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Category: Bones and joints

Is placebo just as good as opioids for lower back?

Is placebo just as good as opioids for lower back?

For the treatment of neck pain and low back pain, researchers examined the effectiveness of opioids with a placebo. After six weeks of therapy, there were no appreciable differences in pain scores between the opioids group and the placebo group. After a year later, the placebo group had somewhat lower pain scores.

The results imply that opioids might not be successful in treating some types of pain.

The greatest cause of disability worldwide is lower back pain. 619 million people worldwide would be impacted by the illness in 2020. This number is projected to rise to 843 million by 2050.

According to estimates of “years lived with disability,” neck discomfort is the fourth most common cause of impairment globally and a major contributor to disability.

When alternative treatments have failed to relieve a person’s lower back or neck pain, clinical guidelines advise turning to opioid medicines. According to studies, many people with the disorders, including two-thirds of those in Australia, may first try opioids.

Despite this, there isn’t much proof that opioids work well for treating neck and lower back pain. It is also well known that using opioids as a treatment raises the chance of unfavourable outcomes like opioid dependence, abuse, and overdose.

Treatment options may be influenced by additional research on the effectiveness of opioids in treating lower back and neck pain.

Researchers from the University of Sydney in Australia recently looked into the effectiveness and safety of brief opioid treatment regimens for treating neck and lower back pain.

They discovered that the risk of abuse rose with subsequent opioid treatments and that opioids did not provide better pain relief than a placebo.

There is no discernible difference between opioids and a placebo.

The average age of the 347 people the researchers enrolled in the study was 44,7. Nearly half of the participants were female, and all had experienced lower back pain, neck pain, or both for 12 weeks or less.

The patients were divided into two groups at random and either received the indicated treatment plus the opioid oxycodone-naloxone or the recommended treatment plus a matching placebo for up to six weeks.

Care that was advised by guidelines included assurance and suggestions to be active. Participants could seek additional care if needed after six weeks.

There was no discernible change in pain levels between the opioid and placebo groups, after 6 weeks of treatment. After accounting for the location of the pain and the number of days after the pain started, the results remained unchanged.

After 12 weeks, there was little difference in the pain scores between the placebo and opioid groups, but by week 52, individuals in the placebo group had slightly lower pain scores.

At week 6, the opioids and placebo groups’ average pain scores were 2.78 and 2.25, respectively. At 52 weeks, the opioids group’s pain score was 2.37, compared to 1.81 for the placebo group.

They also discovered that there was no difference in the groups’ physical quality of life. At 6 and 12 weeks, however, the placebo group’s mental health showed a modest but substantial improvement.

The number of participants reporting adverse events was the same in both groups, but the opioid group was more likely to develop opioid misuse.

On the Current Opioid Misuse Measure Scale, 20% of the opioid group and 10% of the placebo group were categorized as “at risk” after 52 weeks.

Why don’t opioids work?

Dr. Wang Lushun is a senior consultant orthopedic surgeon at Arete Ortho in Singapore and a non-participant in the study. He was questioned about the potential ineffectiveness of opioids for treating lower back and neck pain.

Opioids are typically used to treat pain, but recent research suggests that they might not be as beneficial for neck and lower back pain. This is because opioids primarily target pain perceptions rather than the underlying causes of pain, according to Dr. Wang.

The medications aid in reducing pain perception by attaching to opioid receptors in the brain. However, the main causes of these pains inflammation or physical harm are not actually relieved,” he said.

The body can get tolerant to opioids over time, necessitating the use of greater doses to provide the same amount of pain relief”. Dr. Wang Lushun warned that this could result in adverse effects and perhaps reliance. One such side effect is a condition known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia, which can make pain worse.

What are the research’s constraints?

Dr. Joel Frank is a licensed psychologist at Duality Psychological Services in California who was not engaged in the study. He responded to our inquiry regarding the study’s shortcomings:

First off, although 42% of the sample failed to follow the treatment strategy, which was medication-focused. Second, they claimed that the care was “not monitored,” even though their “guideline care” recommended physical activity.

Thirdly, Dr. Frank noted that the BPI, a self-report measure, was used as their main indicator of pain intensity. Self-report assessments are by nature subjective. To obtain a more complete picture of the subjective experienced pain Lee patients, it is recommended to integrate extra measures that assess pain catastrophization when using self-report measures for pain.

Additionally, we had a conversation with Dr. Vernon Williams, a sports neurologist, pain management expert, and founding leader of the Centre for Sports Neurology and Pain Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Kerlan-Jobe Institute in California who was not affiliated with the study.

Your body’s reaction to the anticipation of the active treatment and your body’s reaction to the possible benefit or anticipation of the placebo both have physiological effects. The study revealed that the opioid did not perform better than the placebo, not that it was ineffective. It’s a small but important difference,” he said.

A senior research scholar at the University of Sydney in Australia who was not involved in the study, Dr. Gustavo De Carvalho Machado, was also questioned about its shortcomings. He issued the following advice:

The results do not necessarily apply to emergency rooms and pre-hospital situations, where patients need an ambulance. The outcomes of this research were examined weeks after recruitment, and in emergency settings, prompt analgesia within hours is critical for management and discharge planning. Patients who present to these settings have more severe pain and disability.

Alternatives to traditional medicine for back pain

De Mesa was also asked about possible treatments for neck and lower back problems.

More efficient solutions for neck and lower back pain deal with the underlying problems. For instance, a doctor can assist in identifying the precise muscles and/or surrounding tissues, such as tendons and ligaments, that are involved. Exercise, better ergonomics, and physical treatment may be advised,” he said.

Since spinal pain frequently has multiple causes, a holistic approach to treatment can aid in the patient’s long-term healing. Acupuncture, diet, cognitive behavioral therapy, and educational programs are all helpful in addition to physical fitness. As required, over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs can be taken. Depending on the needs and circumstances of the individual, the optimum treatment strategy will change, he said.

De Mesa stated that spine surgeons, pain specialists, and board-certified physiatrists may be suggested for chronic spinal pain.

Arthritis of the spinal joints or inflammation of the vertebral endplates may be the source of chronic pain. It may be advised to administer injections to locate the source of the pain and treat it,” the doctor said.

Basivertebral nerve ablation and radiofrequency ablation of the spinal medial branch nerves are two examples of interventional therapies that may lessen pain and enhance quality of life. Surgery is only used as a last resort and is only done when it is judged medically essential,” he added.


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How can loneliness affect bone health in males?

How can loneliness affect bone health in males?

The impact of social isolation on bone loss in mice was examined by researchers. They discovered that social isolation increased bone loss in male mice, but not in female mice.

To determine whether the same occurs in humans, more research is required. Poorer health outcomes, such as an increase in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular issues, and mental health issues, are associated with social isolation.

Psychological stress has also been connected to risk factors in previous studies.reputable source for information on osteoporosis and weak bones.

Social isolation, which is closely related to loneliness, can cause mental suffering. The relationship between social isolation and bone health is still unclear, though.

Researchers recently looked into how social isolation impacts the bone health of male and female mice. They discovered that in male mice, but not in female mice, social isolation was linked to bone loss.

The research was introduced in Chicago at ENDO 2023, the Endocrine Society’s annual meeting. The study’s non-participant assistant professor of geriatrics at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston, Dr. Nahid Rianon, was our source for information on the results.

Lead author of the study and postdoctoral fellow at MaineHealth Institute for Research’s Centre for Molecular Medicine, Dr. Rebecca Mountain, also provided the following information to us.

Future research is required to fully understand the effects on humans, but the findings “may also have clinical implications as we grapple with the long-term health impacts of the rise in social isolation related to the COVID-19 pandemic.”

The bone density was decreased in isolated mice.

