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Why physical activity is essential for a long and healthy life.

Why physical activity is essential for a long and healthy life.

It appears that humanity has been searching for the “Fountain of Youth”—that is, means to guarantee a longer, healthier life—since the beginning of time. And while there may not yet be any “wonder” treatments or medical advancements that will allow us to live much past the age of 100, numerous recent studies have offered compelling proof that small, doable lifestyle adjustments can help us live longer and be healthier while lowering our chance of passing away too soon. For instance, research presented at the Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association in 2023 revealed that eight healthy habits could potentially halt the progression of biological aging by up to six years. These behaviors have to do with eating right, keeping a healthy weight, abstaining from tobacco, taking care of one’s sleep hygiene, controlling blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar, and—above all—remaining physically active. In the most recent episode of our podcast, “In Conversation,” Medical News Today speaks with Drs. Edwina (Eddie) Brocklesby and Borja del Pozo Cruz about the connection between exercise and a long and healthy life. Dr. Del Pozo Cruz is an adjunct associate professor in the University of Southern Denmark’s Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics and principal researcher in the Applied Health Sciences at the University of Cadiz in Spain.

Dr. del Pozo Cruz has worked with other researchers to carry out a number of studies examining the relationship between the risk of dying from various causes and the type of exercise. Dr. Being the oldest British woman to finish an Ironman Triathlon at the age of 72, Brocklesby earned the moniker “Iron Gran,” which has helped her become well-known. In addition, she founded and serves as CEO of Silverfit, a nonprofit that encourages lifetime fitness. Dr. del Pozo Cruz and colleagues examined data from 500,705 participants followed up for a median of 10 years in a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine in August 2023 to determine the relationship between various forms of exercise and an individual’s mortality risk. The effects of three types of physical activity were examined in the study: muscle-strengthening exercises like weightlifting, vigorous aerobic exercises like running, and moderate aerobic exercises like walking or light cycling. Its conclusions showed that the most effective way to lower the risk of death was to combine all of these types of exercise in a balanced way. More precisely, a reduced risk of all-cause mortality was linked to at least two strength training sessions per week, over 150 minutes of intense exercise, and approximately 75 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise.

Dr. del Pozo Cruz and his associates recommended combining at least 150–225 minutes of moderate physical activity with approximately 75 minutes of vigorous exercise, as well as two or more strength training sessions per week, to lower the risk of death specifically associated with cardiovascular disease. Dr. Brocklesby, also known as “Eddie,” is a prime example of the value of mixing up your workout routines. In fact, preparing for and competing in a triathlon entails strength training in addition to a balanced “diet” of moderate to intense exercise. Triathlons are endurance multisport races in which competitors swim, cycle, and run. What is the minimal “amount” of exercise that could help prevent some of the conditions that pose the greatest threat to health, though, for those who are not nearly as athletic? Dr. Del Pozo Cruz and associates might have also discovered a response to this query. The results of a prior study were released in the European Heart Journal in December 2022. According to this study, even two minutes a day of intense exercise could significantly reduce the risk of dying from cancer or cardiovascular events.

The study participants who never participated in intense exercise had a 4 percent chance of passing away within 5 years, but this risk was halved when they started participating in less than 10 minutes of intense activity each week, according to the researchers. Furthermore, the risk of death was further reduced by half for those who exercised for at least 60 minutes a week. Dr. del Pozo Cruz stressed in our podcast that practically any amount of exercise, no matter how small, is better than none at all. A recent study supports this assertion, saying that any activity, no matter how small, is better for heart health than leading a sedentary lifestyle. He did, however, issue a warning that, in contrast to exercise done for enjoyment, physical activity connected to household tasks or employment may occasionally cause more harm than good. Once more, new research indicating a connection between physically demanding jobs and an increased risk of cognitive impairment lends credence to his theory.

The study found that jobs involving a lot of standing and handling stressful situations, like nursing and caregiving, retail, and farming, were among the most frequently linked to intense physical activity. Therefore, even though physical activity of any kind is beneficial to health, engaging in intense or strenuous physical activity while working may increase the risk of developing certain illnesses. Furthermore, recreational exercise has been shown to have an impact on joint integrity and other aspects of physical health, especially as one ages. Dr. del Pozo Cruz and Eddie both stressed in our podcast how important it is to speak with a reliable healthcare professional who can offer personalized advice on the best types of exercise to undertake. Listen to our podcast episode in full below or on your preferred streaming platform to learn more about how and why various forms of exercise can support longevity, as well as to hear Edwina’s story of becoming “Iron Gran.”.


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Cancer: physical activity a day could lower your risk.

Cancer: physical activity a day could lower your risk.

In a recent study, the impact of vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity (VILPA) on the risk of developing cancer was examined.

Using information from wrist-worn accelerometers, researchers followed 22,398 non-exercisers’ health records for cancer for nearly 7 years while also tracking their daily intense activity.

When compared to not participating in VIPLA, 4.5 minutes of VILPA per day, divided into 1-minute bursts, was linked to a 32% lower chance of developing cancer.

Power walking, lugging groceries, and climbing stairs are just a few examples of the many possibilities that exist in daily life for strenuous physical activity.

The importance of physical activity to overall health and wellbeing cannot be overstated. According to research, regular exercise can reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

In fact, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that those who are not adequately active have a death risk that is 20–30% higher than those who are.

Even though the benefits of physical activity are obvious, only about 1 in 3 women and 1 in 4 men globally adhere to the guidelines for 75 minutes of strenuous exercise or at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week.

Good news has arrived from a recent study for those who dislike or are unable to engage in structured, intense exercise.

Just 4.5 minutes per day of vigorous-intensity physical exercise undertaken in 1-minute bursts was related with an up to 32% decreased risk of cancer, according to wrist-worn accelerometer data taken from 22,398 non-exercising people collected from the UK Biobank.

VILPA: What is it?

Short bursts of physical activity that are a regular component of our lifestyle (daily living) are referred to as vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity (VILPA) by Dr. Stamatakis and his colleagues.

VILPA examples include, but are not restricted to:

  • climbing hills
  • ascending stairs
  • power walking, also known as maximising walking pace for a short distance (like 100–200 metres) to reach intense intensity, involves carrying children or groceries for 50–100 metres.
  • intense housework.
  • VILPA differs from conventional intense physical activity in that it is intermittent and transient, lasting up to two minutes at a time, as opposed to continuous and planned.

Effects of VILPA and cancer risk

The study was a prospective cohort study of adults, aged 40 to 69, who provided the UK Biobank with their data.

The research team led by Dr. Stamatakis only included participants from the accelerometer-wearing group who reported not exercising in their free time and taking one or fewer leisurely walks per week in their analysis of the association between VILPA and cancer incidence.

