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Month: May 2023

Cardiovascular benefits in elderly from antidiabetic drugs.

Cardiovascular benefits in elderly from antidiabetic drugs.

Researchers found that some types of diabetes medications can lower the risk of heart illnesses when coupled with other diabetic medications in a trial including older military veterans.

According to experts, heart health problems are widespread in diabetics, thus a larger segment of the population may benefit from the research. Drugs for GLP1, DPP4, and SGLT2 were used in the trial.

According to a study published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine, some diabetic drugs may reduce the risk of cardiovascular events when combined with other diabetes treatments.

Researchers compared conventional diabetes treatment plans to three key classes of diabetes medications: GLP1, DPP4, and SGLT2.

Recent clinical trials for novel diabetes medicines, the researchers noted:

  • tested the medications only against a placebo, not in competition with one another
  • only tested on individuals with heart disease when examining the cardiovascular benefits

The best pharmaceutical class for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, even in those without a history of the condition, was something the researchers sought to determine.

They claimed that when compared to DPP4 treatments, GLP1 therapies lowered the risk of adverse cardiovascular events and hospitalisations for heart failure.

Compared to DPP4 medications, SGLT2 therapies did not lower the number of hospitalisations for heart failure or cardiovascular events.

Information about the diabetic drug study

Between 2001 and 2016, the researchers examined the medical records of approximately 100,000 veterans who had been prescribed diabetes drugs including metformin, insulin, or sulfonylurea.

Then, one of the three more recent drugs—GLP1, DPP4, or SGLT2—was introduced. Following up was done until 2019.

Agonists of the GLP1 receptor included:

  • Exenatide
  • Liraglutide
  • Semaglutide

Inhibitors of SGLT2 included:

  • Empagliflozin
  • Dapagliflozin
  • Canagliflozin

Among the DPP4 inhibitors were:

  • Alogliptin
  • Linagliptin
  • Saxagliptin
  • Sitagliptin

Participants’ median ages ranged from 67 to 8.5 years, and their median time with diabetes was 8.5 years.

The results revealed:

When compared to DPP4 inhibitors, GLP1 reception agonists have a 20% lower incidence of significant adverse cardiovascular events and heart failure hospitalisations in persons with type 2 diabetes who have never had a heart condition. The risk reduction amounts to around three fewer heart failure episodes, strokes, or fatalities per 1,000 patients using the drug for a year.

When compared to DPP4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors did not lower hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular events.

Dr. Kathleen Dungan, an endocrinologist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Centre, said that therapy should focus on effectiveness in reaching and maintaining treatment objectives for glucose and weight management.

As a result, she said, “some GLP1-based therapies have greater potential to help patients achieve these goals than SGLT2i or DPP-4 inhibitors.” The complexity and method of administration, patient desire, other co-occurring illnesses, side effects, and cost are all person-centered aspects that may be more significant.

Dungan stated that “some limitations [of this study] prevent our ability to directly apply the findings to usual care.” These include a brief follow-up period, a lack of demographic diversity, missing or incomplete data, and nonrandom prescribing patterns, any of which could affect the study findings.

He told us, “This study provides important information on using two classes of diabetes medications, especially for people without known cardiovascular disease.”

The significance of the diabetic medication research

People with diabetes have a younger average age of onset and a twofold increased risk of heart disease. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, having diabetes increases your risk of developing heart disease.

Additionally, elevated blood pressure, “bad” cholesterol, and triglyceride levels are more prevalent among diabetics. These ailments can make you more likely to experience a cardiovascular incident.

Dr. Sanjay Bhojraj, an interventional cardiologist at Providence Mission Hospital in California, remarked, “This study is a superb example of the new convergence of therapeutics for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.”

In the past, the cardiology community has mainly refrained from optimizing diabetic drugs either out of worry over medication-related problems or out of fear of alienating other treating physicians. Primary prevention studies like this one are an appeal to cardiologists to finally enter the fray and treat diabetes like we treat cholesterol or deal with quitting smoking.”

According to Bhojraj, “Now we have real-world data, in a [veterans] population, suggesting a significant decrease in major adverse cardiovascular events using GLP-1 receptor antagonists in patients who have diabetes without prior [cardiovascular disease],” she said. This could help the doctor decide which class of diabetic medication to add to standard-of-care treatment regimens to reduce cardiovascular risk.

It’s interesting to note that both the GLP-1 and SGLT-2 medication classes had positive treatment outcomes in the whole group of individuals undergoing primary and secondary prevention.

The bottom line, the cardiology community needs to take action and incorporate glucose optimization into our treatment strategies, according to Bhojraj, “if we truly want to protect our patients from serious adverse cardiovascular events.”

Treating coexisting conditions common with diabetes

According to a 2019 study, nearly 75% of patients had at least one other chronic health condition when they received a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. 44% of people have two or more conditions.

Diabetes and a number of other common comorbid illnesses include:

  • obesity
  • dyslipidemia
  • blood pressure is high.
  • heart condition
  • renal illness
  • mental health conditions
  • sleep problems
  • cancer

According to Dr. Minisha Sood, an endocrinologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York, “Generally speaking, a GLP1 RA is preferred over an SGLT-2 for the weight benefit in patients with diabetes and obesity – two conditions which overlap more often than not.”

But she added, “This study also reveals another advantage of selecting a GLP1 over an SGLT-2 in patients without cardiovascular disease.”

These medications can help with other comorbid conditions as well, experts point out.

Dr. Rigved Tadwalkar, a cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, said, “This research is encouraging and supports a growing body of evidence that these medications have multiple beneficial effects.”

“GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently being used to treat obesity off-label, according to the literature. He informed us that SGLT2 inhibitors are also licensed to treat chronic renal disease and heart failure.”


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Can slowing and weakening grip be signs of dementia?

Can slowing and weakening grip be signs of dementia?

We lose muscle mass as we age. Humans lose roughly 10% of their body’s muscular mass by the age of 50. The beginning stages of dementia in elderly individuals may be signaled by a decline in physical strength, according to Edith Cowan University researchers.

We all know that as we age, our muscular mass declines. Grip strength and how quickly and steadily people stand up from a chair are two methods to gauge this.

According to research, people start losing muscle mass in their 30s or 40s, and by the time they are 50, they have lost 10% of their total muscle mass. Then, between 50 and 70, we lose an additional 30% of our muscular mass.

Dementia is a broad term for illnesses that affect a person’s cognitive function. Now, researchers from Edith Cowan University in Australia have discovered evidence suggesting a loss of muscle strength may be a signal for older people getting dementia.

Timed Up and Go (TUG) and grip strength were utilized by the researchers as indicators of muscle strength.

Why measure grip strength?

A grip strength test may be used by medical professionals to assess a patient’s hand and forearm muscle health.

The tool used for this straightforward test is a dynamometer. Simply by squeezing the dynamometer with all of their might while holding it in their palm, the user may measure the amount of force applied.

