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Does the contraceptive pill increase risk of breast cancer?

Does the contraceptive pill increase risk of breast cancer?

Researchers looked into the connection between breast cancer risk and the usage of hormonal contraceptives. They discovered that using progestin-only contraceptives raises breast cancer risk in a manner similar to using both types of contraceptives.

According to them, doctors should consider the advantages and disadvantages of patients using hormonal contraceptives.

Almost 65% of women between the ages of 15 and 49 used some form of contraception between 2017 and 2019, with 14% of them using the pill. The progestin-only pill and the combined pill, which contains both progestin and estrogen-based components. These are the two types of contraceptive tablets available.

Progesterone is a naturally occurring hormone, and progestin, or progestogen, is a synthetic version of it. Those who use combination contraceptives have a marginally higher chance of developing breast cancer within 10 years of use, according to a meta-analysis from 1996.

The use of contraceptives that exclusively contain progestin, such as pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs), has increased recently. From 1.9 million in 2010 to 3.3 million in 2020, England saw an increase in prescriptions for medications. However, the effect of progestin-only contraceptives on breast cancer risk has received little attention in the past.

Researchers recently looked into the connection between the usage of hormonal contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. They discovered that progestin-only contraceptives marginally raise the risk of breast cancer, similar to combination tablets.

What is the contraceptive pill?

The term “the pill” also refers to the oral contraceptive. In the UK, it is a widely used method of birth control. To avoid getting pregnant, take the contraceptive pill orally. The body’s hormones regulate the menstrual cycle (periods). By altering these hormones’ concentrations, the pill stops conception.

You may learn more about the two major forms of contraceptive pills on the NHS website:

  • The combination pill is a medication that combines both oestrogen and progestogen.
  • The little tablet (also called the progestogen-only pill or POP). Just progestogen is present in this tablet.

There are additional hormonal contraceptives on the market. On them and the risk of cancer, there is limited research. You can learn more about the various forms of contraception from your doctor.

Data on hormonal contraceptives use

The study’s authors examined medical information from a primary care database in the UK. They included information from 18,171 women without breast cancer and 9,498 women under 50 who had the disease.

Together, 44% of breast cancer survivors and 39% of non-survivors had a prescription for hormonal contraception. They were for progestin-only preparations around half of the time.

In the end, the researchers discovered that taking combination contraceptive pills elevated the risk of breast cancer by 23%. They also discovered that oral contraceptives that contain solely progestin raised the incidence of breast cancer by 29%.

Injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) are examples of other progestin-only formulations that raised the risk of breast cancer by 18%, 28%, and 21%, respectively.

According to the study, breast cancer incidence increased after five years of oral contraceptive usage in women between the ages of 35 and 39, rising from 265 per 100,000 users to 8 per 100,000 in those between 16 and 20.

Oral birth control and breast cancer risk

City of Hope Orange County’s medical director for women’s health and medical oncology, Dr. Irene M. Kang, was not involved in the research.

“Because all medications have dangers and advantages, talking to your doctor about any worries you have is very important. A few adverse consequences of oral contraceptives are blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes. In altering the levels of oestrogen and progesterone, research has revealed that oral contraceptives can affect a person’s chance of developing specific malignancies – in some circumstances, such as ovarian and endometrial cancers, downwardly; in other situations, upwardly. Family planning and more controlled menstrual cycles are additional advantages.

Medical oncologist Dr. Lilian Harris, who was not involved in the study, concurred that hormonal contraceptives offer advantages and disadvantages:

For instance, they can aid in the treatment of acne, fibroids, endometriosis, and menstrual pain in addition to protecting against pelvic inflammatory disease. Also, it has been demonstrated that they lower the risk of uterine cancer. On the other hand, any medicine could have hazards. These side effects for oral contraceptives can include higher risk for breast cancer as well as nausea, headaches, and breast discomfort.

Study limitations 

Dr. Kang said that the study’s shortcomings include that it only explains short-term risk associations rather than long-term danger because of the way it was designed.

Not a part of the study, according to Dr. Kristina Shaffer, a breast surgery oncologist at Novant Health Cancer Institute:

“In addition, the study included premenopausal women, a population whose incidence of breast cancer is lower, suggesting that other variables could have been to blame for the study’s findings of a slightly greater risk. While the study did take into account some of the recognised risk factors for breast cancer, it did not take into account family history, genetic predisposition, or history of atypical breast cells, all of which are known to have an impact on the risk of breast cancer.

Implications for contraceptives use

As a non-participant in the study, Dr. Parvin Peddi is a board-certified medical oncologist who serves as the Margie Petersen Breast Center’s director of breast medical oncology at Providence Saint John’s Health Center and an associate professor of medical oncology at Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California.

The important takeaway from this study is that despite the perception of a lower risk of perinatal cancer, women do not always need to choose a birth control pill that only contains progesterone. – Doctor Peddie

However, Dr. Peddie emphasised that the absolute risk of breast cancer from any of these drugs is relatively low, and this study should not discourage women from using birth control methods that contain hormones.

Less than 0.5% of women aged 35 to 39 who used these drugs showed a risk of breast cancer, and even fewer women who took them earlier.

For instance, a relative rise of 20% would raise the risk of breast cancer in a 30-year-old woman from 5% to 6%. And for this reason, the study came to the conclusion that there was a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer,” she said.

Dr. Kang also pointed out: “Like all cancers, the risk of developing breast cancer rises with age and, in this case, also with the duration of hormonal contraception use.

It may be more advantageous for you to switch to a hormone-free birth control if you have a higher chance of developing breast cancer. Get treatment from a doctor who specialises in your particular type of cancer if you are diagnosed with breast cancer.

Self-exams and screenings are crucial because “early detection of breast cancer is one of the most significant factors in successfully treating this disease,” Dr. Kang said.


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Genetic Overlap of Endometriosis & Chronic pain conditions

Genetic Overlap of Endometriosis & Chronic pain conditions

There is presently no cure for the disease endometriosis, which can lead to discomfort and infertility. In order to determine whether endometriosis has a hereditary component, researchers at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom examined DNA samples from hundreds of female participants.

