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Category: Brain disease

Although smoking shrinks the brain, stopping could stop additional loss.

Although smoking shrinks the brain, stopping could stop additional loss.

According to a recent study, cigarette smoking causes brain shrinkage, with the damage increasing with the amount of time and intensity of smoking. Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and cognitive decline are all more likely to occur when brain volume is lost. While it cannot be stopped, quitting smoking can help slow down the shrinkage of the brain. The authors of the study advise smokers of any age to make stopping their habit a top priority. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that smoking cigarettes shrinks the brain. Washington, MO (WashUMed). Additionally linked to a higher risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and cognitive impairment is brain shrinkage. The findings of the study demonstrate that stopping smoking at any moment prevented additional gray matter loss. But once shrinkage happens, the brain does not regain its initial mass. Smoking has long been known to be bad for the heart and lungs, but its effects on the brain have received less attention from researchers.

Leading the research team is Dr. Laura J., a senior author. The director of WashUMed’s Health and Behavior Research Center, Bierut, set out to close a knowledge gap about the negative effects of smoking. The results of the investigation were just released in Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science. According to earlier studies, smokers have a higher risk of dementia. An estimated 14% of Alzheimer’s cases are thought to be related to smoking. Disentangling behavioral and genetic variables is necessary to examine the relationship between brain shrinkage and cigarette smoking. Genetics can affect both brain shrinkage and the desire to smoke; according to the authors, genetics accounts for roughly half of an individual’s preference for smoking. The researchers took into account variables like brain volume and genetic susceptibility to smoking. They came to the conclusion that although smoking may be inherited, smoking is a major cause of brain shrinkage. The UK Biobank’s 2019 data releases are analyzed in this study. It included brain imaging data from 32,094 participants who were of European descent. The participants admitted to smoking on their own.

Researchers determined the number of years that smokers who reported consuming one pack or twenty cigarettes per day smoked cigarettes. Their brain images were contrasted with those of nonsmokers and smokers who had smoked less than 100 cigarettes. There was more brain shrinkage in those who smoked more. Dr. Neurons and their connections are lost in brain shrinkage, also known as atrophy, according to Dung Trinh of the Healthy Brain Clinic in Long Beach, California, who spoke with Medical News Today. Dr. Trinh did not work on the project. According to Dr. Trinh, this loss may affect the brain’s ability to operate properly. Dr. According to Trinh, certain crucial regions shrink in diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in general, which leads to a loss of function. For instance, he pointed out that Alzheimer’s patients frequently exhibit marked atrophy in the hippocampus, an area essential for memory formation. A decrease in cognitive function may arise from this atrophy’s suppression of interregional communication in the brain. Dr. Bierut made the observation that aging is linked to a decrease in brain volume. To put it another way, she claimed that smokers’ brains are “older”.

According to Dr. Bierut, smoking exposes oneself to numerous harmful chemicals. She continued by saying that smokers’ blood oxygen levels are consistently lower. According to Dr. Bierut, the brain is slowly starving itself because it loves oxygen and these prolonged low oxygen levels are starving it. Dr. Trinh enumerated a number of ways smoking can damage the brain. According to him, vascular damage can lower blood flow to the brain, which can cause atrophy and cell death. Dr. Trinh mentioned how smoking causes oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which can harm brain cells and the structures that support them. Cigarette smoke contains certain neurotoxic chemicals that can cause direct harm to brain tissue. According to Dr. Trinh, smoking alters the brain’s levels of several neurotransmitters, which over time may lead to atrophy and neural damage. According to Dr. Bierut, giving up smoking is among the most significant things you can do for your health. Your brain ages more quickly the longer and heavier you smoke. Additionally, I always tell older smokers that it’s never too late to give up. Even at a later age, quitting has health benefits.

In general, as the world’s population ages, a growing number of elderly people will experience dementia. This is a serious public health issue, and in order to have a healthy senior population, we must concentrate on lowering the modifiable risk factors for dementia. Dr. Trinh added that not only adults should give up smoking at the same time. Because the brains of teenagers and young adults are still developing, exposure to the negative effects of smoking during these formative years may result in more severe long-term damage, according to Dr. Trinh. It is a well-known fact that the potential lifetime harm from smoking increases with age. Dr. Robert Miller, an internal medicine physician with Vista Staffing, a company that provides physician search services nationwide, recommended a multimodal strategy for quitting smoking that includes counseling therapy. Dr. Miller did not work on the project. According to him, supportive pharmacotherapy and behavioral modification are the goals of this strategy. Dr. Miller listed seven drugs that have been given FDA approval to aid in quitting smoking, including nicotine replacement therapies (i.e. e. oral tablet medications (i.e., nicotine patches, lozenges, gum, oral inhaler, and nasal spray). e. , bupropion SR and varenicline).

According to Dr. Miller, helping others break the habit and finding success through a common goal can support each person on their own journey. It could also be beneficial to substitute healthy pursuits like reading or working out for the craving to smoke. According to Dr. Miller, some people discover that their urge to smoke might be a reaction to specific triggers. One way to kick the smoking habit is to recognize and stay away from personal triggers. It is not thought that vaping is a secure or reliable method of quitting smoking for those who are thinking about using e-cigarettes.

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In a period of 12 weeks, taking a fiber supplement may enhance cognitive function in older adults.

In a period of 12 weeks, taking a fiber supplement may enhance cognitive function in older adults.

The typical mild cognitive decline of aging can deteriorate due to diseases like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease have no known cures. Elderly people’s brain function may be enhanced by dietary fiber supplements, according to research from King’s College London. Every bodily system, including the brain, slows down as we get older. In a healthy aging brain, it’s normal to experience difficulties with multitasking, word recognition, and name recall Source. The mild cognitive decline of an aging brain can sometimes worsen due to diseases like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. More significant problems like memory loss, the inability to organize or solve problems, trouble speaking or writing, mood swings, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and confusion about locations, dates, and times can result from this. Even though there isn’t a cure for dementia or Alzheimer’s disease at this time, some medications and healthy lifestyle choices can help slow the disease’s progression. According to recent research, older adults’ cognitive function may be enhanced by dietary fiber supplements, according to King’s College London researchers. Additionally, researchers discovered that participants’ muscle strength was unaffected by the fiber supplements.

The world’s population is aging faster than in the past and people are living longer, according to the World Health Organization Source. Globally, there were approximately 1.4 billion adults 65 and older in 2022; by 2050, that number is predicted to rise to 2.1 billion. Senior author of this study Dr. Claire Steves, professor of aging and health and head of the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology at King’s College London, told Medical News Today that new approaches to treat age-related conditions like cognitive decline are crucial given the global increase in aging. According to Dr. Steves, this leads to a rise in age-related illnesses, which significantly affect elderly people’s capacity to lead fulfilling lives on their own. Many age-related conditions currently have no effective treatment, so it is critical that we concentrate our efforts in this area. According to her, further research is necessary to increase our understanding of how to stop, slow, or even reverse age-related declines. Dr. Steves and her colleagues concentrated on two prebiotic supplements in this study: fructooligosaccharides (FOS), a plant-based carbohydrate, and dietary fiber inulin.

