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Obstructive sleep apnea & cardiovascular disease links.

Obstructive sleep apnea & cardiovascular disease links.

According to a recent study, a major contributing component in the association between obstructive sleep apnea and elevated cardiovascular risk may be decreased blood oxygen levels.

More than 4,500 middle-aged and elderly persons conducted medical check-ins and sleep tests, and the researchers analyzed the data from these participants.

According to their theories, the source of this connection may be a significant drop in blood oxygen levels during sleep. This results in severe airway blockage.

When the upper airway becomes clogged while you’re sleeping, you develop obstructive sleep apnea. The airflow of the person is reduced or stopped as a result.

One’s likelihood of getting obstructive sleep apnea is affected by a number of things, such as:

  • obesity
  • extensive tonsils
  • undergoing alterations in hormone levels.

The most prevalent form of sleep-disordered breathing is obstructive sleep apnea. According to a study from 2020, one-seventh of adults worldwide are expected to develop sleep apnea.

Previous studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Sleep problems, including sleep apnea, significantly contribute to cardiovascular morbidity, as well as all-cause mortality,” Dr. Marishka Brown, head of the National Centre on Sleep Disorder Research (NCSDR), told specialists.

The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and elevated cardiovascular risk is now the focus of a new investigation. It implies that low blood oxygen levels may be the reason of the connection.

Additional to the standard sleep apnea measurements

The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) measures how many apneas or hypopneas a person has per hour of sleep. Apneas occur when breathing ceases or is diminished. The degree of obstructive sleep apnea can be determined using this traditional method.

According to Dr. Brown, “They use that for pretty much everything as far as this disorder, but what the research has been finding and really what this paper as well as strongly supporting is that there are other measures besides the use of the AHI as the primary diagnostic or prognostic for people with apnea.”

In the investigation, Dr. Brown was not involved. However, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which provided partial funding for this study, is home to the NCSDR.

In their publication describing the findings, researchers emphasize that the AHI does not offer data on the severity and duration of “ventilatory deficit, oxygen desaturation, and arousals.”

Different obstructive sleep apnea symptoms

To explain why certain persons with the disorder are more prone than others to develop cardiovascular disease or pass away, the researchers in this study detailed various physiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnea.

As Dr. Brown noted, “Recent research, especially over the past few years, has shown that patients with obstructive sleep apnea are quite heterogeneous, meaning that not all people who experience sleep apnea have the disorder for the same reason.”

To support personalized therapy, she said, “Trying to identify the mechanisms underlying obstructive sleep apnea for an individual is quite an imperative.”

The study looked at several physiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnea, including:

  • Hypoxic burden: During sleep, there is a decrease in blood oxygen levels, or hypoxic load.
  • Ventilatory burden: Breathing pauses brought on by airway blockage
  • Nighttime arousals: Arousals during the night, which occur when someone is startled awake by disrupted breathing.

I think what they’re getting at here with these three different types of burdens from a conceptual standpoint, I can see how disruptions to sleep and in these forms might have different effects on your cardiovascular health,” said Dr. Yu-Ming Ni, a cardiologist, and lipidologist at the MemorialCare Heart and Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in Fountain Valley, California. He wasn’t a part of the investigation.

Effects on elderly and middle-aged people

More than 4,500 middle-aged and older adults who took part in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) provided data that the researchers analysed.

The NHLBI funded the MESA, which was created to research the features of preclinical cardiovascular disease. Researchers collected information from 1,973 men and women who took part in MESA for their investigation of the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk. The individuals were followed for approximately 7 years, and the average participant age was 67.

2,627 men’s records from the MrOS study were used by the researchers. The subjects were followed for roughly 9 to 12 years, with an average age of 76. The MrOS project, which was supported by the NIH, sought to determine the risk factors for osteoporosis and bone fracture in older men.

Both research required participants to submit medical check-ups and thorough sleep evaluations. Participants were observed by researchers through 2018. A primary cardiovascular incident was experienced by about 110 MESA individuals and 382 MrOS participants, respectively.


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High pollution & heat waves may double heart attack risk

High pollution & heat waves may double heart attack risk

According to a new study, the combined effect of extremely high temperatures and airborne particulates from unattended wildfires may increase the chance of suffering a heart attack.

To identify correlations between the two, the study examined temperature and heart attack data from the Jiangsu province of China over 5 years.

Avoid going outside when the air quality is bad, or if you must, do a N95 mask. Try to restrict outside activities when it’s too hot.


In the 174 years that scientists have been monitoring global temperatures, June 2023 was the warmest month on record for Earth, and July is forecast to be just as hot. This summer, the United States has already shattered more than 1,000 records for high temperatures.

As of this writing, around 1,090 active flames are raging throughout Canada, where wildfires have been blazing for weeks. The wildfires have affected a large geographic area and may be endangering the health of millions of North Americans by continuously spewing fine particulate matter clouds of smoke into the air.

excessive heat, and to a lesser extent, excessive cold, can be deadly when combined with airborne particulate matter, according to a recent study from scientists in China.

According to the study, exposure to extremely high temperatures and fine airborne particulate matter, such as that produced by wildfires, can more than double the chance of developing a myocardial infarction.

PM 2.5 stands for “particulate matter, 2.5 micrometers or smaller,” and refers to the tiny particles that are the subject of this article. They may or may not be visible, but they are minute specks of solids or liquids floating in the air.

PM 2.5 is made up of an ever-changing slurry of sulphates, nitrates, carbon, or mineral dusts, according to the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences.

The Centres for Disease Control (CDC) notes that while factories, fires, unpaved roads, and construction sites can all emit PM 2.5, flames and wildfires are the main culprits.

In Jiangsu province, China, deaths from myocardial infarction between 2015 and 2020 were examined in the new study. There is a significant range of high and low temperatures in this region because it has four distinct seasons. To gain their insights, the researchers correlated weather trends with heart attacks.

What makes PM 2.5 so harmful to human health?

Medical News Today was told by cardiologist Dr. Rigved Tadwalkar of the Pacific Heart Institute in Santa Monica, California, who was not involved in this study, that the small size of these particles enables them to enter areas of the human body where larger particles cannot.

They can sort of integrate themselves inside the bloodstream since they are so little, according to Dr. Tadwalkar, and this might trigger inflammatory reactions.

According to him, this may lead to oxidative stress, “and we know that this is sort of like the central mechanism behind how damage occurs to the blood vessels and also the heart,” he continued.

As stated by Dr. Tadwalkar, “a cascade of events that leads to a common problem that we see in cardiology, which is the creation of atherosclerosis or plaque that can lead to lack of blood flow risk for heart attack, cardiovascular events, et cetera.”

A temperature more suitable for people

According to epidemiologist Dr. Rakesh Ghosh, it is challenging to establish the ideal temperature for humans because we are adaptable and can tolerate a wide range of temperatures.

