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Month: February 2023

Lets Understand Why You Have Migraine During Your Period.

Lets Understand Why You Have Migraine During Your Period.

According to a recent study, migraine attacks in cisgender women who are menstruating may be brought on by an increase in the peptide CGRP, which has been associated with migraines. The study found that this increase correlated with a drop in oestrogen that happens after menstruation.

In spite of the fact that these individuals may still experience migraine attacks, the study did not detect an increase in CGRP in those who used contraceptives or had undergone menopause.

Since many years ago, experts have recognised a link between the beginning of menstruation-related migraine episodes and a decline in oestrogen levels. The exact workings of this relationship, nevertheless, are still unknown.

A recent study discovered that levels of a peptide linked to migraines fluctuate along with hormonal levels during the menstrual cycle. The calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP, is present in greater amounts during the decline in oestrogen that happens at the start of menstruation.

If you get migraine attacks, you might have observed a rise in frequency around the time of your period. This is not rare, and it might also be related to the oestrogen levels dropping prior to menstruation. Hormones can cause migraine during pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause.

Menstrual migraine symptoms

The symptoms of a menstrual migraine are comparable to those of other migraine types without an aura or other sensory abnormalities. They typically start 1 or 2 days after your menstruation starts.

Menstrual migraines are frequently divided into two types:

  • Menstrual migraine: This more frequent type can have vision abnormalities as one or more of the aura symptoms. Other periods of the month may have episodes of the migraine.
  • Pure menstrual migraines: They only happen before or after your menstruation starts.

Typical menstrual migraine signs include the following:

  • one side of the head typically experiences excruciating head ache.
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to loud noises and light

Menstrual migraine attacks may be accompanied with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms as bloating, breast tenderness, nausea, and mood swings.

How do hormone levels affect migraine?

Hormone fluctuations can cause migraine episodes. Certain drugs, such as birth control pills, can also contribute to them.


The National Headache Foundation estimates that 60 percent of women who suffer from migraines also experience menstrual migraine attacks. This can occur anywhere from two days before and three days following the conclusion of the menstrual cycle.

When a person starts menstruating, migraines may start, although they can start at any moment. Through menopause and the reproductive years, your attacks may remain.

Menopause and the perimenopause

During perimenopause, decreasing levels of oestrogen and other hormones, such as progesterone, might result in migraine headaches.

Perimenopause typically begins 4 years before to menopause, however it can start as early as 8 to 10 years prior to menopause. Moreover, migraines can occur in those taking hormone replacement therapy.


The first trimester of pregnancy is when pregnancy hormone headaches are most prevalent. This is brought on by an increase in blood volume and hormone levels.

Common headaches are another condition that might affect pregnant ladies. These can be caused by a variety of factors, such as caffeine withdrawal, dehydration, and bad posture.

Is it migraine or a headache?

A migraine episode is distinct from a regular headache. They commonly affect one side of the brain and create intense, throbbing pain. There are two types of migraines: “with aura” and “without aura.”

In the 30 minutes prior to your attack, you might experience one or more of the following signs and symptoms if you have migraine with aura:

  • observing light-flashes
  • noticing odd lines or patches
  • a momentary blindness
  • Hands or face numbness
  • tingling feelings in the face or hands
  • alterations in speech
  • weakness
  • unexpected alterations in flavour, smell, or touch

Aura-related migraine symptoms might also include the following:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • intolerance to sound or light
  • discomfort behind one or both ears.
  • one or both temples are hurting

Typical headaches never start with an aura and usually hurt less than migraines. There are numerous types of headaches, such as:

  • Tension headaches. Tension headaches can be brought on by high amounts of stress and worry. They might also be brought on by strained or tense muscles.
  • Clusters headaches. These headaches are frequently confused with migraines. Usually affecting one side of the head, they can also involve other signs and symptoms like runny nose, watery eyes, and nasal congestion.

Other causes of migraine attacks

Depending on your age and family history, you may experience menstrual migraines or migraines without a clear cause. You are more vulnerable just because you are a woman.

Obviously, you have little control over your gender, age, or family history, but keeping a migraine diary can be beneficial. This can assist you in locating and averting triggers.

Possible triggers include:

  • bad sleep patterns
  • drinking alcohol
  • consuming tyramine-rich foods like smoked fish, cured or smoked meat and cheese, avocado, dried fruit, bananas, aged food of any type, and chocolate
  • consuming a lot of caffeine-containing beverages
  • exposure to unusual weather patterns or situations
  • stress
  • fatigue
  • fasting
  • exposure to extremely high, intense light levels or noise
  • smelling harsh aromas from chemicals, cleaning supplies, perfume, and automobile exhaust
  • using artificial sweeteners as food
  • ingesting artificial flavours and colours like monosodium glutamate (MSG)

How is migraine diagnosed?

If you have migraine symptoms, your doctor will frequently begin by performing a physical examination and asking you about your family’s medical history to rule out any potential underlying illnesses.

Your doctor may suggest additional testing, such as the following if they believe anything other than hormones is causing your migraine attacks:

  • test of blood
  • an MRI
  • CT scan
  • Spinal tap, lumbar puncture


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Faster cognitive decline linked with food insufficiency

Faster cognitive decline linked with food insufficiency

A recent study discovered that a lack of meals is linked to a quicker deterioration in cognitive function. Researchers examined information on thousands of people’s levels of food insecurity, cognitive health. Also, participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program of the US federal government.

Those who don’t eat enough may have cognitive impairment due to poor nutrition or stress by significant financial difficulty. It prevents them from purchasing the food they require. Over the ten-year period from 2007 to 2016, the percentage of older persons in the United States who go without meals, frequently due to a lack of financial resources, more than doubled from 5.5% to 12.4%.

Number of young people going hungry has decreased because to initiatives like the U.S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). According to study, older women who live alone in particular have had less success with their efforts than other senior people.

Age-related physical limitations and the risk of malnutrition and depression are more prevalent. This is among older adults who are food insecure. According to a recent review of SNAP data, there is also a link between older adults who are food insecure and cognitive impairment that happens more quickly.

A quicker rate of cognitive deterioration was observed in those who were SNAP qualified. It based on their income but did not take use of the programme. This pace was comparable to what would be anticipated if a person were 4.5 years older than they actually were.

Four years of brain ageing can be substantial for an older individual. When compared to individuals who had enough nourishment, those who did not showed a larger cognitive deterioration. This is equivalent to ageing by 3.8 years. The rate of mental decline was lowest in those who received enough meals.

Tying a lack of food to cognitive function

Data from 4,578 Medicare beneficiaries who were 65 years of age or older and took part in the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) from 2012 to 2020 were examined by the study’s authors.

