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How Semaglutide and similar drugs act on the brain and body to reduce appetite

How Semaglutide and similar drugs act on the brain and body to reduce appetite

GLP-1 analogues that were first approved to treat type 2 diabetes, like semaglutide (brand names Ozempic, Wegovy), have gained a lot of attention recently, largely because of their capacity to aid in weight loss. Thus far, research has indicated that GLP-1 analogues function by imitating the actions of glucagon-like peptide, a molecule with a similar shape that the intestines naturally release shortly after a meal. Because this peptide binds to a particular receptor on the surface of the pancreatic beta cells, it causes them to release insulin. For a very long time, researchers believed that GLP-1 analogues only had an effect on insulin release, which is why type 2 diabetes patients were prescribed them. Nonetheless, the impact these medications had on weight was soon recognized because reducing body fat can improve blood sugar regulation and even induce remission in type 2 diabetics. Recent research has shown that GLP-1 analogues contribute to weight loss in several ways, such as by delaying the emptying of the stomach and enhancing the feeling of fullness experienced after eating.

The other possible advantages of GLP-1 analogues have been the subject of extensive research in recent years, many of which may be related to their effects on obesity and body mass index (BMI). Individuals who use GLP-1 analogues may be at a lower risk of both cancer and cardiovascular disease, two conditions that are more common in obese people. Whether this is because of weight loss or other side effects of the medications is still unknown. More research is required to determine the primary causes of the weight gain, as there are still concerns about weight gain after stopping these medications. As these medications become more widely used and popular, we should expect to see more side effects as people meet their weight loss objectives.
Right now, research is being done to try and learn more about how these medications function. A recent review that was published in the International Journal of ObesityTrusted Source examined the body of research that has already been done on the subject, the methodology used in those studies, and the methods used to gather data on the use of GLP-1 analogs. The terms obesity, semaglutide, ligarglutide, and GLP-1 analog were searched for in PubMed by the authors to conduct the review. Liraglutide, also known as Saxenda, is a GLP-1 analog, just like semaglutide.

Researchers discovered that rather than focusing on the maintenance phase, which is when weight loss plateaus after this, most studies on the impact of GLP-1 analogs on weight loss focused on the initial weight loss phase of action, which typically lasts 12–18 months for semaglutide users. As of right now, scientists know that side effects like nausea and upset stomach usually start early in the course of treatment. However, a survey of the literature revealed that weight loss during the first few weeks of medication use did not appear to be associated with nausea. During the so-called maintenance phase that followed, users’ calorie intake was still found to be more restricted than baseline, even though the drug’s effect on reducing eating decreased after 12 to 18 months.

Researchers examined studies in which subjects taking the drug were questioned about their dietary preferences and cravings. They found that subjects wanted fewer foods overall, especially high-fat, non-sweet foods, and less dairy, starchy, salty, and spicy foods. The macronutrient profiles of the food consumed by the subjects did not change, though, either before or after the drug was started. Whether GLP-1 analogs increase the desire for sweeter foods—especially those that contain sucralose—is still unclear. The authors discovered that prior studies had demonstrated a reduction in the neuronal responses to food images in regions of the brain controlling reward and appetite in people taking exenatide (brand name Byetta), another GLP-1 analog. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this response was quantified (fMRI). Additionally, studies have demonstrated that semaglutide is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which shields the brain from outside influences. Rather, this medication blocks signals in areas of the central nervous system outside the blood-brain barrier that may influence appetite.


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Can wasabi improve an older person’s cognitive health?

Can wasabi improve an older person’s cognitive health?

Cognitive function and the brain are often impacted by aging. There are foods and spices that are known to improve brain function. Wasabi, also known as Japanese horseradish, has been shown by Tohoku University researchers to have potential benefits for improving specific aspects of cognitive function in older adults. Many changes occur in the body as we age, both internally and externally. This also applies to cognition, or the brain’s capacity for information processing and memory. Common signs of age-related cognitive decline include difficulty finding the right word to say when speaking, forgetting where you put things, and slower problem-solving. Numerous lifestyle factors can help people preserve their cognitive health as they age, according to prior research. Among them is maintaining a nutritious diet. Additionally, studies have demonstrated the brain-boosting properties of certain foods, including kale, eggs, oily fish, and berries. It has also been discovered that certain spices, such as ginger, saffron, cinnamon, and turmeric, can enhance brain function. Recently, wasabi, a spice that is typically used as a condiment in Japanese cuisine, has been linked to improved cognitive function in older adults, according to research from Tohoku University in Japan. The journal Nutrients published the study not too long ago.

Native to Japan and parts of Russia and Korea, wasabi is also referred to as Japanese horseradish. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae, which is also made up of arugula, radish, and horseradish. Since wasabi is a rhizome, its roots are used and it grows underground. The wasabi root is typically grated to create a fresh paste. The scent and slight spice of freshly grated wasabi are reminiscent of horseradish or hot mustard. Scholars have examined the possible advantages of wasabi in human subjects, animal models, and cell culture. Previous studies suggest that wasabi may offer various health advantages. These include high vitamin C levels that support the immune system, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial qualities, protection against neurodegenerative diseases, support heart health, aid in weight loss, improve gut health, boost bone health, improve sleep and fatigue, and have anticancer properties.

