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Is Alzheimer’s a Genetic (Hereditary) condition?

Is Alzheimer’s a Genetic (Hereditary) condition?

According to some study, having an affected relative may raise a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease affects memory, thinking, and movement. It is a chronic, progressive condition.

Uncertainty surrounds the condition’s causes. According to recent study, genetics may be one of many variables that contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s.Reliable Source.

The potential connections between genetics and Alzheimer’s disease are evaluated in this article.

Risk genes and deterministic genes are the two components that scientists use to characterise genetic risks for Alzheimer’s disease.

A person has a higher likelihood of developing an illness if they carry risk genes. A disease may emerge as a direct result of deterministic genes.

Numerous deterministic and risk genes for Alzheimer’s have been discovered by scientists.

Risk genes

Alzheimer’s disease is caused by several genes. The apolipoprotein E-E4 gene (APOE-e4) has the strongest connection to the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s disease (Trusted Source).

The Alzheimer’s Association estimates that 15 to 25 percent of persons who carry this gene may develop Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, compared to someone who receives the APOE-e4 gene from only one parent, someone who receives the gene from both parents has a higher risk of acquiring Alzheimer’s disease.

A person with the gene may potentially have symptoms earlier in life and be diagnosed sooner.

Although everyone gets an APOE gene in some form, there is no connection between Alzheimer’s disease and the APOE-e3 or APOE-e2 genes. Even against the sickness, APOE-e2 may provide benefits for the brain.

The risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease can also be considerably increased by the trisomy 21 gene.

Deterministic genes

Three distinct deterministic genes that may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease have been found by researchers:

  • amyloid precursor protein (APP)
  • presenilin-1 (PS-1)
  • presenilin-2 (PS-2)

The excessive production of amyloid-beta peptides is caused by these genes. A hazardous protein that collects in the brain is this one. The damage and death of nerve cells brought on by this accumulation are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. These are “dominant genes,” which indicates that if either parent has the ailment, they can convey the gene to their offspring, who will then develop the disorder.

These gene variants are responsible for 5-10% of all early onset dementia cases and 60-70% of familial early onset Alzheimer’s illness cases. Alzheimer’s brought on by deterministic genes often strikes people younger than 65. It occasionally manifests in persons in their 40s and 50s.

But not everyone who has early-onset Alzheimer’s has these genes.

Genes’ role in various forms of dementia

Other genetic abnormalities have been linked to some types of dementia.

For instance, chromosome 4 is altered in Huntington’s disease, which may result in dementia that worsens over time. A dominant genetic disorder, Huntington’s disease.

There may be a hereditary component to Parkinson’s dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. For instance, SNCA, PARK7, and PRKN are only a few of the genes known to be linked to Parkinson’s disease. However, the underlying causes of these diseases are frequently multifaceted, much like all types of dementia.

Alzheimer’s disease risk factors

Several risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease have been identified by researchers.

These consist of:

Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, according to reliable sources.
Family history: The likelihood of having Alzheimer’s disease is increased if a close relative already has the condition.
People who have experienced serious head trauma in the past may be more susceptible to Alzheimer’s disease.
Cardiovascular health: Alzheimer’s disease risk may be increased by heart or blood vessel conditions. Examples include diabetes, stroke, and high blood pressure.

Alzheimer’s disease signs and prognosis

Memory and brain function are typically gradually lost as a result of Alzheimer’s disease.

Periods of forgetfulness or memory loss may be early indications. A person may gradually become confused or disoriented in familiar environments, including at home. As a result, they might require extra help with daily tasks like tooth brushing, dressing, and food preparation.

Agitation, restlessness, personality withdrawals, and speech difficulties are some possible symptoms.

After the onset of symptoms, an individual with Alzheimer’s disease typically has an 8–10 year survival rate.

Find out more about the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and its prognosis.


Multiple genes are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The APOE-e4 gene, for example, raises the risk of getting the illness but does not always result in an Alzheimer’s diagnosis.

Some, like the APP gene, are directly responsible for the disease’s onset. However, familial Alzheimer’s is an uncommon form of the illness that affects 5–10% of those with early-onset Alzheimer’s.


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Are brain fog, sleep, and pain improved by Cannabis?

Are brain fog, sleep, and pain improved by Cannabis?

Cannabis, according to researchers, may be able to lessen the negative effects of chemotherapy as well as cancer discomfort. In a recent study, cancer patients said that using cannabis helped them feel less pain, sleep better, and think more clearly.

According to experts, federal rules need to be altered so that more studies may be done on cannabis’ advantages and impacts on medical ailments.

According to a study conducted at the University of Colorado at Boulder and published in the journal Exploration in Medicine, people with cancer who use cannabis to alleviate symptoms experience less pain, sleep better, and have clearer thinking.

This is one of the first observational studies to examine the potential effects of cannabis products obtained from a dispensary on chemotherapy side effects and cancer symptoms.

University researchers are only permitted to possess and distribute cannabis products that are authorized by the government or that meet pharmaceutical standards in the United States, which makes it challenging to conduct studies on dispensary goods.

The researchers at the University of Colorado, however, developed a novel strategy. When 25 cancer patients bought their products, they watched how they responded.

During a baseline visit, the researchers evaluated the patient’s pain tolerance, sleep quality, and cognitive function. After that, the participants went to a dispensary and bought a cannabis edible product of their choice. They selected several different products, such as:

  • Chocolates
  • Gummies
  • Tinctures
  • Pills
  • a baked good

Additionally, the THC and CBD potencies varied widely.

Information from the cannabis and cancer pain study

The researchers traveled to each person’s residence in a mobile lab.

Before being asked to consume the cannabis product they had chosen at home, each person had their physical and mental capabilities evaluated in the van. After consuming medical marijuana, they completed another test.

Within an hour of using the items, the patients claimed that their pain levels had greatly decreased. Additionally, it made them feel “high” and affected their cognitive function. They claimed to feel higher the more THC was present.

After two weeks of consistent use, the individuals underwent a follow-up examination. At that time, the patients indicated that their pain, sleep, and cognitive abilities had all decreased. Improvements were evident in various cognitive domains, including reaction times, according to objective measurements.