The study removed participants who provided incomplete information, had a history of cancer, or improperly wore the activity monitor.

22,398 participants made up the study population, and their average age was 62. 54.8% of these were female, and 96% of them were white.

The researchers found 2,356 new cancer occurrences throughout a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years, including cancer registration, hospitalisation for cancer, or death from any malignancy.

The researchers utilised a machine-learning method known as “random forest” to categorise accelerometer-recorded physical activity based on intensity — vigorous, moderate, and light.

VILPA reduces cancer risk by just a few minutes every day.

The majority of VILPA incidents took place in spurts of up to one or two minutes. People participated in VILPA for a maximum of 16 minutes, or about 4.5 minutes per day on average.

According to statistical assessments, the association between VILPA and cancer risk is almost linear, meaning that a person’s risk of developing cancer decreases as they engage in more VILPA.

People who engaged in VILPA for an average of 4.5 minutes per day, in short bursts of up to 1 or 2 minutes, had a 20% lower chance of developing cancer than those who did not engage in any VILPA (6.2% of study participants).

Previous studies have demonstrated a link between insufficient physical activity and several cancer forms. These consist of:

  • liver
  • lung
  • kidney
  • gastric cardia (a type of stomach cancer)
  • endometrial
  • Leukaemia myeloid
  • myeloma
  • colorectal
  • neck and head
  • bladder
  • mammary cancer
  • esophageal adenocarcinoma (esophageal cancer)

This study demonstrates that those who engaged in 4.5 minutes of VILPA daily have a 31% lower risk of developing certain physical activity-related malignancies.

The least amount of VILPA necessary to significantly lower the chance of developing cancer was also determined by the researchers. They discovered that 3.4 minutes of VILPA per day can reduce the risk of cancer overall by 17% and 3.6 minutes of VILPA per day can reduce the risk of cancer linked to physical activity by 18%.

More study is required to determine how VILPA affects cancer.

A relatively small quantity of strenuous lifestyle activity can have such a large link with decreased cancer risk, according to the “high-quality study,” according to Dr. David Raichlen, professor of biological sciences and anthropology at the University of Southern California.

According to him, “the authors used a novel machine learning-based method to identify behaviours and this study moves the field forward, allowing us to better understand the benefits of this form of physical activity on [the] risk of developing cancer.”

Because of the study’s methodology, Dr. Raichlen advised that causality could not be established; however, “this work certainly suggests that future intervention studies using VILPA are warranted.”

According to Prof. Markus Gruber, chair of Training and Movement Science and director of the University Konstanz’s Human Performance Research Centre, the study supports the long-held belief in exercise science that “intensity matters.”

Prof. Gruber made the same observation as Dr. Raichlen, namely that although the study’s data, methods, and analysis are sound, the study is cross-sectional and can only report relationships between VILPA and cancer incidence.

When challenged about the connection between VILPA and cancer incidence, Prof. Gruber responded that there are a number of plausible “explanations for the results that need to be tested.”

He claims that VILPA may either directly lower the risk of cancer, boost physical fitness, or show superior physical fitness, which is linked to a lower risk of cancer. Additionally, VILPA may reduce the effects of aging-related fitness decreases and reduce cancer risk by doing so.

Overall, according to Prof. Gruber, VILPA is a promising substitute for duration-based advice on physical activity, “especially for people who don’t like to exercise.”


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Lower blood pressure: Isometric exercise vs. cardio.

Lower blood pressure: Isometric exercise vs. cardio.

The most effective exercise for decreasing blood pressure, according to a recent study of 270 trials, is static isometric exercise.

Although less so than isometric exercises like wall sits, all of the workout types examined in the investigation had advantages. The best overall health advantages, according to experts, are obtained from a variety of different types of exercise.

Better health is linked to exercise. And a recent study suggests that isometric workouts may be the most beneficial for those who have hypertension, or high blood pressure.

The authors of the study investigated the effects of several types of exercise on blood pressure, including aerobic, dynamic resistance, mixed, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and isometric training.

All of these different workout forms successfully lowered blood pressure, but one in particular stood out.

According to the results, isometric exercise training significantly lowered blood pressure.

Combined training, dynamic resistance training, aerobic exercise training, and HIIT came after isometric exercises.

270 randomized, controlled exercise trials were the subject of a thorough examination by the researchers to determine the best kind of exercise for controlling high blood pressure.

Exercise interventions lasting at least two weeks were a feature of every experiment taken into consideration in the review. The review comprised 15,827 individuals in all.

Isometric exercises sit lower blood pressure like the wall

By putting more strain on a muscle without moving the surrounding joints, isometric training.

This is accomplished by pushing against an immovable source of resistance, such as a wall, a person, or a machine, or by simply maintaining a position in which a muscle is kept taut, as in isometric weightlifting.

Wall sits, which are an isometric exercise, were shown to be the most successful for lowering resting blood pressure in the latest study, according to study co-author Dr. Jamie O’Driscoll, a registered clinical scientist in cardiology.

Wall sits entail slowly squatting down while pressing your back against a wall, keeping the position to exert tension on the relevant muscles, and then slowly rising back up.

Because there is no movement involved in isometric exercise just the application of pressure by the targeted muscle it is also known as “static” exercise.

Isometric exercises can also include:

  • Side planks and planks
  • Calves lift and hold
  • holding low squats
  • hanging holds
  • v-sits
  • thigh bridges

Experts were given the following explanation by Dr. Yu Ming Ni, a cardiologist of California Heart Associates in Fountain Valley, California, who was not engaged in the study:

Isometric exercise is supposed to increase muscular mass. It is intended to teach the blood arteries to have better basal dilation, in theory. It might help decrease blood pressure in that way.

Naturally, it’s a good idea to always speak with your doctor before starting a new workout routine.

Cardiovascular exercise vs isometric exercise

Even though she was not engaged in the study, Dr. Melody Ding, an associate professor at the Sydney School of Public Health, said she was persuaded by it.

The authors used a strong research design and the analysis was well-done,” said Dr. Ding.

On the other hand, Dr. Ni exercised caution. The research, according to him, “turns on its head the previous notion of what’s considered to be blood pressure-lowering exercise.”

I would have thought that dynamic exercise would be more significant, but this data seems to strongly imply the contrary. To do this, you are figuratively exerting more pressure on your body. The ideal mechanism for it, in my opinion, is not that one,” said cardiologist Dr. Yu Ming Ni.

Dr. Ni said that there was little correlation between blood pressure results and different exercise types.

Both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures do appear to be trending. So, I find it intriguing and it certainly stimulates my thinking,” said Dr. Ni.