Researchers gathered 72 Japanese adults, ranging in age from 60 to 80, for this study. For a period of 12 weeks, study participants were instructed to take either a placebo tablet or a wasabi tablet containing 0.8 mg of 6-methylsulfinyl hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), the plant’s primary bioactive ingredient, before going to bed. Cognitive and memory tests measuring working memory, attention, processing speed, and episodic memory were administered to participants both before and after the 12-week period. At the end of the trial, the researchers discovered that, in comparison to those who took a placebo tablet, those who took the wasabi supplement containing 6-MSITC significantly improved in both working and episodic memory performances. The researchers did not discover any appreciable gains in other cognitive domains, though.


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B12 may improve tissue healing and aid in the management of ulcerative colitis.

B12 may improve tissue healing and aid in the management of ulcerative colitis.

Tissue regeneration is the process by which the body repairs or replaces damaged tissues and organs. Since regenerative medicine is still in its infancy, scientists are investigating how to treat specific diseases with tissue regeneration. It has been discovered by researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Spain that vitamin B12 is crucial for tissue regeneration. Researchers also discovered that in a model of ulcerative colitis, vitamin B12 supplementation sped up tissue repair. Regenerative medicine, or tissue regeneration, is the process of rebuilding the body’s damaged tissues and organs in order to replace or heal them. There are several possible causes of damage to these tissues and organs, including aging, trauma, illness, and birth defects. Regenerative medicine is still a relatively new and experimental field. Scholars are investigating the potential applications of tissue regeneration in the management of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, bone fractures, cartilage disorders, and heart injuries. Vitamin B12 may be crucial for tissue regeneration and cellular reprogramming, according to research from the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Spain.

The journal Nature Metabolism published the findings recently. In a model of ulcerative colitis, a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), scientists tested their theory and found that vitamin B12 supplementation would help intestinal cells that are attempting to heal themselves. Dr. Manuel Serrano, a co-lead author of this study and researcher at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Spain during the studys period, recently moved to Altos Labs in the United Kingdom. He says that after discovering something unexpected when examining how the microbial populations of the colon change during reprogramming, they decided to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 on cellular reprogramming and tissue regeneration. According to Dr. Serrano, the microbiota of mammals is in equilibrium with the host, as she told Medical News Today. The microbiota is impacted by changes in the hosts metabolism and vice versa. We discovered that the microbiota of mice underwent alterations during reprogramming that were suggestive of a vitamin B12 deficiency. Both microorganisms and mammals require vitamin B12. According to earlier studies, vitamin B12 helps the body heal by promoting the neurological tissues required for muscle restoration or when nerves are injured, as in the case of a traumatic brain injury. It has also been demonstrated that vitamin B12 contributes to bone health.

Furthermore, a research study released in August 2022 discovered that vitamin B12 can aid in the regeneration and repair of skin damaged by radiodermatitis, a side effect of radiation therapy used to treat cancer. The researchers discovered that vitamin B12 supplementation enhanced the effectiveness of cell reprogramming, which is thought to be an early stage of tissue repair, using both mouse and cultured cell models. Vitamin B12 helps with cellular reprogramming and tissue regeneration, as Dr. Marta Kovatcheva, a researcher at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Spain and co-lead author of this study, explained to . According to her, vitamin B12 is only involved in two metabolic reactions in mammals, such as mice and humans, and one of these reactions is essential for creating a chemical tag, or more precisely, a methyl donor. This chemical group is used to tag a number of the DNAs regulatory proteins as well as the DNA itself; in doing so, the DNA is reprogrammed and its activity is altered. This tagging is very dynamic and complex and, though not fully understood yet, is essential for figuring out how cells behave, including how they can regenerate or repair tissue, explained Dr. Dot Kovatcheva.


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Daily avocado consumption a way to lower Diabeties.

Daily avocado consumption a way to lower Diabeties.

A recent study indicates that while not everyone benefits greatly from avocados, some people may have much better blood sugar control. The study found a strong correlation between a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes and individuals with a newly discovered metabolic biomarker of avocado intake, including decreased fasting glucose and insulin. A new era of personalized nutrition may result from the study of one’s microbiome and body metabolites, or metabolomics. Only a weak correlation was found between avocado consumption and lower fasting insulin in a study looking into the relationship between avocado consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes; this correlation vanished when body mass index (BMI) was taken into account. However, the study’s authors found that some individuals had a “avocado intake biomarker” that was strongly linked to lower fasting insulin and glucose levels as well as a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The results of the study imply that customized metabolic profiling might be essential for determining which foods can consistently improve an individual’s health.

Small molecule byproducts of metabolic processes that take place in cells, tissues, or an organism are known as metabolites. The methodical study of the body’s metabolite-related chemical reactions is known as metabolomics. It enables scientists to recognize unique fingerprints connected to particular biological functions. According to the study, the metabolome and the well-known microbiome may be essential for creating individualized, focused health interventions. The Hass Avocado Board provided funding for the study, which was published in The Journal of Nutrition. Based on information from 6,220 adults, ages 45 to 84, who took part in the ongoing Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, the study was conducted (MESA). Between 2000 and 2002, participants were recruited at six locations across the United States, and until 2018, they were followed up with every 18 months. In addition to over 100 other foods from 47 food groups, people reported consuming avocados. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of fasting serum samples obtained during recruitment was used to derive metabolomic profiles for 3,438 of these individuals. “Metabolomics can provide us with an extra instrument to understand a person’s specific health problems and possible remedies in a more personalized manner,” said Dr. Jason Ng, a clinical associate professor of medicine at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who did not participate in this investigation, to Medical News Today.