32 male and female mice aged 16 weeks were divided into two groups for this investigation. One mouse per cage was used in one group’s simulation of social isolation. Four mice shared one cage in the other group.

The mice were observed by the researchers in their separate environments for 4 weeks. Finally, the bone mineral density of solitary male mice decreased. Less dense and therefore more likely to break, bones with fewer minerals are less dense.

Additionally, the researchers discovered that in solitary male mice, bone volume fraction and cortical bone thickness decreased by 26% and 9%, respectively. Both measurements point to a decline in bone quality.

Further investigation found that male mice showed impaired bone remodelling, which includes the production of new bone and raises the risk of fracture.

The scientists observed that the bone loss seen in guys who were kept alone was comparable to that shown in earlier studies after orchiectomy (removal of the testicles) and ovariectomy (removal of the ovaries).

In contrast, there was no bone loss after social isolation in the present study’s female mice.

However, despite the fact that their bone mass was unaltered, the researchers discovered that isolated females exhibited higher bone resorption-related gene expression. Increased bone resorption can cause bones to degrade more quickly than they can regenerate, raising the risk of fracture.

Underlying processes

Dr. Mountain pointed out that it is unknown exactly how social isolation may cause bone loss. Her team is investigating many hypotheses, including the function of various stress hormones and the sympathetic nervous system of the body.

We also discussed the mechanisms underlying the effects of social isolation on bone health with Dr. William Buxton, a board-certified neurologist and the director of Neuromuscular and Neurodiagnostic Medicine and Fall Prevention at Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California, who was not involved in the study.

“My initial reaction to the connection is that performing weight-bearing workouts is one of the finest methods to preserve bone health and fend off osteoporosis. One is less inclined to leave their home if they are isolated, and as a result, they are less likely to be on their feet, he explained.

Both depression and weight loss can result in frailty, disability, and decreased mobility, which can contribute to bone loss,” continued Dr. Rianon. Future study is required to understand the underlying metabolic alterations that cause bone loss in various medical diseases, as they are all risks for bone loss.

Why is there a sex difference?

Dr. Mountain mentioned that they are currently looking into why social isolation had distinct effects on men and women. She mentioned that oestrogen is known to protect bones, suggesting that it might be involved.

It’s also plausible that male and female mice experience solitude on different time scales or in various ways, she added.

We also discussed the sex disparities with Dr. Douglas Landry Jarvis, an orthopaedic surgeon with Novant Health in Charlotte, North Carolina, who was not involved in the study.

The synthesis of testosterone and hormonal balances may have been disrupted by a lack of social engagement, which would have had a negative impact on bone metabolism. Over a 4-week period, the female hormonal cycle may be less impacted.

Study restrictions

The study’s weaknesses, according to Dr. Mountain, are its small sample size and lack of behavioural information on how isolation influenced mice’s depressive or anxious behaviour.

Dr. Buxton said that the study’s use of caged animals meant that it was not a perfect representation of human behaviour. I don’t know if the authors documented how frequently the animals in the cages were on their feet, but I would anticipate that the community animals would be more mobile.

Dr. Rianon continued by saying that although the study suggested that male and female mice may have different bone-forming processes, it does not specify how these variations arise.

Nevertheless, she added, “It’s pretty normal to not have [such] details in the early stages of any research.”

Research implications for the future

Dr. Buxton added, “I also guess that alcohol plays a role if these results are later demonstrated in humans.”

We are aware that drinking makes osteoporosis more likely. Alcohol is probably a link between isolation and lower bone mineral density in individuals because isolation is a risk factor for increased alcohol consumption“, the scientist hypothesized.

According to the study, no one should alter their routines, Dr. Jarvis continued. The study’s sole recommendation is that more research be done. The variable of social engagement is too broad. The amount by which the mice’s cortisol levels changed will determine if the study can be generalized to primates and perhaps even humans.


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How can probiotics help alleviate gout flare-ups.

How can probiotics help alleviate gout flare-ups.

Gout affects more than 41 million individuals worldwide. Gout presently has no known treatment.

Researchers from the Complutense University of Madrid have identified a specific probiotic that reduces the frequency of gout attacks and the need for gout-related medications.

Gout is a chronic arthritic disorder that affects more than 41 million individuals worldwide and results in joint pain, stiffness, and edoema.

At this time, gout has no known treatment. Gout sufferers are given drugs by their doctors to assist both cure the symptoms of flare-ups and avoid attacks.

The amount of gout attacks a person experiences can be decreased with the help of a probiotic strain, according to experts at Spain’s Complutense University of Madrid. This may also lessen the need for gout-related medications.

Furthermore, they claim that in research participants, the probiotic improved blood markers linked to oxidative stress, liver damage, and metabolic syndrome. A recent issue of Frontiers in Microbiology featured the work.

What exactly is gout?

When uric acid levels in the body are too high, gout can develop. Hyperuricemia is the medical term for this. Kidney stones can also be brought on by hyperuricemia, in addition to gout.

If a person consumes a diet rich in purines, uric acid buildup could occasionally take place. Purine-rich foods and drinks include:

A person’s body may accumulate excess uric acid and develop needle-like crystals if their kidneys are unable to completely remove it. Joint discomfort is brought on by these crystals’ irritation.

Gouty arthritis symptoms include:

  • a rapid, intense pain assault that affects one or more bodily joints, particularly the big toe.
  • touchable joints that are sensitive.
  • the encircling joints are swollen.
  • skin surrounding the joints that is heated to the touch or appears red.

Any joint in the body can develop gout, but the joints at the tips of limbs, including the toes, ankles, fingers, knees, wrists, and elbows, are most vulnerable.

What probiotics are beneficial for gout?

The following probiotic strains may aid in gout sufferers’ symptom control, according to test-tube, animal, and human research:

  • Lactobacillus (lactic acid bacteria): protects against kidney injury by degrading purines in the blood.
  • Bifidobacterium: prevents dangerous bacteria from growing in the gut
  • Clostridium: Those with hyperuricemia have less non-pathogenic strains of Clostridium, but they could develop into the next wave of probiotics.

Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and several species of Enterobacteriaceae are frequently found in low concentrations in people with hyperuricemia and gout. Their potential roles are still being investigated.

These probiotics can be eaten as a variety of meals or taken as a dietary supplement. For instance, lactic acid bacteria are abundant in pickled, fermented foods including yoghurt, sauerkraut, and pickled cabbage.

Lactic acid bacteria are also abundant in Jiangshui, a classic fermented Chinese dish prepared with celery and cabbage. It is currently unknown what probiotic dosage or frequency is ideal for supporting the management of gout symptoms. There is a need for more study.

Gout and L. salivarius

In this study, Ligilactobacillus salivarius, a specific probiotic, was studied (L. salivarius). This probiotic is a variety of bacteria that typically resides in the digestive system of an organism.

The first step was to compare the abilities of several L. salivarius strains to metabolise metabolites related to purines. According to their findings, L. salivarius CECT 30632 is the strain that converts uric acid, inosine, and guanosine the fastest.

After that, researchers undertook a randomised controlled clinical trial with 30 people who had hyperuricemia and a history of recurrent gout attacks.

L. salivarius CECT 30632 was given to half of the trial subjects for a period of six months. Allopurinol, a medication used to treat gout, was taken for six months by the other half of the participants.

After analysis, the research team concluded that taking the probiotic L. salivarius CECT 30632 significantly decreased the number of gout attacks and the use of gout-related medications in gout sufferers.

Furthermore, individuals who utilised the probiotic saw improvements in a few blood markers linked to oxidative stress, liver damage, and metabolic syndrome.

Need for new gout treatments

Dr. Emily Carroll, an attending physician in internal medicine, rheumatology at Mount Sinai Hospital and an assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Rheumatology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York who was not involved in the study, believes it is crucial to have new therapy options for gout because many people with gout also deal with other comorbidities, such as cardiovascular, kidney, and liver disease.