Are there hazards of isometric exercise for hypertension?

According to Dr. O’Driscoll, “Our research has not shown any unique adverse effects when compared to other forms of exercise.”

Dr. Ni cautioned that patients with extremely high blood pressure should only be given isometric training or any exercise, for that matter.

For instance, according to Dr. Ni, he treats bodybuilders who also have high blood pressure. If their blood pressure rises, he wouldn’t advise these people to do weights.

For those patients, I would advise against doing this. For now, you can engage in dynamic exercise. We’ll check your salt and alcohol intake, start you on some meds, lower your blood pressure, and make sure you aren’t using anabolic steroids,” explains Dr. Ni.

Exercise that is isometric complements other types of exercise

Even though “the results of this work demonstrate the value of performing static exercise for managing blood pressure,” according to Dr. O’Driscoll, “it is important to consider isometric exercise as complementary to pre-existing exercise modes, providing participants with a range of exercise choices rather than limiting them.”

Asserting that “different types of exercise offer different health benefits,” Dr. Ding concurred. This study showed that not only did each of the exercise kinds evaluated significantly lower blood pressure, but they also each had their own particular advantages.

Dr. Ding specifically mentioned that muscle strengthening helps enhance and maintain musculature while HIIT and aerobic training help strengthen cardiovascular fitness.

Nevertheless, the majority of specialists concur that any amount of activity is preferable to none at all.

Stick to the exercise you enjoy — otherwise, it is hard to maintain the habit — and second, incorporate different types of exercise to improve various aspects of health and fitness,” Dr. Ding said in his conclusion.

The Summary

According to a recent study, static, isometric workouts may be superior than “traditional” aerobic exercise for lowering blood pressure.

High blood pressure is a major factor in heart disease, which continues to be the top cause of death in the United States.

High blood pressure puts people at danger and can harm their hearts.Diabetes, heart attacks, and stroke are just a few of the fatal disorders covered by this reliable source.

To reduce risk, doctors typically advise adopting healthy lifestyle habits like eating well and exercising.


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These healthy habits may increase lifespan by several years

These healthy habits may increase lifespan by several years

According to research, those who start eight healthy living behaviours by the time they reach middle age may live significantly longer. These routines included practising good sleep hygiene and abstaining from smoking.

It is anticipated that men who adopt all eight behaviours by the age of 40 will live an average of 24 years longer than men who don’t.

The average life expectancy for women who developed all eight behaviours by the time they turned 40 was anticipated to be 23 years longer than for those who didn’t.

Eight lifestyle habits that, when adopted by midlife, may increase a person’s longevity were identified by a recent observational study.

The Veterans Affairs Million Veteran Programme MVP, a health research initiative centred on more than a million American veterans, provided data from medical records and questionnaires that were completed by 719,147 participants. The program’s goal is to aid in the study of the effects of genes, lifestyles, military experiences, and exposures on health and wellness.

The study was presented on Monday at Nutrition 2023, the premier annual meeting of the American Society for Nutrition in Boston, Massachusetts, by Xuan-Mai T. Nguyen, a health science specialist at the Department of Veterans Affairs and fourth-year medical student at Carle Illinois College of Medicine in Illinois.

The eight behaviours noted are:

  • being active physically
  • not a smoker
  • reducing tension
  • keeping a healthy diet
  • not regularly consuming large amounts of alcohol
  • observing proper sleeping habits
  • keeping healthy social connections
  • not becoming addicted to opioids

lifestyle choices associated with increased longevity

Xuan-Mai T. Nguyen and co-author Yanping Li used information from medical records and surveys completed by more than 719,147 United States military veterans who participated in the Veterans Affairs Million Veteran Programme between 2011 and 2019 to investigate the relationship between lifestyle choices and lifespan.

Adults from 40 to 99 years old participated in the study. During the follow-up, 33,375 fatalities were noted.

The three characteristics that had the biggest impact on the researchers’ findings were inactivity, opioid use, and smoking; these behaviours were associated with a 30% to 45% higher risk of death over the course of the study.

Stress, binge drinking, an unhealthy diet, and poor sleep hygiene all contributed to a 20% increase in risk. A 5% increase in risk was linked to a lack of supportive social connections.

The researchers saw a decrease in the mortality rate per 1,000 person-years when each preventive practise was incorporated into people’s lifestyles, with those who embraced all eight experiencing a 13% decrease in all-cause mortality. Although it did get smaller as they aged, this effect was still statistically significant.

According to a news statement from the researchers, these findings demonstrate how different lifestyle choices can affect the development of diseases that increase the risk of early mortality and disability.

They also show how making better decisions might increase a person’s number of healthy years. It is never too late to start living a healthy lifestyle, according to Nguyen.

He did point out that this kind of research cannot demonstrate that acquiring these practises can lengthen life. He said that these are in line with other comparable studies.

Why making these changes could lengthen life

A clinical and preventive cardiologist, Tariq Hafiz, M.D., FACC, ABIM, stated, “As a clinical and preventive cardiologist, I strongly believe that adopting these comprehensive lifestyle factors is the foundation of both the primary and secondary prevention of many chronic diseases, i.e., cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, dementia, etc.”

He added that the advantages are probably attained by avoiding oxidative stress and inflammation.

The primary causes of death, according to Hafiz’s explanation, are cancer and cardiovascular disease, the latter of which has well-established modifiable risk factors. According to him, these risk factors include sedentary lifestyles, bad diets, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, cigarette use, mental stress, and visceral obesity.

Additionally, he noted that tobacco smoking is a significant risk factor for a number of chronic illnesses, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, lung, bladder, and esophageal cancer, as well as chronic lung disease and diabetes.

The majority of morbidity and death are linked to chronic diseases, which also account for a significant portion of the financial burden and cost of medical care.

Advice on how to practice the longevity practices

Trinna Cuellar, Ph.D., MBA, VP of Biology and Head of R&D at Tally’s Health, advised adopting lifestyle-appropriate practises in order to make lasting changes.

She used a new mother as an illustration of how to tailor your approach to fit your unique needs. Although she might not immediately be able to increase her sleep or lessen her stress, a new mother might still work on improving her nutrition and social happiness.

She continued, “Being realistic and intentional is of relevance since consistency is crucial to impacting lifespan.

She emphasised testing once again in order to get feedback on the effectiveness of lifestyle adjustments. “What you don’t know cannot be addressed.”

She suggested using a service like Tally Health, which offers individualised action plans and testing, as a means of achieving this. But you can also work with your own private doctor.

Wearables, mobile apps, and community support, according to Cuellar, can all be beneficial for forming new habits. To assist you stay on track with your objectives, you could, for instance, utilise activity trackers, applications that monitor your drinking patterns, or group fitness courses.