A person’s grip strength has long been regarded as a diagnostic of their general health. Previous studies have linked diminished grip strength to a higher risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

Additionally, previous research discovered that grip strength is a good predictor of an ageing person’s health-related quality of life.

What exactly is a TUG test?

Doctors can assess a patient’s mobility and balance using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) exam.

A person is instructed to sit on a typical chair while taking the TUG test. The individual is instructed to stand up, move to a queue approximately 10 feet from the chair, turn around, move back to the chair and then sit back down in it while a medical practitioner measures them with a stopwatch.

The doctor can observe the patient’s gait and examine their mobility to look for postural or balance problems.

The TUG test can typically be completed in 10 seconds or less by most healthy older persons. A person may be at a higher risk of falling if the time is longer than 13.5 seconds.

According to earlier research, the TUG test assesses older persons’ risk of falling and predicts their level of frailty.

Dementia and muscle tone

Dr. Marc Sim, senior research fellow in the Nutrition & Health Innovation Research Institute at Edith Cowan University in Joondalup, Australia, and the study’s first author claims that they chose to look into a connection between muscle function and dementia because existing research indicates significant connections between physical capacity, including muscle mass (e.g. sarcopenia), and cognitive health.

He explained to us, “When considered in the context of dementia, at a community level, the utilisation of quick, affordable, and straightforward tests such as grip strength and TUG are quite appealing.”

This could be used as a screening tool to assist physicians in identifying patients who are most at risk and to facilitate the promotion of primary preventative interventions, like exercise and diet. At the community level, screening for dementia risk is infrequently done, he added.

According to Dr. Sim, the methods they used to assess the muscular function of research participants—grip strength and TUG tests—were chosen because they are both straightforward and simple to carry out and are currently advised as functional tests as part of sarcopenia criteria in Australia.

These tests, which take around 3 minutes to complete by doctors, have extremely strong evidence supporting their ability to predict a variety of unfavorable outcomes in older populations, including falls, fractures, CVD, and mortality.

Dementia risk factors that are significant

More than 1,000 women with an average age of 75 were examined for this study by Dr. Sim and his team using information from the Perth Longitudinal Study of Ageing in Women.

Each lady took the TUG test and had her grip strength evaluated by researchers. After five years, the tests were conducted once more.

The researchers discovered that over the following 15 years, 17% of study participants either experienced a dementia event, such as a dementia-related hospitalization or death.

A study participant developing dementia was shown to be much more likely to have reduced grip strength and slower TUG, according to the research team. In addition, women who performed poorly on the TUG tests and had the weakest grip strength had a twofold increased risk of developing dementia in later life.

Other risk variables like smoking, drinking, and levels of physical activity had no bearing on this.

I would not say the results are shocking because these functional tests are probably going to give a snapshot of the current health state. Especially because exercise, a major risk factor for dementia, is less likely to be practiced by persons who struggle with everyday routines of life due to physical constraints,” Dr. Sim said.

“What caught my attention was the significant risk of dementia related with functional loss over a five-year period, where individuals who experienced the greatest deterioration were also at the highest risk. This is another crucial topic that clinicians should think about, he continued.

How the loss of grip strength affects cognitive function

After reading this study, Dr. Raphi Wald, a board-certified neuropsychologist at Baptist Health South Florida’s Boca Raton Regional Hospital who was not involved in it, told us that it is helpful in confirming what we already knew and strongly suspected about deteriorating physical and mental abilities.

Before substantial degeneration starts, a number of frequently subclinical signs and symptoms of dementia appear. This is just another indication to physicians that a process might be starting and has to be attended to, he said.

When asked what he would want to see as the next stages for this research, Dr. Wald responded, “I think it would be great to have additional information regarding those people that successfully address their muscle weakness and how much it lessens their risk for dementia once they do so.”

These results are consistent with earlier studies that have shown that grip strength and mobility are correlated with various aspects of cognitive decline in older adults, according to Ryan Glatt, senior brain health coach and director of the FitBrain Programme at Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California, who was also not involved in this study.

Collecting information on strength, gait, and mobility in clinical settings might assist create a comprehensive collection of information that may be useful in predicting the likelihood of dementia. The relationship between these mobility and strength measurements and other facets of brain health would be intriguing,” he continued.

Looking out for indications of cognitive deterioration

We also discussed this research with Dr. William Buxton, a board-certified neurologist who serves as the director of fall prevention and neuromuscular and neurodiagnostic medicine at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica.

Dr. William Buxton stated, “This study tells us that the extra few minutes to perform some really basic simple testing in the office, even just routine visits, like the Time Up and Go test and testing grip strength, can give us good, scientifically grounded reasons to encourage physical activity.”

Dr. Buxton, who was also not involved in the study, continued, “And for those individuals to pay a little bit closer attention to watching for cognitive decline that we may be able to slow down as a result of paying that extra attention.”

Dr. Buxton stated that he would like to see a comparable study conducted in men as well as research to see whether working out in a group had any further advantages.

We are aware that persons who maintain their social connections are less likely to encounter cognitive impairments that are either developing or deteriorating. Therefore, I’d be interested to see if group exercise that is linked to social engagement will have additional benefits in addition to those that come from individual exercise,” he continued.


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Adults with dementia might be helped with internet surfing.

Adults with dementia might be helped with internet surfing.

A new study found a strong correlation between older adults’ regular internet use and a much lower incidence of dementia.

A “sweet spot” of up to two hours a day of internet use was also discovered by the study, beyond which the risk of dementia is expected to rise.

Experts advise providing assistance to elderly folks so they can use new web technology and remove access restrictions.

The impact of internet use among elderly people as a strategy for preventing dementia is the subject of a recent study.

According to the study, older adults who regularly use the internet have a roughly 50% lower risk of developing dementia than older adults who do not.

In this study, 18,154 persons without dementia were followed for an average of 7.9 years and up to 17.1 years to assess their cognitive health. The study’s participants ranged in age from 50 to 64.9 at the outset.

When compared to non-users, internet users who used it frequently had a 43% lower incidence of dementia. A dementia diagnosis had been made for 4.68% of the participants by the end of the trial.

With a U-shaped data curve, the study also hypothesized that the positive impacts of internet use varied with people’s levels of online activity.

The results indicate that the biggest reduction in dementia risk was seen in persons who used the internet between 0.1 and 2 hours per day.

Was that of any use?

A greater risk of dementia persisted for those who never used the internet or spent more than two hours online. The authors do warn that due to the small sample sizes, there were no discernible changes between user groups.

The study’s authors also investigated the effects of generational differences, educational level, race-ethnicity, sex, and gender on the relationship between internet use and dementia risk. They discovered that these factors had no effect on the risk of dementia.

Optimum level of internet usage

There was sort of a sweet spot where, if you used the internet for a half-hour to two hours a day, it was protective against dementia, according to Dr. Scott Kaiser, an expert in geriatric family medicine at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute who was not involved in this study.

