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Month: October 2023

How To Loose Weight Naturally

How To Loose Weight Naturally

It is advisable to lose weight gradually, according to several specialists. It will probably remain off longer. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, if you lose weight too quickly, you’ll lose water, muscle, and bone instead of fat. The adage “calories in, calories out” means that you must expend more calories than you consume through food and drink. However, as many individuals can attest to from personal experience, it’s not that easy.

You might believe that fasting can help you lose weight quickly. However, it is preferable to have a diet that you can follow over time and that fits with your lifestyle. If fasting is long-term safe, more study is required to determine this. The majority of studies on the effects of intermittent fasting were conducted on middle-aged, overweight adults. If it is safe for those who are older or younger or those who are at a healthy weight, more research is required.

When attempting to reduce weight, both proper nutrition and exercise are crucial. If your nutrition is out of balance, no amount of activity can help you lose weight. However, evidence indicates that whether you’re attempting to reduce weight or not, exercise has significant positive effects on your body and mind. Your body’s ability to convert calories into fuel, or metabolism, is important. Additionally, it’s harmful to limit calories too much. Your metabolism slows down, which can cause you to consume less nutrients.

You can accomplish this in a variety of ways without drastically reducing your calorie intake. You might reduce portions, calculate how many calories you consume on a daily basis, and cut down a little. You could also check food labels to determine how many calories are in each serving and drink more water to help you feel less hungry. To reduce weight, you don’t have to cut out any specific food groups, go vegan, or give up gluten. In fact, if it’s something you can maintain over time, you’re more likely to keep the weight off permanently. However, it does make sense to drastically reduce or eliminate empty calories. As an example. sweet foods There are frequently few nutrients but many calories in foods like cookies, cakes, sugar-sweetened beverages, and other things. Aim to consume added sugars at a rate of no more than 10% of your daily calories.

Consuming enough protein will keep your muscles strong. In addition to lean meat, chicken, fish, and dairy, there are vegetarian and vegan alternatives (nuts, beans, and soy are a few). Depending on your age, gender, and level of activity, you may require more or less protein. Also You might feel fuller and less like you’re on a diet by consuming little amounts of fat. Olive oil, salmon, and nuts and seeds are the healthier options. It may prevent hunger if you eat five to six times each day. Each of those mini-meals may have an equal number of calories, or you could make some larger than others. In order to avoid overeating, you must plan your quantities. Eliminating liquid calories like soda, juice, and alcohol is one simple approach to reduce weight quickly. Replace them with calorie-free beverages like black coffee, unsweetened tea, or lemon water.

Whatever approach you choose, you must prioritize healthy foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein to maintain a balanced diet. However, there isn’t a single, universal healthy eating strategy. A excellent approach is to work with a dietician to create a plan that addresses your unique requirements. Additionally, it’s crucial to follow through with a healthy weight loss plan that you create. The tendency must continue over the long term in order to become healthy and maintain that state.


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Drinking less alcohol linked to healthier brain in new study

Drinking less alcohol linked to healthier brain in new study

According to a study, drinking less or giving it up altogether can benefit your brain. Reduced drinking to a low-risk level resulted in decreased shrinking of the brain. The authors contend that for those having AUD, reducing spending might be a more realistic objective. Some people may be able to reduce their drinking by using techniques like mindfulness. Others, however, might profit from expert assistance.

According to a recent study that was published in the journal Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, even limiting alcohol use can benefit the brain health of those who suffer from alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholisme, is a brain illness marked by an inability to stop or regulate alcohol consumption despite how damaging it is to your relationships, health, or career. According to the study, those with alcohol use disorders had larger volume in specific brain regions than those who drank more heavily when they either cut back on their alcohol consumption or stopped drinking altogether.

The volume of these brain regions also more closely resembled that of non-drinkers when they reduced their drinking to a low-risk level, which was no more than three drinks per day for males and 1.5 drinks for women. Given the difficulty of stopping completely, the authors propose that reducing alcohol intake might be a more realistic objective for some people than complete abstinence. 68 individuals with alcohol use disorders, ranging in age from 28 to 70, provided data for the study’s data collection. The participants were paired with a control group of 34 individuals, who were either non-drinkers or light drinkers, and were of a comparable age.

The team compared the cortex volume in different parts of their brains using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the health of their brains. They studied patients who started treatment and either quit drinking, started drinking again but at a lower risk, or started drinking again at a higher risk. The higher-risk drinkers had considerably decreased volume in 12 out of 13 locations compared to the controls eight months after starting treatment. In nine of the 13 regions, the volume of low-risk drinkers was lower. In six of the 13 locations, there was less volume among nondrinkers.

Further analysis revealed lower volume in four distinct frontal regions, as well as the fusiform and precentral cortical regions, in higher-risk drinkers compared to non-drinkers. On the other hand, the precentral and rostral middle frontal cortex of low risk drinkers were significantly different from those of non-drinkers. The authors point out that the frontal lobes of the brain are crucial for making decisions, regulating emotions, and maintaining working memory. People may be less able to carry out these tasks if there is less volume in these areas.