When I develop a plan to exercise with my friends or coaches, they hold me accountable, which frequently works best for me, she added. Because of this, I find it more tougher to skip my workouts when my days are extremely busy.

Preventing chronic illness to lengthen life

The major causes of death and disability in the US, according to the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, are chronic diseases including diabetes and heart disease.

According to Nguyen, non-communicable chronic diseases account for more than 80% of total healthcare spending.

It is expensive and burdensome for people and society as a whole to live with a chronic illness. According to studies, bad lifestyle choices are to blame for about 90% of diabetes, 80% of coronary heart disease, and 70% of cardiovascular mortality.

Chronic disease prevention is the emphasis of the specialty of lifestyle medicine.

Dr. Nguyen added that lifestyle medicine “provides a potential avenue for altering the course of ever-increasing [healthcare] costs resulting from prescription medicine and surgical procedures.” Because it is a rare chance to better understand and care for a particular demographic of people who have dedicated themselves to duty, “we chose to explore lifestyle factors among veterans participating in the Million Veteran Programme (MVP).”

A 2018 study by co-author Dr. Yanping Li, a research scientist in the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, found that maintaining five healthy habits as adults—eating a healthy diet, exercising frequently, maintaining a healthy body weight, not drinking too much alcohol, and not smoking—may add more than ten years to life.

The data the MVP collects is so extensive that the researchers were able to add three more healthy behaviours to this study. According on the data that was available, Dr. Li remarked, “we expanded the previous five lifestyle factors into eight.”


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Superagers: Why resistant to age-related memory decline?

Superagers: Why resistant to age-related memory decline?

An observational study investigated whether age-related memory decline may not affect superagers, or those 80 years and older who possess the cognitive abilities of people who are decades younger.

In comparison to older persons with cognitive deterioration, the octogenarians with strong memory retention moved more quickly and experienced lower levels of worry and depression. Additionally, MRI scans revealed that certain memory-related brain regions had increased grey matter in super-agers.

Superagers are people over the age of 80 whose recollections of their past are just as clear as those of others who are 20 or 30 years younger. Scientific research is becoming increasingly interested in the mechanisms of superaging.

According to a recent study, older persons with cognitive decline had higher rates of anxiety and despair compared to octogenarians with strong memory retention. They also do better on movement tests.

The researchers speculate that such superagers may also have more grey matter in their brains.

In a press release, the study’s first author Marta Garo-Pascual, a Ph.D. candidate at the Technical University of Madrid in Spain who studies healthy memory ageing, stated:

We are now getting closer to answering one of the most important outstanding concerns about superchargers: whether they are actually resistant to age-related memory decline or whether they have coping mechanisms that allow them to outperform their contemporaries in overcoming this decline. Although the specific causes of super agers resistance to these processes are still unknown, our data suggest they do. We may be able to learn vital information about the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of memory function well into old life by investigating the connections between superaging and movement speed in more detail.”

Superagers: Exercise promotes the health of the brain

For the study, 55 typical older persons and 64 superagers who were identified by a memory test used in a prior study on Alzheimer’s disease were compared. The average age of research participants was 79.5 years or higher.

The Timed Up and Go Test, which assesses mobility, and a finger-tapping test, which gauges fine motor function, revealed that the superagers outperformed the general population.

Even when super agers reported no appreciable change in exercise levels from the older people in the control group, the findings persisted.

The study’s principal author, Dr. Bryan Strange, a neurologist at the Technical University of Denmark, noted that although superagers report similar activity levels to average older adults, it’s possible that they engage in more physically taxing hobbies like gardening or stair climbing.

There are many direct and indirect benefits of being physically active that may contribute to improved cognitive abilities in old age, from lower blood pressure and obesity levels to increased blood flow to the brain,” stated Dr. Bryan Strange.

It’s also plausible that the reason superagers move more quickly is because their brains are in greater health to begin with, according to Strange.

The amount of grey matter in superagers brains is higher.

The results also supported earlier studies that found super-agers have more grey matter in the brain regions linked to memory.

Researchers Dr. Alexandra Touroutoglous, Dr. Bonnie Wong, and Dr. Joseph M Andreano of Harvard Medical School wrote in an editorial statement that accompanied the article that this discovery predominantly focused on the medial temporal lobe of the brain, “which is consistent with previous research.”

The comments pointed out that previous studies on the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, another crucial area of the brain, reported more cortical thickness and stronger functional connectivity among super-agers, who in turn had greater memory performance.

The attention, memory, executive function, and motivation are just a few of the processes that the anterior mid-cingulate cortex is involved in.

The researchers concluded that “[the] greater performance of super agers relative to typical older adults may not only reflect differences in motivation, executive function, and persistence in the face of difficulty, which suggests that super-agers have a higher level of tenacity than typical older adults.”

Compared to other older individuals, superagers age differently.

According to the University of Madrid study, there were no discernible differences between superagers and other adults of a similar age in terms of biomarkers or genetic risk factors for neurological illness. This suggests that another protective mechanism may be at play.

Similar levels of dementia blood biomarkers were found in both the superager and standard older adult groups, the researchers said, “suggesting that group differences reflect inherent superager resistance to typical age-related memory loss.”

The study’s large sample size, according to Dr. S. Jay Olshansky, a professor in the Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, makes the results an essential addition to the field of “geroscience,” the research of mechanisms that cause aging.

Dr. Olshansky stated, “We do a lot of things to shorten our lives by adopting unhealthy lifestyles,” and many superchargers and centenarians people who live past 100 live longer and have better cognitive health because they age differently from the general population.

Do super-agers have a hereditary propensity for aging?

The appearance of some children of superchargers, Dr. Olshansky recalled, supported the idea that some people’s “biological time clock ticks at a slower rate” due to genetic factors. This is said to also explain why the superchargers in the Spanish study also performed better on movement tests.

Even though they have completed 80 orbits around the sun, he claimed that they are not biologically 80 years old.

“Asking superagers for their key to longevity is therefore ludicrous because they have no idea. They recently emerged as the birth genetic lottery winner.

The latest study, according to Dr. Olshansky, attempts to better understand why some people age differently than others and determine whether the process may be changed.

He said, “Start with not shortening your life,” in the meanwhile. “We will still age and pass away, even if you control all the risk factors,” he stated. We are at the mercy of our genes, but we have some power over those genes.


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Important benefits between heart and regular exercises.

Important benefits between heart and regular exercises.

Although getting regular physical activity throughout the week may be challenging, it is good for cardiovascular health.

Regular moderate to vigorous physical activity during the week had similar effects on cardiovascular health as moderate to vigorous physical activity concentrated over one to two days, generally the weekend, according to a recent study.