It is beneficial to have a variety of options, especially safe options like probiotics, because this may affect the kind of medications that can be utilised safely on these people. Growing knowledge exists about the part the gut microbiota plays in rheumatologic disease.

It is not surprising that probiotics had a good effect because prior research has revealed that gout patients’ microbiomes differ from healthy patients’ microbiomes.

Carroll continued, “And since gout is known to be associated with metabolic syndrome, improvement in all those metrics was not unexpected.” “However, it is critical not to oversell the effects of probiotics until bigger studies with longer-term follow-up can be undertaken to validate these findings,” the authors write. “This is a tiny pilot trial with only 15 patients per group who were only followed for six months.”


Rheumatologist Dr. Nilanjana Bose is not affiliated with the study and practises at Memorial Hermann Health System and Lonestar Rheumatology in Houston, Texas. He concurred that innovative treatments can always benefit patients.

She said, “Probiotics can enhance the gut ecology. “It makes sense that the introduction of probiotics may improve any inflammatory arthritis.”

A registered dietician at Top Nutrition Coaching named Crystal Scott, MS, RD, LD, CDCES, CSP, CSSD, who was not involved in the study, told Medical News Today that she was not shocked to see that a probiotic had beneficial effects for those with gout.

She stated, “I was not shocked given the fact that evidence supports the usage of probiotics to help improve the richness of the microbiome”. “We know that chronic diseases like gout, diabetes, colon cancer, and others are linked to gut health.”

Probiotics have been demonstrated to relieve the symptoms of gout and hyperuricemia in previous studies, among other inflammatory disorders, Scott continued. “Probiotic intervention in the study decreased C-reactive protein (CRP), which improved serum uric acid levels. According to researchers, it’s important to assess the effectiveness and recommended dosages of probiotics.


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Gout due to deficiency of a protein found in joint fluid.

Gout due to deficiency of a protein found in joint fluid.

A multinational research team discovered a novel molecular route that is thought to be the origin of gout and the path it takes to joint tissue disintegration.

A protein called lubricin, which is present in joint fluid, may represent a unique therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of gout, according to researchers.

The discovery was made, in part, through research on a lady who had urate crystal formations and joint degradation but low blood urate levels.

Gout, a common kind of inflammatory arthritis, can make joints extremely painful, swollen, and stiff. A punishment for those Gout has often affected one joint at a time since ancient times. Frequently the joint at the base of the big toe.

According to the American College of Rheumatology, the illness affects more than 3 million people in the US. Men. Also, postmenopausal women and persons with kidney problems are more prone to the condition.

An innovative molecular mechanism that causes gout and leads to the erosion of joint tissue has been discovered by an international research team headed by the University of California San Diego School of Medicine. The journal Arthritis & Rheumatology reported the researchers’ findings.

What is Gout?

An extremely painful, swollen, and stiffening form of arthritis known as gout generates these symptoms in the joints. The metatarsophalangeal joint, which is located at the base of the big toe, is typically affected. The body having too much uric acid is its main cause.

More than 3 million Americans suffer from gout, which is the most prevalent kind of inflammatory arthritis in men. Additionally, females are more prone to get gout after menopause despite the fact that disease is generally less likely to harm them.

Gout episodes can start suddenly and may continue to happen over time. This persistent recurrence can be quite painful and gradually destroy the tissue surrounding the inflammation. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are gout risk factors.

Unusual case study on gout

Purines, which are present in the body, meat, and some beverages, are broken down by the body to produce uric acid.

Uric acid crystals may grow inside a joint as a result of hyperuricemia. This is a high quantity of uric acid in the blood and promotes inflammation.

High uric acid levels are also frequently found in the joint fluid of gout sufferers. Although not invariably, gout can be caused by hyperuricemia. Up to 21% of the population may have asymptomatic hyperuricemia, according to one study.

Dr. Robert Terkeltaub is a professor at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine. He is section chief of rheumatology at the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System. Also, he is the study’s senior author, stated: “There are factors well beyond having a high serum rate to determine who gets gout, who doesn’t get gout.”

Factors that can cause gout

The researchers’ investigation of a 22-year-old lady with an atypical case of gout was included in their report. She had urate crystal formations and joint degradation, but her blood tests did not reveal elevated urate levels.

Researchers employed RNA-sequencing, a technology that gives a quantitative analysis of messenger RNA molecules in a biological sample, and whole genome sequencing, an investigation of an organism’s entire DNA composition, for their study.

In order to pinpoint a molecular route underlying the patient’s condition. They also used quantitative proteomic techniques, a method that enables a thorough examination of proteins. They examined samples from the young woman, her parents, and unrelated individuals.

Finally, scientists discovered a chemical route that had been damaged in the young woman. Their research focused on lubricin, a protein that lubricates joints.

Researchers found that the woman’s joint fluid had many proteins that were lower than those of her parents’ joint fluid. Also, lower than the combined results from four healthy controls.

“We searched for something that would either be tenfold decreased in the sick… related to the mother or father and the control or tenfold increased in the patient relative to the mother or father and the healthy control,” the researcher explained. And we discovered that the patient had roughly a dozen proteins that had significantly lower levels, Terkeltaub added.

Lubricin was one of those proteins. The following analysis focused on 18 individuals who had uncontrolled hyperuricemia and common gout. Five of them also showed low lubricin levels.

Lubricin inhibits inflammation

In a different section of the investigation, scientists employed mice with and without lubricin. Interleukin-1β, an inflammatory cytokine, was administered into the animals’ knee joints.

The main enzyme that really produces uric acid, xanthine oxidase, was enriched in the cells known as macrophages in the joint lining of the mice that didn’t produce lubricin, according to Terkeltaub.

According to the experiment, lubricin prevents urate from crystallising in joints and inhibits the release of xanthine oxidase and urate via stimulating white blood cells.

Dr. Puja Paul Khanna, an associate professor in the department of Internal Medicine at the University of Michigan Medical School. He stated that the study suggests lubricin may function as a biomarker for gout.

“With the mice models, they are observing that even if you did not have a high level of uric acid, but you are already experiencing damage from those small little, you know, monosodium urate crystals. We have identified lubricin as the cause, so we could block that pathway, Khanna added. “The [monosodium urate] crystals have a higher possibility of accumulating and harming that joint if the mice are deficient, meaning [they] lack lubricin. Right? More research on the same is required in people.

Terkeltaub emphasised that the findings demonstrates that lubricin’s function extends beyond just lubricating joint tissues.

In addition to inhibiting the inflammation brought on by the crystals and limiting the formation of new crystals, lubricin is something that is “actually involved in what we term the homeostasis of uric acid in the joint,” according to the expert.

Terkeltaub noted that the individual’s lubricin and other molecule-controlling lubricin gene variations may have an impact on whether or not a person with hyperuricemia develops gout.

The development of gout

This study shows that more can be learned about the pathophysiology of gout, according to Dr. Theodore Fields, a rheumatologist from Weill Cornell Medicine and Hospital for Special Surgery in New York who was not involved in the study.

He stated, “We continue to have big information gaps about why some patients get gout and some don’t, even if both have the same level of serum urate. It makes perfect sense that factors like lubricin deficiency play a role in certain patients.

Further studies by Terkeltaub will focus on lubricin’s potential as a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of gout as well as gout biomarkers and biomarkers for other inflammatory diseases.


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How Bone Density May Be Linked to Dementia Risk?

How Bone Density May Be Linked to Dementia Risk?

According to researchers, a decline in bone density may be associated with a higher risk of dementia.

Low bone density and dementia tend to develop at later age, but the researchers caution that they are unsure of why there may be a connection.

A nutritious diet and regular exercise, according to experts, are two strategies to enhance overall bone health.