The researchers found that lower levels of pain led to an improvement in cognitive performance. The improvement in cognition increased as the discomfort decreased.

Patients who consumed more CBD reported significant reductions in pain and better sleep. CBD reduces inflammation. The authors of the study point out that while cognition was temporarily reduced, it can be enhanced by treating pain.

How cannabis might benefit cancer patients

Some dosages and cannabis types, according to experts, may be beneficial for persons receiving cancer therapy.

Dr. Wael Harb, a hematologist and medical oncologist at Memorial Care Cancer Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in California who was not involved in the study, said, “This study adds to the growing body of research that examines the potential benefits of cannabis use in cancer patients.”

According to Harb, “the results highlight the potential for cannabis to reduce pain, enhance cognition, and improve the overall quality of life for patients.” These findings have important therapeutic ramifications since they imply that cannabis may be used as an auxiliary or alternative therapy for cancer patients, particularly those who are in pain or have cognitive deficits.

However, “it is important to note that the study has limitations, such as a relatively small sample size, which may not represent the larger population of cancer patients,” the author continued.

The study also uses self-reported information, which is prone to bias. To validate these results and investigate any potential hazards or negative consequences related to cannabis usage in cancer patients, additional research with bigger, more diverse samples and more objective assessment technologies is required.

What do you need to understand about medical marijuana?

The director of the UCI Centre for the Study of Cannabis, Daniele Piomelli, Ph.D., stated that “this small study supports what oncologists have known for a long time: many cancer patients (half of them, according to some surveys) use cannabis to cope with nausea, pain, and sleeplessness caused by cancer drugs“.

He informed us that the National Cancer Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health, is aware of this and that urgently required larger investigations are about to begin.

According to the National Institutes of Health, the cannabis plant has two major compounds (cannabinoids) that are employed in medical procedures. THC and CBD are these.

These have not been given use approval by the Food and Drug Administration. The group has, however, approved a small number of drugs that do:

  • Cannabidiol (Epidolex)
  • Dronabinol (Marinol, Syndros)
  • Nabilone

Currently, marijuana use is either decriminalized or legal in 46 states. Anyone considering using medical items should first examine the regulations in their locality as each state has different legislation.

Dr. Olivia Seecof, clinical assistant professor of medicine and attending physician in supportive oncology at NYU Langone Perlmutter Cancer Centre in New York, said she was “very excited” about the study because it was “one of the first studies to address some of the issues surrounding recommending medical cannabis products in an evidence-based way.”

During outpatient supportive oncology appointments, I do certify patients for medical cannabis. I had to enroll in the New York State Medical Cannabis Programme and complete further training/certification to be able to do that,” she explained to us.

The market for medical marijuana is expanding.

Its US market value in 2021 was close to $27 billion. Market Research Future estimates that by 2030, it would reach $248 billion.

According to a Reuters article, some proposed measures in Congress would decriminalize or legalize marijuana.

It would be decriminalized under one statute, leaving state regulation to their discretion. More research will be possible thanks to the regulation reform, giving doctors and other healthcare providers the data they need to treat patients.

Because of cannabis’ murky legal status and negative connotations, many doctors are still uneasy about marijuana, according to Piomelli. “But the profession can no longer bury its head in the sand with so many patients using it. To better meet the requirements of their patients, doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals need to have more knowledge about the advantages and drawbacks of cannabis.


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New omega-3 could Prevent Visual Decline from Alzheimer’s.

New omega-3 could Prevent Visual Decline from Alzheimer’s.

The region of the eye known as the retina is impacted by some of the main causes of vision loss.

Docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, is a specific type of omega fatty acid that can be supplemented to lessen the risk of retinal disease. However, because of the retina-blood barrier, raising DHA levels in the retina is difficult.

Now, a team of scientists has demonstrated that a particular kind of DHA they created can permeate the retinal tissue—at least in mice. The supplement may be used to lower risk and perhaps even treat various retinal illnesses if the same outcome is shown in humans.

According to the World Health Organization, the annual global cost of losing one’s sight is estimated to be $411 billion. This cost includes missed wages and productivity as well as medical and care expenses.

The majority of persons who lose their sight are over 50, and the following are the main reasons for vision loss worldwide:

  • mature macular degeneration with ageing
  • cataract
  • retinopathy in diabetics
  • glaucoma
  • mistakes in refractive correction.

Both diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration have an impact on the retina, which is located at the back of the eye and is home to numerous light-sensitive cells that enable vision.


The macula, a portion of the retina, is impacted by age-related macular degeneration, which causes blurry central vision. In the meanwhile, diabetic retinopathy, which affects people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, is brought on by high blood sugar levels that disrupt the retina’s blood flow and, if left untreated, can result in blindness.

The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, is highest in the brain and retina among all bodily tissues. Given that the body can only produce modest amounts of this fatty acid, it must be consumed through diet or supplementation.

Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated the positive effects of DHA supplementation on lowering the risk of developing retinal illness, it is considerably more difficult to deliver this molecule to the retina and sustain normal functioning. This is despite the fact that the relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet is well established.

This is due to the difficulty in obtaining DHA supplements that not only permeate the blood-retinal barrier but also DHA in a form that can pass through the intestinal barrier.

Once scientists developed a novel form of DHA that can enter the retina of the eye, new research offers a ray of hope for treating and possibly preventing visual losses linked to Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and other conditions. A research grant from the Alzheimer’s Association paid for the study (AARG).

DHA: New form

The study’s authors, from the University of Illinois at Chicago, presented their findings at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology’s annual meeting, which took place March 25–28 in Seattle.

They demonstrated that a newly created version of DHA may be employed to penetrate both the intestinal and retinal blood barriers.

The scientists developed a fresh lysophospholipid version of DHA, called LPC-DHA, to achieve this. During six months, they gave mice a low dose of this supplement, which corresponds to 250 to 500 mg of omega-3 fatty acids daily for people.

DHA levels in their retinas increased by 100% as a result of this. LPC-DHA was found to be superior when researchers compared the effects of supplementation to those of fish oil and krill oil, two alternative sources of DHA.