As part of its yearly follow-up with participants, NHATS gathered data. Based on sociodemographic situation, social, physical, and technological settings, medical comorbidities, and cognitive function.

People’s responses to questionnaires about food insecurity were used as the basis for categorising them. As having enough food or not having enough, and their SNAP status was noted as part of NHATS. Participants in the new study were evaluated according to which of three groups they belonged to:

  • SNAP recipients
  • Non-participants who were SNAP-eligible, that is, non-participants who were making up to or less than 200% of the federal poverty threshold.
  • Non-participants who are SNAP-ineligible and make more over 200% of the federal poverty level.

Dr. Daniel P. Miller of Boston University, an expert on poverty and food insecurity who was not engaged in this study, clarified the critical distinction between “food insecurity” and “food insufficiency”.

Food insufficiency is just a statement about not having enough food to eat, as opposed to food insecurity, which is a condition of hardship where families struggle to put the correct kinds of food on the table due to a lack of money or other financial means.

He pointed out that, as opposed to food insecurity in the traditional sense, the focus of the current study was on food insufficiency.

Causes of food insecurity

According to Dr. Miller, economic hardship is mostly to blame for food insecurity. At an era of rising expenses for everything from food to health, he noted that older persons on fixed incomes are most at danger.

The definition of food insecurity according to the NHATS also included “non-financial constraints such as poor functional status, lack of social supports, and lack of access to food,” according to Dr. Colleen M. Heflin of Syracuse University, who was not engaged in this study.

Dr. Heflin stated that these access measures “are likely to be particularly significant for older persons who may need assistance acquiring food due to health restrictions, poor driving ability, and geographic isolation.”

Possible connection

Although the study found a link between dietary insufficiency and cognitive decline, because it was conducted over time, it was unable to determine whether a shortage of food causes cognitive impairment or the other way around.

Due to the challenging administrative procedures involved in proving programme eligibility, Dr. Heflin lamented that “my own data implies that cognitive impairment can function as a barrier to SNAP participation among older persons eligible for the programme.”

There are two likely causal mechanisms connecting food inadequacy to cognitive impairment, according to Drs. Heflin and Miller.

The first is a deficiency in crucial minerals and vitamins that support overall health, including brain function. Dr. Miller suggested that we should anticipate slower overall cognitive decline in elderly persons who are food insecure but instead expect greater reductions.

He did add, however, that research looking at the relationship between nutrition and cognitive decline have come to inconsistent results. Both experts agreed that long-term financial stress could be the second most likely causative mechanism. Dr. Heflin added that “stress exposure is linked to a higher rate of cognitive impairment.”

The importance of SNAP

A “electronic benefits transfer” card from SNAP allows users to make food purchases at approved retailers while also providing financial assistance. Dr. Heflin stated that SNAP participants consume more food at home and food of a higher quality than non-participants.

SNAP non-participation, according to Dr. Miller, is a “particularly important” indicator of future food insecurity. However, he continued, participation in the programme is lower than it could be, particularly among the elderly.

Dr. Miller pointed out that in 2020, just 47% of eligible older persons over the age of 60 joined in the programme, despite the fact that 78% of people of all ages who were eligible for SNAP did so.

A looming crisis?

Over 6 million Americans, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suffer from Alzheimer’s and associated dementias. An estimated 14 million people will have Alzheimer’s by 2060, according to predictions.

The most vulnerable communities could be those of race. The number of cases among Latinos might rise seven times over current projections. There may be four times as many instances among African Americans as now anticipated.

In order to help prevent dementia, a new community-based programme in San Francisco will concentrate on established risk factors that may be changed. A model “Brain Health Program” being launched by Posit Science and the YMCA with funding from the National Institutes of Health.

Adults who are at risk for crime will be able to take classes through the initiative, which will launch in six months. The fundamentals of diet and nutrition the YMCA has been utilising in its Diabetes Prevention Program will be covered in some of the training.



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Innovative remedies to when you feel facial swollen.

Innovative remedies to when you feel facial swollen.

You might be able to minimise facial swelling with dietary adjustments, ice, or other natural therapies depending on the cause. It is not unusual for people to experience facial swelling due to an injury, allergy, medicine, illness, or other medical condition.

the positive news You can employ a variety of conventional and alternative treatments to lessen the swelling or inflammation you’re experiencing.

How come my face is swollen? The body’s reaction to an injury or insult, according to Dr. Janette Nesheiwat, MD, is facial edoema. She continues, “It’s our body’s response to defending or fending off an illness or exposure to an allergy, toxin, or shock.”

She says that while inflammatory cells are activated by trauma or after surgery, which results in the swelling, numerous body cells produce chemicals in reaction to an insult to the face or another body area.

How to lessen facial edoema after sleeping

For many people, waking up with puffy lips or a face is pretty common.

According to Nesheiwat, “this can be brought on by eating too much salt the night before, drinking too much alcohol, not drinking enough water, allergies, mould, dust, pollen, hormone changes, how you sleep with your face on the pillow, and good ole stress can increase inflammation which causes swelling.”

Try one of Nesheiwat’s suggestions to lessen morning facial swelling:

  • Washing your face in cool water when you wake up will help to minimise puffiness.
  • Prior to going to bed, stay away from processed foods and foods high in salt (and in general).
  • Avoid going to bed wearing makeup since it can create skin inflammation, which can lead to the morning puffiness of the face.
  • Remain hydrated. Make sure you’re getting lots of water throughout the day.
  • Avoid drinking too much.
  • Avoid sleeping on your stomach.
  • Apply cold cucumbers to the swelling regions. Antioxidants found in cucumbers aid to reduce swollen eyes.

Reduce facial swelling due to allergic reactions

Allergic responses that result in face edoema can be brought on by food, medicines, insect or bee stings, or even infections.

If the airway swells up, facial swelling brought on by a severe allergic reaction may be harmful. This situation is the most hazardous since it occasionally involves the tongue, throat, or airway. According to Nesheiwat, this can be fatal and is often treated with an EpiPen.

She advises calling 911 or rushing to the hospital as soon as you see any swelling or closing down of your lips, tongue, or throat. However, Nesheiwat advises using a cold pack and an antihistamine if you have a slight rash or swelling.

She does caution you to contact a doctor right away if the edoema worsens or you notice little to no change. Your doctor could advise you to take steroids depending on what caused the allergic response and edoema.

Minimise bruising and swelling in the face

In the event that you have a facial injury, there may be some swelling there. You can also have swelling in other locations, depending on the nature and extent of the injury. These considerations will affect the technique you use to minimise the swelling.