A study was published in Neurology, the official journal of the American Academy of Neurology. People with low bone density may be more likely to develop dementia. 3,651 individuals with an average age of 72 whose medical histories and X-rays were examined by Dutch researchers.

Everybody underwent physical exams, including X-rays and dementia screenings, as well as interviews every four to five years.

Prior to the trial, none of the subjects had dementia. Among the conclusions were:

  • Dementia affected 688 people (19%) over an average of 11 years.
  • 90 of the 1,211 individuals with the lowest bone density who lived the longest had dementia.
  • During a decade, 57 of the 1,211 individuals with the highest bone density had dementia.

The researchers found that those with lower bone density were 42% more likely to develop dementia than those with higher bone density. Even after controlling for age, sex, education, other illnesses, medicinal use, and family history of dementia.

The study only demonstrates a connection, not cause and effect, the researchers noted.

Bone density and dementia

According to the researchers, bone density loss may occur in the early stages of dementia and, if it does, may be a sign of risk.

With that information, healthcare providers may focus on providing earlier and more regular screenings. Also, a better care to those who have bone loss.

The researchers also stated that little was known about a potential connection in the years preceding dementia and that inactivity and poor nutrition. Both of which are present in dementia patients, both cause bone loss, which is accelerated by inactivity.

The majority of the individuals in the study were Europeans over the age of 70. They poses a drawback in that the findings may not be generalizable to other races, ethnicities, and age groups.

Dr. Joel Salinas, is a behavioural neurologist, researcher at NYU Langone Health and the chief medical officer at Isaac Health in New York. He stated that he always believes that additional research is necessary to determine why there may be a relationship.

According to Salinas, “In this scenario, there could be a few reasons why there is an association between dementia and bone loss.”

He listed a few potential explanations:

  • These two illnesses have a strong connection to ageing.
  • Both disorders may be influenced by inflammation in some way.
  • nutrition, diet, and way of life.

Salinas continued, “Improving lifestyle factors like nutrition and activity levels can never be too late. Even if there are already symptoms of cognitive deterioration, putting out a conscious effort in these areas can help prevent the progression of dementia.

Common Bed Partners

In the elderly population, Low bone mineral density (BMD) and dementia frequently co-occur, with bone loss accelerating in dementia patients as a result of inactivity and poor nutrition. It’s unknown, though, how much bone loss already exists before dementia manifests.

The new findings are based on 3651 seniors (mean age 72 years, 58% women). These were dementia-free between 2002 and 2005 and participated in the Rotterdam Study.

Dual-energy radiography absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure BMD at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and overall body at that time. The trabecular bone score, which provides additional information like bone microarchitecture, was also calculated. Up to January 1st, 2020, participants were monitored.

Age, sex, education, physical activity, smoking status, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, history of comorbidities (stroke and diabetes), and apolipoprotein E genotype were all taken into account while doing the analyses.

In the 688 people who underwent follow-up who got dementia, the majority (77%), had Alzheimer’s disease.

Preventing bone loss

Dr. Nahid Rianon, a professor of general medicine at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston who was not involved in the study, responded to Medical News Today when asked what would account for the connection between poor bone density and dementia risk:

Although this is a very useful study, it is impossible to determine if low bone density causes dementia, whether dementia causes low bone density, or whether low bone density and dementia share a risk factor.

The findings are significant because each of the three hypotheses has a critical role to play. To prevent both fatal diseases, it is imperative to find out if they share a common cause.

According to Rivadeneyra, “Dementia and bone health are two typical diseases we all struggle with to some extent as we age, so it’s no surprise there would be a correlation.” “We are aware that smoking increases the risk of dementia, low bone density, and cardiorespiratory problems. As we age, alcohol misuse is also linked to weak bones and dementia. Many of these ‘age-related’ diseases we frequently see are caused by heart disease, prolonged pharmaceutical usage (for some medications), injuries and trauma, metabolic issues like thyroid disease or diabetes, and a strong family history (genetics).

Consuming a diet high in calcium and vitamin D is also essential.

Osteoporosis and women

Osteoporosis is a prominent factor in broken bones in older men and postmenopausal women. Although each bone in the body has the potential to fracture, hip, vertebral, and wrist fractures are the most common in older people.

According to Dr. Gayatri Devi, a neurologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York, “women have a higher risk of osteoporosis and dementia, which could be related to decrease of oestrogen after menopause.”

According to Devi, those who engage in less physical activity—often older adults due to conditions like heart disease, diabetes, and stroke—have lower bone density and, thus, are at a greater risk for dementia.

The crucial conclusion, she continued, is that treating low bone density can lower the risk of dementia, fractures, and hospitalisation. “I think that everyone over the age of 50 should get a baseline bone density test because there is a good treatment, either through medication or exercise.”

Study limitations and implications

Dr. Wiggins noted that although other studies have described such relationships, since the majority of the patients in this study were in their 70s and of European heritage, they might not apply to other populations.

We must be careful not to conclude that lower bone density directly causes dementia, he cautioned, since this study merely found a link between bone and brain health.

Board-certified neuropsychologist Dr. Karen D. Sullivan, who runs the Pinehurst, North Carolina-based practise I CARE FOR YOUR BRAIN and was not engaged in the study, said:

The results of this study suggest that dementia may be more likely to strike those with inadequate bone density. According to Dr. Sullivan, this study “adds to the persuasive body of literature that demonstrates that maintaining bone health integrity is a crucial component of successful ageing.

“Evidence-based techniques for enhancing bone health after age 50 include putting a premium on high-quality animal/plant protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fruits and vegetables high in potassium, fibre, and foods high in calcium and vitamin D having the greatest study backing. In order to maintain strong, healthy bones as we age, frequent weight-loading and resistance exercises are also necessary, the expert concluded.


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Explore the worst habits for your joint pain.

Explore the worst habits for your joint pain.

Wear anything intermittently all day, every day for decades. Also, it will eventually begin to exhibit signs of wear and tear. As an illustration, consider the cartilage that serves as a bolster between your bones.

According to Angelie Mascarinas, M.D., a physiatrist at the Hospital for Special Surgery with headquarters in New York City, the risk of acquiring osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint condition, rises with age. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis and affects around 50% of persons over the age of 65.

There is little you can do to stop time from moving forward. However, there are many lifestyle adjustments you can make to give your joints some extra TLC.


Despite the fact that you probably don’t need one more, here is one to stop smoking: Your joints experience damage from smoking. When nicotine constricts blood vessels, less oxygen and vital nutrients can reach the joint cartilage. This affects the health of the cartilage. Due to the fact that cartilage gets its nutrition from the fluid around the joint and the nearby bone, Mascarinas explains that this may cause cartilage to deteriorate.

Other than that: As it turns out, smoking increases your chance for osteoporosis, a condition that causes brittle bones. Seniors who smoke are 30 to 40% more likely than nonsmokers to shatter their hips, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

A physically inactive lifestyle

There are several ways that sedentary behaviours are detrimental for your joints. According to a study in Arthritis & Rheumatology that monitored more than 1.7 million people for more than four years, it is difficult to maintain a healthy weight and excess pounds are harsh on your joints, especially those in the hips, hands, and knees. Knees are particularly prone to injury. Almost three to five times as many participants who were obese, defined as having a body mass index of 30 or greater, developed knee osteoarthritis. According to one study, decreasing 1 pound of body weight relieved the knees of 4 pounds of pressure.

Regular sitting “also causes muscle tension in the hips and legs and weakens the muscles that stabilise the core,” according to Mascarinas.

Aim for 30 minutes of joint-friendly activity five days a week to counteract everything mentioned above. Walking, water aerobics, and swimming are a few moderate, low-impact sports that are gentle on the joints, according to Mascarinas. Avoid deep lunges and squats, jogging, repeated jumping, and sports like basketball and tennis. These acitivities require quick twists and abrupt stops if you have osteoarthritis.