Dr. Ghosh is a specialist at the Institute for Health & Ageing at the School of Nursing at the University of California, San Francisco. She was not engaged in the current study.

Or, to put it another way, “what is a heat wave for Europeans will not be so unbearable for South Asians because they experience hot weather for most of the year and winters are not as cold in South Asia as they are in Europe,” said Dr. Ghosh.

Dr. Tadwalkar remarked, “It’s amazing what the human body can sort of adapt to.”

The authors of the new study were motivated by this acclimatisation to evaluate the impacts of heat and PM 2.5 using average temperatures in Jiangsu province.

The risk of dying from a heart attack increased by 18% during two-day heat waves with temperatures at or above the 90th percentile for typical weather, or 82.6 to 97.9 degrees Fahrenheit.

The risk was elevated by 74% during 4-day heat waves over the 97.5th percentile, and by twice that amount on hot days with high PM 2.5.

“The concept,” explained Dr. Tadwalkar, is that we need a climate “where we can have a bit of a balance between the generation of body heat to keep ourselves warm, and heat loss, without actually causing it to tax the body as well as the cardiovascular system.”

Recent studies

The topic of severe temperatures that affect our core body temperature was brought up by Dr. Ghosh. “The interesting part is that core body temperature in humans is maintained within a very narrow range, around 37 degrees Celsius [98.6 degrees Fahrenheit],” he said. When exposed to extreme temperatures, it is unknown what will happen to that core body temperature.

The latest research discovered a connection between extremely cold temperatures and high PM 2.5 concentrations, although a smaller one. Myocardial infarction risk rose after 2-day cold spells with poor air quality by.04%, increasing with lower temperatures and duration, and by 12% during 3 days.

Dr. Tadwalkar hypothesised that the reason why extreme cold has less of an impact is because people migrate indoors when it’s that cold, limiting their exposure to the elements and risk.

In addition, he stated that it’s possible that heat-induced blood vessel dilation promotes the distribution of PM 2.5 throughout the body, but cold can have the reverse effect and inhibit it.

Being safe when there is a lot of pollution

Try to spend as much time indoors as you can on days when the present PM 2.5 air concentration, a reflection of the local air quality, is high. If possible, blow out the air conditioner while keeping no outside air flowing in. Keep your stove or bathroom fans on if you don’t have air conditioning and they vent outside.

Another way to reduce the amount of PM 2.5 that enters your body is to use a N95 face mask.

Visit the AirNow website of the US government to find out in real-time how much PM 2.5 is in the air where you are. For iOS and Android smartphones, there are no-cost AirNow applications.

Dr. Tadwalkar emphasised the need of staying hydrated in excessive weather since sweating causes the body to lose fluids.

Dr. Ghosh advised breaking up the protracted period with sporadic short breaks in ‘air-conditioned settings’ so that you are only exposed to milder temps. Cool-air breaks, as opposed to being constantly exposed to the heat, “help your body regulate things throughout the day,” as Dr. Tadwalkar put it.

Dr. Ghosh advised wearing light, loose clothing as well as wide-rimmed caps. He also advised staying alert to “heat-related illnesses such as heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, so that you can seek immediate help in an emergency.”


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Consuming strawberries might benefit Your Heart and Brain.

Consuming strawberries might benefit Your Heart and Brain.

Berries are often regarded as superfoods with a variety of health advantages. Berries have been demonstrated in prior research to reduce inflammation and protect specific bodily systems, including the cardiovascular system and gut microbiome.

According to San Diego State University experts, eating the equivalent of two servings of strawberries every day can boost people’s blood pressure, brain function, and antioxidant capacity.

Berries are typically regarded as a superfood. That is due to the multiple health advantages that all berries, including acai berries, blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries, offer.

Berries can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which can be disease factors, according to earlier research.

Berry eating has also been related in other research to health benefits and protection for the immune system, neurological system, cardiovascular system, and gut flora.

According to recent research from San Diego State University, eating strawberries daily can help people become more antioxidant-capable. They can Alsop have better cognitive function, and lower their blood pressure.

The California Strawberry Commission supported the study, which was just presented at NUTRITION 2023, the American Society of Nutrition’s annual meeting.

26 grams or two strawberry servings

The idea for this study was inspired by earlier research, according to Dr. Shirin Hooshmand, a professor in the School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences at San Diego State University and the project’s primary investigator.

She noted that some of the same effects had been observed in animal and human research prior to the clinical investigation, but in various populations and with various study designs.

Dr. Hooshmand and her team recruited 35 healthy men and women between the ages of 66 and 78 for this study. Over eight weeks, participants were given either a control powder or 26 grams of freeze-dried strawberry powder, which is equal to two servings of fresh strawberries.

In comparison to those who took the control powder, those who consumed the strawberries showed an increase in cognitive processing speed of 5.2%, a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 3.6%, and an increase in antioxidant capacity of 10.2%.

In response to their findings, Dr. Hooshmand stated that since strawberries are an excellent source of vitamin C, they anticipated seeing an enhancement in antioxidant capability. Based on their theory, they also anticipated some improvement in cognitive processing speed.

When asked about the blood pressure results, Dr. Hooshmand remarked, “Previously published research has already shown some of the acute and long-term cardiovascular health benefits of strawberries in different populations, so this is great to confirm some of those findings.”

This study shows that strawberry consumption may enhance cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and cognitive function. Dr. Shirin Hooshmand said, “We’re pleased that an easy dietary change, like including strawberries in a daily diet, may enhance these outcomes in older persons.”

Why are strawberries so nutritious?

In late 18th-century France, gardens were where strawberries (genus Fragaria) were first cultivated. However, they were discovered in the wild as early as the Roman era.

Strawberries are now grown all over the world, with the majority of the production taking place in Spain, Turkey, and the United States.

Surprisingly, although being referred to as a “berry,” strawberries are actually an accessory or aggregate fruit because of how they develop.

The body needs a variety of vitamins and minerals to keep healthy, including vitamin A, magnesium, potassium, and folate (vitamin B9), all of which are present in strawberries.

Strawberries are also a very good source of vitamin C; eight strawberries will provide you the recommended daily allowance.

Additionally, strawberries are well recognized for having a significant number of antioxidants, such as phytosterols and polyphenols. In addition to their ability to decrease cholesterol, phytosterols, and polyphenols both have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics.

Previous studies have connected strawberry consumption to a reduced risk for heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and even maybe help prevent cancer.

There is much to learn about strawberries.

Dr. Hooshmand responded that the strategy for the research’s following steps will depend on finding additional financing.

But stay tuned, because we have lots of fantastic ideas for follow-up research on some of our recent findings. As part of a multi-fruit experiment, we are also looking into how strawberries affect these and other outcomes, the researcher added.

Allison Tallman, a registered dietitian and the creator of Nourished Routes who was not involved in the study, discussed her wishes for future research on the health benefits of strawberries after reading this study.