Recent studies have demonstrated a connection between our health and wellbeing and the bacteria in our stomachs, also referred to as the gut microbiome. The gut-brain axis—a link between these bacteria and the brain—has been demonstrated by studies. There have also been demonstrated links to the health of the muscles and other organs. According to Dr. Steves, “we decided to test whether improving gut microbial health with a prebiotic could improve brain and muscle function.”. We are aware that FOS and inulin are commercially available prebiotic supplements that are safe, affordable, and linked to a healthy gut flora. Another trial that examined inulin and FOS in a population of people residing in nursing homes also had an impact on us. She went on, “Those who took the inulin and FOS supplement showed improvements in hand grip strength, exhaustion levels, and overall measures of frailty.”. According to earlier research, inulin alters the gut microbiome, lessens neuroinflammation, and speeds up the healing process after traumatic brain injury.

According to studies on FOS, the supplement may help prevent Alzheimer’s by lowering beta-amyloid levels in the brain, as well as help with neuroinflammation reduction and memory enhancement. For this study, 36 pairs of twins older than 60 were enlisted by the researchers. For a duration of 12 weeks, one twin per pair was administered a daily dietary fiber supplement, whereas the other twin was given a placebo. Scientists used video, online surveys, and cognitive tests to keep an eye on study participants. In order to enhance muscle function, participants were also required to consume a protein supplement and engage in resistance training. Because the study was double-blind, neither the analysis team nor the participants knew which they had been given until the end of the investigation. At the end of the study, researchers discovered that the group taking a fiber supplement performed better on tests of brain function, such as the Paired Associates Learning test Source, an early indicator of Alzheimer’s disease, and tests of processing speed and reaction time.

Over a 12-week period, Dr. Steves stated, “We were pleasantly surprised to find that those who received the prebiotic supplement had an improvement in memory and thinking tests compared to the placebo.”. This study adds to the body of evidence supporting the known relationship between gut bacteria and brain function, and it holds great promise for future research aimed at preserving cognitive function and preventing age-related memory loss. She continued, “We have demonstrated that a basic, affordable, and easily available fiber supplement, which promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, can actually influence brain function and memory test results.”. This encouraging outcome in just three months shows great potential for improving brain and memory function in our aging population. The supplement and placebo groups did not significantly differ in terms of muscle strength, according to the scientists. Dr. Segil acknowledged that he agreed with the study’s authors that, at this point, it is challenging to report improvements in cognition and for the study to have clinical significance. Even after reading the study, he said, “I like to say you are what you eat,” but sometimes “your brain is what you eat,” so it’s difficult to say that altering your diet will prevent aging, improve your muscles, and sharpen your mind.

However, there is a correlation between poor diet and high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart and cardiovascular risk factors. He continued, “There are definitely things that you shouldn’t eat; it’s harder to say what you should eat.” Despite this, I can’t say whether or not adding fiber will help. Dr. Segil stated that he would prefer blood tests to be conducted in conjunction with this study to observe any changes in participant albumin and sugar levels. He continued, “I would really like to see these tests repeated with some blood tests to give a doctor like myself more meaningful data, to see if these kinds of things change things in the blood.”. The next step would be to determine whether changes in the blood translate to changes in the brain. Richard and Rapozo both expressed interest in seeing similar studies done using prebiotic fiber from whole foods as opposed to supplements.

I would like readers to consider fiber as a component of a whole food approach, which means that it is one of the many nutrients and compounds that we require for a healthy gut. Discover which foods you enjoy and will consume are especially high in fiber: fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, according to Richard. The general consensus is to aim for 25–35 grams of fiber per day. For instance, depending on the type of bean or pulse, 1/2 cup of beans may contain anywhere between 6 and 9 grams of fiber. To determine how much fiber you might be consuming each day, pull up a chart on the internet Source that lists the amounts of fiber in various foods, she advised. Antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals, as well as extra prebiotic fibers—two, rather than all four—are included in high-fiber whole foods, according to Rapozo. Prebiotic fiber-rich common vegetables include garlic, onion, leek, and shallot, as well as asparagus, beets, fennel, green peas, snow peas, corn, and cabbage. Legume foods such as kidney beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas are excellent providers of prebiotics. Apples, nectarines, peaches, persimmons, watermelon, grapefruit, and pomegranates are examples of fruit sources. Oats, wheat, rye, and barley are examples of whole grains. Pistachio and cashew nuts are also rich in prebiotic fiber.


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Does Alzhiemer’s symptoms worsen due to light sensitivity?

Does Alzhiemer’s symptoms worsen due to light sensitivity?

The late afternoon and evening are when sundowning, a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, typically manifests. Increased agitation, anxiety, and mood fluctuations are some of its defining characteristics.

The impact of Alzheimer’s disease on the brain has been suggested as one of the causes, however the exact mechanisms remain unclear.

Increased light sensitivity was shown in recent studies using Alzheimer’s disease mice models, which is a result of retinal alterations.

Sundowning is a crippling symptom of Alzheimer’s disease that makes people’s dementia symptoms get worse in the late afternoon and evening.

Some researchers hypothesised that this symptom was caused by brain abnormalities, and a recent study confirmed that immune cells in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients may experience circadian disruptions that increase the accumulation of amyloid beta.

One of the distinguishing features of Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of this protein. A psychiatrist from the Rehab Clinics Group named Dr. Alexander Lapa stated in an email:

Both the affected person and their carers may find sunseting upsetting. Increased care requirements and potential major disruptions to daily routines can result from the increase in bewilderment and agitation. Sundowning in some circumstances could endanger the patient’s safety or the safety of those around them.

He continued by saying that many doctors advise individuals with Alzheimer’s disease to follow a daily regimen that includes predictable timings, relaxing hobbies, reducing noise, and making sure there is enough illumination at night.

Increased light sensitivity in Alzheimer’s mice models

The aetiology of sundowning is unknown, despite the incapacitating nature of this symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Given that it manifests in the middle and late phases of the disease, it may coexist with a number of other symptoms that have all been connected to sundowning, including sleep disturbances, forgetting to eat or drink, and adverse drug reactions.

A group of researchers from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, chose to further explore this connection because sleep disturbance has previously been closely linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Their research was published most recently in Frontiers to Ageing Neuroscience.

It had been thought that sleep disturbance might also result from damage to the brain brought on by the buildup of tau protein and amyloid beta protein, two signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

According to the main author Dr. Heather Ferris, an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Virginia, “We were interested in why sleep and circadian rhythms are disrupted in Alzheimer’s disease.”

After ruling out a number of potential causes in the brain, she stated, “We turned our attention to the retina because we thought the problem would be occurring in the brain.”

According to Dr. Ferris, the retina contains specialized cells known as inherently photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Although these cells are sensitive to light, they are not used for vision. Instead, these cells are employed to inform the brain that it is daytime.

We discovered that we could activate these cells in Alzheimer’s disease model mice with much less light and that the retina contained a greater number of these cells, she said.

Looking for the cause of the sundowning

Researchers first employed mice models with genetic alterations that resembled Alzheimer’s disease, along with controls, to learn this. To simulate jet lag, they first gave 13-month-old female mice a 6-hour change in their exposure to sunshine before going back to a regular 24-hour schedule.

