the length of time, position of sleep, and other particular factors.”

Obesity and Naps

According to Garaulet, the group previously conducted research in the UK and discovered that siestas were linked to a higher risk of obesity. The next step was to examine siestas in a nation where afternoon naps were more prevalent in culture.

According to Garaulet, “in this case, Spain, as well as how the duration of siestas is related to metabolic health.” The group notes that there are more than 1 billion obese people in the world, which is a rising health risk.

In the course of metabolic processes, how people digest food has a connection to fat accumulation in the body. Researchers suggested that studying how habits, such as napping, alter certain metabolic pathways, could contribute in the understanding of how habits affect health.

Findings from the napping research

The group looked at information from 3,275 persons in the Murcia region of Spain.

Participants at the University of Murcia had their baseline metabolic parameters assessed, and information about their naps and other lifestyle elements was gathered. No siestas, shorter than 30 minutes, and more than 30 minutes were the categories into which the subjects were split.

In comparison to those who did not take siestas, subjects who took longer naps had higher body mass indices and were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (MetS).

The extended nap group exhibited greater waist circumference, fasting glucose levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure values as compared to the no-siesta group. Longer siestas were linked to later nighttime eating and sleeping, more energy consumed during lunch, and smoking.

Sleep and obesity

A lot of study has been done on the relationship between sleep and obesity, according to Becca Krukowski, PhD, a professor at the University of Virginia School of Medicine.

In contrast, Krukowski noted, “This article adds knowledge about sleep and health risks in a cultural context where naps are promoted among healthy people, across the lifespan, while also considering other potentially related factors, such as nap length and eating patterns.”

According to Krukowski, it’s probable that the health issues led to the lengthier sleeps rather than the other way around. The direction of these correlations cannot be determined from this study because it is cross-sectional. It’s likely that obese people sleep less soundly at night and require longer naps as a result.

The study, according to Krukowski, might be a first step towards more illuminating research.

“Previous studies have shown that weight loss interventions improve sleep quality,” said Krukowski. It could be interesting to look at whether weight loss is impacted by sleep therapies, such as controlling nap length and increasing nocturnal sleep.

More study is required on napping

The authors of the study acknowledged that it’s possible that some factors—rather than siestas per se—might be a result of obesity rather than being caused by siestas, as evidenced by a prior investigation of data from the UK Biobank that found a causal link between napping and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, which they refer to as the most harmful type.

The link between siestas and health indices was found to be mediated by a number of statistically relevant lifestyle factors, according to the authors.

They urge further investigation into whether a little siesta is preferable to a long one, especially for people who smoke, have bad habits like sleeping in late or delaying meals, or who have delayed sleep patterns.

The Brigham’s Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders’ Frank Scheer, PhD, a senior neuroscientist and professor in the Medical Chronobiology Programme, commented on the study’s findings in a statement. “This study shows the importance of considering siesta length and raises the question of whether short naps may offer unique benefits,” he said. Numerous institutions are starting to recognise the advantages of quick naps, mostly for work productivity but also more and more for overall health.


For High blood pressure medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Discover the causes of migraines during the menstrual cycle

Discover the causes of migraines during the menstrual cycle

According to a recent study, migraine attacks in cisgender women who are menstruating may be brought on by an increase in the peptide CGRP, which has been associated with migraines. The study found that this rise correlated with a drop in oestrogen that happens after menstruation.

In spite of the fact that these individuals may still experience migraine attacks, the study did not detect an increase in CGRP in those who used contraceptives or had undergone menopause.

For many years, scientists have understood that the onset of menstruation-related migraine attacks is connected to a decline in the hormone oestrogen. The exact workings of this relationship, nevertheless, are still unknown.

According to a recent study, levels of a peptide linked to migraines rise and fall over the menstrual cycle along with hormonal levels. Levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP, rise in response to the decline in estrogen that happens at the start of menstruation.

The pilot study may provide a critical hint about the origin of menstrual migraine, even if it is uncertain why a decrease in oestrogen can produce a release of CGRP.

Additionally, it might help to explain why menstrual migraine attacks happen during the menstrual cycle and why their frequency decreases after menopause.

Migraines during periods

The symptoms of a menstrual migraine are comparable to those of other migraine types without aura or other sensory abnormalities. They typically start 1 or 2 days after your menstruation starts.

Two types of menstrual migraine are frequently distinguished:

  • Menstrual migraine: This more frequent type can have aura symptoms, such vision abnormalities, or not. Other times of the month may see attacks of the migraine.
  • Pure menstrual migraines: These only happen before or after your menstruation starts.

Typical menstrual migraine signs include the following:

  • one side of the head typically experiences excruciating head ache.
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to loud noises and light

Menstrual migraine attacks may be accompanied with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms as bloating, breast tenderness, nausea, and mood swings.

Treatment for menstrual migraines

There are many techniques to stop migraine pain or stop migraine attacks.

Many people believe that menstrual migraine is a distinct illness from other forms of migraine, and not all medications have FDA approval to treat both.

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications

Your physician could advise you to try an over-the-counter (OTC) pain reliever such ibuprofen (Advil, Midol). They could suggest that you take them on a regular basis, before the pain starts.

Your doctor might also advise that you take a diuretic if a physical test reveals that your salt levels are high.

Prescription drugs

To relieve and prevent general migraine headache, a wide variety of prescription medications are available.

Both preventative and abortive drugs are frequently started for migraineurs. A severe migraine attack can be stopped using abortion drugs.

Generally speaking, the following are some instances of treatments for migraine:

  • Preventative drugs
  • beta-blockers
  • anticonvulsants
  • Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA)
  • antagonists of CGRP

Note that frovatriptan is the only triptan licenced for prevention of menstrual migraine specifically. Find the best medication for your needs by speaking with your doctor.

Abortion-inducing drugs

  • blockers of calcium channels
  • drug ergotamine
  • Serotonin receptor agonist (SRA) and triptans

Some studies suggest that rizatriptan may be the most effective treatment for acute menstrual migraine attacks.

Your doctor might also advise switching to a birth control technique that uses a different hormone dose if you are using hormonal contraception.

Your doctor could advise you to try a treatment, such as a pill, to assist balance your hormone levels if you aren’t using hormonal birth control.

Natural solutions

Some vitamins and supplements have shown promise in preventing migraines that are brought on by hormones.

You should be aware that none of these treatments has been particularly investigated for menstrual migraine:

  • riboflavin, or vitamin B2,
  • Q10 coenzyme
  • magnesium
  • feverfew

Due to potential drug interactions, always consult your doctor before beginning any new therapy, including OTC medications or dietary supplements.


Exercise Consistent exercise may reduce migraines brought on by hormones. Others might discover that exercising exacerbates their symptoms.

An analysis of papers published in 2019 found that aerobic exercise may shorten migraine attacks. An other study raises the possibility that regular exercise has a preventative impact.