The results demonstrated that the risk of heart attacks, atrial fibrillation (AFib), heart failure, and stroke was reduced in both “weekend warriors” and regular exercisers.`

Exercise has important health benefits, such as lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Some people may find it challenging to engage in regular physical activity during the week, which may cause them to engage in more intense physical activity on the weekends.

A recent study compared patterns of physical activity behaviour between individuals who spread their physical activity out over the course of the week with those who concentrated their moderate to strenuous physical activity over one or two days.

According to research, both forms of exercise were linked to a similar reduction in the risk of heart attack, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke.

Weekend workouts versus weekday workouts

The present study’s researchers emphasized that the recommended amount of exercise is 150 minutes per week of moderate to intense activity.

They sought to determine whether the linked health advantages changed between two important groups:

Weekend warriors are those who engage in a sustained period of moderate to vigorous physical activity over one to two days. Individuals who evenly distribute their moderate to vigorous physical activity throughout the week

A group with activity levels of fewer than 150 minutes per week was also included by the researchers in order to establish an exact comparison. This group was deemed inactive because they fell short of the required amount of activity per week.

The UK Biobank cohort study’s nearly 90,000 participants were included in the study. Participants tracked their physical activity levels by wearing accelerometers on their wrists for a week. Based on their degree of activity, researchers categorised participants as weekend warriors, frequently active, or inactive.

A little over 42% of participants were weekend warriors. 34.7% were classified as inactive, compared to 24.4% who reported exercising frequently. In their data analysis, researchers took into account variables like age, educational attainment, and tobacco usage.

Regular exercise and weekend warrior activity both reduced the risk of AFib (an irregular heart rhythm), heart attacks, heart failure, and stroke. Similar hazards were reduced in both groups.

According to Dr. Shaan Khurshid, author of the study and director of the Demoulas Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmias at Massachusetts General Hospital, “both a weekend warrior type activity pattern and a more even activity pattern were each associated with similar reductions in risk of heart attack, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke as compared to inactive individuals.”

Limitations of the research and future directions

This study did have certain shortcomings in particular.

First, the study’s ability to generalize is constrained by the fact that it largely consisted of white, British subjects. Second, because the data only covered one week of activity, it’s likely that participants behaved differently than usual or altered their usual behavior as a result of being observed.

Researchers also point out that depending on the kind of exercise a person engages in, the accuracy of identifying moderate to strenuous physical activity can change. They employed a classification scheme that took into account a variety of activities, which might have affected the outcomes.

Finally, because this data collection occurred several years before the collection of accelerometry data, data on variables may have been incorrectly categorized.

The following study limitations were highlighted by Dr. Gregory Katz, an outside observer and assistant professor in the Department of Medicine at NYU Grossman School of Medicine’s Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology as well as a cardiologist.

The major issue is that the study’s conclusions are somewhat constrained because participants weren’t monitored for long stretches of time in terms of tracking their exercise. They just used an accelerometer to evaluate them for seven days. This involves observing tens of thousands of people for a week of exercise and then keeping track of their health consequences for much longer than that. Thus, there is a limit to how broadly applicable this is.

Drs. Ellinor and Khurshid also identified the following areas as needing more study:

“We intend to examine if weekend warrior-style activities have comparable advantages over other human illnesses and diseases. Our findings might inspire more research on concentrated physical activity programs, which might be more useful and effective.

The importance of physical activity

As this study has shown, different people will engage in different amounts of physical exercise each week. The true problem is figuring out how to make time for physical activity in our daily life. For suitable physical activity suggestions, people should speak with their doctor. This is especially true if they are unaware of what levels and types of physical exercise are satisfactory.

Finding things you enjoy, working out with a friend, and designating certain times for exercise, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, could all help you become more active.

The important advantages of exercise were further emphasized by Dr. John Bhadorani, a board-certified interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Saddleback Medical Centre in Laguna Hills, California, who was also not involved in the study:

Because it has a favourable effect on the heart and blood vessels, exercise is essential for cardiovascular health. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health by strengthening heart muscle, reducing blood pressure, lowering bad cholesterol (LDL), and raising good cholesterol (HDL). Additionally, it helps people stay at a healthy weight, increases blood flow, and makes it easier for the body to use oxygen.

According to Dr. John Bhadorani, “This study suggests that this activity may not need to occur every day throughout the week but rather concentrated over 1-2 days as long as you are reaching the target of >150 minutes per week.”


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Can a daily brief walk could help with depression?

Can a daily brief walk could help with depression?

Exercise can enhance brain health, lower disease risk, build bones and muscles, and manage weight.

There is mounting evidence that it can also reduce the signs and symptoms of depression, the main disorder connected to mental health. However, opinions on how much exercise is necessary to have a positive impact vary.

Now, a 10-year research in Ireland has discovered that even little quantities of exercise, like a daily 20-minute stroll, can help older persons experience less despair.

Depression, one of the most prevalent mental health illnesses, is characterized by a persistent sense of emptiness, sadness, or an inability to experience a pleasure. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that it affects about 5% of adults globally.

In 2020, there were 21 million individuals in the United States (8.4% of all adults), and women were more likely than males to experience serious depressive episodes.

According to official government figures, one in six adults in the United Kingdom reported having depressed symptoms in 2021–2022.

Depending on the type of depression a person is dealing with, there are several treatments available, such as antidepressants, psychotherapy like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or a combination of therapy and medicine. Many people find them to be helpful, but once treatment is discontinued, depression may recur.

A little exercise can make a big difference.

There is mounting evidence that altering one’s lifestyle helps lessen depression symptoms. A diet rich in fruit, vegetables, seafood, and whole grains may be linked to a lower incidence of depression, according to a 2014 analysis of 21 research. Additionally, a 2022 analysis of studies revealed that exercise reduced the symptoms of depression.

How much exercise is necessary to reduce depression, however, has not been the subject of many studies.

Now, a ten-year study has discovered that even little exercise helps lessen depression in older persons, defined as those who are 50 years of age and older.

The Health Research Board (HRB) Ireland-funded study, which is published in JAMA Network Open, discovered that a 20-minute brisk walk five times a week dramatically decreased the incidence of depression.

The University of Limerick in Ireland’s Dr. Eamon Laird, the study’s author, explained why the group conducted the investigation:

“Unfortunately, depression is becoming more common in older adults and is linked to a higher risk of developing chronic illnesses like cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive decline, death, and suicide. Previous studies have linked physical activity to a lower risk of depression, but no one has ever looked into the absolute minimum amount of physical activity that might be beneficial.

Exercise in general lessens depression

The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a sizable longitudinal study with the goal of enhancing Irish citizens’ ageing experiences, provided the researchers with 4,016 participants. They gathered information between October 2009 and December 2018 at five different intervals.