The relationship between strawberries and heart health, brain health, and gastrointestinal health has been well investigated. Since strawberries definitely contain antioxidants, I’d love to see further studies on how they help prevent cancer.

the healthiest method to consume strawberries?

Most adults should consume 1 1/2 to 2 cups of fruit daily, according to experts. One cup of fruit is roughly eight big strawberries.

Are you trying to find new ways to eat more strawberries? Consider Tallman’s recommendations:

  • Add strawberries to a protein-rich smoothie to kick off your day.
  • Put strawberries on top of a spinach salad or a grain bowl to add some flavour to your lunch.
  • Yoghurt parfaits taste wonderful with strawberries.
  • Finally, strawberries are good eaten unprocessed!

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate programme also provides a number of nutritious strawberry-centric dishes, such as:

  • Broccoli Strawberry Orzo Salad
  • Pear Kebabs with Strawberry Dipping Sauce
  • Fruit and Yogurt Breakfast Shake
  • Fabulous Fruit Muffins
  • Fruit Salsa
  • Fruit Pizza


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Cardiovascular disease: Vegetarian diet might reduce risk.

Cardiovascular disease: Vegetarian diet might reduce risk.

Researchers looked into how vegetarian diets affected people who had a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

They discovered that following a plant-based diet for six months reduced various indicators of cardiometabolic risk, including blood sugar and cholesterol.

Those with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases may benefit from eating a more plant-based diet.

19.9 million people died in 2019 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which was the cause of 32% of fatalities worldwide. For 85% of these fatalities, a heart attack or stroke was to blame.

According to studies, lifestyle variables like food, smoking, and physical inactivity frequently contribute to CVD development. Thus, lowering the incidence of CVD requires practical measures that may enhance cardiometabolic risk profiles.

A growing body of evidence suggests that adopting a vegetarian diet may help reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). But less is known about how these diets may impact people who already have a CVD or are at high risk for developing one.

Researchers from the University of Sydney, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, and Brescia University in Italy and Australia recently looked into how main cardiometabolic risk variables are affected by vegetarian diets in individuals with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

They discovered that among people at high risk of CVD, eating a vegetarian diet for six months was associated with better measurements of cholesterol, blood sugar, and body weight.

Senior clinical dietician Dr. Dana Hunnes, who was not affiliated with the study and works at the UCLA Medical Centre in Los Angeles, said the following to us:

“Vegetarian diets are better for all of us because they reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and use less water and land than non-vegetarian diets do for CVD health alone.”

The effects of nutrition on health

The American Heart Association recommends a diet that emphasises minimally processed plant foods, fish, shellfish, and low-fat dairy products as part of a balanced eating pattern. The meta-analysis examined 20 randomised controlled studies that demonstrate the value of a vegetarian diet in the general population for preventing cardiovascular illnesses.

Using randomized clinical trials, this study attempts to examine the link between a plant-based diet and cardiometabolic risk factors, according to Jenna Litt, a registered dietitian at Northwell Lenox Hill Hospital who was not involved in the research. In contrast to earlier research, this one focuses on various vegetarian diets, such as veganism versus lacto-ovo vegetarianism.

Out of all the studies that were reviewed, the researchers were able to identify 20 papers, with average sample sizes ranging from 28 to 64 and average study durations between 2 and 24 months. The findings of this study demonstrated that eating a vegetarian diet was linked to a reduction in LDL-C, or “bad” cholesterol, within six months. Additionally, it resulted in lower body weight and better HbA1c blood sugar readings. It revealed a lack of significance in the association between systolic blood pressure and plant-based diets.

This indicates that adding vegetarian eating habits into one’s diet may be advantageous for someone who has a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

According to this study, there is a direct link between a plant-based diet and a lower risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disease, said Litt. Therefore, trying a modified plant-based diet may be advantageous for people who are at higher cardiometabolic risk in the future.

Following a modified plant-based diet entails doing so once to twice per week to check on any changes in weight, HbA1c, or LDL cholesterol levels.

Diets high in vegetables may lower cholesterol.

The 1,878 participants in the study, who had cardiovascular disease (CVD) or were at high risk for developing it, were divided into 20 randomised controlled trials, with a mean age of 28 to 64 years. The number of participants varied depending on the study because not all the studies included the key measurements of LDL, weight, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure. The majority of patients took medication to treat their cardiometabolic symptoms.

An average of six months was spent on each study. Nine included individuals who had at least two CVD risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and diabetes, while four targeted persons with CVD. Seven focused on diabetes. Different vegan and vegetarian diets were consumed by the participants.

Measures of blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, or the amount of pressure in the arteries while the heart pumps blood, and LDL levels were included in the patient data (19 studies, 1,661 participants). Body weight was added as a supplementary metric.

In the end, the researchers discovered that following a vegetarian diet for an average of 6 months was associated with modest but significant drops in blood glucose and LDL levels.

They also noted that those with type 2 diabetes had the largest drops in blood sugar levels and those with a high risk of CVD got the greatest drops in LDL.

Additionally, participants (1,395 in 16 studies) lost an average of 3.4 kilogrammes during the course of the research, while blood pressure data (955 participants in 14 studies) showed no significant changes.

Vegetarian diets may be used in conjunction with medication-based therapy to prevent and cure a variety of cardiometabolic diseases, according to the study.

Why can eating vegetarianism lower the risk of CVD?

Dr. Hunnes was interviewed by specialists regarding the potential benefits of vegetarian diets for people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or at high risk for developing it.

She pointed out that due to their higher intake of fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, beans, and legumes as well as their lack of animal-based foods containing inflammatory saturated fats, vegetarian diets tend to be significantly richer in anti-inflammatory fibre and antioxidants.

This type of diet’s components tend to result in lower cholesterol levels, body weights, and inflammation. Together, [these variables] reduce [the risk of CVD],” she continued.

What are the research’s constraints?

According to the researchers, the results for cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar may have been masked by patients’ usage of drugs to control these conditions. If so, they pointed out that vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on these measurements than was initially thought.

We also discussed the study’s shortcomings with Dr. John P. Higgins of McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Centre at Houston (UTHealth), a sports cardiologist who was not involved in it.

The chance that a person’s commitment to a certain diet may decline with time, he said, limits the findings. Additionally, he emphasised that the Mediterranean diet and other diets known to promote heart health, such as vegetarian diets, were not contrasted in the study.

Dr. Zahir Rahman, a cardiologist at Staten Island University Hospital who was also unrelated to the study, was also the subject of a conversation with experts. He pointed out that the results are restricted because they are based on meta-analyses of studies with a small number of participants. However, he asserted that larger, higher-quality randomised studies would probably yield results that were comparable.

What kinds of vegetarian diets were mentioned in the paper?