Following a comparison between the Human Metabolome Database and the spectral features derived from the participant samples, three spectra were found to closely correspond with avocado intake. The study’s authors came to the conclusion that the three metabolic annotations—CH2-lysyl—represented the same metabolite since they were similar. They then computed a mean value for all three to determine their metabolic biomarker of avocado intake. The biomarker was found to be highly correlated with lower levels of insulin and fasting glucose, even after controlling for a number of potential confounding variables, such as adiposity, BMI, health behaviors, alcohol and smoke consumption, and sociodemographic characteristics. The authors discovered that this association was not as strong in those who had dysglycemia as they had predicted. They point out that alterations in a type 2 diabetic’s microbiome may have an impact on dysglycemia. Michelle Routhenstein, a cardiology dietitian and the proprietor of Entirely Nourished, stated, “The way we metabolize foods and the byproducts of food metabolism can help [shine] more light into how diets affect us and our cardiometabolic health.” She was not involved in this study. Additionally, it might shed light on the management of chronic diseases and aid in the control of cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood sugar levels. She continued.

According to Routhenstein, “vocados are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and soluble and insoluble fiber, which can help control blood sugar levels.”. “We are aware that some foods are generally healthier than others,” Dr. Ng added. According to this study, avocados, for instance, may help the body’s metabolism of sugar. Since not all foods will benefit everyone equally, it would be beneficial to keep researching how these foods can affect specific individuals so that they can understand what could, in particular, benefit them the most, he continued. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the number of people with diabetes worldwide increased fourfold from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. Over 95% of these individuals have type 2 diabetes. According to more recent data, there are currently over 500 million diabetics globally, and by 2050, there may be 13.3 billion diabetics worldwide. Diabetes is described as “a defining disease of the 21st century” in The Lancet. “Although diabetes is becoming more common worldwide, North Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Caribbean are particularly affected.”. Even though diabetes is usually controllable, in the worst case it can lead to kidney failure, eyesight loss, a heart attack, or even the amputation of a lower limb. Avoiding smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise all lower the chance of developing diabetes. Drugs can help delay the onset and progression of illness.


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Blood Test Indicates Worsening of Multiple Sclerosis One to Two Years Before it Occurs

Blood Test Indicates Worsening of Multiple Sclerosis One to Two Years Before it Occurs

Approximately 228 million people worldwide suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS) as of 2020. The majority of MS patients experience symptoms that gradually worsen their level of disability. A blood test developed by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) can identify the progression of MS disability up to two years in advance. In 2020, there will be roughly 20.8 million cases of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic illness that affects the central nervous system of the body. MS does not currently have a cure, but most patients eventually experience the disease’s progression even though they may initially have few symptoms. Knowing more about when an individual’s MS symptoms might get worse would help medical professionals prescribe disease-modifying treatments, which should help slow the disease’s progression. In support of these efforts, researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) have developed a blood test that can identify the progression of multiple sclerosis disability up to two years in advance.

As stated by Dr. Ari J. According to Green, co-senior author of this study and chief of the Division of Neuroimmunology and Glial Biology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), the loss of connections within the nervous system is the biological basis for permanent irreversible neurological dysfunction. According to Dr. Green, “the cumulative effect of the loss of tens of thousands or even millions of axons and connections from the critical circuits that underlie our essential neurological functions is likely to be the cause of progressive disability worsening in MS,” Medical News Today. If neurological function is lost in the midst of a progressive worsening, on the other hand, it is a terminal event that cannot be reversed. We are powerless to stop it if we wait for someone to demonstrate this deterioration. Thus, discovering methods to identify neurological deterioration before it occurs in multiple sclerosis gives us hope that we can intervene to halt or reverse the process,” he said.

The blood biomarker for the test was the neurofilament light chain (NfL), which was the main focus of the researchers. Dr. Ahmed Abdelhak, a physician-scientist, clinical instructor, and co-first author of this study in the Division of Neuroimmunology and Glial Biology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), explained to MNT that neurofilament light chain is one of several unique proteins found mostly in nerve fibers. “Some of this protein or short segments called peptides find a way to enter the blood when nerve fibers (axons) get damaged or lost,” he said. “We can measure this tiny fraction using a digital immunoassay, which is an ultrasensitive technique that measures proteins or peptides like this at incredibly low concentrations,” Dr. Abdelhak went on. Consequently, NfL takes on a significant role as a marker to check for signs of nerve fiber damage. According to him, it more accurately forecasts future declines in the function that gives rise to the symptoms that patients endure than it does actual symptom aggravation.

Drs. Green and Abdelhak, along with their team, examined data from approximately 1,900 MS patients for this investigation. Of those, roughly 570 were categorized as having a disability that kept getting worse, the bulk of them not having relapsed. Relapses, also known as flare-ups, happen when preexisting symptoms get worse or develop new ones. Researchers discovered that a 91 percent increased risk of deteriorating disability with a relapse approximately a year later was linked to elevated NfL levels. A 49 percent higher chance of increasing disability without relapse was associated with elevated NfL levels approximately two years later. Dr. Green stated that they were taken aback by both results, particularly by their scope and the length of time they could detect changes. First, we believe that MS relapses are a rather sudden, acute event that lasts a few days. We have traditionally believed that the immune system attacks a small localized area in the brain, optic nerve, or spinal cord when it becomes activated inappropriately,” he went on. But this research indicates that before people with MS experience a permanent disability as a result of a relapse, there may be damage to nerve fibers occurring more widely throughout the brain or locally at the location of the future relapse. Understanding this process is crucial because it could lead to a paradigm change in how we view MS injuries generally and relapses that result in permanent disability in particular, said Dr. Abdelhak.