New DHA and eyesight

DHA is primarily located in the retina of healthy eyes. Photoreceptors—cells that transform light into signals that are delivered to the brain—are maintained with the aid of this.

The findings imply that this supplement may aid in preventing visual problems in people with Alzheimer’s disease and other conditions that share a common DHA shortage and vision impairment.

One issue with existing supplements is that DHA must first enter the bloodstream through the intestines before reaching the retina. Up until today, there has been no way to raise the DHA levels in the retina. The brand-new vitamin gets past blood-retinal and digestive barriers.

Further research is required to prove the safety and efficacy of DHA supplements in people.

It’s always a fascinating issue, says Benjamin Bert, MD, an ophthalmologist at MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California, to investigate dietary supplementation’s potential to halt the advancement of diseases. In this instance, the researchers are examining a novel version of DHA called LPC-DHA, which they believe will be more readily absorbed by the body than the DHA formulations already on the market. We still have a lot to learn because this study is one of the first to use this supplement.

Vision problems in Alzheimer’s people

According to Howard R. Krauss, MD, surgical neuro-ophthalmologist and director of Pacific Neuroscience Institute’s Eye, Ear & Skull Base Center at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California, “Visual impairment is a significant component of Alzheimer’s disease, but while there are indeed degenerative retinal changes in association with Alzheimer’s disease, most of the visual impairment is secondary to brain dysfunction rather than retinal dysfunction.”

Krauss stated, “Yet, one may consider the retina as both an extension of the brain and a window into the brain. “Thus, therapeutic approaches that may show promise for improving retinal health may also do so for improving brain health.”

According to the Alzheimer’s Foundation of America, vision issues in those with Alzheimer’s disease may result from the brain’s inability to absorb the information that the eyes send to it. The individual may experience the following issues:

  • Loss of peripheral pitch
  • sensitivity to contrast being lost
  • Inability to accurately perceive depth
  • difficulties with glare

According to Bert, specific layers of the retina gradually become weaker in people with Alzheimer’s disease. “With a supplement like the one disclosed here, the hope is that this process will slow down or halt entirely.”

Note on omega-3 fatty acids

You need omega-3 fatty acids for good health. Your body does not, however, make them. You must therefore consume them through your diet.

The following are typical foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids:

  • Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, and sardines
  • Fish oil
  • Flax seeds
  • Chia seeds
  • Soybean oil
  • Walnuts

Omega-3 fatty acids are added as a supplement to some diets. For those who don’t typically eat these foods, there are supplements available, like fish oil or algal oil.

According to the National Institutes of Health, your body’s cell membranes contain essential components called omega-3 fatty acids. One of the most important types of omega-3 fatty acids is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Your retina normally has high DHA levels.

The conclusion

Scientific research always includes mouse experiments. Yet, they occasionally reveal whether a therapy approach is secure and efficient in people. This research is in its early stages.

The “takeaways” from this study, in Krauss’s opinion, show that additional investigation is necessary before people should start using omega-3 supplements.

Even though some people may benefit from taking supplements, the purity and concentration of over-the-counter vitamins varies. Certain supplements, especially when used in excess, may pose a risk to some individuals. Anyone thinking about using supplements should talk to their primary care physician about it.


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Can Cinnamon actually improve memory and learning ability?

Can Cinnamon actually improve memory and learning ability?

Researchers examined 40 research that looked at the impact of cinnamon on cognition. They discovered that taking cinnamon supplements may enhance learning and memory. Before conclusions can be drawn, additional research is required.

Cinnamon has a long history of usage in herbal medicine, as well as in cooking and as an aroma. According to studies, cinnamon has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immunomodulatory qualities in addition to providing benefits to cognition.

Cinnamon may have neuroprotective properties, including those against Alzheimer’s disease, according to some research.

Cinnamaldehyde, a component of cinnamon, has been demonstrated to prevent the formation of amyloid-beta plaques in the brain, which are a crucial indicator of Alzheimer’s disease. The development of preventative measures for cognitive decline may be aided by more research into cinnamon’s possible cognitive advantages.

A recent meta-analysis of 40 studies looking into cinnamon’s impact on cognitive performance was done by researchers. Scientists discovered that cinnamon greatly enhances cognition, often known as learning and memory.

Cinnamon and cognitive function

The researchers examined 40 studies that examined the connection between cinnamon and cognitive function for the study.

They used two clinical trials, five in vitro studies, and 33 in vivo studies for the study. Of these, 17 studies used rats, 15 used mice, and one used a common fruit fly. The researchers started by reviewing studies that used cinnamon extract or powder.

Researchers discovered that adolescents’ memories improved after eating cinnamon gum for 40 days in one clinical investigation. However, the other clinical research found no appreciable differences in memory when administered orally.

The majority of in vivo research discovered that cinnamon improved learning and memory. But according to one study, cinnamon reduced learning and short-term memory.

Meanwhile, an in-vivo investigation discovered that a methanol extract from cinnamon bark can reduce the development of amyloid-beta. The scientists then looked into the compounds found in cinnamon, including eugenol, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde.

They discovered that eugenol’s antioxidant qualities and capacity to prevent amyloid plaques have cognitive beneficial effects. They also discovered that the chemicals cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamaldehyde have anti-cell death and anti-inflammatory properties that shield against cognitive decline in animal models.

While both low and high doses of cinnamon had beneficial benefits, the researchers emphasised that their findings were not dose-dependent.

Limited clinical data

Molly Rapozo, RDN, Registered Dietician Nutritionist & Senior Nutrition and Health Educator at Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, CA, who was not involved in the study, responded as follows when asked about the study’s limitations:

Just 2 clinical studies—one of which did not demonstrate a beneficial effect were included in this review. Rodent models made up the majority of the included literature. Further clinical research is therefore required. The length, dosage, and components of the cinnamon utilised in the experiments varied widely as well.

She speculated as to why one of the two clinical trials with reported positive effects included cinnamon’s lack of efficacy, saying: “Perhaps cinnamon didn’t show a positive effect in one of the clinical studies because the dosage, duration, or cinnamon used wasn’t as impactful as the combination used in the positive study.”