The American Heart Association’s past president and Northwestern Medicine’s chief of cardiology, Dr. Clyde Yancy, who was not involved in the study, pointed out that it looked at a variety of vegetarian dietary patterns, including:

  • The Ornish diet mostly consists of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and soy, with only small amounts of nonfat dairy products,
  • The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, which excludes meat but contains dairy and eggs,
  • The lacto-vegetarian diet, which excludes eggs but include dairy products and is free of meat.

He pointed out that the findings highlighted the fact that there is no one universal vegetarian diet. He added a word of warning, saying that not all vegan options are low-fat and some may potentially contain high levels of fat.

The main message, according to Dr. Yancy, is the advantages of a diet rich in [diversity] in plant-based foods.

Resulting effects on cardiovascular health

Board-certified cardiologist Dr. Robert Pilchik of Manhattan Cardiology, who was not engaged in the study, stated:

This meta-analysis suggests that a vegetarian diet reduces LDL, [blood sugar], and body weight in synergy with best medical therapy. All of these are elements that raise the possibility of getting cardiovascular disease.

However, without going vegetarian, it might also be able to enhance cardiometabolic health, said Dr. Clancy.

Anyone may put the Life’s Essential 8 plan into practise right now, according to the American Heart Association. No one has to become a vegan or vegetarian, but everyone should be aware of the advantages of eating more plants,” he said in his conclusion.


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Important benefits between heart and regular exercises.

Important benefits between heart and regular exercises.

Although getting regular physical activity throughout the week may be challenging, it is good for cardiovascular health.

Regular moderate to vigorous physical activity during the week had similar effects on cardiovascular health as moderate to vigorous physical activity concentrated over one to two days, generally the weekend, according to a recent study.

The results demonstrated that the risk of heart attacks, atrial fibrillation (AFib), heart failure, and stroke was reduced in both “weekend warriors” and regular exercisers.`

Exercise has important health benefits, such as lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Some people may find it challenging to engage in regular physical activity during the week, which may cause them to engage in more intense physical activity on the weekends.

A recent study compared patterns of physical activity behaviour between individuals who spread their physical activity out over the course of the week with those who concentrated their moderate to strenuous physical activity over one or two days.

According to research, both forms of exercise were linked to a similar reduction in the risk of heart attack, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke.

Weekend workouts versus weekday workouts

The present study’s researchers emphasized that the recommended amount of exercise is 150 minutes per week of moderate to intense activity.

They sought to determine whether the linked health advantages changed between two important groups:

Weekend warriors are those who engage in a sustained period of moderate to vigorous physical activity over one to two days. Individuals who evenly distribute their moderate to vigorous physical activity throughout the week

A group with activity levels of fewer than 150 minutes per week was also included by the researchers in order to establish an exact comparison. This group was deemed inactive because they fell short of the required amount of activity per week.

The UK Biobank cohort study’s nearly 90,000 participants were included in the study. Participants tracked their physical activity levels by wearing accelerometers on their wrists for a week. Based on their degree of activity, researchers categorised participants as weekend warriors, frequently active, or inactive.

A little over 42% of participants were weekend warriors. 34.7% were classified as inactive, compared to 24.4% who reported exercising frequently. In their data analysis, researchers took into account variables like age, educational attainment, and tobacco usage.

Regular exercise and weekend warrior activity both reduced the risk of AFib (an irregular heart rhythm), heart attacks, heart failure, and stroke. Similar hazards were reduced in both groups.

According to Dr. Shaan Khurshid, author of the study and director of the Demoulas Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmias at Massachusetts General Hospital, “both a weekend warrior type activity pattern and a more even activity pattern were each associated with similar reductions in risk of heart attack, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke as compared to inactive individuals.”

Limitations of the research and future directions

This study did have certain shortcomings in particular.

First, the study’s ability to generalize is constrained by the fact that it largely consisted of white, British subjects. Second, because the data only covered one week of activity, it’s likely that participants behaved differently than usual or altered their usual behavior as a result of being observed.

Researchers also point out that depending on the kind of exercise a person engages in, the accuracy of identifying moderate to strenuous physical activity can change. They employed a classification scheme that took into account a variety of activities, which might have affected the outcomes.

Finally, because this data collection occurred several years before the collection of accelerometry data, data on variables may have been incorrectly categorized.

The following study limitations were highlighted by Dr. Gregory Katz, an outside observer and assistant professor in the Department of Medicine at NYU Grossman School of Medicine’s Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology as well as a cardiologist.

The major issue is that the study’s conclusions are somewhat constrained because participants weren’t monitored for long stretches of time in terms of tracking their exercise. They just used an accelerometer to evaluate them for seven days. This involves observing tens of thousands of people for a week of exercise and then keeping track of their health consequences for much longer than that. Thus, there is a limit to how broadly applicable this is.

Drs. Ellinor and Khurshid also identified the following areas as needing more study:

“We intend to examine if weekend warrior-style activities have comparable advantages over other human illnesses and diseases. Our findings might inspire more research on concentrated physical activity programs, which might be more useful and effective.

The importance of physical activity

As this study has shown, different people will engage in different amounts of physical exercise each week. The true problem is figuring out how to make time for physical activity in our daily life. For suitable physical activity suggestions, people should speak with their doctor. This is especially true if they are unaware of what levels and types of physical exercise are satisfactory.

Finding things you enjoy, working out with a friend, and designating certain times for exercise, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, could all help you become more active.

The important advantages of exercise were further emphasized by Dr. John Bhadorani, a board-certified interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Saddleback Medical Centre in Laguna Hills, California, who was also not involved in the study:

Because it has a favourable effect on the heart and blood vessels, exercise is essential for cardiovascular health. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health by strengthening heart muscle, reducing blood pressure, lowering bad cholesterol (LDL), and raising good cholesterol (HDL). Additionally, it helps people stay at a healthy weight, increases blood flow, and makes it easier for the body to use oxygen.

According to Dr. John Bhadorani, “This study suggests that this activity may not need to occur every day throughout the week but rather concentrated over 1-2 days as long as you are reaching the target of >150 minutes per week.”


For Heart disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Heart failure: An Important link with cognitive impairment.

Heart failure: An Important link with cognitive impairment.

Heart failure affects more than 64 million people globally. One of the most frequent complications in heart failure patients is cognitive impairment.

Heart failure may cause cognitive decline because, according to Columbia University researchers, there is a little calcium leak inside the brain’s neurons.

Additionally, researchers have created an investigational medication that aims to ‘plug’ the calcium leak and halt the course of heart failure.

Heart failure, an incurable cardiovascular disorder where the heart cannot effectively pump blood throughout the body, affects about 64 million people globally.

Complications include shortness of breath, arrhythmia, and kidney problems. Also, fluid retention in the lungs, belly, feet, and legs is more common in those with heart failure.