To get the most out of your workouts, stay hydrated, eat a high-protein meal before you go, and warm up your muscles.

lowering tension

Migraine attacks can be triggered by stress, even a brief reduction in tension.

A 2014 study hypothesized that migraine attacks would be more likely to occur when stress levels drop from one day to the next. The “let-down” effect is what is meant by this. It may be beneficial to reduce overall tension and deal with it as soon as you become aware of it.

Although it may seem more difficult than it actually is to reduce stress and anxiety, there are practical steps you can take every day. When you wake up in the morning or right before bed, try doing some yoga or meditation.

Hormone levels affecting migraine

Hormone fluctuations can cause migraine episodes. Some medications, such as birth control pills, can also contribute to them.


The National Headache Foundation estimates that 60 percent of women who suffer from migraines also experience menstrual migraine attacks. This can occur anywhere from two days before and three days following the conclusion of the menstrual cycle.

When a person starts menstruating, migraines may start, although they can start at any moment. Through menopause and the reproductive years, your attacks may continue.

Menopause and the perimenopause

During perimenopause, decreasing levels of estrogen and other hormones, such as progesterone, might result in migraine headaches.

Perimenopause typically begins 4 years before menopause, however, it can start up to 8 or 10 years earlier.

Do you have a headache or a migraine?

Compared to regular headaches, migraine episodes are different. On one side of the head, they typically induce intense degrees of throbbing pain. It is possible to have a migraine “with aura” or “without aura.”

One or more of the following symptoms may be present in the 30 minutes prior to your attack if you have migraine with aura:

  • noticing lightening strikes
  • observing strange lines or dots
  • a passing loss of vision
  • The face or hands go numb
  • feeling of tingling in the hands or face
  • Speech changes
  • weakness
  • uncharacteristic alterations in flavour, fragrance, or touch

Other signs of migraine with aura include:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to sound or light
  • ache in the back of one or both ears.
  • one or both temples are hurting

Common headaches never start with an aura and usually hurt less than migraines.

There are numerous types of headaches, such as:

  • Headaches due to stress. Tension headaches can be brought on by high amounts of stress and worry. They might also be brought on by strained or tense muscles.
  • Headaches in clusters. These headaches are frequently confused with migraines. Usually affecting one side of the head, they can also involve other signs and symptoms like runny nose, watery eyes, and nasal congestion.

Migraines and birth control

Both Dr. Raffaelli and Dr. Afridi said that while it looks that using contraceptives may have an impact on migraine attacks, the results are complicated.

According to Dr. Afridi, several methods of contraception respond differently in terms of migraine. Desogestrel may help some people with migraines, according to some research, she continued.

The main component of the “mini-pill,” a progestogen-only contraceptive pill, is desogestrel. For women using oral contraceptives, according to Dr. Raffaelli, “about one-third of patients with migraine experience improvement, one-third experience worsening, and one-third experience no change.”

Oral contraceptives used in a 21-7 cycle, which involves using them for three weeks and then going without for one week, According to Dr. Raffaelli, this most frequently results in migraines getting worse.


For Menstrual cycle medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

The Risk of Depression May Rise If You Eat French Fries.

The Risk of Depression May Rise If You Eat French Fries.

According to a recent study, eating fried meals frequently is associated with greater rates of anxiety and sadness.

According to the study, eating fried foods frequently—especially fried potatoes—increases your risk of developing anxiety and depression by 12% and 7%, respectively.

This, according to experts, is due to a number of factors, such as disruption of the lipid metabolism, an increase in inflammation, and gut disruption.

Try boiling, poaching, or grilling your meal as an alternative to frying it to limit your intake of fried foods.

The two mental illnesses that are most common worldwide are anxiety and depression.

Fried foods make up a large portion of the Western diet and are becoming more popular everywhere. Consuming processed or fried foods, sweet goods, and alcoholic beverages have been related to an increased risk of depression, according to prior research.

Additionally, studies suggest that frying may alter the nutritious makeup of food and release toxic compounds. Acrylamide is produced when carbohydrates are fried, such as potatoes, and it has been connected to neurological problems, metabolic syndrome, and obesity.

Few research have looked into how acrylamide might impact anxiety and depression up until this point. Additional research into this connection may help shape public health initiatives and dietary treatments for mental health issues.

Researchers have recently looked into the relationship between eating fried meals and depression and anxiety. They discovered that eating fried food, particularly fried potatoes, is associated with a higher risk of developing anxiety and depression.

How the research was carried out?

The study, which covered 140,728 participants, found that eating regularly unhealthy fried foods increases one’s risk of anxiety and depression by 12% and 7%, respectively.

The pollutant known as acrylamide found in fried foods, according to the researchers, is “strongly associated” with an increased risk of anxiety and depression.

It has been established that this pollutant causes neuroinflammation and perturbs lipid metabolism, both of which have an impact on mental health.

Even though many who enjoy fried food may be disappointed by these findings, there is a positive aspect to them. We may be able to lower our risk of developing some mood disorders by paying closer attention to what we eat.

Examination of the impact of fried food

The researchers started by looking at data from 140,728 individuals in the UK Biobank. During an average follow-up period of 11.3 years, data on fried food consumption and the prevalence of anxiety and depression were collected.

The researchers found 12,735 cases of depression and 8,294 cases of anxiety towards the end of the study period. Overall, they discovered that compared to non-consumers, those who had more than one dish of fried food daily had a 12% higher risk of anxiety and a 7% higher risk of depression.

Males, younger people, and active smokers were most likely to consume fried food frequently. The researchers next looked into potential mechanisms explaining the association between fried foods and depression and anxiety.

They did this by watching how zebrafish were impacted over time by persistent exposure to acrylamide. They discovered that fish exhibited anxiety- and depression-like behaviour when exposed to low amounts of acrylamide.

Following additional tests, the researchers discovered that acrylamide decreased lipid metabolism, caused neuroinflammation, and decreased the blood-brain barrier’s permeability.

Relationship between food and mood

“As opposed to what is frequently portrayed, the relationship between food and mood is far more nuanced. However, there are undoubtedly dietary habits that seem to offer protection, according to Rohini Bajekal, a nutritionist and board-certified specialist in lifestyle medicine at Plant-Based Health Professionals.

“The results of this study are in line with what we would expect to see and are further confirmation of decades of research showing that fried and unhealthy foods in the typical Western diet increase the risk of common chronic diseases and mental health conditions,” says Rohini.

Fried meals contribute to inflammation in the body, which is linked to symptoms of anxiety and depression. This is one of the reasons why fried foods are linked to greater rates of anxiety and depression.

A 2017 study called the SMILES Trial, which Megan Hilbert, a registered dietitian at Top Nutrition Coaching, cites, shows that mental health outcomes were significantly better when a control group adhered to a diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods for 12 weeks.

Inflammation effects on body and brain

Because fried foods contain molecules called advanced glycation end products that stick to tissue, harm it, and promote inflammation, Hilbert claims that a diet high in fried foods contributes to neuroinflammation, or inflammation in the brain.