I CARE FOR YOUR BRAIN inventor and board-certified neuropsychologist Dr. Karen D. Sullivan, who was not engaged in the study, added:

The majority of the included studies are of poor quality, and even the authors call them “imprecise,” which is one of the key weaknesses. There were several poorly specified variables, such as the cognitive abilities assessed, the usage of various cinnamon components, and different exposures to the chemicals.

She went on to say that the evidence for cinnamon’s ability to block the pathophysiological processes involved in Alzheimer’s disease was extremely weak and limited to very tiny sample sizes in laboratory samples.

While not engaged in the study, Dr. Jonathan J. Rasouli, Director of Complicated and Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery at Staten Island University Hospital, told that the human trials lacked sufficient control groups. Dr. Rasouli stated that We will need a prospective, randomised controlled trial, and that is still pending, in order to conclusively claim there is a benefit.

Including cinnamon in diet 

There are two varieties of cinnamon: cassia and ceylon. Both can be beneficial additions to a person’s diet, however cassia cinnamon has a toxin that can be detrimental if consumed in excess.

“High intakes of cassia cinnamon can impair liver function, raise the risk of lung, liver, and kidney cancer, cause drug interactions, and do so because of the high coumarin content. However, consuming too much ground cinnamon—of any variety—at once can make you cough and have trouble breathing because of the spice’s extremely fine texture, which can get stuck in your lungs’ vacuoles. For those who have asthma, this is extremely troubling, Dr. Sullivan advised.

Rapozo pointed out, however, that cinnamon is regarded as a safe natural remedy and has a lengthy cultural history. This implies that it might be easily incorporated as a component of a whole foods diet that is accessible to a wide range of people.

‘I advise using culinary herbs and spices as a part of an anti-inflammatory diet for brain health. In addition to being an excellent addition to hot or cold tea, whole grains, and fruit, cinnamon is also a crucial component of many savoury spice blends around the world’, she said.



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Explore the important do’s and don’t of Blood thinner.

Explore the important do’s and don’t of Blood thinner.

Blood clots are a significant problem. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a disorder in which a clot develops inside a sizable, deep vein, usually in the leg, raises the risk that it will get loose and migrate to the lungs. There, it may result in a pulmonary embolism, a blockage that can be fatal.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 60,000 to 100,000 People die from a pulmonary embolism every year and about 900,000 Americans suffer from DVT each year (CDC).

According to Mary Cushman, MD, director of the Thrombosis and Hemostasis Unit at the University of Vermont Medical Center in Burlington, deep vein thrombosis is “primarily a disease of age.”

“For women under 30, the risk is only 1 in 10,000 annually. Around age 40 or 45, there is a significant increase, and by the time you are 80 years old, your annual risk is 1 in 100, according to Dr. Cushman. According to Cushman, this is because as you get older, blood clots more frequently for unknown reasons.

According to the CDC, utilising hormone therapy, getting pregnant, or using birth control pills that include oestrogen all enhance a woman’s risk of developing deep vein thrombosis. Your risk may also be increased by severe illnesses, accidents, obesity, and extended periods of inactivity.

The good news is that blood-thinning drugs can prevent clots from developing, decrease their growth, or stop existing clots from causing damage to other body parts.

These medications, which include heparin, warfarin, and more recent ones like apixaban and rivaroxaban, all affect how blood clots in somewhat different ways.

Different types of blood thinners

Several forms of blood thinners include:

  • Warfarin, commonly known as Coumadin, and other anticoagulants like heparin slow down the clotting process in your body.
  • Antiplatelets, such as aspirin and clopidogrel, stop platelets, which are blood cells, from congregating to form a clot. Most patients who have had a heart attack or stroke take antiplatelets.

Tips for using Blood thinner

Prevent Falls and Bumps

A heart attack and stroke can be avoided by taking the blood thinner that your doctor ordered to prevent clots from forming in your heart or blood arteries. Yet, a slight wound might become dangerous since these medications make it difficult for you to stop bleeding.

Avoid engaging in contact sports and other risky activities. Choose safer exercises like walking or swimming instead. Remember to take care of your head! Even if there is a remote probability that you will be struck in the head, always wear a helmet.

Maintain a Schedule

Every day, take your medication at the same time. If you are inconsistent, some blood thinners may not operate as intended.

To remember yourself, use a pill organiser or the calendar on your smartphone. Take it as soon as you remember if you forget. Don’t miss a dose.

Ask your doctor what to do if you don’t know you missed a dosage until the next day. Do not multiply.

Learn About Your Drugs

Ask your doctor or pharmacist whether any new prescription or over-the-counter medications are safe to take with your blood thinner before bringing them home. Even vitamins and supplements have the ability to alter the effectiveness of some blood thinners or heighten their adverse effects. The risk of bleeding may increase, for instance, if you take an aspirin-containing painkiller or cold remedy.

Cut With Care

Blood thinners can cause a minor injury to bleed profusely. While using knives, garden shears, or other pointed instruments, put on gloves. When shaving, exercise additional caution. If you can, use an electric razor to avoid self-nicking. Keep your nail trimmings away from the skin wherever possible.

If you do cut yourself, push on the area until the blood stops flowing. If not, seek medical attention.

Take a test

Regular blood tests to monitor how quickly your blood clots may be necessary while you’re using specific blood thinners. Your doctor can alter your dose or switch you to a different medication based on the findings.

Make Your Medical Team Aware

Inform all of your medical professionals that you use blood thinners, especially before any procedures or if you receive a new prescription. They must be aware of your elevated risk of bleeding.

To let emergency medical personnel know that you are at danger for bleeding as well, wear a medical ID bracelet or tag. On a card that you keep in your wallet or purse, write down the name of your drug.

Take Care When Using Your Teeth

Because your gums are tender, brush your mouth gently. Don’t scrub; instead, use a gentle toothbrush. Choose some waxed dental floss, and carefully slide it between your teeth.

Be sure to tell your dentist if you take blood thinners. During checkups, they’ll take extra precautions, and they might also give you drugs to stop bleeding during dental work.