It is very exciting to see a biomarker that can predict disability one to two years before occurrence, according to Dr. Lana Zhovtis Ryerson, research director at the Hackensack Meridian Neuroscience Institute at Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Center, who reviewed this study and told MNT. “We are beginning to monitor this biomarker in our clinic, and it shows that long-term observation of this data point can have an impact on our patient population,” said Dr. Ryerson. And Bruce F. Drdot. Bebo Junior. , executive vice president of research at the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, told MNT that choosing the best disease-modifying treatment for a patient would be made much easier if it were possible to forecast how their disease would progress. Dr. Bebo stated, “At this time, there is not much information available to help guide the choice of disease-modifying therapy.”. “With this information, the patient and physician could choose a therapy with confidence. A biomarker like sNfL may enable people to begin effective treatment earlier, as we are aware of the many advantages of starting someone on a therapy that works for them.


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How accurate are the claims about ashwagandha’s benefits

How accurate are the claims about ashwagandha’s benefits

The herb ashwagandha may help with sleep and sports performance. Stronger research is required, however some research indicates that this plant may benefit patients with issues including anxiety and infertility. One of the most significant herbs in Ayurveda, a historic alternative medicine system founded on Indian theories of natural healing, is ashwagandha. For thousands of years, people have taken ashwagandha to reduce stress, boost energy, and sharpen their minds.

The Sanskrit term “ashwagandha” means “smell of the horse,” alluding to the aroma of the herb as well as its possible potentific properties. In addition to its botanical name, Withania somnifera, it is sometimes referred to as “Indian ginseng” and “winter cherry.” The native plants of India and Southeast Asia are tiny shrubs with golden blossoms called ashwagandha. The plant’s leaves or roots are used as powder or extracts to cure a number of ailments, such as infertility and anxiety.

Research-based potential benefits of ashwagandha. The most well-known benefit of ashwagandha is perhaps its ability to lower stress. It falls under the category of an adaptogen, a chemical that aids the body in adjusting to stress. Stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK-1), cortisol, and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) are among the stress mediators that ashwagandha may assist regulate. Additionally, it lessens the activity of your body’s hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which controls your stress response. Supplementing with ashwagandha may help reduce stress and anxiety, according to research.

In a short trial comprising fifty-eight volunteers, those who took either 250 or 600 mg of ashwagandha extract for eight weeks reported much lower levels of cortisol, the stress hormone, and a considerable reduction in perceived stress as compared to the placebo group. When compared to the placebo group, those who took the ashwagandha supplements also experienced improvements in the quality of their sleep. Another study involving 60 participants discovered that those who took 240 mg of ashwagandha extract daily for 60 days experienced much lower levels of anxiety than those who received a placebo. Ashwagandha may therefore be a beneficial supplement for stress and anxiety, according to preliminary study.

A 2021 evaluation of research, however, found insufficient data to establish a consensus regarding the best form and dosage of ashwagandha for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases associated with stress, including anxiety. Ashwagandha may improve athletic performance, according to research, and it might be a useful supplement for athletes.

Twelve trials including subjects who took doses of ashwagandha ranging from 120 mg to 1,250 mg daily were included in one review of the literature. The findings imply that the herb may improve exercise-related physical performance, such as strength and oxygen consumption. Ashwagandha supplementation significantly increased maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in healthy individuals and athletes, according to another research that examined five studies. A person’s maximum oxygen consumption during severe exercise is known as their VO2 max. It is an assessment of lung and heart health. It is crucial for both athletes and non-athletes to have an ideal VO2 max. Higher VO2 max is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, while lower VO2 max is linked to an increased risk of death.

Furthermore, ashwagandha might aid in boosting muscular strength. In a 2015 study, male subjects who underwent resistance training for eight weeks and took 600 mg of ashwagandha daily saw noticeably bigger increases in muscle mass and strength than those in the placebo group. According to certain populations, ashwagandha may help lessen the symptoms of depression and other mental health issues.

In one study, 66 individuals with schizophrenia who were also feeling anxiety and depression were examined to see how ashwagandha affected them. Researchers discovered that those who took 1,000 mg of ashwagandha extract every day for a 12-week period experienced higher decreases in anxiety and despair than those who received a placebo. A small body of data from 2013 also points to ashwagandha as a potential treatment for bipolar illness patients’ cognitive impairment. Ashwaghanda may aid in the management of melancholy, anxiety, insomnia, and other neurological and mental health conditions, according to a review published in 2021. More study is, however, required for all of these applications.

There is a little body of research that suggests ashwagandha may help those who have high blood sugar or diabetes. An analysis of twenty-four papers, five of which were clinical trials including diabetics, revealed that ashwagandha administration markedly lowered blood sugar, insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress. The explanation could be that some of the chemicals found in ashwagandha, such as withaferin A (WA), have potent antidiabetic properties and may encourage the uptake of glucose by cells from the bloodstream. Nonetheless, the current state of research is inadequate, and more carefully planned investigations are required.