He emphasized that “too much internet time was not protective, or potentially harmful.”

Dr. Kaiser is a co-founder of Determined Health, a group devoted to assisting seniors in fortifying their social ties.

Dr. Kaiser pointed out that older people who spend too much time online may be “highly exposed to negative images of aging, and feeling lower self-worth, and feeling bad about getting older that would be an example where too much time could potentially have a negative effect.” This is known as “doom-scrolling,” or compulsively scrolling through social media feeds laden with bad news.

A sedentary, unhealthy lifestyle may be encouraged by spending too much time online. The study’s conclusions could be impacted by the fact that it did not precisely record what its participants performed online.

Additionally not participating in the study, Dr. Snorri Bjorn Rafnsson of the University of West London in the United Kingdom told us that “these specific results merit further investigation.”

What could be the causes of some older individuals using the internet too much? Do they feel alone? isolated socially? What other dangers to their bodily or mental health could there be? What is happening among individuals who don’t use the internet at all, on the other hand? Dr. Snorri Bjorn Rafnsson stated, “I believe that these are questions that could be further investigated in studies in the future.”

How internet use may help ward against dementia?

We know that learning new things and maintaining cognitive engagement is critical for protecting our brains and reducing our risk of developing dementia,” says Dr. Kaiser.

Because learning new information and using new technologies may excite the brain and improve people’s cognitive performance, we might say that using the internet in later life may have direct cognitive benefits.

Dr. Rafnsson pointed out that older persons could utilize the internet to look up general information or health-related information. Another factor encouraging elderly individuals to use the internet is the development of telemedicine.

Regular internet use may also result in positive interpersonal interactions. In a report titled “Our Epidemic of Loneliness and Isolation,” the U.S. Surgeon General discusses the significance of social connection.

How do seniors feel about getting older?

In general, engaging in online activities may encourage a positive outlook on aging, which can have favorable effects on one’s health. Dr. Becca Levy, the author of Breaking The Age Code, was mentioned by Dr. Kaiser.

It is “an amazing work of where we know that our perceptions of ageing actually impact how we age in terms of our longevity, our risk of dementia, just the very way that we think about ageing,” he said.

Dr. Kaiser proposed three mechanisms by which age stereotypes can influence the likelihood of dementia and ageing:

  • It is well known that having a pessimistic mindset can be unhealthy.
  • A recipe for poor health is to treat one’s body like an old vehicle that won’t be on the road for very long.
  • Stress-related elevated cortisol levels and systemic inflammation.

Increasing accessibility to the internet

The suggestion made by Dr. Rafnsson is that “older adults should be supported to learn and use new online technology for whatever purpose they wish.”

He said, “There are many elderly persons who still encounter numerous obstacles, such as a lack of technical skills, cost, social support, etc.

Dr. Rafnsson added, “These hurdles may make it difficult for many older persons to gain from the cognitive and social advantages of utilizing the internet.”

Dr. Kaiser opined that “we should be working towards a more connected society for all.”

Risk factors for dementia

Scientists are still researching dementia, but they have identified some risk factors that can increase your likelihood of getting the disease. The following are some examples, according the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):

  • Advancing years. People 65 and older are most commonly affected by dementia.
  • Family background. The likelihood of someone having dementia increases if they have parents or siblings who have the disease.
  • Race/ethnicity. Dementia strikes older Black Americans twice as frequently as older White Americans. Dementia is 1.5 times more likely to affect Hispanic people than White people.
  • Poor heart health. If diseases like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking are not effectively managed, they raise the chance of dementia.
  • Brain damage caused by trauma. The risk increases with head injuries, particularly when they are serious or frequent.


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A new study finds human brain activity even after death.

A new study finds human brain activity even after death.

Recent studies have revealed an increase in brain activity just before death. The activity occurs in a region of the brain associated with dreams and other forms of altered awareness.

The findings, according to researchers, may help explain the dramatic near-death experiences (bright lights, hallucinations) that patients who were in danger of dying have described.

What transpires to our consciousness once we pass away?

When it comes to the human condition, it’s conceivably the biggest query and a major source of anxiety.

People who have had near-death encounters may be able to give a tantalizing view of how our dying minutes would feel and appear. People have reported having intense experiences that include seeing deceased loved ones, seeing dazzling lights, and having the sensation of flying through the air. Many of these encounters are startlingly similar to one another.

Although many people perceive near-death experiences through a religious or philosophical lens, University of Michigan researchers have researched the phenomenon on a scientific level and discovered a surge in brain activity at the moment of death.

This week, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science published their findings.

The study was directed by Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., an associate professor in the University of Michigan’s Departments of Molecular & Integrative Physiology and Neurology. It expands on prior studies that revealed a neuronal surge in the dying brains of animal test participants.

Although the study has its limitations, experts think it’s a huge step towards understanding the underlying causes of dramatic near-death experiences and provides a window into what our final minutes might be like.

Studying near-death experiences can be challenging.

While performing tests on animals is rather straightforward, studying people who are nearing the end of their lives is challenging from both an ethical and practical standpoint.

To determine whether the human brain responded to death in the same way as the rat brain, Prof. Borjigin and her team wanted to do justice to the earlier research.

To achieve this, researchers looked at the brain activity of four patients who passed away while having an EEG (electrogram) machine on them in hospitals.

Prof. Borjigin explained that even though there were just four patients, “the data generated is massive, so we were only able to report a fraction of the features that it’s actually showing on the data.”

The TPJ region of the brain, so termed because it is the junction between the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes in the rear of the brain, was active at the time of death.

According to Prof. Borjigin, “I really wanted to be able to define something in the brain that can possibly explain that subjective near-death experience.” If some of these patients had lived to tell their tales, they might have, but sadly they didn’t.

Brain activity while dying

Researchers looked at four patients who died from cardiac arrest while their EEGs were being monitored. The patients were taken off life support because they were unconscious, unresponsive, and unable to receive any more medical attention.

Two patients demonstrated a rise in heart rate and a spike in gamma wave activity in the brain, which is the fastest sort of activity and is associated with consciousness, after being taken off the ventilator.

The region of the brain connected to dreaming, visual hallucinations in epilepsy, and altered states of consciousness was also where the activity was discovered.

One of the study’s authors and associate professor at the University of Michigan’s departments of Molecular & Integrative Physiology and Neurology, Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., outlined the key findings of the research.

According to Borjigin, the dying process can first engage the brain. “Secondly, we must look at how the brain functions during cardiac arrest. If the brain is more active while a person is dying, why? Before our study, we were unaware of some brain processes.”

Concealed awareness

Though it is hard to know what the patients went through during these brain surges, the heightened TPJ activity may be able to shed some light on why certain people have extremely vivid near-death experiences.

The increase in brain activity indicated covert consciousness, or consciousness that cannot be seen by bedside tests because the patient is disabled, even if the patients weren’t visually conscious.