The researchers used self-completed questionnaires, nurse health assessments, or interviews to gather thorough data on demographic, health, lifestyle, and social aspects at each time point.

The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) short form was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. Using this information, they defined major depression as either having a CES-D score more than or equal to nine and/or experiencing a major depressive episode at any moment throughout the data collection process.

Participants self-reported their physical activity over the previous seven days at each data point. They were to keep track of the days they engaged in vigorous, moderate, and walking activities as well as the duration of those activities.

After estimating each person’s weekly total of MET minutes, the researchers divided them into three groups based on their level of physical activity: low, moderate, and high.

Dr. Laird informed us, “We found that older adults who engaged in as little as 20 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day (for five days a week) had a 16% lower risk of depressive symptoms and a 43% lower odds of depression than those engaging in no exercise.”

The benefits grew as the researchers’ exercise levels rose in each of the three exercise categories. The most active people had a 20% lower chance of developing depression than the least active people.

Even individuals who exercised infrequently had a 16% lower risk of depression than those who did not exercise at all.

Exercise, chronic illness, and depression

Dr. Laird noted that exercise reduced the probability of both depressive symptoms and major depression in people with chronic diseases, and that the benefit grew with increased activity levels.

The WHO standards threshold of 30 minutes a day [per] 5 days [a] week for depressed symptoms was met by participants, specifically for those with chronic conditions, albeit the biggest decreases came with increasing exercise dose, according to the study.

He continued, “In essence, those with chronic diseases may find more benefits. It might be several pathways, including anti-inflammatory, immunological function, heart-brain communication, enhanced muscle performance, etc.”

The study’s non-participant, Dr. Thomas MacLaren, a consultant psychiatrist at Re: Cognition Health, applauded the results.

Chronic health conditions are known to worsen depression and may possibly increase one’s likelihood of getting depressed. The study’s conclusion that there was a dose-dependent association for this group is really positive and shows that adding more brisk walking to your daily routine will help you feel better, he said.

The benefits of exercise for mental health.

Exercise may lower the chance of getting depression or lessen depressive symptoms for a number of reasons.

Exercise improves blood flow to the brain, lowers stress reactivity, and stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which affects motivation and mood. Endorphins, the body’s natural pain and stress relievers, are also produced in greater quantities.

As Dr. MacLaren noted, the impacts go beyond the physical.

Exercise raises fitness levels and encourages the body to release endorphins. Your mood can be elevated naturally by these advantageous consequences. Additionally, it may indirectly improve your daily routine and increase social contact, both of which are crucial in the fight against depression.

Dr. Laird concurred, pointing out that for maximum effect, exercise should be a component of a healthy lifestyle.

Try to incorporate [exercise] into a routine with hobbies or activities that you enjoy, and we would recommend doing it with others as social interactions, particularly with activity, can also have additional benefits for your mental health,” he advised.

Remember that it is one component and that nutrition and a healthy lifestyle will also give additive benefits in addition to the physical activity,” said Dr. Laird.


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Importance of Intense exercise for Parkinson’s symptoms.

Importance of Intense exercise for Parkinson’s symptoms.

According to a recent study, vigorous exercise may help reduce the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

Nearly 90,000 people in the United States receive a new diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease each year. The second most prevalent neurological disease worldwide is Parkinson’s.

Recent findings from an international team of researchers suggest that a vigorous exercise regimen may possibly halt the progression of Parkinson’s disease, opening the door for non-pharmaceutical methods of relieving symptoms and treating the condition.

According to the Parkinson’s Foundation, almost 90,000 people in the United States receive a new diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease each year. Right now, there is no remedy.

Clinical researchers from all over the world are working to manage symptoms and better understand how to do so in addition to trying to find a cure.

Parkinson’s disease, which has been afflicting people for many years, is the second most prevalent neurological ailment in the world after Alzheimer’s disease.

However, because many of the symptoms appear years after the damage begins, it can be challenging to understand this disorder in its early stages.

This rat study looked at whether strenuous exercise could alter the brain abnormalities shown in a Parkinson’s disease experiment.

Physical activity and Parkinson’s

Data showing that vigorous exercise reduces both the motor and cognitive symptoms connected with Parkinson’s disease were published on July 14 in the journal Science Advances by a team of neuroscientists from the Faculty of Medicine of the Catholic University, Rome Campus with the A. Gemelli IRCCS Polyclinic Foundation.

They have gained a better understanding of how this works thanks to their research.

As a neurologist treating Parkinson’s disease patients in the early stages, Paolo Calabresi, Full Professor of Neurology in the Department of Neuroscience at Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome, Italy, said: “I noticed that some of them had a better course of the disease when they were routinely actively doing aerobic exercise.”

How is exercising beneficial?

Exercise, according to experts, is essential to sustaining a healthy lifestyle in general. They also think it can lessen some of the more noticeable symptoms of some illnesses, like Parkinson’s.

Tremors, a shuffling stride, and general slowness of physical movement are some of the early signs of Parkinson’s disease. Harvard Health Letter claims that one of the best methods to treat the illness is through exercise.

How does it assist?

It has been demonstrated that physical activity increases the production of neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These elements are essential for the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons. These are essential for the development of new neurons, the preservation of existing neurons, and the improvement of synaptic connections, according to Jennifer Prescott, RN, MSN, CDP, the study’s lead author.

Exercise has been demonstrated to enhance mitochondrial function and encourage mitochondrial biogenesis. For the generation of energy and overall brain health, healthy mitochondria are essential, according to Prescott.

Dr. Daniel Truong, a neurologist and the medical director of The Parkinson’s and Movement Disorder Institute at MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Centre in California, claims that there are more ways exercise benefits people with Parkinson’s disease.

For us, Truong provided the following examples:

Reduced Alpha-Synuclein Aggregates: The spread of pathogenic alpha-synuclein aggregates in the brain is inhibited by intense exercise. These aggregates, which are a defining feature of Parkinson’s disease, cause neuronal malfunction and death.

Exercise May Help Preserve Motor Control and Visuospatial Learning: According to research, Parkinson’s disease frequently results in a decline in motor control and visuospatial learning because of the degradation of particular brain regions (the substantia nigra pars compacta and the striatum).

The study found that the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is important in learning and memory, interacts with the NMDA receptor for BDNF, whose levels rise with exercise. Through this interaction, neurons in the striatum can react to stimuli more quickly, which offers advantages that go beyond exercise practice.

Exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, which may help treat Parkinson’s disease.