Although further research is needed on this subject, Hilbert points out that it is hypothesised that inflammation may reduce the release of dopamine and weaken the regions of the brain connected to rewards.

Fried meals also frequently lack fibre, phytonutrients, and healthy fats, all of which have been found to improve brain function. Your digestive system may then be impacted by this.

According to Hilbert, “a deficiency in these compounds can result in a breakdown in the communication between the gut and the brain.” The production of these neurotransmitters is thought to be influenced by abnormalities in our gut microbiota because upwards of 90 to 95% of our serotonin is created there. As a result, it is thought that these imbalances have a negative impact on our mood.

The primary toxin that may be harming mental health, according to the study’s authors, is acrylamide.

Hilbert says that when certain starchy foods are roasted, fried, or baked at high temperatures, a chemical called acrylamide can naturally occur. “Studies have shown that acrylamide is carcinogenic to animals and may be carcinogenic to humans.”

Hilbert emphasises the need of keeping in mind that the acrylamide concentrations utilised in animal experiments were at extremely high dosages.

Foods that promote mental wellness

We discussed whether there are any foods that can help or prevent depression and anxiety with Dr. Kelly Johnson-Arbor, Medical Toxicologist, Co-Medical Director, and Interim Executive Director at the National Capital Poison Centre, who was not involved in the study.

According to Dr. Johnson-Arbor, “There are no specific foods that have been proven to treat or prevent depression or anxiety.” However, compared to the “Western” diet, the Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, is linked to lower levels of C-reactive protein.

Lower levels of C-reactive protein may help prevent the onset of depression, anxiety, and other illnesses impacted by inflammation because they are linked to inflammation, the author continued.


We discussed the ramifications of the study with Dr. Spiegel. He stated:

The results of this study suggest that eating more fried food, particularly potatoes, raises the level of acrylamides in the blood. Depression and anxiety may be brought on by the greater levels of this toxin, which affects how different types of nerve cells in the brain function. Among younger people, the effects are more obvious.

The key takeaway is to limit your intake of fried foods like French fries, hash browns, bacon, and others to special occasions. No more than one dish should be consumed per month, in my opinion. Consuming alcohol frequently may increase anxiety and depression as well as cause a number of other health issues, he said.


For Depression medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Can workplace discrimination result in high blood pressure?

Can workplace discrimination result in high blood pressure?

According to a recent study, those who feel discriminated against at work are far more likely to experience high blood pressure.

The results are consistent with earlier studies in which researchers found that even a small degree of employment discrimination can have an adverse effect on one’s physical and emotional well-being.

According to experts, employment discrimination must be reduced through the implementation of regulatory changes and cultural reforms.

Your blood pressure may increase if you feel discriminated against at work, and not only metaphorically.

Analysing the research’s data

The researchers looked at information from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS) on American adults who had a range of educational backgrounds and occupations for this study. They examined information on 1,246 persons who were tracked from the study’s beginning in 2004 to its halfway point in 2006 without exhibiting signs of high blood pressure. About half of those examined were women and most were white.

They mainly fell into the following age groups:

  • not older than 45
  • aged 46 to 55
  • 56 or more

According to a study published this week in the Journal of the American Heart Association, people who report experiencing high levels of workplace discrimination were 54% more likely to acquire high blood pressure than those who reported experiencing low levels of such discrimination.

To estimate the prevalence of employment discrimination, researchers examined survey responses from 1,246 persons in the US who did not self-report having high blood pressure, often known as hypertension, at the start of the study.

Most of the participants were Caucasian, and they represented a variety of professions and educational levels. There were roughly equal numbers of males and women. Following that, participants were monitored for about 8 years.

A validated questionnaire was used to measure perceived workplace discrimination. Participants were questioned about their work experiences, including whether they felt treated unfairly, whether they felt monitored or ignored more than others, whether job promotions were appropriately rewarded, and how frequently they were exposed to racial, sexual, or ethnic discrimination or jokes.

Every inquiry received a score between 1 (never) and 5 (at least once each week). Participants were split into three groups based on their total scores: low, middle, or strong discrimination.

The outcomes?

After the trial, they discovered that 319 participants had high blood pressure after around eight years of the follow-up period.

People with “low workplace discrimination scores” were 22% less likely to report high blood pressure than those with “intermediate workplace discrimination exposure scores.”

Additionally, in comparison to individuals who had reported low workplace discrimination scores, those with high workplace discrimination exposure ratings were 54% more likely to report high blood pressure readings during the follow-up research period.

Dr. Jian Li, M.D., Ph.D., the lead study author and professor of work and health at the University of California, Los Angeles’ Fielding School of Public Health and School of Nursing, told Healthline that he initially predicted there would be a connection between high blood pressure and workplace discrimination before beginning this project.

He declared that he was “excited to see the association” between discrimination and such a significant increase in blood pressure.

The health effects of discrimination

In a sense, experts say, these results are not surprising because prior research has demonstrated that racism and prejudice can have major effects on both physical and mental health.

It appeared that employment discrimination, even at low levels, had an impact. When compared to individuals with low workplace discrimination ratings, those with intermediate values were still 22% more likely to report having high blood pressure.

Anjali Gowda Ferguson, PhD, a certified clinical psychologist, claimed that discrimination has “profound health impacts that are a result of an exacerbated stress response.”

“People can exhibit trauma symptoms, which essentially put the body in the fight-or-flight position. The physical health of people starts to suffer as a result of these protracted feelings of anxiety”.

Senior lecturer in cognitive science at Troy, New York’s Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Alicia Walf, PhD, concurred. Discrimination, according to her, is a “chronic psychosocial stressor” that demands attention.

Waif said that because people are discriminated against in settings other than the workplace, “the effects shown in this study of an increased risk of developing high blood pressure in individuals who reported that they faced discrimination at work has far-reaching consequences.” In addition, high blood pressure is an important indicator since it is associated with a higher risk of diseases other than cardiovascular disease, like immunological and metabolic problems.”

She continued, “I believe that this is an important first study examining the relationships between workplace discrimination and this one signal of the detrimental effects on health, such as high blood pressure. “I hope this inspires future research finding out if there are individual differences based on factors, like age and the type of discrimination faced,” the author says.

Manage discrimination leading to high blood pressure

What should you do if discrimination at work causes your blood pressure to rise or causes other changes to your cardiovascular health?

Li suggested that workers could use self-regulated stress reduction techniques like mindfulness exercises. According to him, studies show that “mindfulness-based stress reduction could lower blood pressure.”

Albert noted that while some people have better coping techniques than others when it comes to managing the effects of workplace discrimination on blood pressure, these measures can be beneficial for the individual.

“Those who have higher coping skills will have better biological responses, meaning they are less likely to develop high blood pressure and other forms of cardiovascular disease,” she said.

Albert emphasised that this places a heavy burden on the individual.