“Icing the region of injury as soon as possible is the greatest thing to do to reduce swelling due to an injury,” advises Nesheiwat. Your next course of action will depend on the severity of the injury. Nesheiwat advises seeking medical attention right away if you experience any headaches, bleeding, or bruises.

An internal facial or head injury can also show external symptoms like bleeding or bruising.

Reduce facial swelling and bruising on the face

Make careful to continue the at-home treatments because it can take one to two weeks for bruises to go away. Nesheiwat advises using ice, water, arnica, and bromelain to lessen minor facial swelling and bruising (pineapple enzyme).

You may also want to avoid lying flat when sleeping, and attempt to keep your head slightly elevated. These recommendations also apply following surgery.

A doctor should always be consulted before taking any medication, even over-the-counter ones, according to Nesheiwat. “Anti-inflammatory drugs can sometimes assist with pain and symptoms, but you should always check with your doctor first before taking any medication,” she adds.

The secret is to be patient if you want to reduce swelling in your face after an injury (and lots of it).

Reduce facial swelling after surgery

Surgery-related edoema, in contrast to other sources of inflammation, can take at least a few days to subside (often five to seven days). You can apply a few of the suggestions for bruises when it comes to the best ways to reduce facial edoema following surgery. One of the best things you can do is to apply an ice or cold pack to your face.

You should apply ice to the swollen area for 10 to 20 minutes at a time, but your doctor probably has a specific procedure for you to follow. Most doctors would advise you to do this at least three times per day, depending on your tolerance.

Generalized facial swelling might endure for a variety of durations, depending on the type and amount of any jaw surgery you’re recovering from. Once you know what you’re dealing with, you can come up with a plan of attack.

Some of the more common ways to reduce facial swelling include:

  • obtaining more sleep. Sleep is a crucial component of physical health and recovery, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
  • You should drink more water and other liquids.
  • putting a cold compress on the area that is swollen.
  • using a heated compress to encourage the flow of fluid accumulation
  • If you do so near your eyes, use caution because this region’s skin is more delicate.
  • Using the right antihistamine or allergy medication (over-the-counter medication or prescription).
  • using an NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug).
  • employing home treatments for a tooth abscess in addition to taking antibiotics.
  • If the edema is only slight, try rubbing the region to encourage blood flow or applying cucumber slices or tea bags to the affected area.

A common reaction to everything, from consuming a lot of salt to having a serious medical emergency, is facial swelling. As long as your swelling does not require immediate medical attention, the at-home treatments and therapies that are available are fantastic.



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Can Cinnamon actually improve memory and learning ability?

Can Cinnamon actually improve memory and learning ability?

Researchers examined 40 research that looked at the impact of cinnamon on cognition. They discovered that taking cinnamon supplements may enhance learning and memory. Before conclusions can be drawn, additional research is required.

Cinnamon has a long history of usage in herbal medicine, as well as in cooking and as an aroma. According to studies, cinnamon has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immunomodulatory qualities in addition to providing benefits to cognition.

Cinnamon may have neuroprotective properties, including those against Alzheimer’s disease, according to some research.

Cinnamaldehyde, a component of cinnamon, has been demonstrated to prevent the formation of amyloid-beta plaques in the brain, which are a crucial indicator of Alzheimer’s disease. The development of preventative measures for cognitive decline may be aided by more research into cinnamon’s possible cognitive advantages.

A recent meta-analysis of 40 studies looking into cinnamon’s impact on cognitive performance was done by researchers. Scientists discovered that cinnamon greatly enhances cognition, often known as learning and memory.

Cinnamon and cognitive function

The researchers examined 40 studies that examined the connection between cinnamon and cognitive function for the study.

They used two clinical trials, five in vitro studies, and 33 in vivo studies for the study. Of these, 17 studies used rats, 15 used mice, and one used a common fruit fly. The researchers started by reviewing studies that used cinnamon extract or powder.

Researchers discovered that adolescents’ memories improved after eating cinnamon gum for 40 days in one clinical investigation. However, the other clinical research found no appreciable differences in memory when administered orally.

The majority of in vivo research discovered that cinnamon improved learning and memory. But according to one study, cinnamon reduced learning and short-term memory.

Meanwhile, an in-vivo investigation discovered that a methanol extract from cinnamon bark can reduce the development of amyloid-beta. The scientists then looked into the compounds found in cinnamon, including eugenol, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde.

They discovered that eugenol’s antioxidant qualities and capacity to prevent amyloid plaques have cognitive beneficial effects. They also discovered that the chemicals cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamaldehyde have anti-cell death and anti-inflammatory properties that shield against cognitive decline in animal models.

While both low and high doses of cinnamon had beneficial benefits, the researchers emphasised that their findings were not dose-dependent.

Limited clinical data

Molly Rapozo, RDN, Registered Dietician Nutritionist & Senior Nutrition and Health Educator at Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, CA, who was not involved in the study, responded as follows when asked about the study’s limitations:

Just 2 clinical studies—one of which did not demonstrate a beneficial effect were included in this review. Rodent models made up the majority of the included literature. Further clinical research is therefore required. The length, dosage, and components of the cinnamon utilised in the experiments varied widely as well.

She speculated as to why one of the two clinical trials with reported positive effects included cinnamon’s lack of efficacy, saying: “Perhaps cinnamon didn’t show a positive effect in one of the clinical studies because the dosage, duration, or cinnamon used wasn’t as impactful as the combination used in the positive study.”

I CARE FOR YOUR BRAIN inventor and board-certified neuropsychologist Dr. Karen D. Sullivan, who was not engaged in the study, added:

The majority of the included studies are of poor quality, and even the authors call them “imprecise,” which is one of the key weaknesses. There were several poorly specified variables, such as the cognitive abilities assessed, the usage of various cinnamon components, and different exposures to the chemicals.

She went on to say that the evidence for cinnamon’s ability to block the pathophysiological processes involved in Alzheimer’s disease was extremely weak and limited to very tiny sample sizes in laboratory samples.

While not engaged in the study, Dr. Jonathan J. Rasouli, Director of Complicated and Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery at Staten Island University Hospital, told that the human trials lacked sufficient control groups. Dr. Rasouli stated that We will need a prospective, randomised controlled trial, and that is still pending, in order to conclusively claim there is a benefit.

Including cinnamon in diet 

There are two varieties of cinnamon: cassia and ceylon. Both can be beneficial additions to a person’s diet, however cassia cinnamon has a toxin that can be detrimental if consumed in excess.