They discovered that Alzheimer’s disease-affected mouse models retrained to a 24-hour clock pattern more quickly than control mice.

The initial theory put forth by researchers was that this difference resulted from a higher concentration of microglia, a kind of immune cell present in the brain that surrounds amyloid beta plaques and works to eliminate them.

However, fewer microglia in the Alzheimer’s disease mouse models did not result in a quicker recovery to a typical 24-hour cycle after jet lag.

Researchers then found that mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease were more likely than wild-type mice to behave differently in response to changes in lighting, indicating that they were more sensitive to light reception.

The researchers came to the conclusion that Alzheimer’s disease affects the retina rather than the brain as a result of this discovery.

The retina contains the photosensitive cells that control circadian rhythms. The light-sensitive protein that they produce, called melanopsin, is located in the retina and is what we saw in Alzheimer’s disease mice, according to Dr. Ferris, even though they travel through the optic nerve to interact with the brain.

How to possibly handle sundowning?

This hypothesis is supported by prior research, which has shown that amyloid and tau proteins can be found in the retina of people with Alzheimer’s disease and that this condition also causes the retinal blood barrier to break down.

The discovery that the retina in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease may be impacted in a way that increases light sensitivity may point to novel strategies for coping with dusk.

In the future, Dr. Ferris stated she hoped to test this notion. To maintain rhythms as close to normal as possible, she added, doctors currently advise keeping persons with Alzheimer’s disease on a rigorous schedule for eating, sleeping, and light exposure.

She suggested that light treatment might provide the solution.

According to our findings, these efforts might be thwarted by lower levels of light than might be anticipated. To increase the effectiveness of these therapies, we plan to examine next whether we can reduce exposure to light at particular periods or alter its wavelength to prevent some behavioral changes.

Beyond maintaining a regular schedule, she continued, “It makes sense to try to reduce evening exposure to blue light (screens) as this type of light is most likely to trigger melanopsin and disrupt sleep and circadian rhythms — whether you have Alzheimer’s disease or not.”


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Brain Bleeding: Can daily low-dose aspirin increases risk?

Brain Bleeding: Can daily low-dose aspirin increases risk?

Researchers looked into how low-dose aspirin affected older person’s risk of stroke. They discovered that low-dose aspirin increased the risk of cerebral bleeding by 38% but did not significantly reduce the risk of stroke.

Before administering aspirin to prevent stroke, doctors should examine patients for cardiovascular and head injury risks.

An ischemic stroke, also known as a blocked blood vessel in the brain, or a hemorrhagic stroke, often known as an unexpected burst of bleeding in the brain, both constitute strokes.

Every year, more than 795,000 people in the US experience a stroke. Stroke is a factor in about 1 in 6 deaths from cardiovascular diseases.

The incidence of stroke must be decreased through preventive measures. Aspirin, a common pain reliever, is currently used extensively to prevent the condition.

The risk of intracranial and intracerebral haemorrhages, or bleeding in the skull and brain, may increase even if meta-analyses suggest that low-dose aspirin may lower the risk of stroke.

Due to the fragility of their small blood vessels and their higher risk of injury from incidents like falling, older people are particularly vulnerable to haemorrhaging. These elements could change how aspirin’s risks and benefits balance out.

Stroke prevention measures may be influenced by knowing how low-dose aspirin impacts older person’s risk for stroke and hemorrhage.

Recent studies looked into how low-dose aspirin affected older persons’ risk for stroke and haemorrhage. Low-dose aspirin increased the incidence of cerebral haemorrhage by 38% while having no effect on stroke risk.

Low-dose aspirin’s effects on stroke risk

The average age of the 19,114 persons whose data were analysed for the study was 74. None of the participants, who made up about 56% of the total, had a history of cardiovascular diseases like:

  • stroke
  • AFib, or atrial fibrillation
  • chest pain

The individuals were divided into two groups at random and given a daily dose of 100 mg of aspirin or a placebo. They were monitored for 4.7 years on average.

Low-dose aspirin use was discovered to be associated with marginal, clinically inconsequential decreases in the incidence of ischemic stroke.

Stroke occurred in 1.5% of those who received aspirin (146 people), whereas it happened in 1.7% of the placebo group (166 people). Additionally, there was no statistically significant decrease in hemorrhagic strokes after using aspirin.

A hemorrhagic stroke occurred in 0.5% of aspirin-assigned participants (49 people), although 0.4% of placebo-assigned participants (37 people) also experienced one. The researchers also discovered that aspirin users had a markedly increased risk of cerebral hemorrhage compared to those taking a placebo.

Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1.1% of aspirin-taking participants (108 people), compared to 0.8% of placebo-taking participants (79 people). Dr. Arun Manmadhan, an assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University’s Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons who was not engaged in the study, provided the following information to us:

This study adds to the growing body of evidence showing that routine aspirin usage to prevent first-time cardiovascular events in the general adult population has minimal benefits and may even be harmful due to increased bleeding, especially in older persons. This study supports previous recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force that persons over 60 should not regularly take aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Although aspirin is a blood thinner, low doses may cause more brain bleeding.

Experts discussed how aspirin may lower the risk of stroke with Dr. Hardik P. Amin, associate professor of neurology at Yale School of Medicine who was not involved in the study.

He claimed that individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases may develop little clusters of blood platelets, a type of blood cell that facilitates clotting, inside their blood arteries.

Aspirin stops platelets from aggregating inside blood arteries, which results in its blood-thinning action and lowers the chance of a heart attack or stroke, according to Dr. Amin.

Experts also enquired about how aspirin might raise the risk of cerebral hemorrhage Dr Walavan Sivakumar, a board-certified neurosurgeon and the director of neurosurgery at Pacific Neuroscience Institute-South Bay in Torrance, California was not involved in the study.

Aspirin may enhance the risk of brain haemorrhage in the same manner that it lowers the likelihood of blood clots developing and travelling to the brain, according to Dr. Sivakumar.

One of the ways that the body stops bleeding is by forming blood clots. As a result, aspirin also makes it harder for the body to stop bleeding once it starts,” the doctor explained.

Need for larger investigations on the dangers of aspirin at low doses

Dr. Maria Parekh, an expert on stroke and an assistant professor of neurology at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth Houston who was not involved in the study, was consulted by experts regarding its limitations.

She pointed out that because there weren’t many episodes of cerebral hemorrhage and stroke in the study overall, the conclusions could have been tainted by random and intentional mistakes.

Aspirin is also known to help those who have experienced an ischemic stroke, in which the blood supply to the brain is halted or diminished, as it prevents blood clots from developing that could cause another stroke, Dr. Parekh continued. She stated that this is referred to as “secondary prevention.”

However, this research focused on the use of aspirin as “primary stroke prevention,” specifically in healthy older persons “free of overt cardiovascular disease,” to prevent first-time ischemic stroke. As a result, it excludes those who would most likely benefit from taking low dose aspirin, Dr. Maria Parekh pointed out.

Dr. Ziad Hage, a cerebrovascular and endovascular neurosurgeon at Novant Health in Charlotte, North Carolina, who is board-certified and fellowship-trained, was also questioned by experts about the study.