Sincerity be damned, I’ve always had a problem with coping since it tends to focus on the individual rather than the systems and structural elements. Both are necessary, she noted. Interventions that deal with systemic prejudice are necessary, as are interventions that support people as they adjust to having fewer biological effects.

Most adversely affected by discrimination at work

Li responded that a wide spectrum of groups are affected and at danger for the detrimental effects of workplace discrimination.

A person may be the subject of discrimination due to a variety of reasons, including their color, age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, national origin, presence of a certain health condition, or outward appearance.

One noted weakness of the new study is that non-white people with lower levels of education who hold positions where they have less power over their workplaces tended to opt out of the follow-up questioning sessions. Future research should, according to Li, fill some of these gaps.

Albert pointed out that it is significant to take into account the fact that the majority of the participants in this study self-identified as white.

It isn’t difficult to imagine that those same groups would also experience some of the worst cases of discrimination, and, as a result, these detrimental effects on cardiovascular health, she said, given the larger structural barriers the most vulnerable members of our society face because of their race and ethnicity, their sex and gender identity, and their sexual orientation, to name a few examples.

There isn’t a lot of information available on this as of yet, she claimed. She cited studies on the effects of discrimination on the cardiovascular health of Black women that she had conducted and presented.

According to Albert, there is a 30–50% higher risk of coronary heart disease, which is what causes heart attacks, as a result of discrimination.


For Blood pressure medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

How and why does exercise improve cognitive function?

How and why does exercise improve cognitive function?

The molecular mechanisms by which exercise enhances cognition were studied. They discovered that muscular contractions emit chemical signals that promote neuronal development and activation.

They also discovered that astrocytes, which act as support cells, protect neurons from excessive electrical signalling when they are exposed to chemical signals from muscle cells.

To determine whether these findings hold true for humans, more research is required. The maintenance of both physical and mental health requires exercise. Even if it is started later in life, according to studies, it has a good impact on health.

Some people believe that exercise enhances cognition by causing long-term alterations in the hippocampus, such as increased volume and faster pace of neuron production. However, it is still unclear exactly how exercise affects the hippocampus.

Researchers may be able to reverse-engineer treatments for cognitive diseases like dementia if they have a better understanding of how exercise increases hippocampus size and functionality.

In order to comprehend how exercise alters hippocampus cells, researchers have conducted a number of in vitro tests, or investigations in cell cultures.

They discovered that hippocampus cells grew and fired more electrical signals as a result of chemical signals generated by muscles that were contracting. Additionally, they discovered that astrocytes, which are support cells, control neuronal activity and growth for optimal brain function.

According to Ryan Glatt, senior brain health coach and director of the FitBrain Programme at Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California, who was not involved in the study, “the implications support prior findings from other studies, which is that exercise, including muscle-strengthening exercises like resistance training, can have a positive impact on brain function.”

How muscles may ‘speak’ to the brain

The tiny muscle progenitor cells were taken from mice and grown in Petri dishes for the investigation. They started to contract and release chemical signals into the cell culture once they reached adulthood.

The scientists then transferred the substances that had been in the mature muscle cell culture to astrocytes and hippocampus neurons in a separate dish.

They monitored cell proliferation using immunofluorescence and calcium imaging, and they recorded neural activity using multi-electrode arrays. In the end, they discovered that hippocampal neurons and astrocyte numbers grew by 1.4 and 4.4 times, respectively, in response to chemical signals from the muscle cells.

The development of mature hippocampal neural networks, which are composed of cells that fire synchronously, was hastened by the addition of muscle cell cultures.

The next step was to investigate the impact of astrocytes on the combination. They did this by observing what happened when astrocytes were removed from cell cultures containing mature muscle and hippocampus cells.

They observed that the neurons fired even more electrical signals as a result, indicating that astrocytes may assist regulate and coordinate neural activation patterns. Further studies revealed that the observed alterations in hippocampus cultures required muscular contractions.

Hippocampal cells no longer showed the same amounts of neuronal firing when muscle cells were stopped from contracting, but synchronous firing was intact.

The study authors remarked that this indicates that muscle contractions or exercise release substances that are not released by stationary cells. They came to the conclusion that their research offers fresh perspectives on how exercise might help hippocampus function.

Dementia risk and exercise

We enquired about how exercise can lower the incidence of dementia from Dr. Rong Zhang, a neurologist from the O’Donnell Brain Institute at UT Southwestern who was not involved in the study.

He pointed out that extensive clinical trials are still needed to determine whether this is the case, and that additional study should look at the underlying molecular mechanisms as well.

Meanwhile, Dr. Bennett pointed out that earlier studies demonstrate that exercise lowers the risk of dementia by:

We also had a conversation with Dr. Romnesh de Souza, an interventional and consulting neurologist at Health City Cayman Islands who was not associated with the study.

He stated, regular aerobic exercise, such as walking, power walking, swimming, or riding an exercise bike, should be done for 20 to 30 minutes each day. 70% of your maximum heart rate should be your target. Subtract your age from 220 to get a ballpark idea of your maximal age-related heart rate. It has been demonstrated that this practice reduces dementia by 30–35%.

Non verified finding in humans

Rats were used in an in vitro study that used cell culture. If these findings apply to individuals, more research will be necessary to determine,” Dr. Zhang said in response to the study.

Although she was not involved in the study, Dr. Lauren Bennett, director of neuropsychology at the Pickup Family Neurosciences Institute at Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian, noted that the research “was only conducted for a short period of time, and it is not clear whether the findings would be the same over a longer period of time.”

Ways to fight rising cases of dementia

Among the largest risks to the country’s public health are Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia.

This study focused on assisting persons with mild cognitive impairment rather than directly addressing Alzheimer’s disease. It has been demonstrated that dementia brought on by Alzheimer’s disease or other neurological diseases is more likely to occur in people with mild cognitive impairment.

The prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia has been a focus of research. Right now, there is no remedy. The need for this research has increased as the population of America ages quickly. Every day, more than 10,000 people reach the age of 65.

Alzheimer’s disease and associated dementias cause one in three senior deaths and claim more lives than breast and prostate cancers put together. The Alzheimer’s Association estimates that about 13 million Americans over 65 will have Alzheimer’s disease by the year 2050, up from the current total of more than 6 million.

Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia-related fatalities increased by 16% during the pandemic.

Upcoming applications

In spite of this, Dr. Bennett stated that “the results of this study provide further evidence of the importance of exercise, at any point in life, in supporting hippocampal plasticity to combat hippocampal atrophy, which is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.”

In the future, she said, “studies like this could play a crucial role in aiding us in optimizing exercise programs to support cognitive health.” Dr. de Souza continued by saying that the results may also help in the creation of fresh therapies for cognitive impairment.

These results suggest that it may someday be possible to’reverse engineer treatments to mimic pro-cognitive effects of exercise in the absence of physical activity.’ The possibility of using this to slow or stop the process of cognitive deterioration in dementia patients is also intriguing, he added.


For Cognitive disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Is cranberry juice really effective for UTIs?