According to Prof. Borjigin, “people who have had near-death experiences] may remember seeing or hearing things, as well as having an out-of-body experience or motion perception as if they are flying.” “I believe that we may have identified or described the bare minimum anatomical processes leading to covert consciousness neuro signatures“.

We would like to be able to examine humans in less traumatic situations where the patients are known to be able to live and then tell the story where they can relate their brain signature to a personal experience“.

Patients who survive cardiac arrest while being monitored by an EEG device could be questioned to see if their brain waves correlate with their experience to make this conclusion.

In any case, examining the brain waves of terminally ill people can help us better comprehend the dying process, which is still relatively mysterious.

It may be possible to get fresh insight into the nature of consciousness by investigating how the pulmonary system, cardiac system, and brain interact.

what happens as we die?

Dr. Andrew Newberg, a neurologist, the head of research at the Marcus Institute of Integrative Health, and a physician at Jefferson University Hospital, said, “We don’t fully know the answer to this question.” Before this study, it was believed that the brain simply stopped working, but several additional studies of a similar nature reveal that there is unique brain activity connected to the close-to-death state.

The temporoparietal junction and the prefrontal cortex, two regions of the brain linked to cognitive functions, were revealed to be implicated in the study.

The sympathetic nervous system, which regulates the body’s “fight-or-flight” reaction, has been linked to these parts of the brain, according to Newberg, who also noted that spiritual experiences have been linked to these regions of the brain as well.

A bioethicist responds to the research

The study’s main finding is that the dying process causes some chemical alterations in the brain. It clarifies why individuals think they can see angels or a light at the end of the tunnel, according to Arthur Caplan, a bioethicist at NYU Langone Medical Centre in New York. What it demonstrates is that the brain has mechanisms in place to try and rouse itself awake and that it can shoot off in hallucinatory ways.

Many people are interested in what occurs after death, but this study is in its early stages and doesn’t explore that topic, he added.

In some respects, our study clarifies people’s anxiety that perhaps they will suffer as they are about to pass away at the last minute, even if that doesn’t appear to be the case. However, this study suggests that you don’t have any insights into what really happens when you pass away, so people may be let down,” Caplan said.


A recent study found that comatose individuals who died from cardiac arrest experienced an increase in brain activity that resembled conscious awareness.

The area of the brain that is linked to dreaming, visual hallucinations in epilepsy, and altered states of consciousness were where the activity was discovered.

Experts are optimistic that by pursuing this research avenue and knowing more about the dying brain, they will one day be able to save cardiac arrest victims.


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Are brain fog, sleep, and pain improved by Cannabis?

Are brain fog, sleep, and pain improved by Cannabis?

Cannabis, according to researchers, may be able to lessen the negative effects of chemotherapy as well as cancer discomfort. In a recent study, cancer patients said that using cannabis helped them feel less pain, sleep better, and think more clearly.

According to experts, federal rules need to be altered so that more studies may be done on cannabis’ advantages and impacts on medical ailments.

According to a study conducted at the University of Colorado at Boulder and published in the journal Exploration in Medicine, people with cancer who use cannabis to alleviate symptoms experience less pain, sleep better, and have clearer thinking.

This is one of the first observational studies to examine the potential effects of cannabis products obtained from a dispensary on chemotherapy side effects and cancer symptoms.

University researchers are only permitted to possess and distribute cannabis products that are authorized by the government or that meet pharmaceutical standards in the United States, which makes it challenging to conduct studies on dispensary goods.

The researchers at the University of Colorado, however, developed a novel strategy. When 25 cancer patients bought their products, they watched how they responded.

During a baseline visit, the researchers evaluated the patient’s pain tolerance, sleep quality, and cognitive function. After that, the participants went to a dispensary and bought a cannabis edible product of their choice. They selected several different products, such as:

  • Chocolates
  • Gummies
  • Tinctures
  • Pills
  • a baked good

Additionally, the THC and CBD potencies varied widely.

Information from the cannabis and cancer pain study

The researchers traveled to each person’s residence in a mobile lab.

Before being asked to consume the cannabis product they had chosen at home, each person had their physical and mental capabilities evaluated in the van. After consuming medical marijuana, they completed another test.

Within an hour of using the items, the patients claimed that their pain levels had greatly decreased. Additionally, it made them feel “high” and affected their cognitive function. They claimed to feel higher the more THC was present.

After two weeks of consistent use, the individuals underwent a follow-up examination. At that time, the patients indicated that their pain, sleep, and cognitive abilities had all decreased. Improvements were evident in various cognitive domains, including reaction times, according to objective measurements.

The researchers found that lower levels of pain led to an improvement in cognitive performance. The improvement in cognition increased as the discomfort decreased.

Patients who consumed more CBD reported significant reductions in pain and better sleep. CBD reduces inflammation. The authors of the study point out that while cognition was temporarily reduced, it can be enhanced by treating pain.

How cannabis might benefit cancer patients

Some dosages and cannabis types, according to experts, may be beneficial for persons receiving cancer therapy.

Dr. Wael Harb, a hematologist and medical oncologist at Memorial Care Cancer Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in California who was not involved in the study, said, “This study adds to the growing body of research that examines the potential benefits of cannabis use in cancer patients.”

According to Harb, “the results highlight the potential for cannabis to reduce pain, enhance cognition, and improve the overall quality of life for patients.” These findings have important therapeutic ramifications since they imply that cannabis may be used as an auxiliary or alternative therapy for cancer patients, particularly those who are in pain or have cognitive deficits.

However, “it is important to note that the study has limitations, such as a relatively small sample size, which may not represent the larger population of cancer patients,” the author continued.

The study also uses self-reported information, which is prone to bias. To validate these results and investigate any potential hazards or negative consequences related to cannabis usage in cancer patients, additional research with bigger, more diverse samples and more objective assessment technologies is required.

What do you need to understand about medical marijuana?

The director of the UCI Centre for the Study of Cannabis, Daniele Piomelli, Ph.D., stated that “this small study supports what oncologists have known for a long time: many cancer patients (half of them, according to some surveys) use cannabis to cope with nausea, pain, and sleeplessness caused by cancer drugs“.

He informed us that the National Cancer Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health, is aware of this and that urgently required larger investigations are about to begin.

According to the National Institutes of Health, the cannabis plant has two major compounds (cannabinoids) that are employed in medical procedures. THC and CBD are these.

These have not been given use approval by the Food and Drug Administration. The group has, however, approved a small number of drugs that do:

  • Cannabidiol (Epidolex)
  • Dronabinol (Marinol, Syndros)
  • Nabilone

Currently, marijuana use is either decriminalized or legal in 46 states. Anyone considering using medical items should first examine the regulations in their locality as each state has different legislation.

Dr. Olivia Seecof, clinical assistant professor of medicine and attending physician in supportive oncology at NYU Langone Perlmutter Cancer Centre in New York, said she was “very excited” about the study because it was “one of the first studies to address some of the issues surrounding recommending medical cannabis products in an evidence-based way.”