Additionally, one frequent complication in persons with heart disease is cognitive impairment.

A little calcium leak inside the brain’s neurons, according to Columbia University researchers, may be the reason heart failure can result in cognitive impairment.

In addition, researchers have created an experimental medication to “plug” the calcium leak and perhaps reduce the development of heart failure.

What is cognitive dysfunction?

Cognitive impairment is also known as mild cognitive impairment. It happens when a person struggles to perform routine tasks that call for mental abilities like memory and thought.

Cognitive disability examples include:

  • forgetfulness
  • missing events on the calendar
  • not knowing how to travel to frequented locations
  • difficulty understanding a talk
  • decision-making challenges
  • failure to follow through on commitments or directions

People who have modest cognitive impairment could also go through emotional changes like despair, anxiety, and rage.

Cognitive impairment can be brought on by a variety of conditions, including infections, prescription drugs, and other diseases.

A increased chance of developing other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease, exists in those with mild cognitive impairment.

How does brain dysfunction may affect cognition?

The team decided to investigate a potential link between heart failure and cognitive decline. Based on what they already knew about the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2)/intracellular Ca2+ (calcium release channel), Dr. Andrew R. Marks, chair of the Department of Physiology & Cellular Biophysics at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and lead researcher of this study explained.

Both the heart and the brain have the RyR2 channel, thus he said, “I reasoned that since the channel is leaky in the heart due to systemic stress of heart failure it might also be leaky in the brain.”

In heart muscle, there is an encoded protein called RyR2. It contributes to the delivery of that specific mineral to the cardiac muscles as a component of the intracellular calcium channel.

Calcium is essential for both heart and brain function, Dr. Marks noted. “Calcium is required to activate muscle contraction in the heart and for signaling in the brain.”

Testing the theory of the heart-brain relationship

Dr. Marks and his team tested their theory in this study using a mouse model. Researchers discovered that calcium leakage in the brain’s neurons caused cognitive impairment in rats with heart failure.

Scientists also looked at the brains of heart failure victims who had passed away. They looked at those brains and discovered leaky calcium channels, which may have contributed to cognitive impairment in those people.

Since heart failure is progressive, clinicians may want to closely examine their heart failure patients for cognitive impairment and keep track of this, according to Dr. Marks’ research. “The doctors could determine whether their patient’s cognitive impairment is affecting their capacity to comply with medical advice and take their medications.”

Are calcium leaks treatable by doctors?

Dr. Marks and his team discovered throughout the study that an investigational medication called Rycals created by Marks’ group. It could be used to “plug” the calcium leak and possibly delay the onset of heart failure.

Rycals fix the leak in RyR channels and are in clinical trials at the Mayo Clinic and at the AMC in Amsterdam for an inherited form of exercise-induced sudden death,” stated Dr. Marks. In a year or two, depending on the outcome of this experiment, they might be available.

A broad unifying hypothesis?

About this study, Dr. Richard Wright, a cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California, who was not involved in the study, remarked.

He applauded the researchers for finally developing a comprehensive, all-encompassing theory of various disease states after years of research.

Dr. Wright said, “People with chronic heart failure are weak and have respiratory problems; this has long been known. As this article noted, they frequently exhibit cognitive impairment in comparison to their classmates.”

Here, Dr. Marks’ team is attempting to develop a unified theory to account for all these many changes that take place in heart failure patients, and I believe they have done so. Dr. Richard Wright stated, “I believe this idea that calcium excess is a unifying mechanism to explain not only the heart’s dysfunction but skeletal muscle dysfunction, diaphragm dysfunction, and as the article’s main thesis, brain dysfunction as well.”

The beginning of a new era is upon us.

Dr. Wright remarked that he was thrilled to learn of a substance created in the lab of the study team that has been demonstrated to favourably effect these alterations.

We are at the beginning of a new era, which I would refer to as the period of designer molecules, he remarked. “We’ve seen it in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and amyloidosis already, where you can design molecules that change pathologic changes of proteins.”

They have compounds created in their lab to prevent alterations that help prevent calcium excess in neurons, heart cells, and skeletal muscle cells. This could have a significant impact on the results of our research.

Dr. Wright did point out that additional research is still required because the majority of the results in this article came from a mouse model.

Humans are not mice, he continued, so “sometimes we get misled.” However, they’ve done a great job of avoiding that and gone to the bother of using chunks of autopsied brains to support their claim, which I think is quite real.”

Other study limitations include the tiny number of human brains examined by the researchers and the fact that the study’s control group consisted of participants who were significantly younger than those who had suffered from heart failure and cognitive deterioration.


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Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by some gut bacteria, particularly certain strep species that are typically found in the mouth and digestive tract.

Gut bacteria in particular, according to researchers, may be connected to the development of plaque, which can result in clogged arteries.

According to experts, the new research expands on other studies that suggest a connection between gut flora and cardiovascular health. A new study reveals that the mouth and gut may be the origin of several cardiac issues.

A key contributor to heart attacks are deposits of fat, cholesterol, and other chemicals called atherosclerotic plaques, also referred to as clogged arteries.

According to Swedish researchers, a higher prevalence of these plaques is linked to the presence of specific oral bacteria, mainly Streptococcus, in the gut.

The research, conducted by scientists at Uppsala and Lund University and reported in the journal Circulation, was based on an examination of the gut flora and cardiac imaging of 8,973 persons between the ages of 50 and 65 who had no history of heart disease.

We found that oral bacteria, especially species from the Streptococcus genus, are associated with increased occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques in the small arteries of the heart when present in the gut flora,” said Dr Tove Fall, a study author and professor of molecular epidemiology at the department of medical sciences and the SciLifeLab at Uppsala University.

Information from the gut bacteria and heart health study

The development of plaque in the blood arteries of the heart was detected early by researchers using cutting-edge imaging technologies.

They coupled the details with genetic sequencing information on a variety of bacteria that live in the stomach (as well as the mouth and throat).

In addition to the link between Streptococcus anginosus and atherosclerotic plaque, researchers also noted that Streptococcus oralis appeared to be connected to plaque accumulation.

According to the study’s findings, levels of some Streptococcus species in the mouth and the gut were associated with fatty deposits in the arteries.

Dr. Marju Orho-Melander, a senior author of the study and a professor of genetic epidemiology at Lund University, said, “We have just begun to grasp how the human host and the bacterial community in the various compartments of the body affect one other.”

According to our study, people who carry streptococci in their stomach have changed cardiovascular health. We must now look into whether these bacteria have a significant role in the emergence of atherosclerosis, she added in a press release.

Plaque buildup is facilitated by two different bacteria species.

One of the most important links the researchers discovered after looking at cardiac imaging and gut flora was with two particular bacteria.

Streptococcus species and indicators of systemic inflammation in the blood have a close relationship. Researchers connected the bacteria with diseases of the oral cavity because they were the same species that were discovered in the mouth.