25 teams from around the world worked together with the researchers to collect and analyse a sizable amount of data from female participants with and without endometriosis.

Their results demonstrated a link between endometriosis and other inflammatory disorders in addition to demonstrating the genetic component of this condition. For those who have it, endometriosis can be a crippling ailment, and identifying it can be expensive and challenging.

Scientists from the University of Oxford collaborated with experts from other countries to study the DNA from tens of thousands of female volunteers. In order to understand more about the genetic variables influencing the illness. They found that endometriosis might be related to other inflammatory diseases.

Endometriosis overview

The endometrial lining, the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus, thickens during the menstrual cycle as part of the process. This lining usually sheds throughout the menstrual cycle if a person does not become pregnant.

A tissue that resembles this lining can occasionally proliferate where it shouldn’t, which is what happens with endometriosis. This lining may develop in the pelvic region, around the ovaries, or around the fallopian tubes. It can occasionally even grow around other organs like the intestines or the bladder.

Endometriosis symptoms and indicators might include:

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 10% of menstrual women worldwide who are in their reproductive stage are affected by endometriosis.

The study methods

In order to ascertain whether there is probably a genetic component to endometriosis, the research team from the University of Oxford planned to undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS). They did a meta-analysis of the data gathered.

The researchers gathered data from more than 60,000 people. People had been diagnosed with endometriosis in collaboration with 25 other teams. They compared it to DNA samples from slightly more than 700,000 people who had been diagnosed with endometriosis.However they not have the disease.

Participants with either European or East Asian heritage provided the samples.

The genetic differences between those who have endometriosis and those who do not were taken into consideration by the researchers when they examined the data. The implications of these variations on “endometrium, blood, and other important tissues” were also taken into account.

In order to determine whether there was a connection between endometriosis and nine other immunological or inflammatory illnesses, researchers also looked at those conditions.

Genetic map of endometriosis

The scientists discovered 42 genetic loci sites of genes or genetic sequences in the genome. They regarded important for developing endometriosis after reviewing the data provided.

This research supports the hypothesis that endometriosis may have a hereditary component, which may be important for the advancement of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic approaches.

The researchers were able to pinpoint a number of genes and hormone regulators that were linked to both endometriosis and other pain problems after further investigating these locations.

The scientists discovered links between a number of medical illnesses and symptoms, including asthma, osteoarthritis, chronic back pain, and migraines.

Senior research scientist at the Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and the study’s first author, Dr. Nilufer Rahmioglu, spoke about the study.

“We were able to generate a treasure trove of new information about genetically driven endometriosis subtypes. Also, pain experience using different datasets of women with and without endometriosis. Some of which had unprecedented detailed data on surgical findings and pain experience collected using standardised criteria,” said Dr. Rahmioglu.

Links to IBS, migraine, asthma

MNT spoke with Dr. G. Thomas Ruiz, the head of OB/GYN at Memorial Care Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California, who was not associated with this study.

This study confirms the significance of a family history of endometriosis. Gynecologists have long known this, and this study confirms their theory, according to Dr. Ruiz.

Dr. Ruiz stated that the study’s huge sample size is a strength and that a lot of useful information can be extrapolated from it. He advises concentrating on the overall concept that “endometriosis and advanced stage endometriosis” have a genetic basis.

Dr. Ruiz continued, “There seems to be a connection between the body’s response to endometriosis and other inflammatory diseases like osteoarthritis and asthma.

The results of the study were also discussed by Dr. Steve Vasilev, an integrative gynecologic oncologist who is board-certified, the medical director of integrative gynecologic oncology at Providence Saint John’s Health Center, and a professor at Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California. Dr. Vasilev was not involved in the study.

Diagnosis and management

Endometriosis may be the cause of persistent pelvic discomfort, painfully heavy periods, and other menstrual symptoms. Women who are concerned about these symptoms should speak with their gynaecologists.

There is currently no blood test that can validate a doctor’s diagnosis of endometriosis, according to recommendations published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal earlier this month.

Endometriosis is generally diagnosed by laparoscopic surgery. But like all operations, this one is a little intrusive and comes with certain dangers.

As a result, these new diagnostic guidelines advise doctors to detect endometriosis by combining patient history with imaging. Diagnostic techniques covered by the recommendations include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal ultrasound.

Hormone therapy, such as birth control tablets can have efficacy rates of 60-80%, people with endometriosis can manage their symptoms. Nonetheless, surgery may be required to eliminate lesions in those who are attempting to get pregnant.


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Lets Understand Why You Have Migraine During Your Period.

Lets Understand Why You Have Migraine During Your Period.

According to a recent study, migraine attacks in cisgender women who are menstruating may be brought on by an increase in the peptide CGRP, which has been associated with migraines. The study found that this increase correlated with a drop in oestrogen that happens after menstruation.

In spite of the fact that these individuals may still experience migraine attacks, the study did not detect an increase in CGRP in those who used contraceptives or had undergone menopause.

Since many years ago, experts have recognised a link between the beginning of menstruation-related migraine episodes and a decline in oestrogen levels. The exact workings of this relationship, nevertheless, are still unknown.

A recent study discovered that levels of a peptide linked to migraines fluctuate along with hormonal levels during the menstrual cycle. The calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP, is present in greater amounts during the decline in oestrogen that happens at the start of menstruation.

If you get migraine attacks, you might have observed a rise in frequency around the time of your period. This is not rare, and it might also be related to the oestrogen levels dropping prior to menstruation. Hormones can cause migraine during pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause.

Menstrual migraine symptoms

The symptoms of a menstrual migraine are comparable to those of other migraine types without an aura or other sensory abnormalities. They typically start 1 or 2 days after your menstruation starts.

Menstrual migraines are frequently divided into two types:

  • Menstrual migraine: This more frequent type can have vision abnormalities as one or more of the aura symptoms. Other periods of the month may have episodes of the migraine.
  • Pure menstrual migraines: They only happen before or after your menstruation starts.