Is cranberry juice really effective for UTIs?

Over 50% of women experience urinary tract infections (UTIs) at least once, and a third of them experience recurrent UTIs.

A recent meta-analysis by Australian researchers with approximately 9,000 participants supports the notion that cranberries are an effective dietary supplement for those trying to prevent recurrent UTIs.

According to the researchers’ data, cranberries have a preventive effect against UTIs in women, kids, and individuals who are susceptible to them after receiving medical treatment.

In some persons who experience recurrent UTIs, the authors claim that their research provides compelling evidence that cranberry juice can lower the incidence of UTI infections.

For many years, cranberries have been used to treat or prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, research has thus far shown contradictory proof of its efficacy.

In a recent study, researchers from Flinders University and The Children’s Hospital at Westmead in Australia found that cranberry products may in fact lower the risk of UTIs in specific populations.

A review that was first published in 1998 and most recently updated in 2012 is now in its sixth iteration. The Cochrane Reviews mention it.

The research conducted by Prof. Jonathan Craig and his team “shows a very positive finding that cranberry juice can prevent UTI in susceptible people,” according to Prof. Craig, the study’s senior author.

UTI with E. coli

The urethra, bladder, ureter, and kidney are all parts of the urinary system, which is where UTIs originate from when bacteria enter and infect them. The most frequent cause of UTIs is the expansion of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the urinary system.

This particular type of bacteria is normally found in the gut, but it has the potential to spread to the bladder when faeces are contaminated. Then it attaches to the bladder walls and starts to proliferate.

The study’s principal author, Dr. Gabrielle Williams, told that the symptoms shouldn’t be taken lightly: “People with recurrent UTI symptoms are occasionally desperate for something that heals them. Having a treatment option that they can attempt is a good thing because I’ve seen mothers in tears over their children’s UTIs.

Dr. Jacqueline Stephens, a co-author of the study, claims that untreated UTIs can spread to the kidneys and result in problems like sepsis. The greatest way to reduce these hazards, according to her, is through preventive.

Cranberries’ potent antioxidants, polyphenols

Prescriptions for antibiotics are the most common form of prevention and treatment, and this has led to an increase in infections that are resistant to antibiotics.

Proanthocyanidins (PAC), a kind of polyphenol, are found in cranberries. These “offense and defense” nutrients have exceptional antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

Researchers from Canada discovered that PAC may aid in preventing the development of bacterial biofilm in the lining of the urinary system in a 2022 study article. Additionally, they demonstrated how PAC could prevent the early activation of uropathogenic E. coli “virulence genes in the gut reservoir.”

A review of 50 studies

The Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register was searched up until March 2023 by the researchers. Results from randomised controlled trials comparing cranberry products to placebos, probiotics or antibiotics, or no specific treatment for UTI prevention were analysed.

This version now includes 50 research with 8,857 individuals after the team incorporated 26 new studies.

Doctor Stephens stated, “The trials we examined used a variety of techniques to ascertain the advantages of cranberry products. The overwhelming majority of studies compared cranberry products with a placebo or no treatment for UTI and found that cranberry juice or capsules reduced the number of UTIs in women with recurrent cases, in children, and in people susceptible to UTIs after medical interventions like bladder radiotherapy.”

Consuming cranberry juice has many advantages.

In women with recurrent UTIs, consumption of cranberry products was strongly associated with a lower risk of symptomatic, culture-verified UTIs, according to the study’s authors.

The use of therapies like bladder irradiation among children and people at risk of UTIs was found to have a considerable protective advantage, according to the study. It was unclear which treatment for UTIs was more effective—cranberry juice, pills, or various PAC dosages.

Few consumers who used cranberry products mentioned any negative effects. The most frequent adverse effect was upset stomach. But according to the study, the proportion of people who had these side effects “probably does not differ between those taking cranberry products and those receiving placebo or no specific treatment.”

How much to consume?

8 to 10 ounces (240 to 300 mL) of cranberry juice per day may be the most efficient dosage if you’re using it to help prevent a UTI from recurring, according to study.

In 373 women with a history of recent UTI, a 2016 high-quality study examined the results of cranberry juice consumption on a regular basis. It was discovered that people who consumed 8 ounces (240 mL) of cranberry juice every day for 24 weeks experienced fewer UTIs than those who took a placebo.

In contrast to the 67 diagnosed UTIs experienced by the women in the placebo group, the women in the cranberry group had a total of 39 diagnosed UTIs.

The dosage for cranberry supplements varies according to the contents. According to studies, cranberry extract doses of 200 to 500 mg per day may help some people experience fewer UTI recurrences.

There are many different kinds of cranberry supplements available, so it’s crucial to read the instructions on your particular product for recommended dosage information.

It’s best to first consult with a healthcare provider if you frequently have UTIs and are interested in utilising cranberry juice or supplements to help avoid them.

Although some research does indicate that certain individuals may be helped by cranberries in preventing UTIs from recurring, other treatments might be more suitable and successful.

Other natural UTI remedies

Try out any of these scientifically supported suggestions if you frequently develop UTIs and are looking for natural ways to keep them from recurring:

  • Remain hydrated. According to certain research, some persons may be protected from recurrent UTIs by consuming at least 6 to 8 cups (1.5-2 litres) of water daily.
  • Reduce your consumption of certain foods and drinks. Diets rich in animal proteins, artificially sweetened beverages, coffee, soda, and alcohol may raise the risk of UTIs and exacerbate their symptoms. More study is, however, required in this field.
  • Front to back, wipe. After using the loo, women should wipe from front to back rather than back to front to help lower their risk of getting a UTI.
  • Don’t wait to urinate. Women who wait to void or go to the toilet more frequently have a higher chance of developing recurrent UTIs. Bacteria might build up in the urinary tract if you don’t urinate regularly enough.
  • Increase your level of activity and keep a healthy weight. Recurrent UTI rates are associated with being overweight and inactive.
  • Maintain body weight. You may lower your risk by maintaining a healthy body weight and engaging in adequate physical activity (if you are able to).
  • Other treatments and supplements that could be beneficial. For some patients, other dietary supplements including D-mannose, particular probiotic strains, cranberry products with propolis, as well as vaccines and immunomodulating drugs, may be a possibility.

Consult a medical practitioner if you believe you have a UTI. UTIs can develop into serious, sometimes fatal illnesses.

If you frequently experience UTIs, collaborate with a reputable healthcare provider to develop a treatment strategy based on your individual medical requirements.

The conclusion

According to research, some persons may experience a lower risk of UTI recurrence when using cranberry products like cranberry juice and pills with cranberry extract. However, there isn’t enough proof to support the claim that these products can assist treat an existing UTI.

If you frequently experience UTIs and wish to stop them from recurring, engage with your healthcare provider to develop a plan that may include taking vitamins and making other lifestyle changes.

Your quality of life may be negatively impacted by recurring UTIs. If you do, create a preventative strategy with the help of a healthcare provider. It could involve altering your diet, getting more exercise, using supplements, and other things.