Although the long-term effects of ashwagandha are unknown, most people should be able to consume it safely for up to three months. However, ashwagandha might not be safe for someone who: is nursing a baby; is pregnant, as excessive doses may cause pregnancy loss; is taking certain drugs, such as barbiturates, anticonvulsants, or benzodiazepines; is set to have surgery; has an autoimmune or thyroid condition; has liver issues.

The following side effects have been observed by some ashwagandha supplement users, discomfort in the upper gastrointestinal tract, fatigue, diarrhea and vomiting Ashwagandha may take many months to start showing results, and they may not happen right away. To be sure using ashwagandha or any other supplement is safe for you, always consult a physician.

According to study results, it might aid in lowering stress and anxiety, promoting sound sleep, and even enhancing cognitive performance in some groups. In the short term, ashwagandha is probably safe for most people. But, it’s not suitable for everyone, so before incorporating ashwagandha into your regimen, see a medical specialist.


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Insomnia and other sleep issues may be caused by high blood pressure.

Insomnia and other sleep issues may be caused by high blood pressure.

According to a recent study, women who have difficulties sleeping or get insufficient sleep have a higher chance of developing hypertension. Although the reason of either high blood pressure or poor sleep is unknown, there is a strong correlation between the two. The authors of the study advise paying great attention to one’s blood pressure and treating insomnia and sleeping issues properly.

The study’s authors advise women who don’t get enough sleep to get their blood pressure checked and, if they have difficulties falling asleep, to look into solutions.

Hypertension risk is increased by sleeping troubles.

The Nurses’ Health Study 2 (NHS2) included 66,122 women, and its researchers monitored their health. The participants were between the ages of 25 and 42. All had normal blood pressure at the time of enrolment in 2001. For 16 years, the researchers monitored the individuals’ health and measured their blood pressure every two years. They noticed 25,987 additional instances of hypertension during the follow-up period. The risk of hypertension in women was found to be influenced by both insufficient sleep and difficulty falling asleep after the researchers took into account lifestyle and demographic risk variables. Women who slept for five hours or less each day had a 10% increased risk of hypertension, whereas those who slept for six hours had a 7% increased risk.

Women who slept longer than eight hours, worked night shifts, or had an evening chronotype did not have a higher risk of developing hypertension. Compared to women who rarely had difficulty sleeping, those who said they occasionally or frequently had trouble sleeping were 14% and 28% more likely to develop hypertension, respectively.

What sleep has to do with hypertension

The study did not include Dr. Nicole Weinberg, a cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California. She observed that it is challenging to determine whether sleep causes hypertension, whether it is the other way around, or even if they are connected at all. Which is it: the egg or the chicken? Dr. Weinberg enquired, “Like, what is the driving force here. The study’s principal investigator, Dr. Shahab Haghayegh, a Harvard research fellow and biomedical engineer, proposed a potential mechanism through which sleep can encourage hypertension.

“Sleep problems may trigger a series of actions that may raise cardiac output, arterial stiffness, and salt retention, potentially resulting in hypertension. The activity of blood vessels that control vascular tone and the function of the cells can both be affected by disruptions to the sleep/wake cycle. On the other hand, a hypothesis cited in the article proposes a counterfactual situation in which hypertension causes poor sleep. Perhaps it disrupts the 24-hour blood pressure cycle, which typically sees a reduction in blood pressure during sleep and a rise in blood pressure upon waking.

Dr. Haghayegh stressed that this is only an assumption and said, “So the difficulty in falling asleep and maintaining sleep usually occurs during the period at night when a drop in blood pressure would be expected, preventing the sleep-time dipping in blood pressure pattern.” This would result in a rise in blood pressure when you wake up at the other end of sleep. The researchers could not discover any connection between early rising and hypertension, though. Dr. Haghayegh stressed that this was just a theory and called for more research in subsequent studies.

High BMI and nutrition linked to sleep issues

The study also discovered that women who struggled to get a decent night’s sleep had higher body mass indices (BMI), took part in less physical activity, did not consume a diet rich in nutrients, and were more likely to smoke, consume alcohol, and be postmenopausal. The mystery becomes much more complicated because several of these issues include high blood pressure as a contributing factor. Dr. Haghayegh stated, “High blood pressure may be a result of poor sleep quality or duration, or both hypertension and poor sleep may be results of other underlying illnesses.

What happens when we sleep?

What happens while we sleep has long been a mystery, which is what Dr. Weinberg found to be most intriguing about the sleep problem. Dr. Weinberg gave the example of having to urinate during the middle of the night. They say, “Oddly, I didn’t have to go to the bathroom in the middle of the night,” after you put a CPAP on them. She said, “It’s not like the sensation went away. Is the sensation caused by a blood pressure problem, or are there renal flow alterations that are activating these people in a way that we simply wouldn’t have recognized in the past because we simply lacked the means to obtain that information?

As a result, Dr. Weinberg is excited about the growing amount of sleep-related data that is being made available to professionals, praising the success of the Apple Watch’s sleep tracking feature in particular. They are able to understand what is happening when we are sleeping in a way that we have never, ever, ever been able to. And as a result, it’s assisting us in understanding the progression of disease. I find it incredibly fascinating,” she declared.