Typical menstrual migraine signs include the following:

  • one side of the head typically experiences excruciating head ache.
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • sensitivity to loud noises and light

Menstrual migraine attacks may be accompanied with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms as bloating, breast tenderness, nausea, and mood swings.

How do hormone levels affect migraine?

Hormone fluctuations can cause migraine episodes. Certain drugs, such as birth control pills, can also contribute to them.


The National Headache Foundation estimates that 60 percent of women who suffer from migraines also experience menstrual migraine attacks. This can occur anywhere from two days before and three days following the conclusion of the menstrual cycle.

When a person starts menstruating, migraines may start, although they can start at any moment. Through menopause and the reproductive years, your attacks may remain.

Menopause and the perimenopause

During perimenopause, decreasing levels of oestrogen and other hormones, such as progesterone, might result in migraine headaches.

Perimenopause typically begins 4 years before to menopause, however it can start as early as 8 to 10 years prior to menopause. Moreover, migraines can occur in those taking hormone replacement therapy.


The first trimester of pregnancy is when pregnancy hormone headaches are most prevalent. This is brought on by an increase in blood volume and hormone levels.

Common headaches are another condition that might affect pregnant ladies. These can be caused by a variety of factors, such as caffeine withdrawal, dehydration, and bad posture.

Is it migraine or a headache?

A migraine episode is distinct from a regular headache. They commonly affect one side of the brain and create intense, throbbing pain. There are two types of migraines: “with aura” and “without aura.”

In the 30 minutes prior to your attack, you might experience one or more of the following signs and symptoms if you have migraine with aura:

  • observing light-flashes
  • noticing odd lines or patches
  • a momentary blindness
  • Hands or face numbness
  • tingling feelings in the face or hands
  • alterations in speech
  • weakness
  • unexpected alterations in flavour, smell, or touch

Aura-related migraine symptoms might also include the following:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • intolerance to sound or light
  • discomfort behind one or both ears.
  • one or both temples are hurting

Typical headaches never start with an aura and usually hurt less than migraines. There are numerous types of headaches, such as:

  • Tension headaches. Tension headaches can be brought on by high amounts of stress and worry. They might also be brought on by strained or tense muscles.
  • Clusters headaches. These headaches are frequently confused with migraines. Usually affecting one side of the head, they can also involve other signs and symptoms like runny nose, watery eyes, and nasal congestion.

Other causes of migraine attacks

Depending on your age and family history, you may experience menstrual migraines or migraines without a clear cause. You are more vulnerable just because you are a woman.

Obviously, you have little control over your gender, age, or family history, but keeping a migraine diary can be beneficial. This can assist you in locating and averting triggers.

Possible triggers include:

  • bad sleep patterns
  • drinking alcohol
  • consuming tyramine-rich foods like smoked fish, cured or smoked meat and cheese, avocado, dried fruit, bananas, aged food of any type, and chocolate
  • consuming a lot of caffeine-containing beverages
  • exposure to unusual weather patterns or situations
  • stress
  • fatigue
  • fasting
  • exposure to extremely high, intense light levels or noise
  • smelling harsh aromas from chemicals, cleaning supplies, perfume, and automobile exhaust
  • using artificial sweeteners as food
  • ingesting artificial flavours and colours like monosodium glutamate (MSG)

How is migraine diagnosed?

If you have migraine symptoms, your doctor will frequently begin by performing a physical examination and asking you about your family’s medical history to rule out any potential underlying illnesses.

Your doctor may suggest additional testing, such as the following if they believe anything other than hormones is causing your migraine attacks:

  • test of blood
  • an MRI
  • CT scan
  • Spinal tap, lumbar puncture


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Important parameters of Cervical cancer women need to know.

Important parameters of Cervical cancer women need to know.

What Is Cervical Cancer?

Women’s cervix, which connects the uterus and vagina, is where cervical cancer develops when cells in the cervix alter. The deeper tissues of their cervix may be affected by this cancer, and it has the potential to metastasis (spread to other parts of the body), most frequently the lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and rectum.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is avoidable with a vaccine, is the main cause of cervical cancer. Since cervical cancer develops slowly, it is typically detectable and treatable before it poses a major threat. Thanks to better screening through Pap tests, it claims fewer and fewer lives of women every year.

The majority of cases are women between the ages of 35 and 44. However, women over 65 make up more than 15% of new cases, particularly those who haven’t been undergoing routine exams.

Different Types of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer comes in several different forms.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma. This develops in your cervix’s lining. Up to 90% of cases have it.
  • Adenocarcinoma. This develops in the mucus-producing cells.
  • Mixed cancercarcinoma. This possesses traits from the other two categories.

Cervical cancer stages

Your doctor will determine the stage of your cancer after a diagnosis has been made. The stage reveals if and how far the cancer has spread if it has. Your doctor can identify the best course of treatment for you by staging your cancer.

There are four phases of cervical cancer:

  • Stage 1: A little cancer. There’s a chance the lymph nodes were affected. It hasn’t spread to other body areas.
  • Stage 2: The tumour has grown. It can have reached the lymph nodes or spread beyond the uterus and cervix. It hasn’t yet spread to other areas of your body.
  • Stage 3: The malignancy has gone to the pelvic or the lower vagina. The ureters, which are tubes that transfer urine from the kidneys to the bladder, may be blocked as a result. It hasn’t spread to other body areas.
  • Stage 4: The cancer may have spread to other organs, such as your lungs, bones, or liver, from the pelvis.

Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer

Early stages of cervical cancer are typically difficult to diagnose because they lack symptoms. It may take several years before cervical cancer symptoms appear. The greatest strategy to prevent cervical cancer is to find abnormal cells during testing for the disease.

Stage 1 cervical cancer symptoms and signs might include:

  • Vaginal discharge that is either bloody or watery, may be heavy, and may smell bad.
  • Vaginal bleeding following sex, in between cycles, or following menopause.
  • Periods of menstruation could be heavier and longer than usual.