He said that groups at high risk of stroke or secondary stroke prevention may not be affected by the findings. He cautioned that the results might not apply to more varied demographics because the study’s participants were mostly older, white, and had easy access to blood pressure and lipid-lowering drugs.

Do you need to quit using low-dose aspirin?

These results indicate that advocating aspirin use can hurt patients who are healthy and have no cardiovascular risk factors, according to Dr. Sivakumar.

“At that point, patients may choose to make more conservative lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and exercising frequently.”

Dr. Hage concurred that individuals who had a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases like stroke should take aspirin. He said that unless required, aspirin should also be avoided by individuals who have a higher risk of falling.

In conclusion, it’s critical that the public comprehend that aspirin can be helpful in some circumstances, thus speaking with an expert on the subject is of the utmost importance. Stroke symptoms include sudden onset, facial, arm, or leg weakness, speech slurring or difficulty speaking, sudden loss of vision in one eye, and sudden loss of balance, among other symptoms. Dr. Ziad Hage, a cerebrovascular and endovascular neurosurgeon, advised patients to get medical attention if they experience any of these symptoms.


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Cognitive decline: What causes and slow it down.

Cognitive decline: What causes and slow it down.

Age-related cognitive and memory deterioration is a universal phenomenon, however the specific causes are yet unknown to science. While some lifestyle choices can prevent cognitive decline, age-related illnesses like dementia speed it up.

One recent study using mice models may now have identified the primary mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment brought on by typical aging.

Another recent study, this one using mice, raised the possibility that social connection, cognitive training, and physical activity could halt the ageing process and prevent cognitive deterioration.

As we become older, our cognitive abilities—the brain processes that enable thinking, learning, memory, awareness of one’s environment, and judgment—change. Our capacity to process information and make decisions swiftly decreases as our brain’s nerve cells and synapses age.

Most people begin to notice a steady deterioration at around age 50. However, advances in cumulative knowledge continue far into old life together with this minor decline in processing speed and working memory.

But why are the changes happening? According to a recent study conducted on mice, changes in a brain protein may limit synaptic plasticity, the capacity of nerve cells to change the strength of their connections, which impairs memory. This research is published in Science Signalling.

We may be able to prevent age-related cognitive loss, according to a different study conducted on mice. In this study, which was published in the journal Ageing, researchers hypothesise that social interaction, mental exercise, and physical activity all work to activate an enzyme that enhances the functionality of nerve cells and synapses, enhancing cognitive performance.

What leads to cognitive ageing?

The first study focused on CaM kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme that is involved in synaptic plasticity and the transmission of nerve impulses across synapses, among other functions.

They simulated the cognitive effects of typical ageing in mice by changing this brain protein.

Nitric oxide (NO), according to earlier research by the same authors, may influence CaMKII’s function. This work expanded on previous investigation and discovered that CaMKII is modified via a procedure termed S-nitrosylation, which depends on NO.

Memory and learning skills are hampered if CaMKII’s nitrosylation is diminished, which occurs with natural ageing.

Prof. Ulli Bayer, of the University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine and the study author, outlined the potential causes of this.

He explained to us that the diminished nitrosylation of CaMKII results in a decrease in its synaptic localisation, which appears to impede its synaptic activities.

Simply put, a decrease in NO decreases the transmission of nerve impulses through the synapses between nerve cells, which may contribute to cognitive deterioration.

Cognitive decline and way of life

The benefits of a healthy lifestyle on brain health have long been recognised by researchers. According to a 2015 study, exercise, intermittent fasting, and critical thinking are crucial for maintaining good brain function over the course of a person’s lifetime.

In people with normal cognition, a healthy lifestyle is linked to a slower rate of memory impairment, according to another extensive study.

Social connection, physical activity, and cognitive training are all positive experiences that are beneficial to cognitive health. The precise mechanism by which these lifestyle factors work is unknown.

A mechanism that could explain how these satisfying events improve your brain health has now been discovered by the Ageing study, which was carried out in mice.

For ten weeks, the researchers kept adult and senior mice in an enhanced environment. They were housed in huge cages with bedding, a cardboard tube, a running wheel, many plastic toys (tunnels, platforms, see-saws), and a metal ladder in groups of eight to ten mice each. Twice per week, the toys were rearranged, and once per week, new toys were added.

The only items in the control group’s regular cages, which were housed in groups of two to four mice each, were bedding and a cardboard tube.

The researchers tested the cognitive abilities of both groups once every week using land and water mazes. These were put to the test:

  • working memory for space the capacity to temporarily maintain spatial information engaged in working memory.
  • cognitive adaptability, or the capacity to change with the environment
  • Long-term recall of task-related spatial, factual, and contextual elements is known as spatial reference memory.

How enrichment keeps cognitive ability intact?

Comparing mice in the usual environment to those in the enriched environment, the mice in the enhanced environment performed better on every behavioural task. The elder mice showed a particularly noticeable improvement.

Our study provides a potential mechanistic basis for the effects of enrichment — this removes the ‘wooliness’ associated with such enrichment studies and puts them on a more rigorous scientific basis,” said Prof. Bruno Frenguelli, corresponding author and a professor of neuroscience at the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom.

In mice with a mutation in the enzyme MSK1, which is involved in neural growth and synaptic plasticity, the researchers did not observe any advantages.

They came to the conclusion that MSK1 is necessary for enrichment to fully improve cognition, synaptic plasticity, and gene expression.

The following is how Prof. Frenguelli explained it to us:

MSK1 is an enzyme that controls gene expression, or more specifically, it stimulates the activation of a variety of genes. We believe that MSK1 influences cognition by turning on a number of these genes because they have been linked to various aspects of learning and memory.

Exercise, networking, and ongoing learning

“Although our mechanistic experiments were conducted in mice, earlier research has revealed that ageing reduces CaMKII’s nitrosylation in both mice and humans. Pharmacological therapies should be able to boost CaMKII’s nitrosylation and so reduce the cognitive losses related to normal ageing, according to Dr. Bayer.

While there are currently no such treatments, research is being done, as Dr. Bayer stated: “This needs further research/development, but there are actually candidate approaches — such as inhibitors of GSNOR, an enzyme that limits nitric oxide bioavailability, and that is higher expressed with aging.”

The second study, however, suggests that we might not have to wait for pharmacological treatments to stop cognitive ageing. Prof. Frenguelli provided an explanation of why lifestyle enrichment should be effective in both humans and mice.

A key brain growth factor (BDNF), which activates MSK1, has been implicated in both rodents and humans as being important for these benefits,” he said.

By identifying key molecules involved in this process, this offers opportunities to explore and exploit these molecules as drug targets,” the author continued.

And he added that you can never be too old to reap the benefits of physical activity, interpersonal contact, and mental stimulation: “Our recent findings show that these benefits occur even in very old mice (equivalent to 70s in humans), meaning that it’s never too late to offer and engage in such enrichment activities to elderly people.”

How do medical professionals spot cognitive decline?

If you’re unsure if you’re exhibiting usual ageing symptoms or cognitive decline indications, a doctor can help. For a quick self-screening exam to look for signs of cognitive deterioration, they might provide you.