Identifying the root reasons of poor sleep

What he believed people should take away from the study was described by Dr. Haghayegh. “Maintain vigilance in monitoring blood pressure,” he said, “as our findings clearly demonstrate a substantial association between poor sleep and hypertension.” “Everyone is being encouraged to sort of speak up for themselves. You may genuinely think to yourself, “Maybe I have a sleep disorder,” if your sleep is not as restorative as you had hoped or is restless. Dr. Weinberg continued, “Your practitioner can then take it from there. Maybe I should be looking into that further.


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Is Alzheimer’s a Genetic (Hereditary) condition?

Is Alzheimer’s a Genetic (Hereditary) condition?

According to some study, having an affected relative may raise a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease affects memory, thinking, and movement. It is a chronic, progressive condition.

Uncertainty surrounds the condition’s causes. According to recent study, genetics may be one of many variables that contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s.Reliable Source.

The potential connections between genetics and Alzheimer’s disease are evaluated in this article.

Risk genes and deterministic genes are the two components that scientists use to characterise genetic risks for Alzheimer’s disease.

A person has a higher likelihood of developing an illness if they carry risk genes. A disease may emerge as a direct result of deterministic genes.

Numerous deterministic and risk genes for Alzheimer’s have been discovered by scientists.

Risk genes

Alzheimer’s disease is caused by several genes. The apolipoprotein E-E4 gene (APOE-e4) has the strongest connection to the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s disease (Trusted Source).

The Alzheimer’s Association estimates that 15 to 25 percent of persons who carry this gene may develop Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, compared to someone who receives the APOE-e4 gene from only one parent, someone who receives the gene from both parents has a higher risk of acquiring Alzheimer’s disease.

A person with the gene may potentially have symptoms earlier in life and be diagnosed sooner.

Although everyone gets an APOE gene in some form, there is no connection between Alzheimer’s disease and the APOE-e3 or APOE-e2 genes. Even against the sickness, APOE-e2 may provide benefits for the brain.

The risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease can also be considerably increased by the trisomy 21 gene.

Deterministic genes

Three distinct deterministic genes that may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease have been found by researchers:

  • amyloid precursor protein (APP)
  • presenilin-1 (PS-1)
  • presenilin-2 (PS-2)

The excessive production of amyloid-beta peptides is caused by these genes. A hazardous protein that collects in the brain is this one. The damage and death of nerve cells brought on by this accumulation are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. These are “dominant genes,” which indicates that if either parent has the ailment, they can convey the gene to their offspring, who will then develop the disorder.

These gene variants are responsible for 5-10% of all early onset dementia cases and 60-70% of familial early onset Alzheimer’s illness cases. Alzheimer’s brought on by deterministic genes often strikes people younger than 65. It occasionally manifests in persons in their 40s and 50s.

But not everyone who has early-onset Alzheimer’s has these genes.

Genes’ role in various forms of dementia

Other genetic abnormalities have been linked to some types of dementia.

For instance, chromosome 4 is altered in Huntington’s disease, which may result in dementia that worsens over time. A dominant genetic disorder, Huntington’s disease.

There may be a hereditary component to Parkinson’s dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. For instance, SNCA, PARK7, and PRKN are only a few of the genes known to be linked to Parkinson’s disease. However, the underlying causes of these diseases are frequently multifaceted, much like all types of dementia.

Alzheimer’s disease risk factors

Several risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease have been identified by researchers.

These consist of:

Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, according to reliable sources.
Family history: The likelihood of having Alzheimer’s disease is increased if a close relative already has the condition.
People who have experienced serious head trauma in the past may be more susceptible to Alzheimer’s disease.
Cardiovascular health: Alzheimer’s disease risk may be increased by heart or blood vessel conditions. Examples include diabetes, stroke, and high blood pressure.

Alzheimer’s disease signs and prognosis

Memory and brain function are typically gradually lost as a result of Alzheimer’s disease.

Periods of forgetfulness or memory loss may be early indications. A person may gradually become confused or disoriented in familiar environments, including at home. As a result, they might require extra help with daily tasks like tooth brushing, dressing, and food preparation.

Agitation, restlessness, personality withdrawals, and speech difficulties are some possible symptoms.

After the onset of symptoms, an individual with Alzheimer’s disease typically has an 8–10 year survival rate.

Find out more about the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and its prognosis.


Multiple genes are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The APOE-e4 gene, for example, raises the risk of getting the illness but does not always result in an Alzheimer’s diagnosis.

Some, like the APP gene, are directly responsible for the disease’s onset. However, familial Alzheimer’s is an uncommon form of the illness that affects 5–10% of those with early-onset Alzheimer’s.


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Are brain fog, sleep, and pain improved by Cannabis?

Are brain fog, sleep, and pain improved by Cannabis?

Cannabis, according to researchers, may be able to lessen the negative effects of chemotherapy as well as cancer discomfort. In a recent study, cancer patients said that using cannabis helped them feel less pain, sleep better, and think more clearly.

According to experts, federal rules need to be altered so that more studies may be done on cannabis’ advantages and impacts on medical ailments.

According to a study conducted at the University of Colorado at Boulder and published in the journal Exploration in Medicine, people with cancer who use cannabis to alleviate symptoms experience less pain, sleep better, and have clearer thinking.