Which workouts are most beneficial for Parkinson’s disease

Dr. Andrew Feigin, the executive director of the Marlene and Paolo Fresco Institute for Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders at NYU Langone Health in New York stated that regular exercise helps maintain motor function in [Parkinson’s] patients and may reduce the advancement of the disease.

“We frequently advise all of our Parkinson’s patients to engage in regular exercise. However, we do urge activity,” Feigin said. “Of course, patients have varying capacities for exercise depending on a variety of things, including the severity of Parkinson’s.

“In the past, exercise advice might have been ambiguous, such as ‘taking a walk occasionally. With a better understanding of the advantages of exercise, we are offering more specific advice: this study and others that came before it emphasizes the need for high-intensity exercise, with earlier research suggesting that this intensity should achieve 80 to 85 percent of maximum heart rate for 30 minutes, three to four times per week.

Power walking, swimming, water aerobics, exercise cycles, and other activities with little to no impact but high intensity are frequently recommended to patients, said Petrossian. Additionally, in line with earlier studies, we suggested strength training twice a week using progressive resistance exercises with heavier weights or repetitions. Additionally, we offer our patients advice on stretching, balance training, core strengthening, and skill-based exercises like Pilates, yoga, dance, boxing, and ping pong.

“Exercise can help reduce the symptoms of [Parkinson’s] in the short term, improve energy, lengthen strides and balance, prevent falls, improve sleep and mood, and improve cognition,” she added. In addition to the recent study indicating decreased alpha-synuclein propagation, BDNF release is neuroprotective. Through angiogenesis, exercise can also increase cerebral blood flow.

In advanced Parkinson’s disease, exercise can help

The researchers examined exercise in the new trial and found distinct and significant advantages when the disease was in its early stages.

According to experts, exercise may also be advantageous later on and have other goals.

“In the later stages of Parkinson’s disease, the primary benefits of exercise could potentially shift towards the maintenance of mobility, strength, balance, and flexibility, as well as improvement in quality of life,” added Truong. “As we all know, exercise can help control symptoms like constipation and can also enhance mood and sleep. Falls are less likely when you exercise your balance.

Truong stated that it’s crucial to keep in mind that patients with Parkinson’s disease in its latter stages frequently experience more severe symptoms and may have additional medical problems. “Therefore, any exercise programme must be carefully designed to ensure safety and effectiveness for the individual’s specific condition and needs.”


Intense exercise may help people with Parkinson’s disease lessen their symptoms, according to a recent study. Exercise preserved the aggregates that cause Parkinson’s disease and prevented their spread, according to research done on rats. They discovered that exercise reduced the symptoms and slowed the disease’s progress as a result.


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Short sleep may cancel mental benefits gained from exercise

Short sleep may cancel mental benefits gained from exercise

In 8,958 persons in England who were 50 years of age and older, researchers examined cognitive function over a period of ten years.

According to the study, persons who get between 6 and 8 hours of sleep each night and who exercise more frequently had superior cognitive function.

Even if they engaged in higher levels of physical activity, people who slept for fewer than 6 hours per night exhibited a more rapid deterioration in cognitive function over ten years.

The advantages of higher levels of physical activity on cognitive function appeared to be preserved among participants aged 70 and older regardless of the quantity of sleep.

Physical activity appears to be good for the brain and may help prevent the onset of neurodegenerative diseases including dementia and Parkinson’s disease, according to existing research. A recent study discovered that sleep deprivation can lessen the advantages of exercising.

According to a 2022 nationally representative survey on the prevalence of cognitive impairment, 22% of Americans aged 65 and older have mild cognitive impairment and about 10% have dementia.

Numerous studies have revealed that exercise may lower the risk of dementia. More research continues to link a lack of sleep to a higher risk of dementia.

Physical activity and sleep are factors that are thought to independently contribute to cognitive function, but they are also interrelated, where more physical activity is correlated with better quality sleep and physical activity may also regulate circadian rhythms,” said Mikaela Bloomberg, Ph.D.

Few studies that examined the effects of physical activity and sleep on cognitive function have been conducted, according to a team of UCL academics led by Bloomberg. Small and cross-sectional studies, which gather information from participants at a specific point in time, were the type of research they discovered.

Study is based on healthy people’ self-reported data.

Researchers from UCL analyzed longitudinal data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), which included 8,958 cognitively healthy people from England who were 50 years and older. The information was gathered from January 1, 2008, to July 31, 2019.

Every two years, participants provided reports on how much they moved and how long they slept.

Participants were asked how many hours they typically slept on a weeknight by researchers. The UCL researchers then classified sleep as “long” if it lasted longer than eight hours, “optimal” if it lasted between six and eight hours, and “short” if it lasted fewer than six hours.

Participants’ level of exercise was also questioned by researchers. Participants gave information about how often they engaged in light, moderate, and strenuous physical activity as well as whether they worked out more than once a week, once to three times a week, rarely, or never.

Using the immediate and delayed recall tests from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease, researchers evaluated the participants’ episodic memory. Participants were given a list of ten words by researchers, and they were asked to recall the terms both right away and a day later. The participants’ verbal fluency was also evaluated by the researchers using a test in which they had to name as many animals as they could in one minute.

Participants who disclosed receiving a dementia diagnosis during the follow-up period as well as those whose test results indicated some degree of cognitive impairment were excluded by the UCL researchers. Researchers also took into account information like whether participants had previously taken the same cognitive test when adjusting their analyses.

How do sleep duration and activity affect cognitive scores?

1,525 participants (50%) of the 3,069 participants who were assigned to the “higher physical activity category” said they exercised lightly, moderately, or vigorously more frequently than once per week. Another 1,161 individuals (37.8%) said they exercised lightly and moderately more frequently than once per week and vigorously once or twice per week.

2,384 (40.5%) of the 5,889 participants in the lower physical activity category said they did no vigorous exercise but did more than weekly mild and moderate exercise. Another 1,511 people (25.7%) said they did no vigorous exercise, just light exercise more than once a week, and only moderate exercise once or less frequently.

Participants who exercised more frequently were more likely to get 6 to 8 hours of sleep each night. In addition, they had higher levels of education and affluence than those in the lower physical activity group, and they were more likely to be male, younger at baseline, married, or living with a partner. In comparison to individuals in the lower physical activity group, those in the greater physical activity group were more likely to not smoke, had lower body mass indices (BMI), fewer diagnoses of all chronic illnesses, and fewer depressive symptoms.

The long-term cognitive benefits of sound sleep

Regardless of how much sleep they had, participants from the higher physical activity group often had the highest baseline cognitive scores.

“However, for ages 50 and 60 years, those with higher physical activity and short sleep declined more rapidly such that after 10 years of follow-up, they had cognitive scores similar to those in the lower physical activity groups,” the UCL researchers wrote in their study report.