“High intakes of cassia cinnamon can impair liver function, raise the risk of lung, liver, and kidney cancer, cause drug interactions, and do so because of the high coumarin content. However, consuming too much ground cinnamon—of any variety—at once can make you cough and have trouble breathing because of the spice’s extremely fine texture, which can get stuck in your lungs’ vacuoles. For those who have asthma, this is extremely troubling, Dr. Sullivan advised.

Rapozo pointed out, however, that cinnamon is regarded as a safe natural remedy and has a lengthy cultural history. This implies that it might be easily incorporated as a component of a whole foods diet that is accessible to a wide range of people.

‘I advise using culinary herbs and spices as a part of an anti-inflammatory diet for brain health. In addition to being an excellent addition to hot or cold tea, whole grains, and fruit, cinnamon is also a crucial component of many savoury spice blends around the world’, she said.



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Do we actually need more sleep in the winter?

Do we actually need more sleep in the winter?

A vital part of wellbeing is sleep, and getting enough of it helps the body heal and function normally. According to a recent study, people get more REM sleep in the winter, which is an essential part of the regular sleep cycle.

To corroborate the results of this study in the broader population, more data is required. Yet, people can make efforts to encourage sound sleep during the winter, a season in which doing so may be particularly important.

Everyone requires sleep, yet everyone’s demands are different. Research is ongoing to determine what influences sleep requirements and the most effective course of action.

A recent study examined how seasonal changes in sleep patterns. The researchers discovered that REM sleep is more prevalent during the months of winter.

Human sleep study

The research team enlisted 292 patients to take part in sleep studies termed polysomnographies, which are conducted on individuals who have trouble falling or staying asleep.

The volunteers visited a specialised lab where they were instructed to go to sleep naturally, without setting an alarm, so that the duration, kind, and quality of their sleep could be observed.

Although sleep issues may have affected the results, the study’s design allowed for a sizable group to be evenly distributed throughout the year, which helped to better show variations from month to month.

Those who took sleep-related medications, those who experienced technical difficulties during the polysomnography, and participants whose REM sleep latency was greater than 120 minutes—which suggested that the initial REM sleep episode had been skipped—were excluded from the study.

There were 188 subjects left after the exclusions. The majority of their diagnoses exhibited little seasonal variation, while sleeplessness was more frequently identified as the year’s end approached.

Importance of REM sleep

Several facets of life, including physical, emotional, and mental health, are impacted by sleep. Sleep duration and quality have an impact on bodily functions like immune system, metabolism, heart health, and memory.

The several stages of sleep that people go through are all necessary for a restful night’s sleep.

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is one type of sleep. The brain is more active during REM sleep, and dreams are experienced. REM sleep is beneficial for controlling mood. Moreover, it enhances immunological performance, focus, and memory.

According to the results of this latest study, there may be seasons of the year when people experience more REM sleep.

M​ore REM sleep in the winter

This specific study focused on variations in seasonal sleep patterns. All through the year, researchers examined the subjects’ sleep patterns. The individuals were already dealing with some sleep abnormalities, such as insomnia and sleep-related respiratory issues.

When conducting their analysis, the researchers used 188 participants. Participants were monitored while they slept using a method known as polysomnography.

Participants were encouraged by the researchers to stick to their usual bedtime routines. Alarm clocks were not allowed to be used by participants. Participants were disqualified from the study based on a few important factors, such as the usage of sleep-interfering drugs.

To Medical News Today, research author Dieter Kunz provided the following significant findings:

“In our work, we demonstrate that, in an adult population residing in an urban environment, human sleep architecture differs significantly across seasons. In a sizable population with neuropsychiatric sleep disorders, we employed polysomnography to record the various stages of sleep over the course of a full year.

According to Kunz, they discovered three intriguing findings:

  • In comparison to summer, people slept an hour more during the winter.
  • I had about 30 minutes more of REM sleep in the winter than the spring.
  • Got 40 minutes fewer of deep sleep in the fall than the other months.

Researchers found no statistical significance in the one-hour sleep gap between the winter and summer seasons. Instead, one of their key areas of interest was the seasonal variations in REM sleep.

Get better sleep in the winter

The American Board of Sleep Medicine-certified sleep specialist Nicole Eichelberger focuses on abnormalities of the circadian rhythm, apnea, and insomnia. Eichelberger gave us some advice for getting a good night’s sleep, which included maintaining a consistent sleep routine.

Even on weekends, try to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, she advised.

Making a sleep-friendly environment is also beneficial.

Ensure that your bedroom is cold, quiet, and dark. Utilize supportive bedding and soft pillows, advised Eichelberger.

Restrict your screen time before bed.

It can be more difficult to fall asleep due to the blue light emitted by electronic gadgets, according to her. Melatonin is a hormone that promotes sleep.

Avoid alcohol and caffeine.

Both can interfere with your sleep and make it more difficult to get enough rest, she explained.

Develop your relaxing skills.

You can relax and be ready for sleep by engaging in activities like yoga, deep breathing, or meditation, according to Eichelberger.

She continued by saying that sleep is essential for both our physical and mental health because it aids in both memory consolidation and learning as well as body recovery and repair.

Persistent sleep loss has been connected to a number of health problems, including as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease, she said. “On the other side, it has been demonstrated that getting adequate sleep strengthens our immune system, lifts our mood, and improves our cognitive performance. Simply put, having enough good sleep is crucial for our overall health.



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How can consuming eggs protect the heart?

How can consuming eggs protect the heart?

A few eggs each day are usually okay for most people. However for some groups, the sum might be different.

Popular and incredibly healthy, eggs are a nutritional source of protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Many people consume eggs frequently, if not daily, in regions of the world. As they are economical and conveniently accessible.

You might have heard at some time that eating eggs raises your risk of developing heart disease, which is the top cause of mortality worldwide. This myth has been spread for many years by medical and nutrition associations as well as health official. This has caused some people to avoid eating eggs.

Without a doubt, eggs contain more cholesterol than many other foods. They do, however, also contain a wealth of advantageous bioactive substances and other disease-preventing elements. According to the study, eating one to three eggs each week reduces cardiovascular disease risk by 60%.

In fact, the study discovered that people who consume four to seven eggs a week have a 75% decreased risk of acquiring cardiovascular disease. However, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics was taken into account. They only discovered a protective impact for consuming one to three eggs each week. The authors came to the conclusion that eating eggs may have a preventive effect against cardiovascular disease.

Do eggs raise cholesterol levels?

Egg consumption may not increase your risk of heart disease or its risk factors, such as inflammation, artery stiffness, and elevated cholesterol levels. Reported by recent observational studies and meta-analyses.

Similar results are noted in a few randomised controlled trials (RCTs). They are regarded as the gold standard of scientific research due to their capacity to minimise bias.