This is one of the first observational studies to examine the potential effects of cannabis products obtained from a dispensary on chemotherapy side effects and cancer symptoms.

University researchers are only permitted to possess and distribute cannabis products that are authorized by the government or that meet pharmaceutical standards in the United States, which makes it challenging to conduct studies on dispensary goods.

The researchers at the University of Colorado, however, developed a novel strategy. When 25 cancer patients bought their products, they watched how they responded.

During a baseline visit, the researchers evaluated the patient’s pain tolerance, sleep quality, and cognitive function. After that, the participants went to a dispensary and bought a cannabis edible product of their choice. They selected several different products, such as:

  • Chocolates
  • Gummies
  • Tinctures
  • Pills
  • a baked good

Additionally, the THC and CBD potencies varied widely.

Information from the cannabis and cancer pain study

The researchers traveled to each person’s residence in a mobile lab.

Before being asked to consume the cannabis product they had chosen at home, each person had their physical and mental capabilities evaluated in the van. After consuming medical marijuana, they completed another test.

Within an hour of using the items, the patients claimed that their pain levels had greatly decreased. Additionally, it made them feel “high” and affected their cognitive function. They claimed to feel higher the more THC was present.

After two weeks of consistent use, the individuals underwent a follow-up examination. At that time, the patients indicated that their pain, sleep, and cognitive abilities had all decreased. Improvements were evident in various cognitive domains, including reaction times, according to objective measurements.

The researchers found that lower levels of pain led to an improvement in cognitive performance. The improvement in cognition increased as the discomfort decreased.

Patients who consumed more CBD reported significant reductions in pain and better sleep. CBD reduces inflammation. The authors of the study point out that while cognition was temporarily reduced, it can be enhanced by treating pain.

How cannabis might benefit cancer patients

Some dosages and cannabis types, according to experts, may be beneficial for persons receiving cancer therapy.

Dr. Wael Harb, a hematologist and medical oncologist at Memorial Care Cancer Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in California who was not involved in the study, said, “This study adds to the growing body of research that examines the potential benefits of cannabis use in cancer patients.”

According to Harb, “the results highlight the potential for cannabis to reduce pain, enhance cognition, and improve the overall quality of life for patients.” These findings have important therapeutic ramifications since they imply that cannabis may be used as an auxiliary or alternative therapy for cancer patients, particularly those who are in pain or have cognitive deficits.

However, “it is important to note that the study has limitations, such as a relatively small sample size, which may not represent the larger population of cancer patients,” the author continued.

The study also uses self-reported information, which is prone to bias. To validate these results and investigate any potential hazards or negative consequences related to cannabis usage in cancer patients, additional research with bigger, more diverse samples and more objective assessment technologies is required.

What do you need to understand about medical marijuana?

The director of the UCI Centre for the Study of Cannabis, Daniele Piomelli, Ph.D., stated that “this small study supports what oncologists have known for a long time: many cancer patients (half of them, according to some surveys) use cannabis to cope with nausea, pain, and sleeplessness caused by cancer drugs“.

He informed us that the National Cancer Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health, is aware of this and that urgently required larger investigations are about to begin.

According to the National Institutes of Health, the cannabis plant has two major compounds (cannabinoids) that are employed in medical procedures. THC and CBD are these.

These have not been given use approval by the Food and Drug Administration. The group has, however, approved a small number of drugs that do:

  • Cannabidiol (Epidolex)
  • Dronabinol (Marinol, Syndros)
  • Nabilone

Currently, marijuana use is either decriminalized or legal in 46 states. Anyone considering using medical items should first examine the regulations in their locality as each state has different legislation.

Dr. Olivia Seecof, clinical assistant professor of medicine and attending physician in supportive oncology at NYU Langone Perlmutter Cancer Centre in New York, said she was “very excited” about the study because it was “one of the first studies to address some of the issues surrounding recommending medical cannabis products in an evidence-based way.”

During outpatient supportive oncology appointments, I do certify patients for medical cannabis. I had to enroll in the New York State Medical Cannabis Programme and complete further training/certification to be able to do that,” she explained to us.

The market for medical marijuana is expanding.

Its US market value in 2021 was close to $27 billion. Market Research Future estimates that by 2030, it would reach $248 billion.

According to a Reuters article, some proposed measures in Congress would decriminalize or legalize marijuana.

It would be decriminalized under one statute, leaving state regulation to their discretion. More research will be possible thanks to the regulation reform, giving doctors and other healthcare providers the data they need to treat patients.

Because of cannabis’ murky legal status and negative connotations, many doctors are still uneasy about marijuana, according to Piomelli. “But the profession can no longer bury its head in the sand with so many patients using it. To better meet the requirements of their patients, doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals need to have more knowledge about the advantages and drawbacks of cannabis.


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New omega-3 could Prevent Visual Decline from Alzheimer’s.

New omega-3 could Prevent Visual Decline from Alzheimer’s.

The region of the eye known as the retina is impacted by some of the main causes of vision loss.

Docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, is a specific type of omega fatty acid that can be supplemented to lessen the risk of retinal disease. However, because of the retina-blood barrier, raising DHA levels in the retina is difficult.

Now, a team of scientists has demonstrated that a particular kind of DHA they created can permeate the retinal tissue—at least in mice. The supplement may be used to lower risk and perhaps even treat various retinal illnesses if the same outcome is shown in humans.