Overdoing exercise

Weekend warriors pay attention: Your joints won’t benefit from trying to fit a week’s worth of workout into one weekend. A skilled orthopaedic foot and ankle specialist in Indianapolis once observed, “There’s a good medium between training our muscles and not overdoing the load on the joints.

According to studies, people with arthritis who maintain healthy muscles do a significantly better job of managing their condition. By combining strength training with cardiovascular exercise, you can find the sweet spot. Professionals assert that even 70, 80, and 90-year-olds can still experience positive muscle reactions from weight-training routines. According to research, it’s simpler to perform daily tasks like getting out of a chair, climbing and descending stairs, and potentially even lowering one’s body temperature.

Carrying a heavy load

It should come as no surprise that heavy lifting wears down your body, whether you’re carrying a fully-loaded tote bag every day or picking up your growing grandchild on those once-a-month visits. And it exacts a specific toll on your joints. “Carrying objects that are heavy creates imbalance throughout the body,” as said by professionals. Additionally, these imbalances “create torque or stress on the joints, which over time may further deteriorate the cartilage.”

Of course, determining a “heavy” load is the tricky part. According to experts, “any amount of weight that requires more than one hand to pick it up” should be taken into account. When lifting or carrying objects, be safe and use the palms of both hands, or use your arms in place of your hands, advises a professional organisation. Hold goods close to your body, which is less stressful for your joints.

Eating foods that cause inflammation

All the usual suspects are on the table: red meat, white sugar, French fries, Coke, and pastries. According to doctors, eating these foods can make joint pain worse. However, foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, such flaxseed oil and cold-water fish like salmon and mackerel, are thought to be anti-inflammatory and can help soothe inflamed joints. According to a study published in Rheumatology, which identified a connection between high cholesterol and knee and hand osteoarthritis, leafy greens are also advised, as are cholesterol-lowering foods like almonds, pistachios, and walnuts.

If you have joint pain, a specialist advises including foods like olive oil, berries, and salmon in your diet. According to her, studies have also shown a link between foods high in beta-carotene, fibre, magnesium, and omega-3s and decreased inflammation. Limiting pro-inflammatory foods like red meat, sweets, and dairy can also lessen joint discomfort, according to research.

Bad posture

While sitting posture is crucial for joint health, excellent posture should be adopted constantly. For instance, when walking, make careful to maintain a straight back, a set of level knees, and a set of backward-facing shoulders. Your joints will experience less strain as a result, which will make them less susceptible to fatigue and deterioration. Consider utilising seat cushions or lumbar supports when you have to sit for extended amounts of time to assist your spine stay in the right position.

Strength Training Ignored

We lose bone mass as we get older, which increases our susceptibility to fractures and diseases like arthritis. Fortunately, consistent strength training reduces the pace of bone deterioration and may even stimulate the formation of new bone. For this reason, it’s a good idea to include a few strength exercises to your normal exercise programme. You can still workout even if you have limited mobility. Use these seated chair exercises in your everyday regimen by trying them out.

Taking a Nap on Your Stomach

Even though everyone has a varied sleeping pattern, some are better for our bones than others. While both sleeping on your back and your side have advantages and disadvantages, sleeping on your stomach is the worst for your spine’s health. This makes us turn our necks while we sleep, which puts tension on our muscles and bones. Moreover, it causes longer-lasting vertebral pinching. Positioning pillows are a terrific tool to maintain your body in the right position during the night and relieve pressure from troublesome regions.

Finger Texting

De Quervain’s Tendonitis, also referred to as “texting thumb,” is a condition that develops over time as a result of repetitive motions like typing or texting that wear down your joints. Although it pays to be aware of how it’s impacting your body, it doesn’t imply you should quit doing it. Avoid using your thumbs for texting as much as you can to save the joint there from further stress. Instead, text with the tips of your other fingers.

If you already suffer from Texting Thumb, try wearing a thumb splint to decrease symptoms.

Excess weight

Obese or overweight people are more likely to get joint problems in their ankles, knees, and hips. The cause is rather straightforward—since each of these joints must support a higher weight, they all tend to deteriorate more quickly. There are many simple actions you may do to live a better lifestyle and lose weight; take a look at these:

  • Put on a fitness monitor.
  • Engage in daily exercise
  • Log your calorie consumption while working with a dietitian.
  • Work with a personal trainer
  • Track & Monitor Your Progress at Home
  • Establish manageable, gradual goals.

High-Heel Shoes

Even the most comfortable pair of heels can be just as detrimental for your joints as an uncomfortable pair of shoes. They affect everything from your ankles, to knees, to your lower back, creating extra strain on all these joints as you walk. Even an increased risk of osteoarthritis might be experienced by women who regularly wear high heels. While obviously not a cure, high heel insoles can assist to reduce some pain and distribute weight – if you must wear heels, consider A Pair of These for some protection.

Reduce Joint Pain

You can enhance your joint health by changing bad habits in addition as cutting back on them. To take control of your joint discomfort, try these solutions.

  • The best option for people seeking an immediate relief from joint discomfort is Pain Cream. To feel its effects, simply rub it where it is required.
  • Simple remedies like ice packs and heating pads can help speed up the healing process and lessen acute pain. Using them prior to or following exercise is extremely beneficial.
  • The ideal technique to guarantee that you receive the support you require while jogging or walking is using insoles. They encourage a healthy walk while reducing any current joint pain.
  • Compression items, such compression gloves and compression knee braces, are an excellent technique to relieve joint discomfort while stabilising the joint to prevent more joint pain.



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Lets explore the latest exercise to relieve knee pain.

Lets explore the latest exercise to relieve knee pain.

Knee discomfort is a frequent problem. The good news is that there are various treatments available, including at-home strengthening exercises and knee stretches.

If you have knee discomfort, it can be difficult to engage in your favourite hobbies, whether you’re a competitive athlete, weekend warrior, or daily walker.

Every year, 18 million Americans seek medical attention for knee discomfort. Including suffering brought on by:

  • overuse
  • osteoarthritis
  • tendinitis
  • bursitis
  • meniscal damage
  • injury to the knee ligaments

Exercise and knee pain

Gentle stretching and strengthening exercises may help reduce knee discomfort whether it is brought on by an injury, surgery, or arthritis, while also enhancing flexibility and range of motion.

Even though it may seem paradoxical to exercise an injured or arthritic knee, doing so is actually better for your knee than sitting idle. Your knee may stiffen if you don’t move it, which could make the discomfort worse and make it more difficult for you to perform your usual activities.

The muscles that support your knee joint can be strengthened with gentle stretching and strengthening activities. An easier range of motion for your knee joint can be achieved by having stronger muscles, which can also lessen impact and stress on your knee.

Consult your doctor or physical therapist before beginning an exercise programme for knee pain to ensure that the activities are suitable for you. Depending on your circumstances, they might suggest making certain changes.

Stretching exercises

The range of motion and flexibility in your knee joint may be enhanced by doing lower body stretching exercises, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Your knee may be simpler to move as a result.

It’s vital to warm up for at least 5 to 10 minutes before beginning to stretch. Warm-up exercises that have low impact include walking, utilising an elliptical machine, or cycling on a stationary cycle.

The next three stretches should be performed after you’ve warmed up, and you should repeat them after you’ve finished the knee strengthening exercises. Aim to perform these stretches and workouts four to five times per week, at the very least.

Stretch the leg and heel

Your lower leg muscles, more notably your calf muscles, are the focus of this stretch.