For instance, a small RCT discovered that consuming 2 eggs or a 1/2 cup (118 mL) of liquid eggs for breakfast had no appreciable impact on blood cholesterol levels when compared to a high-carb, egg-free breakfast.

Eating 6 to 12 eggs per week did not have a negative impact on total blood cholesterol levels or risk factors for heart disease, according to RCTs in adults with diabetes. Instead, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was elevated.

Good cholesterol is referred to as HDL. Higher HDL levels are good because they eliminate other forms of cholesterol from the blood. Low density lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol is referred to as the bad cholesterol since it increases your chance of developing heart disease.

Overall, there are still questions regarding the precise way that eggs affect cholesterol and risk of heart disease and death. Further human research are required, most experts agree, in order to better answer these queries.

How many eggs is it safe to eat per day?

It’s becoming more and more obvious that different people are at different risk when it comes to eating too many eggs. However, we continue to understand more about how eggs interact with cholesterol and chronic diseases.

The number of eggs you can consume safely each day depends on a number of variables. This includes your genetics, family history, egg preparatrion, your general diet, and even where you reside.

Furthermore take into account the total quantity of cholesterol in your diet from sources other than eggs. You might have more place for eggs in your diet if it has a reasonably low cholesterol content. Nonetheless, it could be better to reduce your egg consumption if your diet is higher in cholesterol.

Some study indicates that 1-2 eggs per day can be safe for a healthy adult with normal cholesterol levels. Also, no substantial underlying heart disease risk factors is recorded. It might even be advantageous to your heart health and be healthy.

According to a research, eating up to three eggs per day increased LDL and HDL levels and LDL-to-HDL ratio. Nonetheless, experts may be hesitant to advise eating more than two eggs every day, with many still advising sticking to one.

Eating 2–7 eggs per week helped maintain high HDL cholesterol levels and decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome, according to a study on Korean people. A daily egg intake of two or more did not, however, provide the same level of protection.

Metabolic syndrome include weight increase around the midsection, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and high blood fat levels. They work together to raise the risk of chronic illnesses like diabetes and heart disease.

Are eggs good for heart health?

Health, in Dr. Zivkovic’s opinion, is dependent on one’s overall diet rather than just a few specific foods.

Can eggs be a component of a heart-healthy diet that is consistent with heart disease prevention? Completely. Do they represent the best option for everyone? No.”

It is accurate to say that eggs are a good source of selenium, vitamin B12, and vitamin B2, all of which are cardioprotective, according to Routhenstein. She continued by saying that the vitamin B2 and B12 they contain can aid in bringing homocysteine levels back to normal, as high levels can contribute to artery plaques. The selenium in eggs, according to Routhenstein, also aids in preventing oxidative stress, a major factor in heart disease.

However, according to Dr. Zivkovic, interventional studies have shown that eggs “do not increase total cholesterol, and can, in fact, boost the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL [cholesterol] particles.”

But for some people who are at risk for heart disease, the high cholesterol and choline content of eggs may be an issue, according to Routhenstein. So, while eggs may be allowed in a heart-healthy diet, the intake should be kept to a minimum. To reduce risk as much as possible, the entire diet should be examined.

Risk could vary for different groups

It’s crucial to remember that some evidence still suggests that eating a few eggs a day is unsafe for the majority of healthy adults, especially for certain demographics.

One study found a marginally increased risk of heart attacks among nearly 200,000 US veterans who ate just 1 egg daily. The effect was greater in people who were overweight or diabetic, indicating that general health state affects the number of eggs that are safe to consume.

Similarly, eating 2-4 eggs per week may significantly increase dietary cholesterol intake in adults from Europe and Korea and raise risk of heart disease, particularly in those with diabetes.

Using a sample of more than 100,000 U.S. adults, another study discovered that older persons who consumed more than 5–6 eggs per week had a 30% higher chance of developing heart disease. Yet, there is no assurance that the elevated risk is brought on by eggs alone.

Regardless of egg consumption, the risk of heart disease rises with age because of factors including fat accumulation and artery hardening. Hence, while determining how many eggs are acceptable to consume, it’s necessary to take your general situation and health status into account.

If you have high levels of LDL cholesterol, are overweight or obese, suffer from a chronic illness like diabetes, or have a family history of heart disease, it may be better to limit your egg consumption to one 1 per day to 4-5 per week.

It can be challenging to independently assess so many diverse risk variables. So, the best approach to determine how many eggs are safe to consume each day or week may be to consult with a doctor, dietician, or other qualified healthcare expert directly.

Is better to eat only egg whites?

One big egg typically has 200 mg of cholesterol. In the yolk, the cholesterol is concentrated. As a result, some individuals consume only egg whites in order to consume less cholesterol while still obtaining an excellent supply of lean protein.

Despite the yolk’s high cholesterol level, you shouldn’t completely ignore it. The egg’s yolk is also the component that is rich in iron, vitamin D, carotenoids, and other nutrients.

Several of the health-promoting properties of eggs, including decreased inflammation, elevated HDL cholesterol levels, and enhanced metabolic health, are assumed to be a result of these bioactive substances.

Health benefits of eggs

Eggs are inexpensive, adaptable, a fantastic source of lean protein, and simple to make. In addition, they provide numerous health advantages that go beyond the discussion of their cholesterol content. Eggs are particularly:

  • Rich in minerals and vitamins. especially the B vitamins, selenium, and choline.
  • Abundant in antioxidants. Antioxidants aid in defending the cells in your body against the harm wrought by free radicals and their connected chronic illnesses, such as cancer and heart disease.
  • Believed to enhance several heart disease biomarkers. They include inflammatory indicators like interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels in the blood.
  • Filling and could support weight loss. Eggs may be more satisfying than breakfast foods high in carbohydrates, such as cereal, because they include a lot of lean protein. This may help you feel fuller for longer and consume less calories throughout the day.

Finally, there are numerous tasty methods to prepare eggs. They go well with breakfast burritos, frittatas, and omelettes that are loaded with vegetables. They can also be cooked by just boiling, frying, or poaching. Or you can add them to shakshuka, stir-fries, sauces, baked products, salad dressings, and more.

The only restrictions on egg preparation are those imposed by your creativity and palate.



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Explore the important do’s and don’t of Blood thinner.

Explore the important do’s and don’t of Blood thinner.

Blood clots are a significant problem. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a disorder in which a clot develops inside a sizable, deep vein, usually in the leg, raises the risk that it will get loose and migrate to the lungs. There, it may result in a pulmonary embolism, a blockage that can be fatal.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 60,000 to 100,000 People die from a pulmonary embolism every year and about 900,000 Americans suffer from DVT each year (CDC).