During outpatient supportive oncology appointments, I do certify patients for medical cannabis. I had to enroll in the New York State Medical Cannabis Programme and complete further training/certification to be able to do that,” she explained to us.

The market for medical marijuana is expanding.

Its US market value in 2021 was close to $27 billion. Market Research Future estimates that by 2030, it would reach $248 billion.

According to a Reuters article, some proposed measures in Congress would decriminalize or legalize marijuana.

It would be decriminalized under one statute, leaving state regulation to their discretion. More research will be possible thanks to the regulation reform, giving doctors and other healthcare providers the data they need to treat patients.

Because of cannabis’ murky legal status and negative connotations, many doctors are still uneasy about marijuana, according to Piomelli. “But the profession can no longer bury its head in the sand with so many patients using it. To better meet the requirements of their patients, doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals need to have more knowledge about the advantages and drawbacks of cannabis.


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Children marked packaged food are higher in sugar.

Children marked packaged food are higher in sugar.

According to researchers, packaged foods targeted toward children had more sugar content and fewer critical elements than other goods. Among the products they looked at, they claimed that cereal and toaster pastries had the most kid-friendly marketing.

According to experts, governments need to regulate product marketing to youngsters and provide greater parental education.

Foods marketed towards children often include more sugar and fewer essential nutrients than foods with less kid-friendly packaging. That is supported by a Canadian study that was just published in the journal PLOS ONE.

Nearly 6,000 distinct food items that were important to kids’ diets were examined by researchers, and they found that 13% of them had marketing targeted towards kids, with the potency of such marketing ranging from product to product.

Although there was a generally poor association between marketing effectiveness and general nutrient levels, the researchers found that the meals that were considered to be the most appealing to children had more sugar content than those in conventional packaging, with an average of 14.7 grams compared to 9 grams.

“While this study found variability in nutritional quality and composition depending on the food category and the nutrient, results showed that in many cases, products with child-appealing packaging were higher in nutrients of concern in particular, total sugars, free sugars, and sodium than products with non-child-appealing packaging,” the University of Toronto and the University of Ottawa researchers wrote in a press release.

Only two food categories—cereal and toaster pastries—had more than 50% of their marketing targeted at children out of all the foods examined. These were some of the goods that were actively sold to children.

Is marketing important?

How does one distinguish between “child-appealing” and unappealing content?

With a formalized system based on a dozen distinct categories, the researchers aimed to overcome this fundamental problem.

“The current lack of standardization in terms of definitions and methodologies for evaluating child-appeal is concerning,” the researchers stated.

According to them, “the specific marketing strategies that were advertised on product packages varied across food categories.” However, fundamental strategies that have historically been utilized in child-friendly marketing, such as using characters and appealing to fun or coolness, were still widely adopted across the sample.

Of course, kids don’t typically buy cereal or pastries for themselves, but kids’ interests often have an impact on their parents’ purchasing decisions.

“The ‘nag factor’ or ‘pester power’ is a term used to describe the influence that children, especially toddlers, and preschoolers, have on their parents’ purchasing decisions,” Agbai said. “Marketers are aware that kids can persuade their parents to buy a product they want by bothering or nagging them all the time. The theory is that the more a youngster requests a product, the more probable it is that the parent will cave and buy it.”

Children may influence their parents’ purchasing decisions, making them a desirable demographic to target for businesses, she continued. “This phenomenon is a potent force in the retail industry,” she said.

Need for more children’s product regulation and education

The researchers recommended that politicians enact more strenuous marketing rules to safeguard children to assist in reducing the promotion of less healthful foods directly to youngsters.

Paediatrician Dr. Daniel Ganjian, FAAP, of Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California concurred, pointing out that physicians too have a part to play.

Ganjian advised us that parenting and pediatric organizations should publish a best-practices guide for marketing to children. “Parents should only patronize businesses and organizations that adhere to this philosophy.” Asking the government to control the promotion of unhealthy foods to children is another option.

Parents also have a responsibility

For parents, it’s learning what is actually healthy and unhealthy for their children, according to Florida-based dietitian Jesse Feder, RDN, who spoke with us.

Learning what these foods can do to your kids can help parents understand the severity of the situation,” he continued. “It’s crucial to inculcate healthy eating habits in children and to teach them why some foods are unhealthy and others are beneficial.”

Successful initiatives include, among others, adding nutritional information on menus in American restaurants, expanding access to healthy food in underserved areas, lowering the number of food swamps, and limiting the amounts of drinks and other goods sold at fast food restaurants.

Processed and packaged food safety

Dr. Christine Mulligan, the study’s principal author, claims that packaged foods for kids are extremely harmful and have minimal nutritional value.

“A lot of the products in our grocery stores are highly advertised to youngsters and have quite strong marketing campaigns. Christine Mulligan stated, “Unfortunately, we also discovered that these items are typically much more nutritionally inferior and highly unhealthy than those that aren’t being marketed to children.

Additionally, according to the researchers, the packaged goods that were found to be the most enticing to children were the ones with the highest sugar content, with an average of 14.7 grams as opposed to 9 grams for items with ordinary and unattractive packaging.

Researchers believe that things may get worse.

Given that the study only looked at packaged goods, researchers think that the issues with packaged foods may be even more severe. However, it is concerning because it is unknown how much marketing children actually encounter in daily life.

Kids learn about these items from social media, television, community centers, and other sources. As a result of all these marketing strategies, children become more aware of these products, which hurt their eating habits and contribute to the global epidemic of childhood diabetes, obesity, and other diet-related ailments.

More control of packaged foods for kids.

The researchers claim that to lessen the marketing of packaged goods directly to children, greater regulation and information on kids’ items are required.

To safeguard children’s health and general well-being, researchers contend that tougher regulations should be put in place today against the marketing of packaged foods.

According to Christine Mulligan, these regulations must be strict and all-encompassing to shield kids from these damaging marketing techniques wherever they go to live, play, and eat.

She advised parents to take charge in the interim and make some adjustments at home. Cooking and eating more meals at home can help parents monitor their child’s sugar and calorie intake.

There should be more control over packaged foods for kids. Mulligan also advises discussing with kids how the long-term health effects of companies and marketing strategies can affect them.


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Ultrasonic sound helps chemo drugs might treat brain cancer

Ultrasonic sound helps chemo drugs might treat brain cancer

Because chemotherapy medications cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, brain cancer can be challenging to treat. According to researchers, an ultrasound device has the potential to momentarily remove that barrier and allow chemotherapy medications to get through.

According to experts, this technique could revolutionize the way brain cancer is treated. The most lethal type of brain cancer, glioblastoma, may now be treatable according to recent studies.

Treatment for brain tumors is very challenging. The blood-brain barrier, which regulates what can travel from the bloodstream to the brain, is a contributing factor in that the majority of chemotherapy medications are inhibited by this barrier.

The issue was overcome by Northwestern Medicine doctors who implanted an ultrasonic device in the brain to momentarily break down the blood-brain barrier, enabling chemotherapy medications to be injected intravenously into the brain.