To perform this stretch

  • Put your back to a wall.
  • Put your hands on the wall and step back as far as you can without feeling uncomfortable. With the heels flat and the toes of both feet pointing forward, your knees should be slightly bent.
  • Hold the stretch for 30 seconds while leaning into it. Your back leg ought to feel stretched.
  • Repeat while changing legs.
  • On both legs, repeat this stretch twice.

Stretch your quadriceps.

Your quadriceps, which are located in the front of your thighs, are the focus of this stretch. Doing this technique can help increase the flexibility in your hip flexors and quadricep muscles.

To perform this stretch

  • Use a chair or a wall as support while you stand. Your feet should be apart by shoulder-width.
  • Your foot should rise up towards your glutes as you flex one knee.
  • As far as you can comfortably do so, slowly bring your ankle towards your glutes while holding onto it.
  • Hold for a minute.
  • Change legs, then go back to the beginning position.
  • On each side, repeat twice.

Hamstring flex

Your hamstrings, which are located in the rear of your thigh, are the focus of this stretch.

This stretch should feel good in the back of your leg and all the way to the bottom of your glutes. Your calves could also feel stretched if you flex your foot.

To perform this stretch

  • You can use a mat to give comfort under your back while performing this stretch.
  • Straighten both legs while lying flat on the ground or a mat. Alternately, if it’s more comfortable, you can stand with your feet flat on the ground and bend both knees.
  • Raising one leg off the ground.
  • To gently draw your knee towards your chest until you feel a small stretch, position your hands behind your thigh but below the knee. It shouldn’t hurt to say this.
  • Hold for a minute.
  • Descend and swap legs.
  • On each side, repeat twice.

Strengthening exercises

Working the muscles around your knee on a regular basis might assist lessen stress on the knee joint, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Concentrate on exercises that target your hamstrings, quadriceps, glutes, and hip muscles to help strengthen your knees.

Half a squat

Half squats are a great exercise for building your quadriceps, glutes, and hamstrings without putting too much stress on your knees.

to perform the exercise:

  • Squat down while standing with your feet shoulder-width apart. For balance, put your hands on your hips or in front of you.
  • Slowly lower yourself about 10 inches while keeping your head straight. The distance from here to a full squat is halfway.
  • After a little pause, push through your heels to stand up.
  • Do two to three sets of 10 repetitions.

Raised calf

Your lower legs’ back muscles, which include your calf muscles, get stronger from this workout.

for this exercise :

  • Your feet should be shoulder-width apart as you stand. To provide support, place yourself near to a wall or cling to a chair’s back.
  • You should now be standing on the balls of your feet after raising both of your heels off the ground.
  • Return your heels to the starting position slowly. In order to improve your calf muscles, control is crucial throughout this workout.
  • Make two to three sets of ten repetitions.

Hamstring extension

Your glutes and hamstrings will benefit from the standing hamstring curl. To keep your upper body and hips stable, you also need strong core muscles.

for this exercise :

  • Use a chair or a wall as support as you stand there. Hip distance should separate your feet.
  • Bend your knee, lift your heel towards the ceiling, and lift one foot up.
  • Keep your upper body motionless and your hips pointing forward while moving as far as you can.
  • For 5 to 10 seconds, hold.
  • Be calm and return to the initial position.
  • For each leg, perform 2 to 3 sets of 10 repetitions.

Leg elongations

By strengthening your quadriceps using your own body weight rather than a weighted machine, you can prevent further stress on your knees.

to perform the exercise:

  • Rise tall in your chair.
  • Place your feet hip-width apart on the ground.
  • Straighten your spine, tighten your thigh muscles, and lift one leg as high as you can without getting out of the chair.
  • After pausing, return to the initial position.
  • For each leg, perform 2 to 3 sets of 10 repetitions.

Straight leg raises

The straight leg lift tones both your hip flexor and quadriceps muscles. You should feel your shins tighten if you flex your foot at the conclusion of the exercise.

You can progressively increase the weight as you gain leg strength by starting with a lighter weight as this exercise becomes easier to perform and working your way up to a 5-pound ankle weight.

to perform the exercise:

  • You can use a mat for this exercise to give comfort under your back.
  • One leg should be bent and one should be extended straight in front of you while you lay on the ground.
  • When the straight leg of your body is at the same height as your bent knee, steadily lift it off the ground by contracting the quadricep.
  • Wait five seconds at the top before lowering to the starting position.
  • For each leg, perform 2 to 3 sets of 10 repetitions.

lateral leg lifts

Both your glutes and your hip abductor muscles are worked during this workout. The hip abductor muscles, which are on the outside of your hips, support easy standing, walking, and leg rotation. The prevention and treatment of hip and knee pain can both be aided by strengthening these muscles.

You may progressively increase the weight as you grow better at this workout by starting with a 5-pound ankle weight and working your way up as your leg muscles get stronger.

To complete this activity:

  • Your legs should be placed on top of one another as you lay on your side. Cradle your head in your hand, and rest your other hand on the floor in front of you.
  • Lift your top leg as high as you are able to comfortably. This ought to be palpable on the side of your hips.
  • At the peak, pause for a moment, then lower your leg.
  • For each leg, perform 2 to 3 sets of 10 repetitions.

Prone leg raises

Both your glutes and your hamstrings are worked during this workout. You may progressively increase the weight as you grow better at this workout by starting with a 5-pound ankle weight and working your way up as your leg muscles get stronger.

To complete this activity:

  • You can use a mat for this workout to add cushioning underneath you.
  • Lay on your stomach with your legs extended straight back. You are welcome to lay your head on your arms.
  • Lift your left leg as high as you can comfortably do so without experiencing pain by contracting your glute and hamstring muscles. Throughout this exercise, be sure to keep your pelvic bones on the floor.
  • Keep your elevated leg in place for five seconds.
  • Lower your leg, take a two-second break, then do it again.
  • For each leg, perform 2 to 3 sets of 10 repetitions.

Other types of exercise for knee pain

After your knees are stronger, you might want to think about include low-impact workouts in your programme. Your joints are often less stressed by low-impact workouts than by high-impact ones like jogging or jumping.

Some good examples of low-impact exercises include:

  • yoga
  • itai chi
  • the elliptical trainer
  • swimming
  • cycling when stationary
  • water exercise
  • walking



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How metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of Gout?

How metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of Gout?

Obesity, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease all seem to be more common in people with metabolic syndrome(MetS). This may make them more likely to develop in tandem.

The syndrome is a group of risk factors that have been linked to an elevated risk of acquiring additional disorders rather than a single, separate disease.

Metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of developing gout, according to research from the Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in South Korea. Its a kind of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in the joints.

A recent study as per the journal Arthritis & Rheumatology, examined over 1.3 million men between the ages of 20 and 39 who had health examinations. The relationship between modifications in the participants’ METs and the onset of gout was examined.

They identified those who had gout using a database of diagnoses. Also, they utilised a statistical model to examine the connection between changes in metabolic syndrome and the onset of gout.

They found that males with metabolic syndrome or those who developed MetS had a higher risk of developing gout. Men who had high triglyceride levels and abdominal obesity—two factors associated with MetS—were at a substantially higher risk.

What is metabolic syndrome (MetS)?

A clinician may suspect metabolic syndrome if a patient displays at least three of the following five signs and symptoms:

  • Specifically, a waist size of more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women is considered central, visceral, abdominal obesity.
  • 100 mg/dL or more for fasting blood sugar.
  • values of 130/85 mm/Hg or above for blood pressure.
  • Blood triglyceride values of 150 mg/dL or higher.
  • levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol at or below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL or less for men.

What is gout?

An extremely painful, inflammatory, and inflexible form of arthritis known as gout causes the joints to become stiff.

The metatarsophalangeal joint, which is situated at the base of the big toe, is typically affected. An excessive buildup of uric acid in the body is the source of the disorder.