For Urinary Tract Infection medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

More fruits & veggies might reduce death from CKD.

More fruits & veggies might reduce death from CKD.

According to research, eating more fruits and vegetables reduces the chance of death in persons with chronic renal disease.

Doctors may recommend a low-potassium diet to patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) because their kidneys have trouble processing it, resulting in excessive potassium levels in the blood.

In this study, researchers discovered comparable baseline serum potassium levels stratified by CKD stage in various groups based on how frequently they consumed fruits and vegetables.

According to the researchers, this shows that regularly consuming fruits and vegetables may not be linked to a rise in serum potassium levels.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a progressive loss of renal function. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases estimates that more than one in seven persons in the United States have CKD.

Since there are sometimes no symptoms in the condition’s early stages, CKD frequently stays undiagnosed until it is severe. Sometimes damaged kidneys cause blood levels of potassium to rise. The word for elevated potassium levels is hyperkalemia.

Researchers from one study discovered that more than half of the individuals, all of whom had severe CKD, had potassium levels above the recommended threshold. Occasionally, doctors advise patients with CKD to keep to low-potassium diets as their renal function declines.

Consuming more fruits and vegetables

Officials in charge of public health frequently extol the virtues of eating plants. Consuming fruits and vegetables has been linked to a lower risk of cancer, heart disease, and all-cause death.

According to the researchers, advanced CKD patients occasionally find themselves eating fewer meals that include vegetables and fruits due to worries about maintaining a diet low in potassium.

The 2019 systematic review of observational studies piqued the researchers’ interest because it revealed that hemodialysis patients had poor fruit and vegetable intake and that increasing consumption was linked to a lower risk of all-cause and non-cardiovascular death.

More specifically, the researchers found that consuming roughly 17 servings of vegetables and fruits each week, as opposed to just two, was related to a 20% decreased risk of all-cause mortality.

The researchers chose a Japanese hospital to carry out their study of patients with and without CKD because Asian diets are frequently higher in fruits and vegetables.

Kidney disease diet study

More than 2,000 persons 20 years or older who attended one of the hospital’s several outpatient clinics on Sado Island, Japan, between 2008 and 2016 were a part of this study.

Participants had to provide information about their intake of vegetables and fruits, as well as a record of their baseline serum creatinine and urinalysis measurements. At least one follow-up evaluation was also conducted for them.

The participants’ average age was 69. 64% of the subjects had high blood pressure, 64% were men, and 39% had diabetes.

Participants were divided into groups based on their responses to the question of how often they consume fruits and vegetables: “never or rarely,” “sometimes,” or “every day.” 15% of participants said they never ate fruits and vegetables, while about half said they did so daily.

These participants were separated into three groups: hemodialysis patients, CKD patients, and CKD patients who were not reliant on dialysis. Among the participants, 45% of the patients had CKD but weren’t dependent on dialysis, and 7% were receiving hemodialysis.

With regard to non-dialysis-dependent CKD, more than half of the participants said they regularly ate fruits and vegetables. The percentage of hemodialysis patients who reported eating fruits and vegetables every day was only 28%.

There were 561 fatalities recorded over a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Using obituaries, medical data, and reports from family or friends, researchers were able to determine whether or not the study participants had passed away.

Researchers updated the analyses to account for variables like gender and age, demographics (including individuals’ smoking status and BMI), and a variety of co-morbidities.

Survival benefit of high fruit and vegetable consumption

Those who just occasionally ate fruits and vegetables had a 25% higher chance of passing away from any cause than those who regularly consumed these meals.

A 60% increased chance of passing away from any cause existed for people who either never or infrequently ate fruits and vegetables.

According to initial findings, all CKD stage-strategy groups for vegetable and fruit eating frequency had equal serum potassium levels. This shows, according to the researchers’ article, “that frequency of vegetable and fruit intake is not associated with serum potassium levels even in patients with advanced CKD.”

According to the researchers, “the association was similar regardless of CKD status”, with no effect modification by CKD status.

Our findings imply that daily consumption of fruits and vegetables may not be related with elevated serum potassium levels and that it may actually decrease all-cause mortality in CKD patients, including those receiving [hemodialysis], as opposed to increasing it.

The researchers issued a warning in their publication that participants with severe CKD might have eaten fruits and vegetables that were lower in potassium or soaked or boiled items before eating them to eliminate potassium — a common prescription provided to Japanese CKD patients.

To the contrary, they said, “accumulating evidence suggests that dietary potassium levels are not associated with serum potassium levels or hyperkalemia.”

Kidney disease and potassium

Professor and clinical chief of nephrology at the University of California, Los Angeles’ David Geffen School of Medicine, Dr. Anjay Rastogi, told that the study was “thought-provoking” but that it had certain limitations.

He noted that compared to Americans, a large portion of the population in Japan consumes more fruits and vegetables.

Rastogi was concerned that the individuals would have only submitted labs from one date and had only once reported on their consumption of fruits and vegetables. There were many details that were missing, he claimed.

Rastogi asserted that he believes those with advanced CKD should consume a diet low in potassium. “It’s a very important mineral element in our body, but obviously in patients with kidney disease who have hyperkalemia, it can wreak havoc,” said Dr. Rastogi of potassium. “It might result in cardiac arrest.”

In order to minimise their potassium intake and keep consuming fruits and vegetables, Rastogi advised persons with CKD to engage with a trained dietitian.

There are new potassium binders on the market to treat hyperkalemia for those who cannot control their potassium through diet, he added.

Rastogi declared, “I am a very big advocate of diet and lifestyle changes for slowing down the progression of not just kidney disease but also cardiovascular disease.” Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with kidney disease. Both of them are interrelated.

More complex suggestions

Health professionals frequently “advise people with chronic kidney disease in ways that are not very nuanced,” according to Dr. Deidra Crews, a professor of medicine in the division of nephrology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Maryland.

Diets heavy in potassium may be problematic for some people who have very severe chronic renal disease, or even kidney failure, she explained. “However, the vast majority of individuals with chronic kidney disease really have less severe forms of the condition.

Therefore, the majority of the more than 37 million Americans with chronic kidney disease have this type of less severe disease, and the dietary practises that will help them avoid cardiovascular disease and live [a long life] will be very similar to what we might suggest to the more general population, which is: eat your fruits and vegetables.

According to Crews, study into whether diets high in fruits and vegetables are genuinely linked to hyperkalemia in persons with severe CKD is sparked by studies like this one out of Japan.

Even though individuals with advanced CKD frequently cannot eliminate potassium from their bodies through the kidneys, they may be able to do it through “pathways that exist in the gut, in the bowels,” the expert noted.

Crews emphasised that because fruits and vegetables frequently have significant fibre content, they might aid in the process.


For Chronic Kidney Disease disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Talk therapy for depression may lower heart disease risk.

Talk therapy for depression may lower heart disease risk.