Symptoms of cancer that has spread to adjacent tissues or organs include:

  • urination that is painful or difficult, occasionally with blood in the pee.
  • diarrhoea, abdominal pain, or bleeding when you poop.
  • fatigue, weight loss, and appetite loss
  • a state of general disease
  • a dull backache or leg swelling.
  • abdominal and pelvic pain

You should have a comprehensive gynaecological exam, which includes a Pap test, if you suffer abnormal bleeding, vaginal discharge, or any other unexplained symptoms.

Cervical cancer causes

The sexually transmitted human papillomavirus is the primary factor in most occurrences of cervical cancer (HPV). Genital warts are brought on by the same virus.

There are over 100 distinct HPV strains. Cervical cancer is only caused by specific types. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the two strains that cause cancer the most frequently.

Cervical cancer is not a guarantee even if you have an HPV cancer-causing strain. Most HPV infections are cleared up by your immune system, frequently within two years.

In both men and women, HPV can lead to other malignancies. These consist of:

  • vulvar cancer
  • vaginal cancer
  • penile cancer
  • anal cancer
  • rectal cancer
  • throat cancer

Cervical cancer risk factors

The greatest risk factor for cervical cancer is HPV. Additional elements that may raise your risk include:

  • HIV
  • chlamydia
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • a history of cervical cancer in the family
  • consuming little fruit and veg
  • using contraceptive tablets
  • being pregnant three times at term
  • being under the age of 17 when you first became pregnant

You are not destined to develop cervical cancer even if you have one or more of these risk factors.

How is cervical cancer treated?

One member of the team treating cervical cancer is a gynecologic oncologist (a doctor who specialises in cancers of female reproductive organs). The stage of the disease, your age and general health, and whether or not you intend to have children in the future all play a role in the recommended course of therapy for cervical cancer.

Radiation, chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are all options for treating cervical cancer.

Radiation Therapy

Your cervix’s cancerous cells are destroyed by energy beams used in radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is available in two different forms:

  • External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) uses a machine outside the body to direct powerful radiation towards tumours.
  • Radiation is applied directly to or near a malignancy during brachytherapy.


Chemotherapy (chemo) kills cancer cells by administering medications by injection into your veins or oral ingestion. It enters your circulation and kills cells effectively throughout your body. Chemotherapy uses a variety of medications, some of which can be combined. Cycles of chemotherapy are frequently administered.


Cervical cancer is treated with a variety of surgical procedures. The most typical procedures used to treat cervical cancer include:

  • Laser procedure
  • conical biopsy
  • an easy hysterectomy
  • Trachelectomy
  • Pelvic enlargement
  • Targeted treatment

Specific cancer cells are eliminated by targeted medication therapy without harming healthy cells. It functions by focusing on proteins that regulate how cancer cells proliferate and spread.


In immunotherapy, drugs are used to activate your immune system’s capacity to detect and eliminate cancer cells. Cancer cells can also signal to avoid being attacked by your immune system. Targeting these signals with immunotherapy makes it so cancer cells can’t deceive your body into believing they are healthy cells.

Clinical trials are yet another form of treatment. Some people supplement their cancer therapy with complementary therapies like nutrition, herbs, acupuncture, and other practises. Speak with your healthcare practitioner about alternative practises that promise to lessen the symptoms of cancer. Some may be beneficial, while others may be dangerous.

Cervical cancer prevention

Screening with a Pap smear or a hrHPV test on a regular basis is one of the simplest strategies to avoid cervical cancer. Precancerous cells are detected during screening so they can be treated before they progress to malignancy.

Most occurrences of cervical cancer are caused by HPV infection. With the help of the vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix, the illness can be avoided. The best time for vaccination is before a person starts acting sexually. Boys and girls can both receive the HPV vaccine.

You can lessen your risk of HPV and cervical cancer by doing the following additional things:

  • Do not have too many sexual partners.
  • When engaging in vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse, you should always use a condom or another barrier device.

You may have precancerous cells in your cervix if your Pap smear results are abnormal.


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What are the different types of Breast Cancer?

What are the different types of Breast Cancer?

About Breast

The breast is composed of a variety of tissues, from extremely fatty tissue to extremely dense tissue. There is a network of lobes within this tissue. Each lobe is composed of lobules, which are tiny, tube-like structures that house milk glands. Milk is transported from the lobes to the nipple via tiny ducts that connect the glands, lobules, and lobes. The areola, the darker region that encircles the nipple, contains the nipple in the centre.

Additionally, the breast is covered in lymphatic and blood arteries. By bringing oxygen and nutrition to the cells as well as eliminating waste and carbon dioxide, blood arteries nurture the cells. Unlike blood arteries, lymph vessels only transport fluid away from tissues. They join the lymphatic system, which removes bodily waste, and the lymph nodes. The tiny, bean-shaped organs known as lymph nodes aid in the defence against infection. The body has several locations for groups of lymph nodes, including the neck, groyne, and abdomen. Regional lymph nodes of the breast are those that are close to the breast, such as the axillary lymph nodes under the arm.

What is a breast cancer?

Healthy cells in the breast begin to alter and expand out of control to form a tumour, which is a mass or sheet of cells. A tumour may be benign or malignant. Malignant refers to the ability of a cancerous tumour to develop and metastasize to different body regions. A benign tumour is one that is still growing and has not yet spread.

Breast cancer can spread through the blood vessels and/or lymph nodes to places including the bones, lungs, liver, and brain. Though it most frequently travels to surrounding lymph nodes, in which case it is still regarded as a local or regional disease.

This is the most advanced stage of the illness and is known as metastatic or stage IV breast cancer. The presence of adjacent lymph nodes alone, however, does not typically indicate stage IV breast cancer.

After initial therapy, breast cancer may return locally, which refers to the same breast and/or nearby lymph nodes. Additionally, it may return in another location on the body; this is known as a distant or metastatic recurrence.