Finding that a new technology can safely and effectively open the blood-brain barrier to deliver chemotherapy is potentially a game-changing step forward in brain cancer research and treatment,” Dr. Jason Salsamendi, the lead interventional radiologist at the City of Hope Orange County Lennar Foundation Cancer Centre in California, told us.

Throughout a 4-month period, the 4-minute procedure which is performed on awake patients was repeated once every few weeks for a total of six sessions.

According to the study, which was written up in the journal Lancet Oncology, the surgery caused the concentration of chemotherapy medications in the brain to virtually multiply by four to six.

New brain cancer treatments importance

Dr. Adam Sonabend, a neurosurgeon at the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University in Illinois, is the study’s primary investigator and neurosurgeon. He also serves as an associate professor of neurological surgery. “While we have concentrated on brain cancer, this provides an opportunity to explore novel drug-based therapies for the millions of patients who are affected by a variety of brain diseases,” the authors write.

Dr Albert Kim, director of the brain tumour centre at Washington University in St. Louis’ Siteman Cancer Centre, who was not involved in this trial, told us that systemic distribution via IV is typical and simple to carry out.

Although the blood-brain barrier had previously been opened with ultrasound, Kim stated that “the implantable device allows for repeated openings, which could enable the delivery of multiple cycles of systemic drugs.”

The trial included paclitaxel and carboplatin, two powerful chemotherapy medications that are typically ineffective in the treatment of glioblastoma.

Temozolomide, the major chemotherapeutic agent now being used to treat glioblastoma, can cross the blood-brain barrier, however it is somewhat ineffective.

Injecting paclitaxel directly into the brain has been shown in prior studies to be beneficial, but it also carries the risk of meningitis and irritated brain tissue.

The five-year survival rate for glioblastoma is now at around 10%, and patients have not benefited from recent developments in cancer treatment, such as targeted medicines and immunotherapy, according to Salsamendi. An option to administeradminister medication directly into the brain each time a dose is needed is the ability to distribute chemotherapy across the blood-brain barrier.

Blood-brain barrier being opened

The blood-brain barrier quickly closed after being forced open, often within 30 to 60 minutes, according to the study’s researchers.

Salsamendi noticed that there is a greater possibility of dangerous substances entering the brain if the blood-brain barrier is breached for a longer period. In terms of treatment planning and risk minimization, it would be important to know how long the barrier may be open with as much accuracy as feasible.

The French biotech company Carthera created the ultrasound device, which breaks down the blood-brain barrier via a stream of tiny bubbles.

One hour later, the blood-brain barrier recloses.

The researchers found that the blood-brain barrier may be temporarily opened in people using ultrasound and microbubble technology and that most of its integrity returns an hour later.

The brain is permeable to medications circulating in the bloodstream for a critical period of time following sonification, according to Sonabend, who is also a member of Northwestern University’s Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Centre.

The blood-brain barrier is fully restored 24 hours after brain sonication, according to prior human investigations. However, the field previously made the assumption that the blood-brain barrier is open during the first six to eight hours. According to the Northwestern study, this window may be smaller.

Another first is that the blood-brain barrier is opened in a brain volume that is nine times greater than the initial device (a modest single-ultrasound emitter implant) when a revolutionary skull-implantable grid of nine ultrasound emitters created by the French biotech company Carthera is used. This is crucial because for this method to be effective, a sizable area of the brain close to the cavity that remains after the excision of glioblastoma tumours must be covered.


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Can low-carb or fat diets prolong life in middle-aged?

Can low-carb or fat diets prolong life in middle-aged?

A healthy low-fat diet has been shown to reduce the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and early death in middle-aged and older persons, according to research.

A healthy low-carbohydrate diet, according to experts, may marginally reduce the risk of early mortality in that age group.

According to experts, as you get older, weight and diet become more crucial, therefore choosing a healthy eating strategy is essential.

A recent study found that the health of middle-aged and older persons can be improved by diets reduced in fat and carbohydrates.

Low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets are healthy choices for weight loss and heart health in short-term research trials.

The most recent research, which was released in the Journal of Internal Medicine, looks at how such diets affect mortality in middle-aged and older persons.

The study examined 371 159 individuals between the ages of 50 and 71. 165,698 of the participants passed away over the study’s 23-year duration.

According to the researchers, low-saturated-fat diets that are high in plant protein and high-quality carbs are linked to lower risks of death from all causes, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

A general low-carb diet and a bad low-carb diet, however, were linked to considerably greater rates of overall, cardiovascular, and cancer death. However, a low-carb, healthful diet was linked to somewhat decreased death rates.

“Our results support the importance of maintaining a healthy [low-fat diet] with less saturated fat in preventing all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and older people,” the study’s authors said.

Fats and carbohydrates as you get older

The consensus among experts is that as people age, low-carb diets are typically the healthiest option.

However, when it comes to fat, experts advise limiting only the dangerous types of fat and carbohydrates rather than all of them.

It’s critical to distinguish between a healthy carbohydrate or healthy fat and an unhealthy one, according to Kailey Proctor, a dietitian at the City of Hope Orange County Lennar Foundation Cancer Centre in California who specialises in cancer nutrition.

Many people are unaware of the distinctions between basic and complex carbs, as well as saturated and unsaturated fats, according to Proctor, who observes cancer patients daily. “Complex carbs, such those found in whole wheat bread, quinoa, brown rice, and sweet potatoes, can be healthy to consume“. Compared to simple carbs, which have absolutely little nutritional value, including white bread, breakfast cereals, and pastries, these foods are all high in fiber, antioxidants, and micronutrients.

Low-carb, low-fat diets explained

Both diets have been proven to be beneficial for middle-aged people’s health, according to Trista Best, a certified dietitian at Balance One Supplements.

For instance, several low-carb diets encourage the consumption of protein and healthy fats. Not all carbohydrates are created equal, and some healthy carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can be a crucial component of a balanced diet, according to Best.

She continued, “Low-fat diets have also been found to offer health benefits, including improving cholesterol levels and lowering the risk of heart disease. Low-fat diets typically restrict fat intake and emphasize carbs and protein. But it’s crucial to pick good fats, such as those in nuts, seeds, avocados, and fatty fish.

Registered dietitian Robert Lafelice works for the fitness brand Set For Set. He claimed that understanding a healthy diet is made simple by seeing it through the perspective of evolution.

All adults should follow a low-carb diet, according to the overwhelming body of research, Lafelice said. “Humans developed over hundreds of thousands of years on a diet high in protein and fat, not carbohydrates. The government’s proposal that we obtain more than half of our energy from carbohydrates is in direct opposition to the original human diet.”

According to Lafelice, a high-carb diet has been linked to everything from diabetes to cancer to dementia. He added that low-fat diets by themselves may not be healthful.