According to Mesilhy, “Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus oralis subsp. Oralis were the most prevalent in [this study group] patients with coronary atherosclerosis.”

Mesilhy continued, “Previous research in mice suggest that oral exposure to Streptococcus species induces plaque formation.

How do gut microbes affect heart health?

Dr. Kezia Joy, an advisor for the UK-based online healthcare company Welzo who was not involved in the study, said that “emerging evidence suggests that alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota, commonly referred to as dysbiosis, may contribute to various health conditions, including cardiovascular diseases.”

According to studies, specific gut bacteria can create metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which has been linked to the onset and development of atherosclerosis. “TMAO has been linked to increased oxidative stress, atherosclerotic plaque development, and inflammation. Furthermore, the development of physiological systems including lipid metabolism, inflammation, and immunological responses all of which are important contributors to the development of cardiovascular diseases can be influenced by the gut microbiota.”

Dr. Bina Joe, chair of the physiology and pharmacology department at the University of Toledo in Ohio and founding director of the school’s Centre for Hypertension and Precision Medicine, stated that “the strength of this study is that it’s a large cohort [of participants], the researchers have done a very careful analysis of them at an early stage of cardiovascular disease, and the use of biomarkers” to identify particular gut bacteria that may contribute to plaque formation.

The significance of studying gut microbes

The Swedish study, according to Joe, who has previously led research into the connections between gut bacteria and high blood pressure, is a significant advancement in a field of study where the link between bacteria and cardiovascular illness is more hypothesized than established.

For instance, flossing is now recommended by dentists as a technique to reduce the buildup of mouth germs that may increase the risk of heart disease.

We don’t know why, but it works,” said Joe.

Further investigation into the exact bacteria that affect cardiovascular disease and the execution of longitudinal studies that could demonstrate a causation rather than an association between gut flora and heart health are questions for future study, according to Joe.

Streptococcus bacteria, for instance, present in both the mouth and the gut, but it’s doubtful that just one strain is to blame for plaque formation because bacteria cannot thrive in both an anaerobic environment like the gut and an oxygen-rich one like the mouth.

Joe remarked, “It’s unclear whatever species of Streptococcus [the researchers] are referring to. In the end, a large community of bacteria may be at play rather than a specific strain.


A link between gut flora and coronary atherosclerotic plaques has been demonstrated by a recent study.

Researchers studied gut flora and cardiac imaging, and the results showed a strong connection between two different kinds of bacteria.

The study also demonstrated a connection between certain of the species linked to levels of the same species in the mouth and the accumulation of fatty deposits in heart arteries. These findings imply that microorganisms affect several biological systems.


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Food categories that could reduce cardiovascular risk.

Food categories that could reduce cardiovascular risk.

Researchers looked into how various meal groups affected cardiovascular health. They discovered a relationship between lower cardiovascular risk and diets high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole-fat dairy, and fish.

To determine how much each element contributes to risk reduction overall, more research is required. A significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an unhealthy diet.

Higher intakes of processed meats, refined cereals, and sugar-sweetened beverages. These in particular, are known to raise the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Likewise, there is a correlation between lower CVD risk with diets like the Mediterranean, Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. All of these diets call for consuming more of:

  • Fruit
  • Vegetables
  • Legumes
  • Nuts
  • Fish

Recent research has revealed that several foods, such as whole-fat dairy. They were previously believed to raise the risk of CVD and may instead have beneficial or neutral benefits. Many of these fresh discoveries have not yet, however, been included in dietary recommendations.

Furthermore, it is unknown whether earlier findings hold true for other regions of the world because the majority of dietary studies have been carried out in North America, Europe, and East Asia.

Researchers have looked at nutrition and health data from 80 nations on five continents.

In all geographic areas, they discovered a relationship between diets high in fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, seafood, and whole-fat dairy with a reduced risk of CVD and mortality. The results were more compelling for lower-income nations.

‘PURE’ diet versus Mediterranean and DASH diets

First, the researchers looked at information from 166,762 people between the ages of 35 and 70 who lived in 21 low-, middle-, and high-income nations on five continents. The individuals were monitored for an average of 9.3 years.

Six food categories associated with decreased death rates were used by the researchers to establish a score for a healthy diet:

  • fruit
  • vegetables
  • legumes
  • nuts
  • fish
  • dairy

The diet score was given the name “PURE” diet score in honour of the research it was based on.

Overall, the researchers found that the average diet score was 2.95. Also, the nations with a higher per-capita gross national income had a higher prevalence of healthier diet ratings.

During the follow-up period, they also tallied a total of 8,201 significant CVD events and 10,076 fatalities.

In the end, people with diet scores of 5 or 6 had a considerably lower risk of developing cardiovascular problems than participants with diet scores of 0 or 1.

They had a total of:

  • a 30% decrease in the mortality rate
  • Reduced risk of stroke by 19%
  • 18% decreased CVD risk
  • Heart attack risk is reduced by 14%.

The PURE diet score was applied to data from five more studies, encompassing 96,955 participants in 70 different countries, and the researchers discovered comparable outcomes.

They also noted that compared to other popular diet scores, such as the HEI, Mediterranean, and DASH diet scores, the PURE diet score exhibited a marginally greater correlation with CVD or death.

However, compared to the Planetary diet score, the PURE diet score was noticeably more predictive of death and major CVD events.

In order to strike a balance between a nutritious diet and a sustainable food system, the Planetary diet was created. The emphasis on plant-based foods and weekly limits of 98 grammes of red meat, 203 grammes of chicken, and 196 grammes of fish make it the most restricted diet of those under study.

How to eat for a healthy heart?

The study’s authors suggest eating every day as follows based on the PURE diet score:

  • 5 portions of fruit and vegetables each day
  • 1/2 cup of legumes
  • an amount of nuts
  • 0.3 fish servings
  • 2 dairy servings
  • one-half dish of red meat
  • 0.3 portions of chicken

Additionally, they advised 2-3 weekly servings of fish and 3-4 weekly servings of beans.

How diet is good for your heart?

Dr. Debbie Fetter, an assistant professor at the University of California, Davis who teaches nutrition but was not involved in the study, discussed the potential cardiovascular health benefits of diets high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, seafood, and whole grains with us.

Foods derived from plants, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are nutrient-dense and contain phytochemicals, which are protective agents. According to Dr. Fetter, phytochemicals can minimize inflammation and oxidation, which helps protect against chronic diseases like CVD.

Dr. Mary Greene, a board-certified cardiologist at Manhattan Cardiology in New York City, who was also not engaged in the study, was another person we spoke with. She pointed out that reducing processed foods may also contribute to some of the diet’s advantages.

We are aware that consuming fewer processed foods foods tainted by human manufacturing, foods containing additives, chemicals, and preservatives to keep them shelf-stable can reduce inflammation in the body, which has a negative impact on the cardiovascular system in particular. Avoiding these foods will help to maintain cardiovascular health, according to Dr. Greene.