Other screening exams, such as the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE),

You can use a variety of screen tests to look for indicators of cognitive impairment. These exams typically last between three and fifteen minutes. They consist of:

  • Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE)
  • AD8 Dementia Screening Interview
  • Quick Dementia Rating System (QDRS)
  • Mini-Cog

One of the most popular screening exams is SAGE. The test is available for download online, and you can take it offline. You might even finish it off at a doctor’s office.

SAGE is unique from the other tests because it is a little bit more complicated. According to a 2022 study, SAGE identified cognitive impairment in MCI patients six months earlier than the MMSE, another popular test. A review from 2021 found that SAGE delivers the right answer 79% of the time.

Please take note that these brief tests alone cannot identify cognitive impairment or dementia. A doctor may need to conduct a more complete evaluation if your score starts to fall.


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Alzheimer’s disease: Loss of smell may be the sign?

Alzheimer’s disease: Loss of smell may be the sign?

More than 6 million people in the United States are affected by Alzheimer’s disease, which is the most prevalent type of dementia.

The key to controlling the condition is early detection, yet first symptoms like memory problems are frequently written off as normal aging symptoms.

According to a recent study, those who contain the APOE4 gene mutation, who are more likely to acquire Alzheimer’s disease, may begin to lose their sense of smell sooner than people who do not.

Testing people’s sense of smell could assist identify those at higher risk of Alzheimer’s because this reduced sense of smell may be an early marker of future cognitive issues.

Around 1 in 9 Americans over the age of 65, or 6.7 million people, have Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to the Alzheimer’s Association. By 2050, scientists predict that this number will surpass 12 million due to an ageing population.

Alzheimer’s is a degenerative, incurable disease, but it is not a natural part of becoming older. If a person begins to have memory issues or cognitive deficiencies, these should not be ignored as normal ageing symptoms because early diagnosis enables effective therapy.

Globally, 13.7% of the population carries the APOE4 gene variation, which raises the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. 40% of those who are diagnosed with the illness have this gene.

According to a recent study in Neurology, those who have this gene mutation may have a compromised sense of smell before they show any signs of Alzheimer’s disease, like moderate cognitive impairment.

The researchers propose that screening for odour sensitivity may be helpful for identifying those who are at risk.

Alterations in scent brought on by Alzheimer’s

In order to conduct the study, 865 participants responded to a survey that measured their capacity for odour detection as well as their ability to identify the odour. Every five years, they underwent testing.

Additionally, they conducted two tests of their memory and thinking, with a five-year gap between each test.

Who carried the gene mutation that enhanced risk for Alzheimer’s disease was determined by DNA testing. Based on the concentration of an odour that participants had to be exposed to in order to notice it, scores ranged from zero to six.

The study’s team discovered that those with the APOE e4 allele had a 37% lower likelihood of being adept at smelling things than those without it. This came after age, sex, and education were all taken into account.

Between the ages of 65 and 69, odour detection started to decline.

It wasn’t until participants reached the ages of 75 to 79 that changes in their capacity to detect the smell started to show. However, compared to people without the Alzheimer’s gene variation, once they lost the capacity to name smells, this skill deteriorated more quickly.

Those who had the gene mutation also aged more quickly in terms of cognitive decline.

Losing one’s sense of smell could be an early sign of Alzheimer’s.

Over the course of the trial, those who had the gene were 37% less likely than those who did not to have effective odour detection.

Age-related loss in odour sensitivity was observed in those with the APOE 4 variant at 65 years of age, as compared to those without the gene. However, non-carriers, who initially had a greater sense of smell, showed a faster drop beyond the age of 65.

At 65, there was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in their capacity to recognise odours, but this ability started to diminish more quickly in carriers, especially around age 75. Similar trends were seen in cognition, with those with the APOE 4 variation seeing quicker decreases in cognition.

Although the researchers did not discover a connection between odour detection and cognition, their data do imply a connection between odour identification and cognition.

The authors discovered that APOE 4 carriers had odour sensitivity impairments that manifested sooner in life (65–69 years old) than odour identification impairments (75–79 years old), according to Dr. Clark, who was not involved in the study. Additionally, among APOE 4 carriers, odour sensitivity deficiencies came before cognitive deterioration.

She continued, “This shows that reduced odour sensitivity may be an early indication of future cognitive impairment in APOE 4 carriers.”

How to lower your chance of getting Alzheimer’s?

In addition to not participating in the study, Dr. Alejandro Alva is the founder, chief medical officer, and CEO of Pacific Neuropsychiatric Specialists (PNS). He also stated that there are other risk factors besides age that can contribute to an increased number of people developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Sedentary behavior, obesity, smoking, excessive drinking, high blood pressure, and other things are among these risk factors.

However, according to Alva, there are several lifestyle modifications that can lower your risk and enhance your general health. He offers the following advice:

  • Control your blood pressure. Alva suggests following any medical advice, eating a range of heart-healthy foods, and keeping your salt intake under 5 g per day.
  • Continue your usual exercise regimen. 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise helps reduce risk, especially when combined with other aspects of a healthy lifestyle.
  • Stop drinking excessively. “Drinking alcohol can increase the loss of brain cells and can induce the accumulation of toxic protein in the brain,” he said. “It is advised to drink in moderation or to completely kick the habit.”
  • Give up smoking. “The chemicals and toxins from cigarettes can cause inflammation and stress on brain cells that can significantly increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease,” claimed Alva.

The development of Alzheimer’s disease can be delayed or slowed down with the use of certain drugs, Alexander continued.

Lecanemab (Leqembi) and aducanumab (Aduhelm) are two FDA-approved drugs that are being used to control the illness, according to the Alzheimer’s Association.

She added, “However, individuals may be able to lower their chances of acquiring this degenerative condition by adopting preventative actions and identifying one’s risk factors.


An association between the loss of scent and the later onset of Alzheimer’s has been discovered by recent research. People with a certain gene variant known as APOE e4 were the ones that showed this connection.

According to experts, the loss of smell may be utilized to anticipate future cognitive issues. Your risk of Alzheimer’s may be lowered by making certain lifestyle decisions. Additionally, several drugs might stop it in its tracks.


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Consuming strawberries might benefit Your Heart and Brain.

Consuming strawberries might benefit Your Heart and Brain.

Berries are often regarded as superfoods with a variety of health advantages. Berries have been demonstrated in prior research to reduce inflammation and protect specific bodily systems, including the cardiovascular system and gut microbiome.

According to San Diego State University experts, eating the equivalent of two servings of strawberries every day can boost people’s blood pressure, brain function, and antioxidant capacity.

Berries are typically regarded as a superfood. That is due to the multiple health advantages that all berries, including acai berries, blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries, offer.

Berries can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which can be disease factors, according to earlier research.

Berry eating has also been related in other research to health benefits and protection for the immune system, neurological system, cardiovascular system, and gut flora.

According to recent research from San Diego State University, eating strawberries daily can help people become more antioxidant-capable. They can Alsop have better cognitive function, and lower their blood pressure.

The California Strawberry Commission supported the study, which was just presented at NUTRITION 2023, the American Society of Nutrition’s annual meeting.

26 grams or two strawberry servings

The idea for this study was inspired by earlier research, according to Dr. Shirin Hooshmand, a professor in the School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences at San Diego State University and the project’s primary investigator.