There are needed proteins and fatty acids, but no essential dietary carbohydrates, he claimed. “Eating low fat and high carb is particularly harmful and unhealthy for older folks. We naturally grow more insulin resistance as we get older. Therefore, eating a lot of carbs will only make things worse.”

Middle age diet

Dietician and author Heather Dyc told us that she is a “big fan of low carb, but not low fat, diets for the middle-aged.”

When it comes to aging, “good fats, or omegas, have so many health benefits, it might do more harm than good to cut these out of your diet,” the expert advised. For instance, they enhance mood, reduce cognitive decline, and maybe prevent metabolic disease. Healthy fats like those found in nuts, seeds, seafood, and olive oil are also very satisfying, causing you to consume fewer calories overall. Middle-aged people frequently have more belly fat than their younger counterparts, thus this is advantageous.

Dyc advised being selective about the sources of carbohydrates around middle age.

Our metabolism slows down and hormone production decreases in our 40s and 50s, she explained. “We have more aches and pains than usual, and weight gain is simpler. Fruits and vegetables that are high in nutrients have fibre, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that promote healthy ageing.

The licensed dietician and nutrition adviser for the weight-loss app Lasta, Barbara Kovalenko, told us that as individuals become older, they need to make educated decisions about their health.

Both low-fat and low-carb diets, according to Kovalenko, may be able to improve the health of middle-aged and older persons, however, the precise advantages may vary.

In the end, Kovalenko claimed that there is no universally effective diet; what works best for one individual might not work for another. “However, this new research offers insightful information about how making straightforward dietary changes can have favorable effects on overall health outcomes.”

What food experts have to say

According to Lon Ben-Asher MS, RD, a nutritionist, and instructor at Pritikin Longevity Centre, the quality of food consumed as part of a person’s diet has the greatest impact on whether or not that person develops a disease or increases their chance of developing one.

For instance, he claims that the majority of evidence-based research supports adopting an eating pattern that is consistent with a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet that is centered around high-quality carbohydrates and plant protein sources that are rich in vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, and dietary fiber as a means of preventing or reducing the risk of chronic diseases like:

As examples of foods higher in fiber, he lists the following: peas, potatoes, beans, lentils, and other legumes; muesli; whole grains; and foods low in saturated fats and dietary cholesterol.

According to him, “This way of eating supports good bacteria in the gut microbiome, reducing inflammation throughout the body.” Ben-Asher continues by saying that this is advantageous for maintaining a healthy weight as well as for the brain.

According to a nutritionist and author of “Skinny Liver,” Kristin Kirkpatrick, MS, RDN, while she has many patients who have successfully managed their non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes by following moderate- and low-carb dietary patterns, the most crucial aspect of any dietary pattern is making sure it contains lots of vegetables, protein, and low-glycemic foods.

She adds that it’s crucial to make sure your diet includes good fats like olive oil and nuts because they frequently form the basis of studies on healthy diets.


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Migraines increase the chance of problems during pregnancy.

Migraines increase the chance of problems during pregnancy.

A sizable prospective study was carried out by scientists at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston to learn more about the link between migraines and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes.

According to their findings, women with pre-pregnancy headaches had a 40% increased risk of preeclampsia, a 28% increased risk of gestational hypertension, and a 17% increased risk of premature delivery.

These findings, according to the researchers, point to the potential advantage of greater monitoring for pregnant women who have a history of migraines.

Compared to men, women have a 2 to 3 times higher lifetime risk of developing migraines, which are most prevalent in women between the ages of 18 and 44.

Before a migraine attack, some people see an “aura” that frequently consists of flashing lights in their range of vision.

An aura-specific migraine, in particular, has been linked to a two-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, according to a recent meta-analysis.

The molecular factors linked to cardiovascular risks in migraine sufferers may also raise the chance of pregnancy difficulties, according to a research hypothesis.

Meanwhile, little research has examined the connection between migraine and difficulties during pregnancy. Small study populations, a lack of knowledge about potential confounding variables, and the migraine phenotype (with or without aura) are the limitations of these investigations.

To fill in these knowledge gaps, scientists from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston created a significant prospective study to calculate the correlations between pre-pregnancy migraine and the risk of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, and low birth weight.

The researchers also looked at potential effect modification by aspirin use and examined whether these relationships varied by migraine phenotype in the study, which was published in the journal Neurology.

Study on migraines and pregnancy

Data from the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) were used by Brigham instructors Alexandra Cari Purdue-Smithe, Ph.D., and her team to achieve these goals.

In 1989, 116,430 registered nurses in the United States between the ages of 25 and 42 participated in this study. Questionnaires about participants’ lifestyles and health were given out. Every two years, participants in this study were required to answer questions on their lifestyle and general health.

In 2009, participants submitted information on each pregnancy they had ever had, including any unfavorable results. In 2007, participants in the NHSII were asked if they had ever experienced aura along with their migraine headaches.

Any self-reported medical diagnosis of migraine on the 1989, 1993, and 1995 NHSII questionnaires was considered a migraine for the purposes of this study, according to Purdue-Smithe’s team.

They restricted their studies to 30-555 pregnancies in 19,694 women who had no history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, or cancer. These pregnancies had to be at least 20 weeks long.

Using log-binomial and log-Poisson models, the researchers determined the relative risk and 95% confidence interval for each unfavorable pregnancy outcome. These models were adjusted for several confounding variables, including age at conception, age at menstruation’s onset, race and ethnicity, body mass index, chronic hypertension, alcohol use, physical activity, smoking status, analgesic use, oral contraceptive use, infertility diagnosis, and the number of births.

Important results of the migraine study

11% of the 19,694 female participants at baseline had ever been diagnosed with a migraine by a doctor.

According to the statistical studies, migraine was not linked to gestational diabetes or low birth weight, but it was linked to a higher risk of preterm delivery by 17%, gestational hypertension by 28%, and preeclampsia by 40%.

For migraine with and without aura, the risk of preterm birth and the risk of gestational hypertension were comparable. However, compared to women who had migraines without aura, those who had migraines with aura had a slightly increased chance of developing preeclampsia.

The researchers also discovered a 45% decreased risk of preterm birth in migraine-prone women who consistently (more than twice a week) took aspirin before becoming pregnant. Although this particular investigation had limited statistical power, the researchers did find that women who reported regularly taking aspirin before becoming pregnant had a qualitatively decreased risk of preeclampsia.

Understanding pregnancy and migraine

The results are significant, according to Dr. Matthew Robbins, an associate professor of neurology at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York who was not involved in the study.

“We already knew that the relative risk of stroke and overall cardiovascular comorbidity is higher in individuals who have migraine with aura,” he told us. “This is based on large, population-based epidemiological studies.” “Now, we know that this risk may also extend to pregnancy-related complications, such as a higher incidence of pregnancy-specific cardiovascular diseases like gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.”

He continued, “The results of this investigation imply that migraine history and, to a lesser extent, migraine phenotype, are therapeutically helpful predictors of pregnancy risks.