According to Mary Cushman, MD, director of the Thrombosis and Hemostasis Unit at the University of Vermont Medical Center in Burlington, deep vein thrombosis is “primarily a disease of age.”

“For women under 30, the risk is only 1 in 10,000 annually. Around age 40 or 45, there is a significant increase, and by the time you are 80 years old, your annual risk is 1 in 100, according to Dr. Cushman. According to Cushman, this is because as you get older, blood clots more frequently for unknown reasons.

According to the CDC, utilising hormone therapy, getting pregnant, or using birth control pills that include oestrogen all enhance a woman’s risk of developing deep vein thrombosis. Your risk may also be increased by severe illnesses, accidents, obesity, and extended periods of inactivity.

The good news is that blood-thinning drugs can prevent clots from developing, decrease their growth, or stop existing clots from causing damage to other body parts.

These medications, which include heparin, warfarin, and more recent ones like apixaban and rivaroxaban, all affect how blood clots in somewhat different ways.

Different types of blood thinners

Several forms of blood thinners include:

  • Warfarin, commonly known as Coumadin, and other anticoagulants like heparin slow down the clotting process in your body.
  • Antiplatelets, such as aspirin and clopidogrel, stop platelets, which are blood cells, from congregating to form a clot. Most patients who have had a heart attack or stroke take antiplatelets.

Tips for using Blood thinner

Prevent Falls and Bumps

A heart attack and stroke can be avoided by taking the blood thinner that your doctor ordered to prevent clots from forming in your heart or blood arteries. Yet, a slight wound might become dangerous since these medications make it difficult for you to stop bleeding.

Avoid engaging in contact sports and other risky activities. Choose safer exercises like walking or swimming instead. Remember to take care of your head! Even if there is a remote probability that you will be struck in the head, always wear a helmet.

Maintain a Schedule

Every day, take your medication at the same time. If you are inconsistent, some blood thinners may not operate as intended.

To remember yourself, use a pill organiser or the calendar on your smartphone. Take it as soon as you remember if you forget. Don’t miss a dose.

Ask your doctor what to do if you don’t know you missed a dosage until the next day. Do not multiply.

Learn About Your Drugs

Ask your doctor or pharmacist whether any new prescription or over-the-counter medications are safe to take with your blood thinner before bringing them home. Even vitamins and supplements have the ability to alter the effectiveness of some blood thinners or heighten their adverse effects. The risk of bleeding may increase, for instance, if you take an aspirin-containing painkiller or cold remedy.

Cut With Care

Blood thinners can cause a minor injury to bleed profusely. While using knives, garden shears, or other pointed instruments, put on gloves. When shaving, exercise additional caution. If you can, use an electric razor to avoid self-nicking. Keep your nail trimmings away from the skin wherever possible.

If you do cut yourself, push on the area until the blood stops flowing. If not, seek medical attention.

Take a test

Regular blood tests to monitor how quickly your blood clots may be necessary while you’re using specific blood thinners. Your doctor can alter your dose or switch you to a different medication based on the findings.

Make Your Medical Team Aware

Inform all of your medical professionals that you use blood thinners, especially before any procedures or if you receive a new prescription. They must be aware of your elevated risk of bleeding.

To let emergency medical personnel know that you are at danger for bleeding as well, wear a medical ID bracelet or tag. On a card that you keep in your wallet or purse, write down the name of your drug.

Take Care When Using Your Teeth

Because your gums are tender, brush your mouth gently. Don’t scrub; instead, use a gentle toothbrush. Choose some waxed dental floss, and carefully slide it between your teeth.

Be sure to tell your dentist if you take blood thinners. During checkups, they’ll take extra precautions, and they might also give you drugs to stop bleeding during dental work.

Consider the side effects

Blood thinners can sometimes result in:

  • bluish gums
  • Unable to describe bruises
  • Dizziness
  • heavier than usual period flow
  • Red or dark brown stools or urine

If you experience any of these, contact your doctor.

Having supplies on hand

Have a supply of dressings and bandages on hand. Always keep some on hand in case you sustain a wound. A quick stop to a bleed using special powder will keep it under control until you can seek medical attention. At your neighbourhood pharmacy, you can get these products without a prescription. They are also safe to use when taking blood thinners.



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Can you workout while doing an intermittent fast?

Can you workout while doing an intermittent fast?

A diet plan known as intermittent fasting alternates between eating and not eating. Intermittent fasting cycles can occur hourly or daily. Individuals could decide to fast for religious, dietary, or health-related reasons.

People may want to start or continue exercising while on an intermittent fast (IF). Fasting and exercise are both possible, but care must be taken.

Exercise while fasting

Fasting individuals are permitted to exercise. Some people work out during IF because they think it might be good for their health. They consist of:

Loss of weight

When humans ingest carbs, their bodies transform them into glucose, a sort of sugar. Glycogen is how the body stores glucose.

Study indicates that glycogen levels are depleted during fasting intervals. Hence, the body begins to burn fat to a reliable Supply of energy for physical activity that may aid in weight loss.

According to one study, exercising when fasted resulted in greater fat reduction than exercising after eating. Nonetheless, different findings from other studies have been obtained.

According to a 2014 study, exercising the next day after an overnight fast did not result in greater weight loss than exercising the day before a meal. Another mouse study came to the conclusion that IF, with or without exercise, caused mice to lose weight effectively.

In order to lose weight, a person’s daily caloric intake must be lower than their daily caloric expenditure. IF may aid in weight loss because it restricts the caloric intake of the participant. In a study comparing intermittent fasting (IF) to a calorie-restricted diet without fasting intervals, the amount of weight lost by each group was similar.


A review of studies examining the effects of exercise and fasting reveals that it might boost autophagy.

Autophagy is a process that aids in the elimination of undesirable or damaged cells in order to regenerate new, healthier ones.


Diet and exercise may slow down the ageing and disease processes, according to a 2018 study. This is due to the possibility that IF and exercise could alter metabolism.

Why it might not be effective?

Exercise while fasting may have some unfavourable side effects, according to research. They may consist of

  • Poorer performance: According to research, IF may reduce exercise performance, especially in highly trained athletes.
  • Difficulty to gain muscle: A 2018 randomised controlled experiment indicated that males who were on the intermittent fasting protocol gained less muscle than those who ate their regular meals. Yet, IF had no detrimental effects on their ability to retain muscle. This is corroborated by another study, which shows that IF may help retain muscle mass.
  • Headache: IF and exercise, both can reduce blood pressure. When the two are combined, a person could become dizzy as a result of their blood pressure dropping.
  • Blood sugar: Exercise and IF both have the potential to lower blood sugar levels. A person may faint if their sugar levels drop too low.