“The food groups identified by this study, when consumed in their most natural state, can help to preserve cardiovascular health,” she continued.

Separating apart whole foods from processed foods

We enquired about the study’s limitations from senior clinical dietitian Dana Hunnes, Ph.D., of the UCLA Medical Centre in Los Angeles who was not engaged in it. She pointed out that the study did not identify causal relationships; it just documented connections.

The best we can do with this type of study is to say that these six foods are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease, but it doesn’t really look at how powerful each of those six foods is in potentially ‘causing’ cardiovascular disease,” Dr. Hunnes said.

This, she said, is crucial because it’s possible that the majority of health advantages came from eating more fruits, veggies, nuts, and legumes, and that those who ate these items also ate fish and dairy, which may have minor benefits.

The results, Dr. Greene continued, are open to interpretation. Although a pint of rich ice cream is technically a full-fat dairy product, she pointed out that it is also a highly processed and fattening item, so it is best to stay away from it.

The low-fat, sugar-free flavoured creamer, which is a highly processed item that contains chemicals linked to diabetes, obesity, and heart disease, would be a better substitute for a splash of heavy cream in your daily coffee. Making the distinction when discussing these various dietary groups is crucial, she continued.

No need to switch to a vegan diet

The study, according to Dr. Fetter, supports the idea that choosing nutrient-rich foods including fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seafood, and dairy can lower CVD risk.

She continued, observing that the relatively restrictive Planetary Diet Score was less predictive of cardiovascular health and mortality than the PURE diet score.

This finding supports varying your dietary pattern and suggests that if you do consume animal-source foods, you can do so in moderation rather than completely restrict or avoid them,” she said.

“You don’t necessarily need to go completely plant-based to lower your risk of heart disease, but rather moderate amounts of fish and dairy were found to be linked to a reduced risk of CVD in this analysis,” she said in her analysis.


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Can you prevent heart attack with monthly Vitamin D dose?

Can you prevent heart attack with monthly Vitamin D dose?

A crucial fat-soluble vitamin for supporting the immune system and bone health is vitamin D. Australian researchers monitored a group of elderly individuals. This is to determine whether vitamin D supplements could lower the incidence of serious heart disease events.

For five years, the test group received a monthly vitamin D supplement from the researchers.

The participants who took vitamin D supplements did have a slight risk decrease for several major cardiovascular events, even though it was not as significant as the researchers had hoped.

According to a study that was recently published in the BMJ, an Australian research team conducted a clinical trial. This was to see if vitamin D may help prevent major heart disease events like heart attacks and strokes.

The older persons were tracked by the researchers between the ages of 60 and 84. Heart disease is thought to be more likely to strike people in this age bracket.

When comparing the control and test groups, the researchers found that vitamin D had no effect on strokes. However, they did discover that the rate of major cardiovascular events was 9% lower in the vitamin D supplement group.

What is Vitamin D?

In addition to supporting the immune system and other processes, vitamin D is crucial for strong bones. The human body responds to sun exposure by producing vitamin D. A person can increase their vitamin D intake by eating particular foods or taking supplements.

For strong bones and teeth, vitamin D is necessary. In addition, it performs a variety of other crucial functions in the body, including controlling immunological response and inflammation.

Despite its name, vitamin D is actually a hormone or prohormone rather than a vitamin.

Detailed research on vitamin D

The leading cause of death in the United States is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although CVD can affect adults of any age, those 65 and beyond have the highest illness rates.

CVD can be dangerous and may be and the potential strain it may have on the healthcare system. Researchers have been exploring strategies to both treat and prevent the illness.

The authors of the study noted that earlier studies had limitations and did not demonstrate a link between vitamin D and lowering the risk of CVD. Because of the author’s observation, vitamin D has biological effects which suggest it could influence cardiovascular disease. Therefore, they conducted a more thorough investigation.

21,315 participants in the study ranged in age from 60 to 84. Participants who were already taking vitamin D supplements or had a history of diseases like sarcoidosis and hypercalcemia were excluded from the study.

A 60,000 IU vitamin D-3 pill was given to the test group once a month for five years. The control group consumed a sugar pill.

In order to understand the individuals’ socioeconomic level, way of life, and eating habits, the researchers gathered baseline data. They collected surveys, tested blood samples, and kept an eye out for adverse events throughout the trial. This is to ensure sure the participants were taking their supplements as prescribed.

The individuals also allowed researchers access to their medical records. So that they could gather data on mortality, prescribed drugs, and cardiovascular events.

Does vitamin D aid the heart?

A few previous observational studies have hinted at a potential link between reduced incidence of CVD and higher blood levels of vitamin D.

This new study suggests that vitamin D supplementation may have some advantages, even if clinical studies have not yet conclusively shown that it improves heart health.

When compared to the placebo group, the number of heart attack events among people taking vitamin D was 19% lower. Additionally, the vitamin D group had decreased rates of coronary revascularization, which might involve treatments like a heart bypass or a coronary artery bypass graft.

Although the rate of major cardiovascular events was 9% lower overall in the groups receiving vitamin D, the study’s results did not indicate a lower rate among minor cardiovascular events.

The scientists cautioned about the 9% decline, saying it’s likely that users of statins or other cardiovascular medications may have contributed to it.

“For total major cardiovascular events, there was some indication of a stronger effect in those who were using statins or other cardiovascular drugs at baseline,” the authors wrote.

Because of this, the authors state that additional research is necessary before they can state with certainty that vitamin D alone prevents CVD.

The authors conclude that their research “indicates that supplementation with vitamin D may reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events, particularly myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization.”

“Those who were taking statins or other cardiovascular medications at the outset may have noticed this beneficial impact more clearly. The authors write, “Subgroup studies in other major trials might assist to explain this issue.

Does vitamin D suffice to lower the risk of CVD?

We had a discussion about the study with Dr. Yu-Ming Ni, a cardiologist from MemorialCare Heart and Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in Fountain Valley, California. Dr. Ni did not believe that the study’s findings were yet significant enough to demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation can lower rates of CVD.

“After reading this study, it is tempting to draw the conclusion that there may be a trend towards a benefit for vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, especially as it relates to the prevention of heart attacks myocardial infarction,” he stated.

According to Dr. Ni, the new study “did not demonstrate a significant benefit of Vitamin D supplementation, even if there was a small benefit” when compared to previous studies on vitamin D and CVD.

Dr. Ni stated that vitamin D is still an essential supplement for bone health even though she did not believe the study offered hope for using it to lower the incidence of CVD.

When we discussed the report with Dr. Dmitriy Nevelev, associate director of cardiology at Staten Island University Hospital in New York, he had a somewhat different perspective on it.