She noted that some of the same effects had been observed in animal and human research prior to the clinical investigation, but in various populations and with various study designs.

Dr. Hooshmand and her team recruited 35 healthy men and women between the ages of 66 and 78 for this study. Over eight weeks, participants were given either a control powder or 26 grams of freeze-dried strawberry powder, which is equal to two servings of fresh strawberries.

In comparison to those who took the control powder, those who consumed the strawberries showed an increase in cognitive processing speed of 5.2%, a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 3.6%, and an increase in antioxidant capacity of 10.2%.

In response to their findings, Dr. Hooshmand stated that since strawberries are an excellent source of vitamin C, they anticipated seeing an enhancement in antioxidant capability. Based on their theory, they also anticipated some improvement in cognitive processing speed.

When asked about the blood pressure results, Dr. Hooshmand remarked, “Previously published research has already shown some of the acute and long-term cardiovascular health benefits of strawberries in different populations, so this is great to confirm some of those findings.”

This study shows that strawberry consumption may enhance cardiovascular risk factors like hypertension and cognitive function. Dr. Shirin Hooshmand said, “We’re pleased that an easy dietary change, like including strawberries in a daily diet, may enhance these outcomes in older persons.”

Why are strawberries so nutritious?

In late 18th-century France, gardens were where strawberries (genus Fragaria) were first cultivated. However, they were discovered in the wild as early as the Roman era.

Strawberries are now grown all over the world, with the majority of the production taking place in Spain, Turkey, and the United States.

Surprisingly, although being referred to as a “berry,” strawberries are actually an accessory or aggregate fruit because of how they develop.

The body needs a variety of vitamins and minerals to keep healthy, including vitamin A, magnesium, potassium, and folate (vitamin B9), all of which are present in strawberries.

Strawberries are also a very good source of vitamin C; eight strawberries will provide you the recommended daily allowance.

Additionally, strawberries are well recognized for having a significant number of antioxidants, such as phytosterols and polyphenols. In addition to their ability to decrease cholesterol, phytosterols, and polyphenols both have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics.

Previous studies have connected strawberry consumption to a reduced risk for heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and even maybe help prevent cancer.

There is much to learn about strawberries.

Dr. Hooshmand responded that the strategy for the research’s following steps will depend on finding additional financing.

But stay tuned, because we have lots of fantastic ideas for follow-up research on some of our recent findings. As part of a multi-fruit experiment, we are also looking into how strawberries affect these and other outcomes, the researcher added.

Allison Tallman, a registered dietitian and the creator of Nourished Routes who was not involved in the study, discussed her wishes for future research on the health benefits of strawberries after reading this study.

The relationship between strawberries and heart health, brain health, and gastrointestinal health has been well investigated. Since strawberries definitely contain antioxidants, I’d love to see further studies on how they help prevent cancer.

the healthiest method to consume strawberries?

Most adults should consume 1 1/2 to 2 cups of fruit daily, according to experts. One cup of fruit is roughly eight big strawberries.

Are you trying to find new ways to eat more strawberries? Consider Tallman’s recommendations:

  • Add strawberries to a protein-rich smoothie to kick off your day.
  • Put strawberries on top of a spinach salad or a grain bowl to add some flavour to your lunch.
  • Yoghurt parfaits taste wonderful with strawberries.
  • Finally, strawberries are good eaten unprocessed!

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s MyPlate programme also provides a number of nutritious strawberry-centric dishes, such as:

  • Broccoli Strawberry Orzo Salad
  • Pear Kebabs with Strawberry Dipping Sauce
  • Fruit and Yogurt Breakfast Shake
  • Fabulous Fruit Muffins
  • Fruit Salsa
  • Fruit Pizza


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Could caffeine-concentrated beverages lower dementia risk?

Could caffeine-concentrated beverages lower dementia risk?

The question of whether espresso can help lower the incidence of dementia is being investigated in a recent study from the University of Verona in Italy.

An relationship between increased caffeine concentrations and the prevention of tau protein aggregates—a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia—was discovered in the preliminary research, which was carried out in vitro, in the laboratory.

Whether consuming coffee could genuinely delay dementia for a longer period is still unknown.

A study that was published in the ACS Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry suggests that consuming coffee with a high caffeine content, which some might associate with sipping an espresso, may help lower the risk of dementia.

Researchers discovered that espresso chemicals may prevent tau protein aggregation, a process thought to be responsible for the beginning of Alzheimer’s disease, the most prevalent kind of dementia, in preliminary in vitro laboratory testing.

The advantages of coffee and tea

According to medical experts, coffee and tea have additional health advantages besides the obvious one with caffeine.

While caffeine is undoubtedly a significant common factor, Dr. Scott Kaiser, the director of Geriatric Cognitive Health for the Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California, noted that both coffee and tea are derived from plants with a wide variety of potentially advantageous chemical compounds, including potent antioxidants.

According to Kaiser for Healthline, “a substantial and expanding body of research demonstrates the benefits of specific foods for brain health, particularly those rich in antioxidants and other “neuroprotective” compounds.” For instance, more flavonoid intake has been linked in multiple studies to a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease development.

He said, “These phytonutrients, which are substances that plants make to maintain their health, can really reduce inflammation in our brains, protect brain cells from damage, boost learning and memory, and give other clear benefits for brain health. And coffee and tea are on the list of healthy sources of flavonoids.”

According to the study’s authors, compared to the general population, the UK Biobank represents a healthier sample of people, which may limit the ability to generalize the correlations between coffee and tea and their potential advantages.

Additionally, just a small portion of the sample had dementia or a stroke, which the authors acknowledge makes it challenging to extrapolate rates correctly to wider populations.

On the other hand, “our findings suggested that moderate consumption of coffee and tea, separately or in combination, were associated with lower risk of stroke and dementia,” they concluded.

Coffee may reduce the aggregation of harmful proteins.

First, the researchers extracted espresso shots from pre-purchased beans. After that, they described the chemical composition and picked a few compounds, including caffeine.

Molecular components as well as the entire extract were tested. They spent at least 40 hours incubating with a cut-down version of the tau protein.

Tau fibrils did not grow into larger sheets as the caffeine concentration rose, with the whole extract producing the most striking consequences. The fibrils were ultimately harmless to cells and did not serve as a seed for further aggregation.

This was an interesting study by a group of scientists in Verona, Italy, who are trying to help change the use of espresso coffee from a potential health risk to a health benefit,” said Clifford Segil, a board-certified neurologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, CA, who was not involved in the study.

What are the consequences of medicine?

According to Segil, “The researchers found that adding coffee to a protein called tau in test tubes prevented the tau protein from developing into something that has been demonstrated to be present in neurological illnesses that cause memory loss and trembling.”

Patients with Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s dementia both have tau. In the current work, the tau protein’s ability to aggregate, condense, and seed activity was inhibited by adding coffee brew to a basic form of the protein. According to Clifford Segil, the objective is to develop a therapeutic for these disorders utilising a coffee brew extract base.

Segil added that it is uncertain whether the study’s results would result in a fresh approach to treating neurodegenerative diseases.

He said that rather than a buildup that leads to neurological disease, “many contemporary neuroscientists believe these tau proteins may be more akin to freckles, which are typically normal aging pigments.”