Researchers find

18,473 males in the recent study experienced gout. Compared to people having MetS, people having metabolic syndrome had a nearly four-fold increased risk of developing gout.

The researchers also noted that a participant’s probability of developing gout quadrupled if they had MetS. Yet, the likelihood of developing gout was practically cut in half for those who recovered from MetS.

High triglyceride levels and abdominal obesity were found to have the highest associations with gout risk. This is as per reports of metS factors.

Comparison was made for those in their 20s, 30s, and those who were underweight or had a normal weight. People with underweight were more likely to experience a connection between changes in MetS and gout.

This is the first extensive study to look at the relationship between alterations in the metabolic syndrome and the risk of gout. According to the study, young persons’ chance of developing gout can be greatly decreased by avoiding MetS or recovering from it.

Reports as per studies

Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed that, when compared to controls, those with hyperuricemia and gout had a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.

In a cross-sectional research of 21,544 participants who completed work-related health examinations, those with serum urate levels 9 mg/dL had about a five-fold greater chance of developing metabolic syndrome. This is compared to those with serum urate levels 7 mg/dL.

Ford et al used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2002. They conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1370 children and adolescents to ascertain the relationship between serum urate and metabolic syndrome.

In the lowest to highest quartiles of serum urate, risk of metabolic syndrome was 1.0%, 3.7%, 10.3%, and 21.1%, respectively. The top quartile of urate had a roughly 15-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome than the lowest two quartiles.

When comparing data from 1988-1994 to 1999-2006, NHANES also revealed that the prevalence of gout and metabolic syndrome were rising continuously and at comparable rates.

Rashad Barsoum, MD, FRCP, FRCPE, emeritus professor of medicine at Cairo University, and Rheumatology Advisor talked about the epidemiologic link between gout and metabolic syndrome. It is still disputed whether hyperuricemia is a surrogate marker or a confounding risk factor, but the statistical correlation does not suggest causality, he says, despite the significant evidence linking it to the metabolic syndrome.

Action to reduce risks

The findings of this study, according to Mitchell, “should at the very least act as a wake-up call for the children. Diabetes and hypertension are no longer considered “diseases of the elderly.”

“Gout is merely one of the numerous additional hazards that come with these chronic illnesses. In addition to lowering quality of life, early onset of these diseases may also shorten lifespans. This is over the next few decades, according to the expert.

To “promote the findings of this study to the general public and build a gout prevention programme,” Trinh made a number of recommendations, stating that the following actions may be taken:

Make educational materials that describe the connection between MetS and gout, such as pamphlets, posters, and infographics. Also, the information in these materials must to cover lifestyle modifications for managing MetS.

Join up with medical professionals including primary care doctors and endocrinologists to promote gout prevention strategies and share information about the study’s findings.

Use social media: Share information about the study’s findings and encourage healthy lifestyle choices. By using social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, this can be done.

To inform those who have MetS about the connection between the condition and gout and to offer advice on how to treat it with lifestyle changes, hold workshops or webinars for them.

To promote gout prevention practises to a larger audience, work with neighbourhood organisations like wellness centres or municipal health agencies.



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Latest signs to identify you may have Spinal Stenosis.

Latest signs to identify you may have Spinal Stenosis.

Narrowing of the gaps in your spine is known as spinal stenosis. Although it doesn’t always result in symptoms, it can nonetheless lead to pain and weakness. Exercise and other forms of therapy can be helpful. Your upper body is supported and stabilised by the column of bones known as your spine, allowing you to twist and turn.

Spinal nerves, which make up the spinal cord, carry signals from the brain to the rest of the body. The surrounding bone and tissues typically shield the nerves. Walking, balance, and sensation can all be impacted by spinal nerve injury or dysfunction.

Spinal stenosis is a disorder in which the spinal cord is compressed when gaps in the spine constrict. Usually, this procedure happens gradually. Anywhere along the spine can experience it.

If the narrowing is not severe, there won’t be any symptoms. However, too much constriction may put pressure on your nerves and result in issues. Spinal stenosis comes in a number of different forms. They consist of:

  • spinal stenosis in the lower back, or lumbar
  • cervical spinal stenosis, a neck condition
  • foraminal stenosis, which damages the holes in your bones (foramen)
  • dual spinal stenosis, a condition in which at least two places of the spine are affected

Symptoms of spinal stenosis

When spinal stenosis first appears, you might or might not have any symptoms. The spinal canal constriction typically happens gradually and gets worse with time. Although spinal stenosis can develop anywhere along the spinal column, the neck and lower back are common locations. Each person experiences different symptoms, which can come and go.

Spinal stenosis in the lower back (lumbar) symptoms include:

  • the lower back hurts. A dull aching or sensitivity to an electric-like or searing sensation can all be used to describe pain. Pain may ebb and flow.
  • Sciatica. This pain starts in your buttocks, travels down your leg, and may even reach your foot.
  • Leg heaviness that could result in cramps in one or both legs.
  • tingling or numbness (“pins and needles”) in the foot, leg, or buttocks
  • weakness in the foot or the leg (as the stenosis worsens).
  • Standing still for a long time, walking, or going downhill might all make the pain worse.
  • Leaning, bending slightly forward, going upwards, or sitting down all cause lessening of the pain.
  • a lack of bowel or bladder control (in severe cases).

Neck (cervical) spinal stenosis symptoms include:

  • neck ache
  • tingling or numbness in the foot, leg, or arm. (Anywhere below the location of the nerve compression may experience symptoms).
  • Arm, hand, leg, or foot weakness or clumsiness.
  • difficulties with balance.
  • loss of hand function, such as having issues
  • loss of hand function, such as the inability to write or button clothing.
  • a lack of bowel or bladder control (in severe cases).

The following are signs of thoracic (abdominal) spinal stenosis:

Spinal stenosis causes

Aging is the most typical cause of spinal stenosis. The tissues and bones in your spine may begin to thicken as you age, squeezing the nerves.

Spinal stenosis may also be influenced by specific medical problems. They consist of:

  • Achondroplasia: Achondroplasia is a form of dwarfism that prevents the spine’s and other elements of the body’s bones from developing normally.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis: This kind of arthritis affects the spine and results in persistent inflammation. The development of bone spurs may result.
  • Congenital spinal stenosis: Congenital spinal stenosis occurs when you’re born with a spinal canal that’s inherently narrow.
  • Calcium deposits build up on the ligament that runs across the spinal ligament column in a condition known as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).
  • Osteoarthritis: This condition causes the cartilage that protects your joints to deteriorate. In addition to causing bone spurs to develop in the spine, the disorder may also impair the cartilage that separates the vertebrae.
  • Paget’s disease of the bone: A chronic disorder that makes bones weaker and larger than normal is Paget’s disease of the bone.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis involves persistent inflammation, which can cause bone deterioration and the development of bone spurs.
  • Scoliosis: Scoliosis is a spine curvature that is abnormal. It may be brought on by specific genetic disorders, anomalies of the nervous system, or unidentified factors.
  • Spinal injuries: Bone fractures and slipped (herniated) discs can result in vertebrae or bone fragments pressing against the spinal nerves.
  • Spinal tumours: These tissue growths may form in the spinal canal, set off an inflammatory response, and alter the bone in the region.

How is spinal stenosis diagnosed?

Your healthcare professional will examine you physically, inquire about your symptoms, and go over your medical history. Your doctor may feel your spine while performing a physical examination, pressing on various areas to determine whether doing so produces pain. In order to determine whether different spinal postures cause pain or other symptoms, your doctor may ask you to bend in various directions. Your healthcare professional will assess your balance, walk pattern, and arm and leg strength.