DIfferent types of breast cancer

Breast cancer comes in a variety of forms, each of which can be described in a variety of ways. It’s simple to become perplexed. The specific breast cells that develop into cancer dictate the type of breast cancer.

The types of breast cancer are generally classified into two categories i.e. Invasive cancer and Non-ivasive cancer.

Noninvasive (in-situ) types of breast cancer

Breast cancer cells that are in situ are non-invasive and stay in one area of the breast without spreading to neighbouring tissue, lobules, or ducts.

In situ breast cancer refers to cancer that only affects the milk ducts or lobules. Ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are the two forms of in situ malignancies.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

The ACS estimates that 20% of newly discovered breast tumours fall into the DCIS category. A lump that develops in a milk duct, which transports milk from lobules, or glands, to the nipple, is the beginning of DCIS. There isn’t any body-wide spread of a DCIS. The likelihood that the tumour will eventually penetrate the ductal walls and enter the breast’s surrounding fat and tissue increases with time. However, thanks to improvements in diagnosis and therapy, the majority of women with DCIS, also known as stage 0 breast cancer, benefit from treatment.

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

Technically speaking, an LCIS is not a type of cancer but rather an alteration in the breast. To create breast milk, the breast has tens of thousands of tiny clusters called lobules. These lobules may develop cells that resemble cancer cells. LCIS usually stays put and doesn’t spread. Your care team may want to watch you in order to quickly address any changes because LCIS increases your chance for developing invasive breast cancer.

Invasive types of breast cancer

The majority of breast cancers are invasive, which means the disease has progressed from the primary site to surrounding breast tissue, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body.

Breast cancer cells that are invasive (infiltrating) breach the protective boundaries of healthy breast tissue and disseminate to other parts of the body via the circulation and lymph nodes. The two most prevalent kinds of invasive breast cancer are Invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma.

Invasive ductal carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most prevalent kind of breast cancer, accounting for around 70–80 percent of all occurrences (IDC). IDC is a cancer that begins in a milk duct and spreads to other breast tissues. Milk ducts are the tubes in the breast that bring milk to the nipple. It may eventually expand farther, or metastatically, to other bodily regions.

Invasive lobular carcinoma

The second most frequent kind of breast cancer is invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which makes up between 5 and 10 percent of all cases. Breast tissue nearby is first affected by ILC, which originates in the lobules (where breast milk is produced). It might spread laterally like IDC. In contrast to IDC, this cancer is more difficult to find on mammograms and other tests. Both breasts are afflicted by ILC in one out of every five women.

Inflammatory breast cancer

Compared to other types of breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer has a tendency to spread more quickly and can be found in the ducts or lobules. According to the NCI, this fast-moving, aggressive illness accounts for 1 to 5 percent of breast cancer cases in the country. Its name comes from the inflammatory symptoms it produces, which typically include redness and swelling on the breast’s surface.

Due to these symptoms, a breast infection is frequently misdiagnosed. According to the American Cancer Society, one in three patients with this type of cancer do not receive a diagnosis until the disease has spread to other parts of the body and is at an advanced stage. Inflammatory breast cancer has a decreased survival rate due to these factors.

Paget’s disease of the breast

Paget’s disease of the breast, sometimes called Paget’s disease of the nipple, is a far less typical form of breast cancer. According to the NCI, it primarily affects patients who have been diagnosed with another breast cancer at a ratio of 1 to 4%. Paget cells, a particular type of tumour cell, are produced as it progresses in the skin of the nipple and areola.

Angiosarcoma of the breast

Breast cancer called angiosarcoma develops in the lining of lymphatic or blood vessels. According to the NCI, it is uncommon, making up just 1 to 2 percent of all sarcomas (including those found elsewhere in the body). Angiosarcoma can affect anyone, however it most frequently affects adults over the age of 70.

It frequently results from side effects of radiation therapy to the breast, but it may take up to eight or ten years before it does. Angiosarcoma is a fast-growing kind of cancer that frequently isn’t discovered until it has spread to other parts of the body.

Phyllodes tumors

Phyllodes tumours are uncommon and develop in the breast’s connective tissues. Despite the fact that it can afflict patients of any age, this form of tumour primarily affects women in their 40s. This kind of tumour is more common in people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, an inherited genetic disorder. The ACS estimates that 25 percent of phyllodes tumours are malignant.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma, low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, and tubular carcinoma are further, even more uncommon varieties of invasive breast cancer.


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Is there any serious side effects of using Gynaecosid?

Is there any serious side effects of using Gynaecosid?

What is a Gynaecosid Tablet?

The active ingredient in gynaecosid pills is a combination of methyloestrenolone and methyl estradiol. Together, they help to lessen the activity of estradiol-17-beta steroid.

Gynaecosid’s main ingredients are either progestins, androgens, or anabolic steroids, which are all classes of drugs.

Gynaecosid Tablet use

Periods are brought on by gynecosid in females or girls who are not pregnant. There are many causes of irregular periods, including oestrogen insufficiency. Such inadequacies are treated by this tablet, which also aids in menopause abnormalities. The symptoms of post-menopausal vaginal atrophy can also be lessened with the aid of these pills.

Gynaecosids are used to promote blood clotting and to activate particular nuclear receptors. These tablets also treat additional factors that contribute to irregular periods.

These pills are prescribed by doctors to treat primary and secondary amenorrhea as well as urine urgency. Those who experience painful urinating and UTI symptoms may also use this medication. Gynaecosid tablets can be used to treat pelvic pain, unpleasant urine odours, and other conditions.

How to use?

You need a glass of water to take this tablet but avoid chewing it. Take this tablet as your doctor prescribed for you. You should not take overdose. If you have missed one dose, take it as soon as possible. But avoid taking one dose with another as it may cause some serious side effects.

Side Effects of Gynaecosids

Gynaecosid side effects may not be experienced by everyone, although some individuals may do so. These possible negative effects are rare, but they could be very bad when they do.

Girls and women who experience any of the following side effects after taking Gynaecosid pills should see a doctor.