Dr. Nevelev added that although earlier sizable studies on vitamin D and CVD had not revealed a “significant effect,” “many of these studies had limitations such as suboptimal adherence with daily therapy, an insufficient dose of vitamin D, or an overall lower risk population.”


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People with blocked arteries may get stroke during exercise

People with blocked arteries may get stroke during exercise

Exercise may cause a stroke in patients with severely blocked arteries, according to research. The study, according to experts, is intriguing but they point out that it is based on a computer model.

They also point out that the majority of people who don’t have clogged arteries still benefit from exercise.

It turns out there is a purpose for the recommendations to visit a doctor before beginning new workout programs that are typically included with them.

In people with blocked or restricted carotid arteries, exercise may increase the risk of stroke. This is according to a recent study published in Physics of Fluids.

Even so, carotid stenosis, which is another name for this ailment, only affects about 3% of the general population.

According to the study, those who have moderate to severe artery blockage should exercise with caution. But the majority of people gain from regular exercise, which is advised for heart health.

The researchers also concluded that exercise is still helpful for preserving healthy blood flow in those who are in good health. Also, in those whose arteries are only mildly clogged.

Exercise increases heart rate and can increase stroke risk.

Researchers examined the relationship between exercise-induced heart rates and resting heart rates for the study.

They stimulated blood flow in carotid arteries in the following stages of stenosis using a computational model:

  • without obstruction
  • a little 30% obstruction
  • having a medium 50% obstruction

According to the research, exercise increased stress in the arteries’ obstructed region in persons with mild blockages. This increased the risk of stenosis rupture.

A stroke that is ischemic could result from this blockage once it enters the brain. But exercise helped the stimulated carotid in people with no stenosis or modest blockage.

Dr. Somnath Roy, Ph.D., an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India, is the study’s lead author. “Intense exercise shows adverse effects on patients with moderate or higher stenosis levels,” he stated in a statement.

It significantly raises the shear stress at the stenosis zone, raising the risk of the stenosis rupturing. The blood from the ruptured plaque may then reach the brain’s blood supply and result in an ischemic stroke.

The study team also suggested that a high heart rate would make it more likely for another stenosis to emerge.

How dangerous are blocked carotid arteries?

The brain and the tissues of the face are nourished by carotid arteries that are situated on either side of the neck.

A plaque that forms inside the inner carotid walls as a result of the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, and other particles can constrict the artery.

This narrowing, known as stenosis, is risky because it restricts blood flow and oxygen to the brain and may result in a stroke. Detecting it at an early stage of development might also be challenging.

In a healthy individual, the increased heart rate that comes with exercise stabilizes the drag force acting on the artery wall. This lowers the likelihood of stenosis.

The authors of the study noted that for those already dealing with stenosis, the outcome might be different.

Exercise truly increases the risk of stroke?

According to Dr. Adi Iyer, a neurosurgeon and interventional neuroradiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, medical professionals have long recognized that having a greater resting heart rate increases a person’s chance of having a stroke.

Iyer argued that the study’s suggested link between exercise-induced elevated heart rate and stroke in individuals with moderate or severe carotid stenosis is novel “and still remains unclear.”

This study used computer modeling, which is not a perfect representation of actual human physiology. For instance, the circle of Willis, a system of collateral circulation in the human brain, joins the arteries that run from the left to right and front to back of the brain.

The stroke risk for actual patients will eventually be determined by the patency of these collaterals and a host of other variables, according to neurosurgeon Dr. Adi Iyer.

Iyer stated that “temporary weakness or numbness on one side of the face or body, or even temporary vision loss from one eye. This can be the most common signs of a narrowed carotid artery.”

“Patients should seek physicians’ recommendations on lifestyle modifications, including exercise regimens when there is a moderate or severe blockage in the carotid artery,” Iyer advised.

Patients should seek surgical consultations because there are now several extremely effective. Minimally invasive procedures are available to them for unblocking their obstructed carotid arteries.

Exercise with clogged arteries should be avoided.

Exercise is frequently advised to avoid cardiovascular disease, according to study author Dr. Somnath Roy, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur in India.

According to existing research, exercise-induced faster pulse rate reduces pressure on the arterial wall and delays the development of stenotic occlusion. Through our numerical projections, “we have seen similar characteristics for healthy arteries.”

The oscillatory shear index (WSS) showed increased oscillation levels for artery models with advanced stenosis or constriction, according to Roy.

The likelihood of additional stenosis advancement and extremely high shear stress may increase with higher levels of these oscillations.

If levels are very high, stenotic plaque may begin to fracture and form blood clots or emboli (a foreign body blocking an artery). This may travel to the brain, obstruct weaker blood arteries, and trigger a stroke.

“By using computer simulations based on physiologically relevant data, the authors have described the impact of higher heart rates on hemodynamics in healthy and stenosed carotid arteries. According to Dr. Joseph C. Maroon, clinical professor, vice chairman, and Heindl scholar in neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh’s Department of Neurosurgery, “It is not clinical research.

“I find the observations interesting. They are arguing that stenotic lesions that are 50% or more likely to be obstructive of blood flow may be more likely to cause a heart attack or stroke.

According to Roy, the research team intends to examine the consequences of high heart rates at additional arterial models. This includes coronary artery, aorta, and others, in subsequent studies.

How stenosis is impacted by exercise?

As seen in the study, patients with moderate or more severe stenosis may experience negative effects from vigorous activity.

“Although flow volume is not reduced until an artery has 90% or greater stenosis. The suggestion is that the shear and flow disturbances caused by a 50% narrowing of an artery can disrupt the lining of the artery (the intima). Also, precipitate clotting and obstruction despite a normal flow,” Maroon said.

This is a crucial finding that requires confirmation and more research. It’s crucial to take into account any potential variations between a computer model and a human heart rate while learning more about the connection between exercise and stenosis.

“Substantial variability in human heart rate (as compared to a computer model) can occur during different-impact workouts, sports, and isometric exercises,” said Dr. Sandra Narayanan, a board-certified vascular neurologist, and neuro-interventional surgeon at the Pacific Stroke & Neurovascular Centre at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California.

The length of sustained heart rate elevation and its detrimental effects on cerebrovascular risk in individuals with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis are related. Although further research is required to fully understand this relationship.

Additionally, Narayanan said it would be useful to determine whether a particular activity is more likely to increase lifestyle risk. Also, if the risk is more closely linked to tachycardia and is independent of cause.


In patients with severely clogged carotid arteries, an elevated heart rate can result in a stroke, claims a recent study.

However, carotid stenosis is not very common in the general populace. Exercise keeps the blood flowing normally in patients with no or little obstruction.

For the majority of people, regular exercise continues to provide some of the best protection against heart disease. The relationship between exercise-induced heart rate and stenosis has to be further studied.

For individuals with moderate or more severe stenosis levels, experts advise walking, yoga, and balance exercises.


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