Consider the side effects

Blood thinners can sometimes result in:

  • bluish gums
  • Unable to describe bruises
  • Dizziness
  • heavier than usual period flow
  • Red or dark brown stools or urine

If you experience any of these, contact your doctor.

Having supplies on hand

Have a supply of dressings and bandages on hand. Always keep some on hand in case you sustain a wound. A quick stop to a bleed using special powder will keep it under control until you can seek medical attention. At your neighbourhood pharmacy, you can get these products without a prescription. They are also safe to use when taking blood thinners.



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Is there a way which can reverse the prediabetes?

Is there a way which can reverse the prediabetes?

Although while prediabetes does not necessarily portend the impending onset of diabetes, it is advisable to take steps to reverse the condition. Your food and lifestyle choices might change dramatically.

When blood sugar levels are above normal but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes, you have prediabetes. Although the precise origin of prediabetes is unknown, insulin resistance is a contributing factor. Your cells quit responding to the insulin hormone at this point.

Insulin, which is made by the pancreas, enables glucose (sugar) to enter your cells. Sugar can build up in your bloodstream if your body doesn’t utilise insulin appropriately. Although some people experience darkening of the skin around the armpits, neck, and elbows, prediabetes doesn’t always result in symptoms.

Prediabetes is easily diagnosed with a blood test. A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test is part of this. Scores in the range of 100 to 125 may suggest prediabetes.

An A1C test, which tracks your blood sugar over three months, can also be used by your doctor. Prediabetes can also be detected in test results that range from 5.7 to 6.4 percent. But, a prediabetes diagnosis does not guarantee that you will eventually acquire type 2 diabetes. Some people have been able to reverse prediabetes by making dietary and lifestyle changes.

Consume a “clean” diet

A diet rich in processed foods, which have extra fats, calories, and sugar without any nutritional benefit, is one risk factor for prediabetes. Your risk is also increased by a diet heavy in red meat.

A “clean” diet, which includes better options, can aid in reestablishing regular blood sugar levels. This can help prevent type 2 diabetes and reverse prediabetes.

Include items low in calories and fat in your diet. They consist of:

  • complex carbohydrates in fruits
  • vegetables
  • healthy meats
  • whole grains
  • omega-3 fatty acids from avocado and fish

Regular exercise

Another risk factor for prediabetes is a lack of exercise. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which lowers blood sugar and is beneficial for both physical and mental health. Your body’s cells can utilise insulin more effectively as a result.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) claims that exercising can lower blood sugar levels for up to 24 hours following a session.

Start out slowly while starting a new fitness regimen. Exercise lightly for 15 or 20 minutes, then after a few days progressively up the duration and intensity of your workouts.

You should try to exercise for 30 to 60 minutes, five days a week at the very least. Exercises might be:

  • walking
  • biking
  • jogging
  • swimming

Reduce your weight.

Regular exercise has several advantages, one of which is that it can aid in weight loss. In fact, decreasing just 5 to 10 percent of your body fat can lower blood sugar and aid in prediabetes reversal. This weighs between 10 and 20 pounds for some individuals.

Moreover, having a greater waist size results in increased insulin resistance. For ladies, this equates to 35 inches or more, while for men, it’s 40 inches or more.

Losing weight requires both a healthy diet and consistent exercise. You have additional options. This could entail joining a gym, hiring a personal trainer, or having a friend or relative act as your accountability partner. Also, eating five or six smaller meals throughout the day rather than three larger ones can be beneficial.

Quit smoking.

Smoking increases the risk for heart disease and lung cancer, as is widely known. The risk of insulin resistance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes is further increased by smoking.

You can obtain support to stop smoking. Utilize over-the-counter medications like nicotine gum or patches. Ask your doctor about prescription drugs that can help you quit smoking or programmes that can help you quit cold turkey.

Reduce your carbohydrate intake.

Even if you’re dedicated to eating healthily, it’s crucial to pick your carbohydrates wisely. In order to assist reverse prediabetes, you should also consume fewer of these carbohydrates.

You should eat complex carbohydrates, which are unprocessed carbohydrates, the majority of the time. They consist of:

  • vegetables
  • whole grains
  • beans

These carbohydrates are high in fibre and prolong feeling full. They also absorb into your body at a slower rate since they take longer to decompose. By doing this, blood sugar spikes are avoided.

Simple carbs should be avoided or limited since they absorb fast and result in a sharp rise in blood sugar. Simple carbs consist of:

  • candy
  • yoghurt
  • honey
  • juices
  • certain fruits

Furthermore fast-acting, refined carbs are to be restricted or avoided. They consist of:

  • white rice
  • white bread
  • pizza dough
  • breakfast cereals
  • pastries
  • pasta

Deal with sleep apnea

Also keep in mind that sleep apnea and insulin resistance have been linked. Due to the neck muscles relaxing in this situation, respiration frequently ceases throughout the course of the night.

Sleep apnea symptoms include:

  • strong snoring
  • breathing heavily when sleeping
  • choking while sleeping
  • headache upon awakening
  • daytime slumber

The typical course of treatment include using an oral appliance to keep the throat open while you sleep.

A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine is an additional option. As a result, the top airway passage remains open all night.

Take more water.

Another great strategy to correct prediabetes and prevent type 2 diabetes is to drink enough of water.

Water is a healthier alternative to sodas and fruit drinks and helps regulate blood sugar levels. These drinks often include a lot of sugar.

Can medications help if you have prediabetes?

Changing one’s lifestyle can correct prediabetes in some people, but it doesn’t work for everyone. Your doctor may recommend medication if your blood sugar doesn’t improve and you have a high risk of developing diabetes.

Medicines such as metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet) or a comparable substance can help lower blood sugar levels and reverse prediabetes.

According to studies, metformin can cut your chance of developing diabetes by up to 30%. Moreover, it might lessen your appetite, which could aid in weight loss.



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Top consequences of loneliness an individual must consider.

Top consequences of loneliness an individual must consider.

Nobody likes to be alone, despite the fact that it’s a phrase from a popular song.

The phrase “chronic loneliness” refers to loneliness that lasts for a very long time. Although if chronic loneliness and loneliness in general aren’t particular mental health illnesses, they can nevertheless have an impact on your wellbeing.