  • Drowsiness
  • Virulent discharge
  • Put on weight
  • bleeding after withdrawal
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • stomach pains
  • elevated blood pressure (Severe Symptoms)
  • increased sexual inclination
  • increased development of hair
  • Skin problems
  • voice variations
  • Breast sensitivity (Severe Symptoms)
  • chest pain
  • swollen legs (Severe Symptoms)

Risks and Warnings

If a woman or a girl has one of the following conditions, she should not take gynaecosid tablets:

  • Pregnancy
  • unexpected genital bleeding
  • Blood clots 
  • Oversensitivity

Those who are sensitive to this drug’s components, such as methyloestrenolone and methyl, may be allergic to them. There’s a chance you’ll develop skin rashes, redness, itching, etc. In the event that you get an adverse response, be careful to avoid consuming it.


The effects of Gynaecosid Tablet may worsen if you take other medications at the same time, or it may stop working altogether. You may be at an increased risk for adverse effects as a result. Your doctor will prescribe medication appropriately if you let him or her know about all of the prescription and over-the-counter medications you are taking. The following may interact with gynaecosid tablet:

  • Bromocriptine: The drug bromocriptine is a member of the dopamine receptor subclass.
  • Corticotropin: The hormone corticotropin controls the release of corticosteroid hormones by acting on the top portion of the adrenal gland.
  • Cyclosporine: The drug cyclosporine is used to stop organ rejection following transplantation.
  • Dantrolene: It is used to treat muscle spasms or spasticity.
  • Isoniazid: It is used to treat infections caused by tuberculosis.


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Is Norethisterone good to treat gynecological disorders?

Is Norethisterone good to treat gynecological disorders?

Gynecological Disorders

A woman’s reproductive organs undergo continuous change from puberty to menopause due to sexual activity, pregnancy, age, natural processes, etc. Gynecology is the branch of medicine that deals with the condition female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries).

A gynaecological disorder is a condition that affects the female reproductive organs. It including the breasts, the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the vagina, and the vulva. Almost every woman will experience a gynaecological problem at some point in her life. It may be disastrous or insignificant.

Types of Gynecological Disorders

There are many different tpes of Gynecological Disorders found in wome. Some of the most common types of disorder include,

  • PCOS(Polycystic ovary syndrome) – The most frequent reason for anovulatory infertility is PCOS. Women who have PCOS are more likely to develop a number od medical conditions. It includes endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and mood problems.
  • Endometriosis – About 10% of women of reproductive age are affected by endometriosis, which significantly contributes to the formation of pelvic adhesions, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and persistent pelvic pain.
  • Uterine Fibroids (leiomyomata) -The most frequent benign gynecologic tumour in women, uterine fibroids (leiomyomata) are linked to a number of harmful health outcomes, such as irregular uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, miscarriage, and preterm childbirth.
  • Vaginitis – Any condition that results in swelling or inflammation of the vulva and the vagina is referred to as vaginitis. Yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, non-infectious vaginitis, and vaginitis that is transmitted through sexual contact are common types of vaginitis.
  • Menstrual Disorders – Irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding affects quality of life and can be a sign of underlying gynecologic diseases including endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, or anovulatory disorders.


Norethisterone is a medical drug available to us under the name Noriday which belongs to a class of medication called Progestins. This medicine is used for several women reproduction related disorders such as painful periods, premenstrual tension, breast cancer, endometriosis and also for the treatment of gynecological disorders.

How to use?

Norethisterone is available to us in a form of pill that must be taken by mouth with or without food as per your doctor’s prescription. It is usually taken once a day daily. The dosage and length of the treatment is based on your medical condition, response to the treatment and other medicine that you may be taking for the same or different reason. Swallow the tablet whole rather than chewing or crushing it in your mouth as it may release all the drug in your mouth which increases the risk of side effects.

Your doctor may start you with a low dose which will increase gradually. Take the medicine at the same time daily to get the most benefits from it. Do not increase your dose or take it more often than prescribed as this may also increase the risk of side effects without any improvement in your condition. Discuss all the other medicines that you might be taking along with  Norethisterone for the same or different reasons. Follow the medical prescription carefully and inform your doctor in case of any exception or confusion.

Side Effects of Norethisterone

Common side effects observed while medicating with Ibandronate are nausea, vomiting, headache, weight gain, bloating or breast tenderness, may occur. Inform your doctor if these conditions persist or get worse.

There are some serious side effects which must be informed to the doctor right away if observed such as lumps in the breast, mental/mood changes, severe stomach/abdominal pain, unusual changes in vaginal bleeding, dark urine, yellowing eyes/skin, etc. 

There are also some severe allergic reactions involved with these medications which require immediate medical attention if observed such as rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), trouble breathing, severe dizziness, chest/jaw/left arm pain, confusion, sudden dizziness/fainting, pain/swelling/warmth in the groin/calf, trouble speaking, sudden shortness of breath/rapid breathing, unusual headache, unusual sweating, weakness on one side of the body, vision problems/changes, etc.

Precaution before using Norethisterone

  • If you have any allergies, including those to other progestins or norethindrone, let your doctor or pharmacist know before using this drug. Inactive chemicals in this product have the potential to trigger allergic reactions or other issues. To learn more, speak with your pharmacist.
  • Inform your doctor or pharmacist of your medical history before taking this medication, especially of any of the following conditions such as blood clots (for example, in the legs, eyes, or lungs), blood clotting disorders (such as protein C or protein S deficiency), high blood pressure, abnormal breast exam, cancer (especially endometrial or breast cancer), low levels of “good” cholesterol (HDL), depression, diabetes, severe headaches/migraines, heart problems (such as heart valve disease, irregular heartbeat, Jaundice, liver disease (including tumours), unexplained vaginal bleeding, history of yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice) during pregnancy or while using hormonal birth control (such as pills or a patch).
  • Inform your surgeon or dentist of all the products you use prior to surgery (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).
  • Your face and skin may develop blotchy, dark spots as a result of this drug (melasma). This effect could get worse in the sun. Keep sun exposure to a minimum. Avoid using sunlamps and tanning booths. When outdoors, wear protective gear and sunscreen.
  • Pregnancy should not be the time to use this drug. Inform your doctor as soon as possible if you become pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant.
  • Small doses of this medicine may enter breast milk and cause unfavourable effects on a nursing newborn. Before breastfeeding, speak with your doctor.