The benefits of talk therapy may go beyond the treatment of mental disease, however, they are crucial in the management of depression. Researchers are still trying to figure out how depression and cardiovascular disease are related.

According to a study, those with depression who had relief from their symptoms following psychotherapy also had a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

One of the most prevalent mental illnesses, depression can have negative effects on other aspects of health. Researchers are still trying to figure out how depression treatment affects the outcomes of cardiovascular disease and how the two are related to one another.

In a recent study, published in the European Heart Journal, it was investigated how the use of psychotherapies to treat depression affected the progression of cardiovascular disease.

The researchers discovered that people who experienced reduced depression following psychotherapy also experienced a decreased risk for developing new cardiovascular illnesses, coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause death.

Talk Therapy

Mental health experts interact with their patients through talk therapy, sometimes called psychotherapy. Talk therapy is meant to aid in the identification of problems that are generating emotional pain.

Everybody experiences emotional ups and downs. Some people’s issues are transient, therefore no therapy is required. However, for some people, attending talk therapy can significantly improve their mood and even alter their attitude on life.

It could be appropriate to think about talk therapy if you’re dealing with a medical condition, losing a loved one, or experiencing anxiety, stress, or depression.

For some people, talk therapy can provide a secure setting to talk about feelings and emotions brought on by everyday stressors, a medical condition, interpersonal conflict, bereavement, or the effects of a particular event.

Other people may experience the same problems in a complex way, leading to a diagnosis of a mental illness like depression or anxiety.

Once the problems are located, a therapist will work with you to comprehend how these pressures affect your life and will assist you come up with solutions and techniques to lessen the severity of the symptoms.

A talk therapy session typically lasts for 50 minutes to an hour. The frequency and duration of therapy sessions depend on the severity of your symptoms and your treatment plan.

You might anticipate going to counselling once a week at first. Attending weekly appointments provides you the chance to get to know your therapist and become accustomed to the process, even though it may feel like a big commitment.

As you learn coping mechanisms and start to exhibit signs of progress, the number of meetings may increase to twice a month.

Talk therapy is used to treat depression.

A frequent mental ailment that affects people all around the world is depression. It can be crippling and challenging to control. Depression and other health issues can have complicated relationships.

For instance, those who have certain chronic conditions may be more susceptible to depression. People with depression may also be more susceptible to other health issues like pain and type 2 diabetes.

Individuals’ mental and physical health depend on receiving prompt treatment for depression.

One often-used element of depression treatment is psychotherapy. Talk therapy is a frequent abbreviation for psychotherapy. There are various forms of psychotherapy, but they can all concentrate on addressing issues, spotting negative thought patterns, and controlling actions and emotions.

Talk therapy is used to treat depression, according to Dr. Sarah-Nicole Bostan, a clinical health psychologist and director of behaviour change strategy at Signos who was not involved in the study.

Psychotherapy is frequently suggested as a first-line treatment for depression because of its well-known efficacy and minimal to no side effects, except for brief discomfort during therapy. One of the most successful evidence-based forms of treatment for depression is cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), which includes behavioral activation. In CBT, patients learn more constructive ways to view themselves as well as how to put new behaviors and routines into practice to help them feel better.

“Effectiveness of therapy can be measured throughout treatment through validated assessments, but at a bare minimum should be assessed at the beginning and end of a course of treatment,” she said. The indirect effects of psychotherapy on other aspects of health are still a subject of research.

Psychotherapy reduces the risk of CVD

Heart and blood vessel issues fall under the broad area of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart attack, stroke, and heart failure are a few examples of cardiovascular ailments.

This retrospective cohort study’s researchers sought to comprehend the connection between the risk for cardiovascular disease and the efficacy of treating depression.

In their investigation, researchers used 636,955 participants. Each participant had finished a term of treatment and met certain threshold requirements for depression. Additionally, none of the participants in the Improving Access to Psychological Therapy programme had cardiovascular illness prior to utilising it.

Researchers checked in on individuals on average three years later to see how often cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths occurred.

Researchers discovered that the greatest benefit was experienced by those whose depression improved after psychotherapy. According to what they discovered, “those whose depression symptoms improved after therapy were 12% less likely to experience a cardiovascular event than those who did not.”

They also discovered a link between reduced risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality and improved depression following medication. People under the age of 60 had a larger reduced risk of cardiovascular disease than people beyond the age of 60.

Study restrictions

This study contributes to our understanding of the effects of psychotherapy on other aspects of health. To have a deeper grasp in this area, more research is required.

There were some important restrictions on the study. First, participant self-reporting is used in the assessments of improved depression, which has several drawbacks. Examining every item that might have helped with the improvement of depressed symptoms is also difficult.

Additionally, the study is unable to demonstrate that treating depression lowers the chance of developing cardiovascular disease. It’s likely that individuals made further lifestyle adjustments that decreased risk.

Researchers are aware that reverse causality is a possibility, and the findings of the study cannot be applied to those who do not seek treatment for depression. The study had a short follow-up period as well, so future research may use longer time periods.

Finally, data on a number of possible confounders, such as participant social support, alcohol consumption, or tobacco use, were lacking. These unaccounted-for variables might have affected the effectiveness of depression treatment and cardiovascular risk.

Next steps in research

Overall, the research shows that psychotherapy has a big impact on other health outcomes.

Dr. Sarah-Nicole Bostan said, “This research confirms what we’ve known for quite some time, which is that even a small number of sessions lasting anywhere between 30 minutes and an hour over a few short months can not only significantly ameliorate depression symptoms, but can also set someone on a healthier trajectory for years to come by providing patients with the tools to address their future stressors.”

More investigation is required in this field, but the study shows the value of psychological therapy, according to Celine El Baou.

“This study is a preliminary step towards understanding this link. To establish causation or comprehend specific behavioral or biological factors, more study is required. It does, however, highlight how crucial it is to ensure that psychological therapies are widely available, she added.


For Heart disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Can stress really cause biological aging and reverse it?

Can stress really cause biological aging and reverse it?

According to a study that was published in the journal Cell Metabolism, biological age rises when under stress but falls back to its normal level once the stress has subsided.

According to experts, stress can speed up ageing by causing inflammation and damage to cells’ DNA.

A lower biological age is associated with a lower risk of immunological dysfunction, metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and other age-related illnesses.

Your biological age can be slowed down by eating a nutritious diet, exercising frequently, managing your stress, and getting enough sleep. Your age is always represented by the number of candles on your birthday cake. But exactly how old are you?

The number of years you have lived is your chronological age. That one is simple. On the other hand, your biological age is what determines how old your body feels and behaves. It is frequently regarded as a sign of general health and is susceptible to lifestyle influences.

According to a recent study that was published in the journal Cell Metabolism, people’s biological ages rapidly rise in response to various types of stress. However, it also discovered that after a time of stress recuperation, this ageing can be stopped.