According to the World Health Organization, the annual global cost of losing one’s sight is estimated to be $411 billion. This cost includes missed wages and productivity as well as medical and care expenses.

The majority of persons who lose their sight are over 50, and the following are the main reasons for vision loss worldwide:

  • mature macular degeneration with ageing
  • cataract
  • retinopathy in diabetics
  • glaucoma
  • mistakes in refractive correction.

Both diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration have an impact on the retina, which is located at the back of the eye and is home to numerous light-sensitive cells that enable vision.


The macula, a portion of the retina, is impacted by age-related macular degeneration, which causes blurry central vision. In the meanwhile, diabetic retinopathy, which affects people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, is brought on by high blood sugar levels that disrupt the retina’s blood flow and, if left untreated, can result in blindness.

The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, is highest in the brain and retina among all bodily tissues. Given that the body can only produce modest amounts of this fatty acid, it must be consumed through diet or supplementation.

Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated the positive effects of DHA supplementation on lowering the risk of developing retinal illness, it is considerably more difficult to deliver this molecule to the retina and sustain normal functioning. This is despite the fact that the relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet is well established.

This is due to the difficulty in obtaining DHA supplements that not only permeate the blood-retinal barrier but also DHA in a form that can pass through the intestinal barrier.

Once scientists developed a novel form of DHA that can enter the retina of the eye, new research offers a ray of hope for treating and possibly preventing visual losses linked to Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and other conditions. A research grant from the Alzheimer’s Association paid for the study (AARG).

DHA: New form

The study’s authors, from the University of Illinois at Chicago, presented their findings at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology’s annual meeting, which took place March 25–28 in Seattle.

They demonstrated that a newly created version of DHA may be employed to penetrate both the intestinal and retinal blood barriers.

The scientists developed a fresh lysophospholipid version of DHA, called LPC-DHA, to achieve this. During six months, they gave mice a low dose of this supplement, which corresponds to 250 to 500 mg of omega-3 fatty acids daily for people.

DHA levels in their retinas increased by 100% as a result of this. LPC-DHA was found to be superior when researchers compared the effects of supplementation to those of fish oil and krill oil, two alternative sources of DHA.

New DHA and eyesight

DHA is primarily located in the retina of healthy eyes. Photoreceptors—cells that transform light into signals that are delivered to the brain—are maintained with the aid of this.

The findings imply that this supplement may aid in preventing visual problems in people with Alzheimer’s disease and other conditions that share a common DHA shortage and vision impairment.

One issue with existing supplements is that DHA must first enter the bloodstream through the intestines before reaching the retina. Up until today, there has been no way to raise the DHA levels in the retina. The brand-new vitamin gets past blood-retinal and digestive barriers.

Further research is required to prove the safety and efficacy of DHA supplements in people.

It’s always a fascinating issue, says Benjamin Bert, MD, an ophthalmologist at MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California, to investigate dietary supplementation’s potential to halt the advancement of diseases. In this instance, the researchers are examining a novel version of DHA called LPC-DHA, which they believe will be more readily absorbed by the body than the DHA formulations already on the market. We still have a lot to learn because this study is one of the first to use this supplement.

Vision problems in Alzheimer’s people

According to Howard R. Krauss, MD, surgical neuro-ophthalmologist and director of Pacific Neuroscience Institute’s Eye, Ear & Skull Base Center at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California, “Visual impairment is a significant component of Alzheimer’s disease, but while there are indeed degenerative retinal changes in association with Alzheimer’s disease, most of the visual impairment is secondary to brain dysfunction rather than retinal dysfunction.”

Krauss stated, “Yet, one may consider the retina as both an extension of the brain and a window into the brain. “Thus, therapeutic approaches that may show promise for improving retinal health may also do so for improving brain health.”

According to the Alzheimer’s Foundation of America, vision issues in those with Alzheimer’s disease may result from the brain’s inability to absorb the information that the eyes send to it. The individual may experience the following issues:

  • Loss of peripheral pitch
  • sensitivity to contrast being lost
  • Inability to accurately perceive depth
  • difficulties with glare

According to Bert, specific layers of the retina gradually become weaker in people with Alzheimer’s disease. “With a supplement like the one disclosed here, the hope is that this process will slow down or halt entirely.”

Note on omega-3 fatty acids

You need omega-3 fatty acids for good health. Your body does not, however, make them. You must therefore consume them through your diet.

The following are typical foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids:

  • Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines
  • Fish oil
  • Flax seeds
  • Chia seeds
  • Soybean oil
  • Walnuts

Omega-3 fatty acids are added as a supplement to some diets. For those who don’t typically eat these foods, there are supplements available, like fish oil or algal oil.

According to the National Institutes of Health, your body’s cell membranes contain essential components called omega-3 fatty acids. One of the most important types of omega-3 fatty acids is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Your retina normally has high DHA levels.

The conclusion

Scientific research always includes mouse experiments. Yet, they occasionally reveal whether a therapy approach is secure and efficient in people. This research is in its early stages.

The “takeaways” from this study, in Krauss’s opinion, show that additional investigation is necessary before people should start using omega-3 supplements.

Even though some people may benefit from taking supplements, the purity and concentration of over-the-counter vitamins varies. Certain supplements, especially when used in excess, may pose a risk to some individuals. Anyone thinking about using supplements should talk to their primary care physician about it.


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