The bad emotions that can arise when your demands for social interaction aren’t met are referred to as loneliness. It’s acceptable to occasionally cherish your alone time. In fact, solitude may promote relaxation and recharging. You could require more alone time than another person to feel your best because everyone has varied needs for it.

Nevertheless, loneliness and being alone are not nearly the same. You’re less likely to feel negatively lonely or yearn for social interaction when you’re enjoying your isolation. Loneliness and isolation frequently go hand in hand, and both can have an impact on physical and mental health.

Why are people lonely?

There are numerous causes of loneliness. For instance, you might experience loneliness if:

  • change jobs or schools
  • working at home
  • transfer to a new city
  • break up a relationship
  • are newly single and living alone.

Feelings of loneliness may disappear as you become used to these new circumstances, but they sometimes linger. It can be difficult to discuss loneliness, and if you find it difficult to reach out to others, you might feel even more isolated.

You can experience loneliness even if you have a large social network since a lack of meaningful interactions is another factor.

Despite participating in a number of social events and having a lot of casual friends, you might not feel particularly connected to anyone. If you’re single and don’t want to be, spending a lot of time with couples and families might also make you feel lonely. Even if you are contentedly single, this could still occur.

Dealing with physical or mental health problems might also make you more likely to feel lonely. As it can be challenging to articulate your feelings, having health issues can be isolating. Social activities can occasionally require too much emotional or physical energy, which may lead to you cancelling more plans than you maintain. A persistent absence of social interaction may eventually worsen your feelings.

Symptoms of loneliness

Spending time alone might make you feel depressed, empty, or as though you’re missing something vital if you’re lonely. Symptoms of chronic loneliness can include any of the following:

  • reduced energy
  • feeling hazy or unable to concentrate
  • troubles with sleep, such as insomnia or sleep disruption
  • reduction in appetite
  • emotions of insecurity, pessimism, or unworthiness
  • a propensity to fall ill repeatedly
  • discomfort in the body
  • emotions of dread or uneasiness
  • more purchasing
  • misuse of drugs
  • greater inclination to binge-watch movies or television shows
  • bodily warmth desires, such as for hot beverages, baths, or warm clothing

Diagnosis of loneliness

Even extreme loneliness is not a particular mental health disorder. Nevertheless, doctors are beginning to understand how loneliness can impact both your physical and mental well-being.

Talking to a mental health expert could be helpful if you’ve been experiencing inexplicable symptoms like the aforementioned loneliness symptoms and have been feeling lonely.

Your symptoms may have potential mental health causes, which a therapist can assist you in identifying. Although there is no medical diagnosis for loneliness, counselling can assist you in finding resources and support.

A therapist can also give you advice on how to deal with the negative impacts of loneliness and assist you in looking for constructive change.


More and more experts contend that loneliness and isolation, whether they happen simultaneously or separately, can have significant negative impacts on health. These are some current research findings.

Chronic disease

According to a 2017 analysis of 40 studies on social isolation and loneliness, these conditions increase the risk of early death, cardiovascular problems, and deteriorated mental health.

Another 2017 study examined data from the Swiss Health Survey and discovered evidence that loneliness is associated with an increased risk for:

  • chronic disease
  • elevated cholesterol
  • psychological distress
  • diabetes
  • depression

Sleep pattern

According to the findings of a 2017 study that included more than 2,000 twins, young adults who felt lonely tended to have poorer-quality sleep. The study also discovered data suggesting that being exposed to violence can make one feel more lonely.

A 2010 study of 215 individuals confirms the association between loneliness and insufficient sleep quality and hypothesises that poorer sleep quality may make it difficult to function during the day.

A 2018 research of 639 senior citizens found that loneliness and social isolation can both impair sleep quality.


In 2016, researchers examined the relationship between social isolation and loneliness in 1,116 twin pairs and discovered evidence that lonely persons frequently experience depression.

Loneliness had a “moderately significant” effect on the likelihood of depression, according to a 2018 assessment of 88 studies that examined the relationship between loneliness and depression.


According to the findings of a 2017 study that included 8,382 persons aged 65 and older, loneliness and depression both raise the risk of cognitive deterioration.

Tips to Prevent and Overcome Loneliness

You can get over loneliness. To change, one must make a conscious effort. Making a change over time can improve your overall happiness and health as well as your ability to positively influence those around you.

These are some suggestions for avoiding loneliness:

Think about volunteering or another enjoyable activity. These circumstances offer fantastic chances to make new friends and engage in social activities.

Aim for the best. Instead of expecting rejection, as lonely individuals frequently do, try to concentrate on having good attitudes and thoughts in your social interactions.

Ensure that you put great relationships first. Look for people who are like you in terms of attitudes, passions, and ideals.

Understand that loneliness is an indication that a change has to be made. You can begin taking actions to lessen your feelings of loneliness and create connections that promote your wellbeing, but don’t expect things to change overnight.

Recognize how loneliness affects your life. Loneliness has negative physical and mental effects. Make a concerted effort to fend off these symptoms if you see that they are having an impact on your mood.

Choose a group or form your own. For instance, you might consider starting a Meetup group for locals in your area who share your interests. Moreover, you can think about enrolling in a course at a community college, joining a reading club, or enrolling in a fitness class.

Strengthen an existing connection. In addition to making new friends, strengthening your current ties can also be a very effective approach to deal with loneliness. Call a friend or member of your family that you haven’t spoken to in a long.

Speak to a reliable person. It’s crucial to chat to someone in your life about how you are feeling. This could be a friend or family member, but you might also think about speaking with your doctor or a therapist. You can get in touch with a therapist whenever it’s convenient for you thanks to online counselling, which might be a fantastic option.



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Important guide on How to Read Medicine Labels.

Important guide on How to Read Medicine Labels.

Read the medication label before each time you take an over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription (Rx) medication. Every medication comes with specific usage guidelines that must be followed to the letter at all times. The directions explain how to take the medication, how much to take, when to take it, and when not to take it.