James White, a co-senior study author from Duke University School of Medicine, commented on the findings, stating that “previous reports have hinted at the possibility of short-term fluctuations in biological age, but the question of whether such changes are reversible has, until now, remained unexplored.”

Studies on biological age and stress revealed

In one experiment, the researchers underwent heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical technique in which they connected pairs of mice aged 3 and 20 months to share a common circulation.

The heterochronic parabiosis, a stressful circumstance, the researchers claimed, might cause the biological age of the younger mice to rise relatively quickly. The younger mice’s biological age was restored once the mice were divided, though.

The researchers then proposed the hypothesis that naturally occurring instances of physical or emotional tension would result in the same response, causing reversible changes in biological age.

They reported that following emergency surgery, the biological age increase returned to normal within a few days. Postpartum recovery followed the same pattern, though women recovered at different speeds. Immunosuppressive medications improved the biological clock recovery in COVID-19.

The researchers found that the following factors could affect biological age in both human and animal models:

  • disease
  • addiction recovery
  • alterations in way of life
  • ecological exposures

According to them, the study’s findings challenge the widespread belief that age advances only in one direction by showing that biological age may be fluid, changing, and flexible.

According to senior study author Vadim Gladyshev, Ph.D., a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the director of redox medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, “the findings imply that severe stress increases mortality, at least in part, by increasing biological age.”

This idea instantly implies that lowering biological age may reduce mortality and that the capacity to bounce back from stress may be a key factor in successful aging and longevity. Finally, biological age may be a helpful metric in evaluating physiological stress and its alleviation, the author continued.

How the body responds to stress?

According to Harvard Health, there is a fight-or-flight reaction when presented with a stressor, whether it is actual event perceived.

The body responds to instructions from the brain by getting ready to either fight or run from the threat.

Some physical responses include:

  • Blood pressure and heart rate rise.
  • Breathing accelerates
  • Diffuse pain response
  • pupils widen
  • Increased awareness and observation
  • You experience an increase in energy and power as adrenaline is pumped through your body.

To support sustained awareness in the face of a threat, the body produces cortisol.

“The flight or fight response is a psychological reaction when we are experiencing something dangerous or terrifying — mentally or physically,” explained Babita Spinelli, LP, a private practice psychotherapist and workplace mental health specialist. It is brought on by the hormones that are released when one is in danger or running from it.

“Although this behaviour is designed to survive a situation that feels ‘dangerous’ and may be helpful [short-term], a continuous, unaddressed flight or fight can create a negative physical reaction in the body,” Spinelli continued. “When in a state of flight or fight, everything is briefly stopped. Constantly being in flight or fight mode can lead to chronic stress, which can cause brain changes, anxiety, depression, sleep problems, high blood pressure, and other health problems.

Chronic stress is when a person’s response to stress cannot be slowed down and they continue to be hyperalert even after the stressor has subsided.

Long-term exposure to high cortisol levels can cause the following:

  • increased appetite and fat tissue accumulation
  • elevated blood pressure
  • Heart and lungs under strain
  • inhibiting the immune system
  • Insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • tense muscles
  • Headaches

Your body and health may be negatively impacted by all of this. The new study comes to the conclusion that it can also shorten your life.

How to delay biological ageing?

A younger biological age has several advantages. It is associated with a decreased chance of acquiring metabolic diseases, immunological dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and other age-related problems.

You might be wondering how to determine your biological age since it is a significant predictor of general health and longevity.

Officially, you’ll require a biological age test that evaluates blood and urine samples, DNA methylation, and telomere length. You can also assess your biological health by taking a close look at your daily routine.

It’s probably safe to assume that your biological age is a few years younger than your chronological age if you maintain a healthy weight range, get enough sleep, manage stress well, and don’t lead a sedentary lifestyle.

You may be wondering if there is any way to slow down or even reverse biological ageing. You won’t be surprised to learn that leading a healthy lifestyle is important.

A nutritious diet, moderate alcohol use, and quitting smoking are all excellent strategies to raise your general health and, thus, reduce your biological age.

Because stress seems to have such a significant impact on biological age, it’s important to learn appropriate stress management techniques. Because we fast while we sleep, relaxation and sleep are crucial for the body’s ability to cope with stressors. This activates the body’s natural process of removing cellular waste, which slows down the aging process, according to Noble.

Any activity that makes you happy and excited—singing, dancing, walking—is a fantastic idea. Activating the vagus nerve, which is connected to all the main organs and tells them to rest, relax, and repair, is another advantage of singing, according to him.

Lessening the negative effects of stress

Incorporating a healthy mental and physical lifestyle, Spinelli remarked, “I have found that stress increases one’s biological age and can be positively impacted or restored.” “Paying attention to one’s mindset is also extremely powerful in reducing stress, which ultimately positively impacts the body.”

“Experiences like trauma and other significant life stresses have an impact on ageing. One’s mental and physical health suffer as a result of trauma, Spinelli continued. Regardless of age, the effects of illness, surgery, and other traumatic events have an impact on how people feel and navigate their lives. When faced with obstacles and problems, people in their twenties may feel older.

It does catch up physically and speeds up ageing if a person doesn’t make time to heal and move through those traumas. However, there are reversals in the biological ageing process through restoration, which I regard as paying and devoting active attention to recovery, both physical and mental. One can manage and control stress by incorporating good habits into their daily lives as opposed to letting stress rule their lives.

The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) claim that even 10 minutes of exercise a day can help lower stress.

Results of the new study

The findings of this research are not shocking to Tunc Tiryaki. According to scientific data, it is generally known that stress has negative impacts on our physical and mental health and can quicken the aging process.

The discovery that biological age is recovered following stress, according to Tiryaki, is also intriguing but not altogether surprising.

He pointed out that numerous research indicate that stress-relieving practises including mindfulness meditation, regular exercise, and sound sleep help enhance a number of molecular indicators linked to ageing.

Tiryaki reasoned that since our bodies are capable of recovering from harm brought on by stress, it stands to reason that this process of recovery may also bring back our biological age.

Stress is not always harmful to your health.

Noble shares Tiryaki’s perspective, but asserts that the most recent study’s findings do not provide the “full picture.”

He pointed out that some types of stress, such as those you encounter while in a hot sauna, an ice bath, or while engaging in vigorous exercise, might really be beneficial for you.

“Stress can, of course, kill organisms that are not resistant to it. However, how organisms handle stress is the secret to good health. Or, to put it another way, how quickly they can bounce back and return to being “on top,” he said.

Noble pointed out that the fact that humans adapt and learn is one of the reasons biological age is restored after recovery.

He noted that “athletes are well aware of this phenomenon.” “High-performance gymnasts and runners, under the direction of their coaches, push their tolerance of stress to increase levels, which leads to improvements in muscle strength and function.”

Although this type of stress may result in physical improvements, cumulative stress, a type of chronic, emotional stress, may cause the most harm.

An rise in cumulative stress was linked to faster ageing, according to a study published in Translational Psychiatry in 2021, and emotional management decreased it.


For Stress medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here