Clinical neurologists like me who treat patients with neurodegenerative disorders like the Alzheimer’s form of dementia or Parkinson’s disease should be aware that no treatment modifying tau structure has demonstrated any clinical advantages.

Antioxidants maybe able to prevent dementia

Because coffee contains antioxidants in the form of polyphenols, some researchers have hypothesized that it may have several positive health effects, such as reducing the incidence of type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer. Additionally, it might improve brain health.

That might be as a result of the fact that antioxidants from a person’s diet can assist prevent cellular ageing. Antioxidants, on their alone, are unlikely to provide complete immunity against any illness or medical condition.

According to Segil, “Antioxidant compounds that claim to be neuroprotective are abundant, and in theory, they may even be healthy. However, claims [that a] coffee brew is going to protect someone from getting a neurodegenerative disease is challenging to agree has scientific merit.”

However, the current study’s researchers assert that their initial in vitro results may open the door to discovering or creating additional bioactive chemicals against neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s.

Dr. Joel Salinas, a neurologist at NYU Langone Health who was not involved in the study, emphasised that this is extremely preliminary work and that other lines of inquiry are necessary.

He gave us an example, saying, “Causation has not yet been established, but other studies have linked coffee consumption to an increased risk of dementia.”

Dr. Salinas speculated that it would be necessary to draw boundaries between how much coffee is beneficial and how much is dangerous. Before designing or attempting to construct treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, these questions must be answered.

The function of tau in Parkinson’s and dementia

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, tau helps maintain the internal skeleton of neurons in the brain.

Tau tangles, a defining feature of Alzheimer’s disease, are created when tau proteins stick to one another.

In certain types of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s and frontotemporal dementia, this buildup of tau proteins can harm or kill brain cells. The internal skeleton is torn apart by the tangles, which impairs thinking and memory.

The National Institutes of Health state that tau proteins may contribute to disease in addition to Alzheimer’s disease in:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • frontotemporal dementia
  • Pick’s disease
  • progressive supranuclear palsy
  • corticobasal degeneration.

Researchers are still trying to find a mechanism to slow down or halt tau cells from harming good tissue.

Diagnoses of tau and Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis requires pricey imaging, which patients may not always have access to.

For this reason, researchers are trying to find a mechanism to spot Alzheimer’s disease in its early stages. The University of Pittsburgh developed a test to identify a biomarker known as “brain-derived tau.”

They claim that it performs better than the tests that are currently being used. It examines blood tau levels about the severity of amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brain and is specifically for Alzheimer’s disease.

Large-scale clinical trials with people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds are planned by the researchers.


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Resist age-related cognitive decline with daily probiotics.

Resist age-related cognitive decline with daily probiotics.

According to the outcomes of a scientific experiment, those with mild cognitive impairment who took a probiotic for 30 days performed better on cognitive tests.

After the trial, those who took probiotics had lower levels of a type of bacteria linked to cognitive impairment in their gut microbiomes.

According to the research, altering gut flora may be a promising strategy for treating chronic illnesses like cognitive impairment.

Probiotic therapy may help persons with moderate cognitive impairment (MCI) regain cognitive function, according to a clinical investigation.

There is an urgent need for more research,” declared Mashael R. Aljumaah, the primary study author and a doctorate candidate in microbiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in light of the global rise in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

People with cognitive impairment were given daily probiotics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during the double-blind randomised study. Also, after three months, their cognitive test results improved.

The researchers examined the participants’ stool samples and discovered significant quantities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, or LGG, as well as a decrease in the quantity of Prevotella, a different family of bacteria frequently detected in individuals with cognitive deterioration.

These alterations imply a favourable change in the microbiota makeup of the subjects.

Numerous earlier animal investigations, which showed LGG’s beneficial effects on several physiological situations, led to its development as a possible therapeutic probiotic. As a probiotic, LGG is also well-known for its capacity to withstand acidity and stick to intestinal walls,” according to lead researcher Michael R. Aljumaah.

Probiotic’s effects on mild cognitive impairment

To conduct the study, researchers contrasted those who had minor cognitive impairment with those who did not.

They aimed to spot, comprehend, and try to sway the early phases of cognitive deterioration. Finding biomarkers that could indicate the onset of cognitive decline was a part of that endeavor.

The age range of the 169 participants in the clinical trial ranged from 52 to 75 years old. As a control group, those without cognitive disorders were assigned to one group. People with cognitive problems were assigned to another group.

For three months, either LGG or a placebo was given to both groups. There were no negative effects in either group.

Prevotella, one such biomarker, was discovered in adults with cognitive impairment by Aljumaah and her coworkers. The fact that receiving LGG seemed to lessen its presence points to a potential future for microbiome re-balancing.

Aljumaah added, “By developing microbiome-targeted therapies, we may be able to delay the onset of cognitive impairment.”

Prevotella bacteria and long-term illnesses

Aljumaah clarified that while the Prevotella family of bacteria is present in persons with cognitive loss, it is not totally evident that their effect is solely detrimental.

For instance, the bacteria Prevotella has been linked to autoimmune, inflammatory, and cognitive disorders. According to Aljumaah, it is frequently discovered in persons who have Crohn’s disease or inflammatory bowel disorders such rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Additionally, because it originates from plant-based diets, Prevotella bacteria may aid in the processing of fiber and is linked to metabolites that are crucial for maintaining gut health.

This raises the question of whether specific Prevotella species or strains may contribute to these illnesses, or whether a particular genetic characteristic or mechanism may be to blame, Aljumaah observed.

Greater research with LGG bacteria is required.

Board-certified neurologist Dr. Santosh Kesari, director of neuro-oncology at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California, who was not involved in the study, told MNT that he considered the participants’ receiving cognitive advantages “intriguing.”

However, Dr. Kesari urged further investigations to confirm their findings and make sure that adding LGG bacteria doesn’t have any negative side effects.

He also raised concern that an attempt to treat a condition by adding a probiotic to the gut microbiome would upset the bacterial equilibrium, leading to negative effects.

Focusing on a positive effect on brain health could have a counterproductive effect in another organ system,” Dr. Kesari warned.

Health effects of the gut-brain relationship

It’s crucial to keep in mind that our knowledge of the precise pathways tying the gut microbiome to cognitive function is still in its infancy, according to Aljumaah.

According to Aljumaah, “more specifically, our understanding about which members of the gut [microbiome] are involved remains limited.”

Aljumaah also suggested a number of potential routes for communication between the two dispersed bodily regions, including the vagus nerve and the immune system.

Additionally, metabolites like short-chain fatty acids and even neurotransmitters made by the gut flora may be implicated.

Dr. Kesari proposed that the microbiome’s influence on brain function might be more indirect.

The microbiome is really the doorway for nutrition, nutrients, and how things are metabolized, according to Dr. Kesari, therefore it has a huge impact on overall body health, including brain function. “You are what you eat, as the saying goes, and this is really the scientific proof of that,” said Dr. Kesari.

Improving health outcomes by changing the microbiome

Undoubtedly, the microbiome is medicine’s most challenging and exciting frontier in terms of human health. Prevotella serves as an illustration of how the microbiome is likewise a challenging field of research.