Fasting and exercise-related studies appears to include contradictory findings. A person may wish to attempt IF for fat loss depending on their fitness objectives. Nonetheless, various diets might be used if someone wishes to gain muscle.

Types of intermittent fasting

Intermittent fasting comes in many different forms. They consist of:

  • 16:8: During a 16:8 fast, one will go without food for 16 hours before having an 8-hour window during which they can eat. People are permitted to drink non-calorie beverages including water, black coffee, and black tea throughout the 16 hours of fasting.
  • 5:2: The 5:2 diet is eating regularly on five days and fasting for two of those days.
  • Daily: A daily fast entails going without eating for an extended period of time, usually from the evening to the morning after. An extended fast of 13 hours during the course of the night, according to a 2016 study, may lower women’s chance of developing breast cancer.
  • Up to the ninth hour: During this fast, the first eight hours of the person’s awake day are spent without eating. The person can then start eating at the ninth hour.
  • One meal a day (OMAD) fasting entails choosing one meal to consume each day and fasting the rest of the time.
  • Alternate Day: As the name implies, alternate day fasting involves eating normally one day and going without meals the next.

It is important to speak with a doctor or dietitian before changing one’s normal eating habits, especially if the adjustment involves fasting.

Planning the workout

To keep safe during IF, it’s crucial to schedule workouts. A few things to think about are:

Exercise type: There are two different forms of exercise, anaerobic and aerobic. Running, walking, and cycling are examples of continuous aerobic exercise, also known as “cardio.” Anaerobic exercise, like weightlifting or running, calls for all-out effort in a brief period of time.

The kind of fast a person keeps will probably influence the type of exercise they perform. For instance, someone who observes the 16:8 or overnight fasts can exercise both aerobically and anaerobically while they are eating.

On the other hand, if someone is following the alternate day regimen and wants to exercise on their non-eating day, they should definitely stick to less strenuous cardiovascular activity.

Exercise timing: Although a person can exercise while fasting, it may be preferable to time exercise for just after meals.

Food type: It’s crucial to think about what to eat if you plan to exercise while eating.

Instead of just before activity, pre-workout nutrition should include a meal eaten two to three hours beforehand. It might also be high in protein and complex carbohydrates, like whole grain cereal.

To aid in recuperation, a post-workout meal should include carbohydrates, high-quality proteins, and fats.

Safety tips

During workout preparation, it is important to think about the following safety advice.

  • Exercise immediately following meals will give one the energy they need to finish an exercise.
  • Keeping it low-intensity: If a person is fasting, they may want to try low-intensity aerobic exercise. However, it is typically okay to engage in any form of exercise after eating.
  • Paying attention to what the body is telling you: If someone is on IF and beginning to feel sick while exercise, they should stop.
  • Water intake: Even when not IF, it’s crucial to drink water throughout activity. As water makes up the majority of the human body, it is crucial to replenish fluids lost during exercise.

Exercise and fasting may be particularly hazardous for some persons, including:

  • those who have diabetes
  • low blood pressure sufferers
  • individuals with a history of disordered eating
  • expecting mothers
  • mothers who are nursing

It is best to talk to your doctor about trying IF and exercising if you have underlying medical concerns.



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Drinking good decaf coffee may reduce its symptoms.

Drinking good decaf coffee may reduce its symptoms.

A recent study found that if decaffeinated coffee tastes close enough to the genuine thing, it may be able to lessen the negative effects of caffeine withdrawal.

A cup of premium decaf dramatically lessened the withdrawal symptoms individuals had been feeling 24 hours after their previous cup of caffeinated coffee, according to University of Sydney researchers.

While some participants in the study were not aware that they were drinking decaf, others were. It’s interesting to note that people who knew what they were consuming experienced less withdrawal symptoms.

The study is one of many that outline the frequently unexpected positive outcomes that placebos have in clinical studies.

Coffee and caffeine,

Everyone enjoys coffee. Many people rely on caffeine’s energy boost and believe that caffeine helps them stay focused and attentive. Yet according to research, coffee may have much more to give. Your chances of type 2 diabetes, heart failure, colon cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease may also be reduced.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises against exceeding the daily caffeine limit of 400 mg, or roughly four to five cups of coffee. Tea, energy drinks, and sodas all include caffeine as an additive. It is both a food additive and a medication, according to the FDA.

Despite the fact that caffeine is not actually addictive, quitting coffee can cause withdrawal symptoms such as headaches, exhaustion, drowsiness, irritability, melancholy, scattered attention, nausea, and muscle soreness or stiffness.

How much caffeine is in decaf coffee?

Even decaffeinated coffee contains some caffeine. In reality, it contains varied levels of caffeine, typically 3 mg per cup.

According to one study, there were 0–7 mg of caffeine in each 6 ounces (180 mL) cup of decaf coffee. Contrarily, the amount of caffeine in a typical cup of black coffee ranges from 70 to 140 mg, depending on the brand of coffee, how it is brewed, and the size of the cup.

Decaf generally contains extremely little caffeine, even if it does not contain no caffeine at all.

Caffeine withdrawal symptoms

The study did point out that fear of withdrawal symptoms is one of the major barriers, although prior research has shown that only a small percentage of people would actually experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop consuming caffeine.

According to earlier studies, these symptoms include headaches, feeling exhausted, having decreased alertness, drowsiness, and irritability, as well as having a negative mood.

When someone abruptly quits drinking coffee, caffeine withdrawal begins 12 to 24 hours later and peaks one to two days later. According to earlier studies, the effects can be lessened by progressively reducing the caffeine intake.

Reducing caffeine withdrawal symptoms

In the recent study, decaf minimised or improved these symptoms.

Lead researcher Dr. Llew Mills of the University of Sydney tells the University of Sydney News that a convincing cup of decaf has the ability to significantly lessen withdrawal symptoms even when the individual consuming it is ignorant that it is decaf. Yet according to our research, even if they are aware that it is decaf, they still stop withdrawing.

Decaf should be effective, according to Dr. Mills, as long as it “does not taste like decaffeinated coffee.” Major Dickason’s, a brand from the United States, was the brand used in the study. Despite Sydney residents’ well-known reputation as coffee snobs, Dr. Mills claimed that his participants were rather simple to deceive.

61 regular coffee consumers who consumed three or more cups daily for the study gave up their habit for a full day. Participants responded to a questionnaire about withdrawal symptoms after that time period.