Imaging tests will be performed on your spine to inspect it and identify the precise location, nature, and severity of the issue. Imaging investigations could consist of:

  • MRI: To produce cross-sectional images of the spine, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio waves and a strong magnet. The spinal cord, discs, nerves, and any malignancies are all clearly visible in MRI pictures.
  • Computed tomography (CT) or CT myelogram: A CT scan is a collection of X-rays that produces cross-sectional images of the spine. To more clearly see the spinal cord and nerves, a contrast dye is added during a CT myelogram.
  • X-rays: X-rays employ a limited amount of radiation and can identify changes in bone structure, such as loss of disc height and development of bone spurs that are decreasing the space in the spine.

Treatments for spinal stenosis

Treatment options for stenosis vary on the nature of the disease, where it is located, and how severe the symptoms are. Your doctor might advise trying some self-care solutions first if your symptoms are minor. Your doctor might advise physical therapy, medication, and ultimately surgery if these don’t help and your symptoms get worse.

Among the self-help options are:

  • Apply heat: Heat is typically a better option for osteoarthritis pain. Heat promotes blood flow, which eases painful joints and relaxes muscles. Use caution when utilising heat; don’t raise the temperature too high to avoid getting burned.
  • Apply cold: If heat isn’t relieving your problems, try using cold instead (an ice pack, frozen gel pack, or frozen bag of peas or corn). Ice is often administered for 20 minutes on, 20 minutes off. Ice helps to lessen inflammation, soreness, and swelling.
  • Exercise: As long as you first consult with your healthcare professional, exercise is beneficial for pain relief, building back muscles that support your spine, increasing flexibility, and improving balance.

Non-surgical treatments include:

  • Oral medications
  • Physical therapy:
  • Steroid injections
  • Decompression procedure

Spinal stenosis surgery

Surgery is typically only undertaken after all other treatment options have failed due to the complexity of spinal stenosis and the delicate nature of the spine. Fortunately, surgery is not usually necessary for those with spinal stenosis. However, discuss your surgical alternatives with your doctor if:

  • You can’t do or enjoy daily tasks because of your symptoms, and you no longer have the quality of life you want.
  • Pressure on the spinal cord is the root of your discomfort.
  • Walking and keeping your equilibrium have becoming challenging.
  • You have issues with your sexual function or have lost control of your bowels or bladder.

Can spinal stenosis be prevented?

You can’t completely prevent spinal stenosis because the majority of its causes are age-related “wear and tear” ailments like osteoarthritis and the loss of bone and muscle mass. However, there are steps you may do to reduce your risk or stop the progression, such as:

  • Maintain a healthy diet and a healthy weight.
  • Avoid smoking. If you currently smoke, stop. Ask your doctor for help quitting if you need it.
  • Maintain a straight spine.
  • Exercise. Stay active, but avoid painful exercises. Before beginning a home fitness regimen, consult with your doctor or physical therapist. Oversleeping might be more detrimental than beneficial.

Also bear in mind that, despite the fact that there is no “cure” for spinal stenosis, the condition’s symptoms can be effectively managed using nonsurgical or surgical methods.



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Brief idea on complications and prevention of slipped disc.

Brief idea on complications and prevention of slipped disc.

Back discomfort is frequently brought on by a herniated disc. It occurs when a spinal disk’s supple centre pops loose from its covering. This may have an impact on neighbouring nerves, resulting in limb pain, numbness, or weakness.

A herniated disc can cause little pain in some persons, especially if it does not push on any nerves. The problem is also known as a prolapsed disc or a slipping disc.

Herniated discs can be treated in a number of effective ways, despite the fact that they occasionally cause excruciating agony. Symptoms often subside or disappear after a few weeks, but if they continue or worsen, surgery may be necessary.

What causes slipped discs?

When the outer ring is weakened or torn, the disc slips, allowing the interior section to protrude. With ageing, this is possible. A slipped disc might also be brought on by specific movements. While you are bending or rotating to lift something, a disc could fall out of position. 

A slipped disc can occur in the lower back as a result of lifting a very big, heavy object, which puts a lot of strain on the area. You can have a higher chance of developing slipped discs if your profession is physically demanding and involves a lot of lifting.

People who are overweight are more likely to experience a slipped disc because their discs must work harder to maintain the extra weight. The development of a weak immune system may also be facilitated by sedentary behaviour and weak muscles.

You are more likely to get a slipped disc as you age. This is due to the fact that as you get older, your discs start to lose part of their protective water content. They are therefore more likely to move out of place. Men experience them more frequently than women.

Symptoms of a slipped disc

Any area of your spine, from your neck to your lower back, is susceptible to slipped discs. One of the more typical places for slipping discs is the lower back. Your spinal column is a complex web of blood vessels and nerves. The muscles and nerves nearby can experience increased pressure as a result of a slipped disc.

The following are signs of a slipped disc:

  • Numbness and discomfort, usually on one side of the body
  • you have discomfort in your arms or legs
  • ache that gets worse at night or when performing particular motions
  • ache that gets worse when you stand or sit
  • short-distance walking hurts
  • a mystery muscular weakness
  • feeling of tingling, aching, or burning in the affected area

Various pain types might exist for different people. If your discomfort causes tingling or numbness that impairs your ability to control your muscles, consult a doctor.

How are slipped discs diagnosed?

Your doctor will examine you physically first. They’ll be searching for the cause of your discomfort and agony. To do this, it will be necessary to assess your nerve and muscle strength as well as whether you experience pain when moving or contacting the affected area. In addition, your doctor will inquire about your health history and symptoms.

When you first started experiencing symptoms and the activities that make your discomfort worse will be of interest to them. Your doctor can see your spine’s bones and muscles with the aid of imaging scans to look for any damaged areas. Imaging scan examples include:

  • X-rays
  • A CT scan
  • MRI images
  • discograms

All of these pieces of information can be put together by your doctor to pinpoint the source of your pain, weakness, or discomfort.

Complications of a slipped disc

Permanent nerve damage might result from a significant slipped disc that is left untreated. A slipped disc may, in extremely rare circumstances, prevent nerve impulses from reaching the cauda equina nerves in your lower back and legs. You could lose control of your bowels or bladder if this happens.

The condition known as saddle anaesthesia is another long-term consequence. You lose feeling in your inner thighs, the back of your legs, and the area behind your rectum as a result of the slipped disc compressing nerves in this instance.

While a slipped disc’s symptoms may get better, they might also get worse. It’s time to contact your doctor if you are unable to engage in the activities you formerly enjoyed.

How are slipped discs treated?

A slipped disc can be treated surgically or conservatively. The course of treatment is usually determined by how much pain you’re in and how much the disc has moved out of place.

Using an exercise regimen that stretches and strengthens the back and surrounding muscles, the majority of people can get relief from slipped disc discomfort. Exercises that might strengthen your back and lessen your back discomfort may be suggested by a physical therapist.

Additionally helpful are using over-the-counter painkillers, avoiding strenuous activity, and uncomfortable positions. When you have a slipped disc, it may be tempting to avoid all physical activity, but doing so can cause muscle weakening and joint stiffness. Instead, make an effort to stay as active as you can.

Instead, make an effort to stay as active as you can by stretching or engaging in low-impact sports like walking. Stronger medications may be prescribed by your doctor if the pain from a slipped disc does not go away with over-the-counter remedies. These consist of:

  • drugs that relax the muscles to treat spasms
  • narcotics for pain relief
  • drugs for nerve pain such as gabapentin or duloxetine

If your symptoms do not go away after six weeks or if your slipped disc is impacting your ability to use your muscles, your doctor might advise surgery. Without removing the complete disc, your surgeon may only cut away the damaged or bulging area. It’s known as a microdiskectomy.

In more serious situations, your doctor can remove the disc and fuse your vertebrae together or replace it with an artificial one. Your spinal column will become more stable as a result of this treatment, a laminectomy, and a spinal fusion.



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