To ensure you have access to the correct dosage instructions, always maintain your medications in their original package. To read more, scroll over the OTC medicine label below, click on it, or go to the section below that discusses how to read prescription drug labels.

Over-the-Counter Drug Facts

Drugs that can be purchased without a prescription over-the-counter, or OTC, are known as medicines. Drug Facts labels, which are printed by manufacturers directly on OTC drug product containers.

According to the Food and Medicine Administration, any product containing a material intended for the diagnosis, cure, treatment, prevention, or mitigation of a disease qualifies as a drug. This includes items like fluoride toothpaste and antidandruff shampoo. If you are unsure whether a product is an OTC drug, look for a Drug Facts label on the container.

According to a 2018 study by Stefanie Ferreri, PharmD, BCACP, a clinical professor at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy in Chapel Hill, four out of five American individuals regularly use OTC medications.

According to Ferreri’s Pharmacy Times story, the most popular over-the-counter medications in 2016 were pain relievers, heartburn medications like Prilosec and Nexium, upper respiratory medications, and toothpaste.

Learn more about the components of OTC drug labels, such as uses, precautions, and other details.

The drug you purchase from a pharmacy comes with a lot of vital information. You may find information about an over-the-counter medication’s ingredients, dosage instructions, and potential side effects on the Drug Facts tab. But it may be difficult to understand due to the manner that information is expressed. Here’s how to understand drug labels so you can steer clear of frequent, perhaps harmful errors.

Active component and function

On the label of over-the-counter medications, this information is located at the top. The medication’s active ingredient as well as its classification—for example, “antihistamine” or “pain reliever”—determine the symptoms it cures. It also provides information on the dosage of the medicine in each dose. Check this to make sure you aren’t taking any medications that contain the same chemical and to learn more about the effects the product will have on you.


You can get a quick overview of the illnesses or symptoms that the medication can treat in this area. For instance, a painkiller’s label might state that it relieves menstrual cramps, toothaches, headaches, and joint pain. When purchasing a new drug, be sure you always read this section to ensure it will work as intended.


This is one of the most significant and frequently largest components of the drug label. It provides information on the medication’s safety. There are four items listed here: who shouldn’t use the medication, when to stop taking it, when to contact your doctor, and potential adverse effects. It can assist you in determining whether it’s unsafe to combine with certain medical problems or other medications.


Examine this section thoroughly. The dosage, often known as the amount of the drug to be taken and how frequently, is specified. For instance, it can instruct you to take two tablets every four to six hours. Never exceed the recommended dosage without first consulting your doctor. The age groups for the instructions let you know how much you or your child can use. Additionally, you’ll learn how much you should consume in a single day at the most.

Additional Information

Keeping drugs in your bathroom or in your car during warm weather may not be a good idea because heat and humidity can sometimes destroy them. You may find the recommended temperature range for storage of the product in this section of the label. Additionally, it serves as a reminder to check the safety seal on the package before using it because a broken seal could indicate tampering.

Inactive Components

These are the components of a medication that work indirectly to alleviate your symptoms. They could be flavourings, colours, or preservatives. If you or your child has a food or dye allergy, always check this section. Remember that different inactive components may be present in several brands of the same type of medication.



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Secret behind blurry vision for nearsiting called Myopia.

Secret behind blurry vision for nearsiting called Myopia.

Myopia, often known as nearsightedness, is a common eye ailment that makes it challenging to focus on distant things. Close objects, however, are likely to appear crystal clear. Myopia can be treated with laser surgery or by using corrective lenses like glasses or contacts.

What is Mypopia?

Myopia, a disease that affects many people, causes near objects to appear clear while far distant objects to appear blurry. It happens when light rays incorrectly bend (refract) due to the shape of the eye or specific portions of the eye. Light rays are focused in front of the retina, which is where they should be directed to illuminate the retina, the nerve tissue at the rear of the eye.

Between the ages of 20 and 40, nearsightedness typically becomes more stable after developing during childhood and adolescence. As a rule, myopia runs in families.

Nearsightedness can be verified by a simple eye checkup. You can use eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery to correct your hazy vision.

Types of Myopia

Myopia comes in a variety of forms. These will be covered in more detail in the sections that follow.

Simple myopia

The eye is in good condition besides simple myopia. The problems with vision that a person has can simply be fixed by wearing glasses or contact lenses.

High myopia

A more severe form of myopia is high myopia. It happens when a person has nearsightedness from a young age that worsens with maturity.

High myopia can make it more likely for someone to get additional eye diseases including glaucoma, cataracts, or retinal detachment.

Pathological myopia

Pathological or degenerative myopia will be accompanied by other ocular diseases in its sufferers. Issues with the retina will also arise with the eye, including:

  • One form of retinal thinning is lattice degeneration.
  • retinal atrophy, in which certain retinal cells have degenerated and stopped functioning
  • Forster-Fuchs’ spot is a kind of retinal scarring that can cause blind spots.

Additionally, pathological myopia can result in vision loss that is unrecoverable with glasses or contact lenses.

How common is myopia?

Myopia is quite typical. Over 40% of Americans are myopic, according to the American Optometric Association, and this percentage is rising quickly, particularly among school-age children. According to eye specialists, this trend will persist in the upcoming decades.

Today, one in four parents has a child who is nearsighted to some extent. Myopia risk may be increased, according to some eye specialists, if your youngster spends a lot of time doing “near” activities like reading or using a computer or smartphone.

What causes myopia?

You probably inherited your myopia from one or both of your parents if you do. Although myopia’s specific aetiology is still unknown, eye specialists think a combination of inherited and environmental factors are to blame. It’s conceivable to inherit the capacity for myopia, and if your lifestyle creates the ideal circumstances, you’ll eventually get it. Myopia may develop, for instance, if you frequently use your eyes for close-up tasks like reading or using a computer.

Myopia typically develops in early childhood. The condition usually improves with age, but it can also get worse. Images appear hazy because the light entering your eyes is not properly focused. Similar to a spotlight that was pointed in the wrong direction You won’t be able to clearly notice the correct thing if you direct a spotlight at the incorrect location in the distance.