The participants were sorted into three groups by the researchers. One group was told they would be sipping decaf, while the other was told they would be drinking coffee. Water was given to the third group, which served as the control. Participants completed the survey once more 45 minutes after finishing their beverage.

The amount of caffeine withdrawal in the group we lied to was significantly reduced, according to Dr. Mills. Surprisingly, however, the group to whom we revealed the truth also reported a decrease in their caffeine withdrawal, albeit a smaller one than the group to which we told a falsehood.

Decaf coffee is loaded with antioxidants and contains nutrients

Contrary to popular belief, coffee is not the devil. In reality, it is the Western diet’s main source of antioxidants. Antioxidants in decaf often equal those in regular coffee, though they may be up to 15% lower.

Most likely, the slight loss of antioxidants that occurred during the decaffeination procedure is what led to this disparity. The hydrocinnamic acids and polyphenols in regular and decaf coffee are the primary antioxidants.

Free radicals are reactive substances that can be neutralised by antioxidants very effectively. This lessens oxidative damage and could aid in the prevention of conditions including type 2 diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. Decaf also includes trace levels of several minerals in addition to the antioxidants.

Cause of effect

According to Dr. Kaptchuk:

“The mechanism of open-label placebo probably includes the body automatically and unconsciously reacting to the embodied ritual of coffee-taking that causes the central nervous system respond with similar reductions of symptoms as if it were taking a real cup of coffee,” according to the study.

This procedure in neuroscience is known as “prediction coding” (also known as “Bayesian Brain”) and is accepted as being crucial for symptom generation, according to Dr. Kaptchuk.

Dr. Kaptchuk made the following observations regarding the symptom decreases for the subjects who were aware they were consuming decaf:

Furthermore, the decaf effect did not entail expectations, supporting long-term clinical research on clinical patients that expectations do not contribute to genuine placebo effects.



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Could fructose contribute to development of Alzheimer?

Could fructose contribute to development of Alzheimer?

An increased risk of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, is connected with the shift in the global age demographic towards older ages. Dementia risk profiles may also be evolving. Over the past 50 years, the frequency of obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased, and these conditions have been linked to a higher risk of dementia.

Certain dietary modifications could potentially pose a direct danger. From an estimated 8.1 kg/person/year at the start of the XIX century to an estimated 65 kg/person/year today, there has been a diet change in the United States with regard to the consumption of refined sugar, notably high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS).

With an estimated 6 million people living with it, Alzheimer’s disease continues to be a serious health issue. The hypothesis that fructose, a prevalent sugar present in packaged foods and fruits worldwide, may contribute to the disease’s development has recently put forth in a narrative review.

Alzheimer’s disease is characterised by the production of aberrant beta-amyloid and tau protein clumps. Treatments aimed at these aberrant protein aggregates, however, have had mixed results.

Conversely, other scientists have suggested that changes in brain metabolism that take place before the formation of these protein aggregates may be to blame for the onset of Alzheimer’s.

According to studies, diets that cause the body to produce a lot of fructose or foods that contain a lot of fructose might cause metabolic problems like obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Fructose survival pathway

A glucose and a fructose molecule make up each mole of table sugar, also known as sucrose. Most cell types and tissues in the body use glucose as fuel.

Despite the fact that fructose can be used as energy, the body prefers to store it as fat or as the storage carbohydrate glycogen.

The authors’ theory states that an animal can survive for extended periods of time without food or water by activating a survival response when it consumes fructose in excess. During migration or hibernation, the animal may be able to survive thanks to this survival reaction.

Consuming fructose results in an increase in thirst and hunger instead of fullness, which is produced by consuming glucose. Animals’ urge to forage is thereby stimulated by fructose ingestion. The fructose survival pathway, in particular, entails saving energy for just required actions, such as foraging, and minimising energy expenditure for body processes at rest.

Reducing the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, such as muscles, leads to a decrease in glucose absorption and consumption, which lowers energy expenditure. Moreover, the liver stores extra energy in the form of fat and glycogen.

The main mediators of the survival response include fructose, uric acid, and vasopressin. When this fructose survival route is activated for an extended period of time, the metabolism is disrupted, mimicking a number of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.

They include persistent low-level inflammation, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and weight gain. The fructose survival pathway can potentially affect the metabolism of the brain.

Impact on the brain

While making up only 2% of the overall mass of the body, the human brain consumes almost 20% of the total energy used while at rest. Furthermore, glucose is the only fuel that can be used by neurons, which make up the majority of brain cells.

The fructose survival pathway alters the metabolism of the brain at the regional level while reducing energy expenditure to conserve glucose for the brain.

In particular, the scientists believe that activating the fructose survival pathway causes the brain’s food-seeking areas to become active. An increase in impulsive and exploratory actions that enable the animal to quickly investigate risky locations promotes this foraging response.

Meanwhile, the foraging response is linked to the inhibition of brain regions, such as those involved in logic, memory, and impulse control, that may decrease foraging activity.

In other words, the aforementioned brain areas involved in cognitive function experience a drop in energy metabolism when the foraging response is activated.

Evidence supporting the role of fructose

The rise in fructose levels in the brain, according to the researchers’ theory, may play a role in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.

Nevertheless, given that individual fruits only contain a modest amount of fructose and that only 1% to 2% of ingested fructose reaches the brain, this rise is most certainly not attributable to fruit consumption as a whole.

However, it appears that ingestion of foods high in glucose, glycemic index, and salt may be more relevant in raising fructose levels in the brain.

The levels of fructose in the brain could therefore be increased by a diet heavy in salt and carbohydrates. Moreover, the uric acid that is created when fructose breaks down in the periphery can encourage the creation of fructose in the brain.

According to studies, consuming more high-fructose corn syrup or table sugar, foods with a high glycemic index, and salty foods is linked to a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

In line with this, metabolic diseases linked to increased consumption of certain foods, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes, are also risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease.

The fructose metabolism

According to Dr. Johnson, treating fructose metabolism may be essential for the management or prevention of Alzheimer’s.

The majority of the evidence, he continued, “suggests three characteristic findings in early Alzheimer’s that seem to precede the end-stage presentation: these are the presence of insulin resistance associated with reduced glucose uptake in the brain, the fact that there is mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain, and that there is local inflammation, or “neuroinflammation,” in the brain.

Others are still attempting to cure this condition by administering intranasal insulin or by reducing inflammation. Yet once more, this only addresses the symptoms and not the root problem, according to Dr. Johnson.

Moreover, the metabolism of fructose raises the amounts of uric acid in the brain, which on its own can cause inflammation and memory problems. For instance, memory impairments and hippocampal inflammation are seen in hyperuricemic rats that produce too much uric acid.



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