Norethisterone effects on Gynecological Disorders

  • With regard to treating dysmenorrhea, causing amenorrhea for at least six months, and reducing the size of ovarian endometriomas, the current data showed that NET was effective.
  • Progestins have anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effect in endometriotic tissues and do not raise the risk of thrombosis. In endometriosis, NET and DNG both seem to be equally effective at reducing pain and the size of lesions. DNG is anti-androgenic, but NET also exhibits this property. These two progestins lack the strong glucocorticoid or anti-mineralcorticoid effects that many other hormonal medications have. Even progestins by themselves may help in bone development. Because NET is partially converted to estrogens, this may be an advantage over DNG.

In conclusion, the available evidence points to NET as a viable treatment for endometriosis-related dysmenorrhea and for shrinking ovarian endometriomas. Oral progestins alone can be used at any age, have very few adverse effects, do not increase the risk of thrombosis, and are capable of suppressing ovulation and causing amenorrhea.


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Does ovulating & menstruating women need more Progesterone?

Does ovulating & menstruating women need more Progesterone?


The menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species are all influenced by the endogenous steroid and progestogen hormone known as Progesterone. It is a member of the class of steroid hormones known as progestogens and is the primary progestogen in the body.

Estrogen is typically a component of hormone replacement treatment, which is used to alleviate menopause symptoms and lower the chance of contracting certain diseases. Estrogen can, however, also lead to an unnatural thickening of the uterine lining and raise the risk of uterine cancer.

The danger of getting uterine cancer is reduced and this thickening is prevented by progesterone. In women of reproductive age who have previously ceased menstruating after experiencing regular periods, progesterone is also used to induce menstruation (period).

There is no reliable scientific evidence to support the use of progesterone supplements or other over-the-counter medications for infertility, menopausal symptoms, or any other condition.

Progesterone levels in over-the-counter medications may differ from those listed on the label. FDA approval is not necessary for these goods. With a healthcare professional, go over the use of prescription progesterone products. Don’t mistake progesterone for pregnenolone or wild yam, either. They are not equivalent.

How to consume Progesterone?

Progesterone is available to us in an oral pill form. Typically, one dose is given in the evening or right before bed. Progesterone is typically used on a rotating regimen, which alternates 10–12 days of progesterone use with 16–18 days without the drug. When exactly to take progesterone will be specified by your doctor.

Take progesterone at roughly the same time every evening to help you remember to take it. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any instructions on your prescription label that you are unsure about following. Progesterone should be taken as prescribed. Never take it in larger or less amounts or more frequently than directed by your doctor.

Side effects

Common side effects observed while medicating with progesterone are:

  • headache
  • muscle, joint, or bone pain
  • tiredness
  • problems urinating
  • mood swings
  • irritability
  • excessive worrying
  • sneezing
  • cough
  • vaginal discharge
  • runny nose
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • breast tenderness or pain
  • upset stomach

Inform the doctor if any of these conditions persist or get worse. There are also some severe side effects which must be informed to the doctor right away if observed such as:

  • seizures
  • stomach pain or swelling
  • severe dizziness or faintness
  • slow or difficult speech
  • weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
  • sharp chest pain
  • coughing up blood
  • leg swelling or pain
  • depression
  • hives
  • skin rash
  • itching
  • difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
  • breast lumps
  • migraine headache
  • loss of vision or blurred vision
  • bulging eyes

Other negative effects of progesterone are possible. If you experience any strange issues while taking this medicine, contact your doctor right away.

Precautions before using Progesterone

There are certain medical conditions or interaction of drugs in a human body in which intake of Progesterone must be limited or avoided in order to prevent complications, such as:

  • If you have any of the following allergies: peanuts, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), hormone replacement treatment, progesterone, or any other drugs, let your doctor and pharmacist know right once.
  • Please let your doctor know if you are taking any herbal supplements, especially St. John’s wort.
  • Inform your physician if you experience or have previously experienced any of the following: unexplained vaginal bleeding between periods; a miscarriage where some tissue was left in the uterus; cancer of the breasts or of the female reproductive organs; seizures; migraine headaches; asthma; diabetes; depression; blood clots in the legs, lungs, eyes, brain, or anywhere else in the body; stroke or ministroke; vision issues; or liver, kidney, heart, or gallbladder.
  • Inform your doctor if you are expecting, intend to get pregnant, or are nursing a baby. Call your doctor if you become pregnant while taking progesterone.
  • Inform your doctor or dentist that you are taking progesterone if you are having surgery, including dental surgery.
  • Progesterone may cause you to feel lightheaded or sleepy. Prior to understanding how this drug affects you, avoid using machinery or driving a car. Take your regular dose of progesterone at bedtime if it does cause you to feel woozy or sleepy.
  • Progesterone may make you feel faint when you stand up too rapidly from a resting position, which is something you should be aware of. When you first begin taking progesterone, this is more typical. Get out of bed gradually, resting your feet on the floor for a few minutes before standing up, to avoid this issue.

Progesterone need fo ovulatioin and menstruation

  • Lower progesterone before ovulation

Progesterone levels are low at the beginning of the menstrual cycle (during the period) and they stay low throughout the follicular phase.

  • Increased progesterone after ovulation

After ovulation, progesterone predominates among the hormones (the luteal phase). The area on the ovary where the follicle that housed the ovulated egg collapsed, known as the corpus luteum, produces progesterone. In the middle of the luteal phase, progesterone levels reach their highest. If conception is unsuccessful, the corpus luteum begins to degrade 9 to 10 days after ovulation, which lowers progesterone levels and signals the onset of the period.