Symptoms of Myopia

Some warning signs or symptoms of nearsightedness are:

  • vision blurry when viewing far-off items
  • inability to see well without squinting or partially closing one’s eyes
  • Headaches
  • Eyestrain

On whiteboards or school screen projections, children could have trouble seeing what is written on them. Even while younger kids might not indicate a visual impairment, they might exhibit the following behaviours:

  • Continue to squint
  • seem oblivious to far-off items
  • Blink frequently
  • The eyes are often rubbed
  • Seated near the television

Adults with myopia could have trouble reading retail or road signs. Even though they can see perfectly in the daylight, some people may experience fuzzy vision in low light, such as when driving at night. The name of this condition is nocturnal myopia.

Risk factor of Myopia

A parent’s nearsightedness increases the likelihood that their child will also be nearsighted. However, for a child to be nearsighted, neither parent needs to be. Doctors are still unsure of the exact causes of certain people’s nearsightedness. Genetics is merely one of several possible contributing factors.

Children with nearsightedness are frequently diagnosed between the ages of 8 and 12 years old. Myopia may worsen during adolescence, when the body expands quickly. Between 20 and 40, there is typically not much change.

The likelihood of a child developing nearsightedness rises with too much time spent inside. More time spent outdoors in daylight, according to studies, lowers a child’s risk.

Diagnosis of Myopia

Several tests can be run by an optometrist to determine whether or not a patient is nearsighted.

The subject will read letters of various sizes from a chart on the other side of the room as part of the eye exam. It will be more difficult for someone with myopia to make out tiny numbers.

A device called a phoropter, which is composed of various lenses that the optometrist can place in front of the eye, may also be used by the doctor of optometry.

The optometrist will position the phoropter and shine light into it to gauge the eye’s ability to concentrate light. This will enable them to find the appropriate prescription for the person’s corrective glasses.

Myopia Treatment

Contact lenses and eyeglasses. Easy and popular methods to correct nearsightedness include eyeglasses and contact lenses. They aid in sharpening your vision by helping to concentrate light on the retina at the rear of your eye. As your eyes change over time, you will require new prescriptions.

When purchasing glasses or contacts, there are numerous alternatives to think about. Consult your ophthalmologist about the lens options that best match your lifestyle and eyesight requirements.

Cataract surgery. With adult nearsightedness, refractive surgery may occasionally be able to correct the condition. Refractive laser surgery and refractive lens exchange are the two major types of refractive surgery. A laser is used in refractive laser surgery to reshape the cornea and alter how light passes through it. Some of the more typical procedures are listed below:





An ophthalmologist replaces your eye’s natural lens with an artificial lens during a refractive lens exchange. The new artificial lens aids in directing light into the retina at the rear of the eye, improving vision.

Refractive surgery has risks of complications and adverse effects, just like any other type of surgery. For instance, you can notice glare or rings (halos) around lights after undergoing a refractive treatment. You might not see well at night.

Talk with your ophthalmologist about your vision needs and expectations. Together you can explore your options for achieving better vision.



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How dangerous could peppermint be for your health?

How dangerous could peppermint be for your health?

Peppermint interaction with Drugs

Interaction of a substance generally refers to a potential risk that could develop inside the human body when two or more drugs, products, or medical conditions, interact with one another in a negative manner that could result in certain unwanted health conditions. 

Natural products such as Peppermint are generally considered safe when taken in food amounts but might be harmful when consumed as a medicine amount like supplements. If an individual is medicating with certain medical drugs to treat any condition, there might be a possibility of interaction between those drugs and this herb or its supplement. This could cause complications in the condition that is to be treated or could result in new unwanted conditions. Such interacting medical drugs include:

  • Cytochrome P450 2C9(CYP2C9)– Some medicines require the liver for their breakdown and change inside the body. Peppermint might reduce the breakdown action of such medicines which might result in several unwanted side effects.
  • Cytochrome P450 3A4(CYP3A4)– Some medicines require the liver for their breakdown and change inside the body. Peppermint might reduce the breakdown action of such medicines which might result in several unwanted side effects.
  • Cytochrome P450 2C19(CYP2C19)– Some medicines require the liver for their breakdown and change inside the body. Peppermint might reduce the breakdown action of such medicines which might result in several unwanted side effects.
  • Cyclosporine– Peppermint might reduce the breakdown action of cyclosporine breakdown by slowing it. Consuming peppermint oil products along with cyclosporine might cause an increase in effects and side effects of cyclosporine.

There are also some minor interactions of Peppermint with other drugs such as Cytochrome P450 1A2(CYP1A2). 

Precautions and warnings before using Peppermint

Although being a natural herb that is used for a number of medical applications, there are certain medical conditions in a human body in which intake of Peppermint must be limited or avoided in order to prevent complications. Interference of this herb could result in worsening of certain medical conditions or might cause other unwanted conditions. Such medical conditions includes:

  • Pregnancy– Peppermint is generally safe when consumed in a food amount. There is not enough evidence regarding safety of mother or nursing child when Peppermint is consumed in a medicine amount during pregnancy. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid using this herb during Pregnancy.
  • Breastfeeding– Peppermint is generally safe when consumed in a food amount. There is not enough evidence regarding safety of mother or nursing child while breastfeeding and consuming peppermint. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid using this herb during breastfeeding.
  • Children– Children below the age of age are advised not to consume peppermint as medicine. Safety of an individual is considered general only above the age of 8. It is advisable to consult a doctor before consuming peppermint.
  • Diarrhea– Individual dealing with diarrhea must avoid consuming peppermint. Consumption could result in side effects such as heartburn.

Side effects of using Peppermint

Interaction of Peppermint with several medical drugs, overdose, or no precautionary actions against several medical conditions might cause certain unusual or allergic side effects and condition in a human body that includes:

  • Indigestion
  • Nausea
  • heartburn
  • vomiting
  • flushing
  • mouth sores
  • headache
  • worsening of diarrhea

There could be more side effects not mentioned in the above list. An individual must make sure to consume Peppermint with proper precaution and avoid interaction in order to prevent side effects. However if side effects are observed, it is advisable to contact a doctor or get immediate medical attention as soon as possible if necessary.


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