Whether or not researchers can ever fully comprehend the microbiome to control or rebalance its residents, Dr. Kesari said, “I think it has to get there.”

We are aware that nutrition and obesity are the main causes of morbidities in the United States. Many of these conditions are preventable, and the microbiome plays a role in some of them. There is no chance that our eating patterns will change very soon. So, in my opinion, the only solution to lessen the cost pressures of healthcare is if we can obtain a probiotic that may help us stay healthier, said neurologist Dr. Santosh Kesari.


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How can olive oil help to improve brain health?

How can olive oil help to improve brain health?

According to a recent study, choosing olive oil may lower your risk of developing deadly dementia.

Participants who consumed half a tablespoon of olive oil daily had a 28% lower risk of passing away from dementia.

The incidence of fatal dementia was shown to be lowered by 8–14% by substituting one teaspoon of olive oil for one teaspoon of margarine or mayonnaise, according to the study’s authors.

Instead of using margarine or mayonnaise, researchers have found a link between daily olive oil consumption and a lower risk of dementia-related death.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that over 55 million individuals worldwide suffer from dementia. Dementia is the fifth biggest cause of death for senior citizens, with an estimated 10 million new cases per year.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common type of dementia, is thought to affect 6.7 million Americans over the age of 65.

According to a news release, the new study discovered that those who used olive oil on a regular basis had a 28% lower risk of passing away from dementia than those who did not.

The study looked at health records from 1990 to 2018 for 31,801 men and 60,582 women who were cancer and cardiovascular disease free. We monitored their health for 28 years.

According to the study’s authors, swapping just one teaspoon of margarine or mayonnaise for olive oil was linked to an 8–14% lower risk of dementia-related death.

How olive oil can reduce the risk of dementia?

Researchers have been looking into dietary and lifestyle changes as potential treatments for dementia symptoms.

Researchers looked at mortality records and food questionnaires from more than 90,000 Americans over a 30-year period in the new study. Dementia claimed the lives of 4,749 persons in the past three decades.

According to the research, those who ate more than half a tablespoon of olive oil daily had a 28% lower risk of passing away from dementia than those who never or infrequently ate it.

According to Anne-Julie Tessier, study author and research fellow of nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan, “typically, people who use olive oil for cooking or as a dressing have a better overall diet quality, but interestingly, we found the association to be regardless of this factor.”

Our research helps to validate the current dietary recommendations that urge people to choose vegetable oils like olive oil. Beyond heart health, our findings broaden the scope of the present guidelines to include cognitive health, according to Tessier.

Additionally, they discovered that replacing one teaspoon of mayonnaise and margarine with olive oil each day reduced the incidence of dementia-related death by 8–14%.

Tessier outlined the further steps in the research and said that intervention studies are required to shed light on the biological processes that might underlie the potential effects of olive oil on brain function.

Health benefits of olive oil

Olive oil is a powerhouse when it comes to flavour and nutrients,” said Mackenzie Burgess, RDN, registered dietitian nutritionist, and recipe creator at Cheerful Choices.

Olive oil contains 7% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin K and 13% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin E. A good source of monounsaturated fats, or fats that can lower LDL or “bad” cholesterol, is olive oil. To properly absorb nutrients from our food, we need to consume enough fats, which can also make us feel satiated for longer.

According to research, consuming olive oil may help reduce blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and the risk of heart disease. Burgess further noted that this new observational study provides encouraging data for brain health.

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has the largest percentage of monounsaturated fats when compared to other vegetable oils, which lowers the risk of atherosclerosis, colon cancer, and cancer, according to Dolores Woods, RDN, a nutritionist with the UTHealth Houston School of Public Health.

Overall, EVOO has a lot of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants, which support longevity and excellent health, according to Woods.

The relationship between olive oil and brain health

Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fats and contains compounds with antioxidant activity that may play a protective role for the brain,” Tessier said. Some of these may be able to pass the blood-brain barrier and potentially affect the brain directly. The improvement of cardiovascular health by olive oil may potentially have a direct impact on brain health.

Even though we already know olive oil has many health advantages, more study is still required to pinpoint how it affects the brain particularly.

According to Dr. Nate Wood, an instructor of medicine and medical education fellow in the division of general internal medicine at the Yale School of Medicine, “the precise reasons for this connection between olive oil consumption and brain health are not yet known.” Olive oil may protect brain blood vessels in a similar way to how it protects heart blood vessels.

Additionally, it’s likely that the antioxidants in olive oil penetrate the brain and safeguard the cells there just as they do everywhere in the body. Wood stated that more studies will be required to determine the precise causes.

How to increase your use of olive oil?

You can use olive oil in a variety of ways in your regular diet. According to Burgess, do the following:

  • Try roasting or sautéing colorful vegetables in olive oil when cooking.
  • Salads – Add olive oil to homemade vinaigrettes or drizzle it over Caprese salads.
  • Dips – For a simple dip for crusty bread, blend premium extra virgin olive oil with Italian seasoning. Additionally, you may include it in homemade bean dips like hummus and serve it with crudités.
  • Proteins – Add olive oil to other proteins, like morning scrambled eggs, or use it as a marinade for meats.
  • Baking: Olive oil may lend a delicious richness and depth of flavor to baked items. Replace vegetable oils or a portion of the butter in recipes for muffins, cakes, and cookies with olive oil.

Woods advises preparing your own vinaigrettes with oil. This straightforward vinaigrette can also be used to marinade fish or chicken:

Your favorite fresh herbs, shallots that have been minced, salt, and pepper should be added along with 3 parts oil to 1 part vinegar (balsamic, red wine, white wine, or lemon juice).

Additionally, make sure the EVOO you use to prepare sauces and spreads like chutney, pesto, salsa verde, and chimichurri is of high quality and flavor. These are excellent choices to serve as dips or to mix with grilled meats and vegetables.

The ideal summer appetizer for these warm days is gazpacho. A strong EVOO that packs a flavorful punch is a crucial element. Toss cooked pasta with EVOO, lemon zest, and parmesan cheese for a simple supper.

Intake of olive oil per day

Two tablespoons of olive oil per day, as recommended by Dr. Pratic, is a healthy serving.

Kirkpatrick noted that research has ranged from 1 to 5 tablespoons per day, adding, “I advise my patients to aim for at least 3 tablespoons a day for brain health.”

Dr. Tessier responded when asked if a person might consume too much olive oil on a daily basis:

Dr. Tessier stated, “We did not notice a level at which there was no longer an association, but it is important to remember that few individuals consumed beyond 15 g/day that is, 15,000 mg/day of olive oil.”

We found a clear linear dose-response association between higher daily intake of olive oil and lower risk of fatal dementia,” said Dr. Tessier.


According to a recent study, increasing your intake of olive oil may reduce your risk of passing away from dementia.

According to the research, people who drank more than half a tablespoon of olive oil daily had a 28% lower risk of passing away from dementia than those who never or infrequently ate it.

The study also revealed a relationship between daily substitution of one teaspoon of olive oil for margarine and mayonnaise and a reduction in dementia-related death risk of 8–14%.

Although olive oil has several health advantages, additional investigation is required to understand how it affects the brain.

You can use olive oil as a cooking oil, a salad dressing ingredient, and a dip base to increase the amount of it in your diet.


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