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Is Idrofos good for Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women?

Is Idrofos good for Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women?


Osteoporosis makes bones weak and brittle, so fragile that even minor stressors like coughing or bending over can break them. The hip, wrist, and spine are the most typical sites for osteoporosis-related fractures.

The living tissue that makes up bones is continually being destroyed and rebuilt. When the production of new bone is inadequate to replace the loss of existing bone, osteoporosis develops.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Early on in the process of bone loss, there are often no symptoms. However, after osteoporosis has compromised your bones, you may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • vertebral fracture or collapse resulting in back pain
  • height decline with time
  • a hunched position
  • bone that fractures far more easily than anticipated

Causes of Osteoporosis

New bone is created and old bone is broken down as your bones are constantly being renewed. Your bone mass increases when you’re young because your body produces new bone more quickly than it destroys old bone. The majority of people reach their peak bone mass by age 30 after this process slows down in their early 20s. Bone mass decreases more quickly with ageing than it is gained.

Your bone mass from your youth has a bearing on how likely you are to acquire osteoporosis. Peak bone mass varies by ethnic group and is partially hereditary. Your likelihood of developing osteoporosis as you age decreases in direct proportion to your peak bone mass. It is a measure of how much bone you have in the body.


Ibandronate is a medical drug available to us under the generic name Idrofos which belongs to a class of medication called Bisphosphonates. This medicine is used to treat a condition (Osteoporosis) in women where the bone gets thinner and week which could break more easily. This medicine is generally used in women who have reached a change in life i.e. end of menstrual period called menopause

How to use?

Ibandronate is available to us in a form of pill that must be taken by mouth before morning breakfast or as per your doctor’s prescription. It is usually taken once a month daily. The dosage and length of the treatment is based on your medical condition, response to the treatment and other medicine that you may be taking for the same or different reason.

Swallow the tablet whole rather than chewing or crushing it in your mouth as it may release all the drug in your mouth which increases the risk of side effects. Your doctor may start you with a low dose which will increase gradually. Do not increase your dose or take it more often than prescribed as this may also increase the risk of side effects without any improvement in your condition. Discuss all the other medicines that you might be taking along with Ibandronate for the same or different reasons. Follow the medical prescription carefully and inform your doctor in case of any exception or confusion.

Side effects

Common side effects observed while medicating with Ibandronate are diarrhea, pain in arms/legs, mild flu symptoms or upset stomach may occur. Inform your doctor if these conditions persist or get worse.

There are some serious side effects which must be informed to the doctor right away if observed such as increased or severe bone/joint/muscle pain, new or unusual hip/thigh/groin pain, jaw pain, vision changes, etc. 

There are also some severe allergic reactions involved with these medications which require immediate medical attention if observed such as rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), trouble breathing, severe dizziness, new/severe/worsening heartburn, chest pain, difficult or painful swallowing, severe stomach/abdominal pain, black/tarry stools, vomit that looks like coffee grounds, etc.


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What is PCOS(Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)?

What is PCOS(Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)?

In women of reproductive age, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder. There may be infrequent or prolonged menstruation in women with PCOS, or an excess of male hormones (androgen). Numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) may develop in the ovaries and the eggs may not be regularly released.

With PCOS, women produce more male hormones than normal. Because of this hormone imbalance, they skip menstrual periods and are less likely to get pregnant.

PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that affects the ovaries and ovulation. Its three main features are:

  • cysts in the ovaries
  • high levels of male hormones
  • irregular or skipped periods

Affect of Hormone on PCOS.

Your reproductive hormones are out of balance if you have PCOS. You may not have your period on time or not get it if this occurs.

You make hormones to make different things happen in your body. Menstrual cycles are affected by some, as well as your ability to have a baby. Some hormones that play a role in PCOS are:

  • Androgens: Men often call them male hormones, but women also have them. They tend to be more abundant in women with PCOS.
  • Insulin: This hormone regulates your blood sugar levels. With PCOS, your body may not react correctly to insulin.
  • Progesterone: You may not have enough of this hormone, as a result of PCOS. A period might not come for a long time or you might not be able to predict when it will come.

Are there any symptoms of PCOS?

Missed, irregular, infrequent, or prolonged periods are the most common symptoms of PCOS. In addition to causing hair loss, excess androgens can cause acne and hair growth in places you don’t want it. There are several other side effects such as:

  • Mood changes
  • Pelvic pain
  • Darkened skin or excess skin (skin tags) on the neck or in the armpits
  • Weight gain around your middle

What Are the Causes of PCOS?

As per studies and report, a health professional do not know all the reason of PCOS occurence in a female body. The disorder is generally genetical i.e. passed on from mother or sister. It might also be caused by problems with insulin production which will affect the ability of the ovaries to ovulate. The exact cause of PCOSof however unknown to anyone. All the possible factors are stated above.

Can PCOS be linked with any complications?

When you have PCOS and your androgen levels are too high, you have a higher risk of complications. Among these complications are:

  • Pregnancy problem: In some cases, ovarian cysts can interfere with ovulation. An egg is released each month from one of your ovaries. You can’t become pregnant if a healthy egg is not available to be fertilized by a sperm. Having PCOS may not prevent you from getting pregnant. To make it happen, you may have to take medicine and work with a fertility specialist.
  • Metabolic Syndrome: The presence of these symptoms increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Symptoms include high triglycerides, low HDL (“good”) cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar.
  • Insulin disorder and diabetes: A high level of insulin resistance may cause your body to make too many androgens. A person who has insulin resistance has trouble absorbing blood sugar from their muscles, organs, and other tissues. Thus, your bloodstream can become too sugary. Your heart and nervous system can be affected by this disease, which is called diabetes.
Hormonal alterations in PCOS and its influence on bone metabolism in:  Journal of Endocrinology Volume 232 Issue 2 (2017)

There could be other Complications associated with PCOS that include:

  • High risk of Uterine cancer
  • Inflammation of liver
  • Depression
  • Sleep disorder
  • Anxiety, etc.


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