Likewise not taking part in the study was Dr. Sarah E. Vollbracht, an associate professor of neurology at Columbia University in New York.

Given the high prevalence of migraine in women of childbearing age, these findings suggest that migraine screening should be included in initial obstetrical assessments to determine if a woman is at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and women with migraine should be closely followed throughout pregnancy and monitored for the development of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy,” she said in a statement to us.

Aspirin use during pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth and preeclampsia, according to the study’s findings, but Vollbracht cautioned that “this finding should be interpreted cautiously” and that “more data, including placebo-controlled studies, is needed to determine the role of aspirin use in pregnant women with migraine.”

Limitations and upcoming studies

The definition of migraine utilized in this study may have understated the actual prevalence of migraine in the study population and, consequently, the relative risks, according to Purdue-Smithe and her co-authors.

Confounding effects from additional factors, such as heredity and drugs specifically designed to treat migraines, cannot be completely ruled out despite the statistical studies taking numerous potential confounding factors into account.

The Nurses’ Health Study II cohort’s limited generalizability is due to the majority of non-Hispanic white study participants.

Future research should focus on including a patient population that is more diverse in terms of racial, cultural, and socioeconomic origins, according to Vollbracht.

She went on to say that “further prospective studies are needed to determine more clearly the difference in risk based on migraine phenotype as well as understanding the influence of attack frequency on the risk of these adverse pregnancy outcomes.”

Additional study is required to better understand how aspirin alters effects, especially in terms of dosage and initiation time.

Future research may need to evaluate the use of daily aspirin during the second and third trimesters as a preventive intervention against preeclampsia for pregnant women with migraine with aura, according to Robbins.

The researchers concluded by saying that further investigation should aim to shed light on the mechanisms behind the connections found in this study.


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long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

Following a heart attack, beta-blockers are frequently prescribed to patients to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

According to a recent study, taking drugs over the long term after a heart attack doesn’t seem to benefit cardiovascular health.

The observational study, according to experts, offers useful data, but they also point out that beta-blockers continue to be helpful for a large number of people.

Research in the journal Heart found no evidence that long-term beta-blocker use improved cardiovascular health or decreased the risk of further heart attacks.

Researchers looked at the medical records of persons who had a heart attack between 2005 and 2016 and required hospital treatment using the Swedish national registry for coronary heart disease.

Records from 43,618 persons, with an average age of 64, were included in the study. There were about 1 in 4 women. None of them had left ventricular systolic dysfunction or cardiac failure.

One year after being hospitalized for a heart attack, of the participants, 34,253 (78%) were using beta-blockers, whereas 9,365 (22%) were not.

For an average of 4.5 years following their hospitalisation, the researchers followed up with the participants.

Researchers evaluated the two groups in terms of:

  • Death rates from all causes
  • Additional heart attacks
  • Getting re-vascularized, a procedure to bring back blood flow to certain areas of the heart
  • Heart attack

2,028 (22%) and 6,475 (19%) of the beta-blocker users had one of these occurrences during the observation period.

There was no noticeable difference in the rates between the two groups, according to the researchers, who took demographic factors and pertinent co-morbid disorders into account.

According to real-time data, the use of long-term beta-blockers after a heart attack in persons without heart failure or left ventricular systolic dysfunction was not linked to better cardiovascular outcomes.

Physician response to beta-blocker research

The interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in California, Dr. Hoang Nguyen, recommended beta blockers for patients with left ventricular dysfunction since they had a demonstrable mortality benefit.

According to him, beta blockers are a lifetime in this patient population. “Beta blockers are necessary for patients with a history of coronary artery disease who are not candidates for bypass surgery or stents to lower angina symptoms and hospitalizations for this symptom. I might try to wean them off of beta blockers, especially if they have serious adverse effects if they have undergone revascularization (either with stents or bypass surgery) or have normally left ventricle function.

This study has prompted some doctors to reconsider their methods, but not all of them are presently prepared to do so.

According to Dr. Devin Kehl, a non-invasive cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, “this study suggests that a long-term continuation of beta-blockers following myocardial infarction may not be of significant benefit in patients without any of those factors and with normal cardiac function.” However, because it was an observational study, the results might have been impacted by unrecognized confounders.

To be more clear about whether beta-blockers should be continued or stopped after one year following myocardial infarction, randomized trials are required, according to Kehl, who spoke to us. “Caution is needed in interpreting the results of this type of analysis and applying this clinical practice,” Kehl said.

In conclusion, it is still necessary for a patient’s cardiologist to exercise careful clinical judgement when deciding how long beta-blocker therapy should be administered after myocardial infarction.


Beta-blockers are used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

They accomplish this by preventing the negative effects that stress hormones have on the heart and can lower heart rate. They are also beneficial for migraines.

Beta-blockers are typically regarded as secure and efficient. However, there are some adverse effects, such as:

  • Fatigue
  • easily running out of breath
  • Unsteadiness or faintness
  • Depression

Nguyen notes that side effects of the drugs include memory loss and impaired sexual function.

Perhaps we should try to wean patients off beta blockers if a beta blocker is not needed after one year, especially if the patient’s heart function is normal,” Nguyen suggested.

Some people might not be able to take them or might quit taking them because of the negative effects.

The use of beta-blockers

After the first year of treatment, Miller typically stops prescribing beta-blockers to heart attack survivors with intact cardiac function.

They are only kept on the drug if there is another condition, like hypertension, that calls for it.

Those with heart failure, irregular cardiac rhythm, hypertension, and recurring palpitations that happen without a known trigger (like caffeine), are candidates who can benefit from beta-blockers.

“The patient should always discuss with their physician whether or not a beta-blocker is a suitable treatment and/or should be discontinued,” he said.

Reduce the dosage gradually rather than stopping the drug all at once if a patient decides to stop taking it.

Considering the future

Medication observation studies examine participants’ responses to a drug or treatment without changing their circumstances.

Observational studies are not regarded by medical practitioners as being as reliable as randomised, controlled trials. However, when prescribing medications, they provide important information for doctors and other medical professionals.

Beta-blockers have long been and will continue to remain a cornerstone medical therapy following a myocardial infarction as they have been clearly demonstrated to reduce the risk of recurrent events and death,” said Kehl. However, clinical trials have not examined the benefit of beta-blockers in patients with normal cardiac function beyond three years after a myocardial infarction, and their benefit is strongest in the early period post-myocardial infarction, according to the study.

Additionally, patients with and without cardiac dysfunction were included in a mixed cohort in clinical trials looking at the benefits of beta-blockers, the author continued. “It is unclear if long-term use of beta-blockers after myocardial infarction benefits people with normal cardiac function. Due to a lack of data from clinical research, the American College of Cardiology guidelines do not directly address the issue. Currently, a long-term continuation of beta-blockers depends on carefully examining the patient’s cardiac history and determining whether there are any other distinct indications for using beta-blockers, such as arrhythmias, angina, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, or hypertension.”


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