“We were surprised to see that the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity were reduced when participants had insufficient sleep duration, but these findings are certainly in line with previous research pointing to an important role of sleep in cognitive and physical recovery,” said Dr Bloomberg.

The cognitive advantages of exercise seemed to persist even in older participants (age 70 and above) who had trouble sleeping.

Dr. Vernon Williams, a sports neurologist, pain management expert, and founding director of the Cedars-Sinai Kerlan-Jobe Institute in Los Angeles’ Centre for Sports Neurology and Pain Medicine, told us he was glad to see research showing the value of sleep for long-term advantages in cognitive function.

The idea that sustaining physical health in the absence of optimum sleep health lowers the cognitive benefits of physical activity, along with evidence showing both exercise AND sleep are key elements for maintaining cognitive health, is convincing, according to Dr. Williams.

More study is required to determine how exercise and sleep affect brain function.

Ryan Glatt, a senior brain health coach and the FitBrain Program’s director at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California, told CNN that he thought the study was “very interesting” but pointed out its shortcomings.

The accuracy of self-reported physical activity and sleep length may have problems, and Glatt noted that the potential presence of sleep disorders or the effects of specific medications were not taken into account.

Dr. Bloomberg thinks there might be a way to carry out this study without depending on the participants’ honesty.

An interesting next step would be to use objective measures of sleep and physical activity—for example, using wrist-worn accelerometers—to see whether we observe similar results,” she said.

The UCL researchers hope to see a similar study conducted on a wider range of populations in the future. Dr. Bloomberg further stated that she would like “to extend the results to dementia.”

To increase the likelihood that the impacts of sleep on cognition and not the other way around, Dr. Bloomberg said, “We purposefully excluded those with dementia and those whose cognitive scores suggested cognitive impairment.” Future studies ought to look into how physical activity and sleep patterns affect dementia risk.


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Exercise & weight loss can improve obesity and prediabetes.

Exercise & weight loss can improve obesity and prediabetes.

According to new research, people who are overweight and have prediabetes may benefit significantly from regular exercise when accompanied with weight loss via diet.

The goal of the study was to ascertain whether exercise had benefits in addition to those provided by diet-only weight loss.

The study examined two groups, one of which followed a diet plan plus exercise training and the other of which followed a diet plan alone.

According to the findings, the group that combined diet and exercise improved their insulin sensitivity by twice as much as the diet-only group, which is essential for controlling prediabetes.

Researchers from the Centre for Human Nutrition at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri, examined the results of regular exercise paired with a nutrition programme for people in a recent study.

The individuals’ bodies’ sensitivity to the hormone insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels, was tested by the researchers.

According to the findings, those who made changes to their eating and exercise routines saw a twofold increase in their insulin sensitivity compared to those who only made dietary changes.

This indicates that their bodies used insulin to regulate blood sugar levels more effectively.

The participants’ muscles were also examined by the researchers, and they discovered that the group that changed their diet and exercise regimens had higher expression (activity) of genes related to the production of new mitochondria, which are cells’ energy factories, energy metabolism, and the development of new blood vessels.

They discovered no discernible differences between the two groups in terms of the amounts of specific amino acids or particular inflammatory blood indicators.

The composition of their gut bacteria also changed similarly in both groups, which can have an impact on general health.

Exercise for managing and treating obesity

We spoke with Dr. Sergio P. Ramoa of Atrius Health, who was not a part of the study, and he stated that “despite the growing focus and treatment of obesity and diabetes, diabetes-related mortality increased in the first 20 years of the 21st century.”

“The approach to treating obesity has altered, with a focus on treating it like a chronic illness like hypertension or asthma. There have been considerable advancements in the treatment of weight reduction and weight maintenance, according to Dr. Sergio P. Ramoa, as a result of changes in social, educational, and therapeutic attitudes.

In his statement, Dr. Romoa said that “This article demonstrates why exercise continues to be a pillar of not only weight management treatment but the overall health of the community.”

“Exercise should always be used in conjunction with pharmaceutical treatment for persistent lifestyle changes,” he advised.

The National Coalition on Healthcare’s (NCHC) Kelsey Costa, a registered dietitian and health research specialist who was not involved in the study, concurred, saying that “the study findings imply that combining exercise training with a calorie-restricted diet can enhance insulin sensitivity and metabolic health beyond the benefits achieved solely through diet-induced weight loss.”

As Costa said, “It is essential to understand how effectively this combination of therapies can improve metabolic health given what we know about the barriers to exercise in people with obesity.”

For managing prediabetes, insulin sensitivity is essential.

Prediabetes is characterized by persistently elevated blood glucose levels that are not yet high enough to progress to type 2 diabetes.

Although it acts as a warning sign for an elevated risk of getting diabetes, it is frequently preventable or deferred with lifestyle adjustments.

Enhancing insulin sensitivity through exercise

According to Dr. Romoa, “GLUT4, the main insulin-driven glucose transporter, exercise improves insulin sensitivity.”

“GLUT4 is present in adipose and muscular tissue. The amount of these transporters varies depending on a person’s diabetes and obesity condition.

While they drop in adipose tissue, they hold steady in muscular tissue. As a result, exercise can keep enhancing glucose regulation. Due to insulin resistance, adipose tissue can no longer adequately regulate blood glucose. Additionally, exercise will increase the body’s GLUT4 levels. Walking can help lower blood sugar levels, according to Dr. Sergio P. Ramoa.

It was said by Costa that this study showed that “exercise enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, likely due to changes in skeletal muscle biology induced by exercise.”

This includes an improvement in mitochondrial content and function as well as an increase of genes related to substrate oxidation and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The diet plus exercise group consequently saw a more significant rise in muscle insulin sensitivity,” Costa said.

Type 2 diabetes treatment through exercise

Exercise is strongly advised as a main treatment for type 2 diabetes, according to prior research.

Combining 150 minutes per week of moderate to strenuous exercise with dietary and behavioural adjustments can stop, delay, or even reverse the condition.

Exercise of all kinds, including resistance and aerobic training, can regulate blood sugar levels. Small bursts of exercise spread out throughout the day and high intensity interval training are both good.

Exercise in the afternoon or right after a meal, for example, may have additional benefits.

Exercise guidelines that are ideal Working with healthcare experts is crucial for personalised diabetes management because individual aspects are continuously being researched.

Costa stressed “the significance of integrating a calorie-restricted diet with exercise training to enhance metabolic health and physical function.”

Exercise caution

Be sure to consult your doctor before beginning a new workout routine. Make sure you drink enough water before, during, and after the activity.

To keep your blood sugar levels within the desired range, be sure to closely monitor them as well.


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