Although studies have not shown that drinking can kill brain cells, they have shown that it can cause shrinkage, according to Dr. Daniel Atkinson, GP Clinical Lead at Treated. According to this study, he said, even moderate alcohol consumption can lead to a long-term shrinkage of the hippocampus, which is connected to learning and memory. The hippocampus is a portion of the brain with a special and delicate structure, where new neurons are constantly being formed through neurogenesis, he suggested.

Atkinson claims that earlier research has demonstrated that heavy alcohol use can obstruct this process. Atkinson went on to say that because alcohol is a diuretic and causes your body to lose water, it is possible that long-term alcohol consumption will also induce shrinkage. He warned that dehydration could result if this water wasn’t sufficiently supplied. “This effect would be mostly seen across the whole brain though,” he continued, “whereas the recent study shows hippocampus shrinkage most predominantly, suggesting that neurogenesis inhibition plays a bigger role in the reduction of brain size.”


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Stress and constipation may make menopause worse.

Stress and constipation may make menopause worse.

Constipation is often characterized as having less than three full bowel motions in a given week. If it persists for three months or more, it is regarded as chronic. It can be challenging to completely empty your bowels when you are constipated. To eliminate the stool, you could feel like you need more assistance. Struggling to urinate and having firm, lumpy stools are further signs of constipation. It’s possible that you feel uneasy or sluggish in general.

In addition to menopause, there are many more common causes of occasional constipation. Even more than one cause may exist at once. Your menstrual cycles must have stopped for at least a year before you enter menopause. A decline in female hormones including estrogen and progesterone serves as a warning sign. Numerous parts of the body, particularly the digestive system, are impacted by these hormones. Some postmenopausal women have constipation as a result of this hormone reduction. However, during perimenopause, which occurs before menopause, changes in bowel habits can start.

Low levels of cortisol are one of the numerous things that estrogen is responsible for. The hormone cortisol is linked to stress. Cortisol levels increase as estrogen levels decrease. This may prolong the time it takes for food to break down by slowing down the digestive process. This might make passing stool more challenging. Your colon may become slower if you have insufficient progesterone. Your colon becomes dryer as food waste sits there for a longer period of time. Low levels of estrogen and progesterone are also associated with dryer stools.

The muscles in the pelvic floor are also weaker in some postmenopausal women. Stool elimination may be challenging as a result, especially if it is dry and firm.

Women who are older may also require drugs that indicate constipation as a potential side effect. Some blood pressure medications, iron supplements, thyroid meds, antidepressants, and calcium channel blockers are among these drugs.

Treatment options for constipation are numerous. Among them are dietary adjustments, digestion is typically sped up by consuming foods high in fiber and drinking enough of water. Constipation may be lessened or eliminated thanks to this. Try replacing some of your regular meals with high-fiber alternatives to see if anything changes.

Numerous over-the-counter and prescription drugs are available that could aid with constipation. Find out which of these might be appropriate for you by first speaking with your doctor. Your doctor can advise you on the best times of day to take them and how long you should take them for.

Constipation can be eased and bowel motions can be regulated with regular exercise. Aim for at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity each day. Exercises for your pelvic floor may also be advantageous. Many of them are intended to enhance bowel and bladder function especially. Your pelvic floor muscles can be strengthened by performing certain Pilates exercises and yoga poses like Malasana.


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According to a study, running has similar mental health benefits to antidepressants.

According to a study, running has similar mental health benefits to antidepressants.

Running therapy and antidepressant medication are both successful treatments for patients with depression and anxiety disorders. They could have diverse effects on physical health, though, and they might operate through various pathophysiological processes. This study compared the effects of running therapy to antidepressants on both physical and mental health.

141 individuals with depression and/or anxiety disorders were randomly assigned to receive their preferred 16-week treatment, which was either antidepressant medication (escitalopram or sertraline) or group-based running therapy twice per week, according to a partially randomised patient preference design. Mental (diagnosis status and symptom severity) and physical (metabolic and immunological indicators, weight, lung function, hand grip strength, fitness) health indicators were assessed at baseline (T0) and post-treatment at week 16 (T16). Of the 141 individuals, 45 were given antidepressants, while 96 had running treatment (mean age 38.2 years; 58.2% female). Remission rates at T16 were comparable according to intention-to-treat analyses (antidepressants: 44.8%; running: 43.3%; p =.881). However, there were significant differences between the groups for a number of physical health measures, including weight (d = 0.57; p =.001), waist circumference (d = 0.44; p =.011), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (d = 0.53; p =.002), heart rate (d = 0.36; p =.033), and heart rate variability (d = 0.48; p =.006).

Only a small portion of the individuals agreed to be randomized; as a result, running therapy was more popular and had a bigger sample size. While the therapies had similar impacts on mental health, running therapy beat antidepressants in terms of physical health because both the running therapy group experienced greater improvements and the antidepressant group experienced greater declines.


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Walking Difficulties May Be an Early Sign of Alzheimer’s

Walking Difficulties May Be an Early Sign of Alzheimer’s

The study, which was written up in the journal Current Biology, employed a computational model to delve deeper into the complexities of navigational errors that have already been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were divided into three groups by researchers, under the direction of Professor Neil Burgess and colleagues in the Space and Memory group* at the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience: healthy younger participants (a total of 31), healthy elderly participants (a total of 36), and patients with mild cognitive impairment (a total of 43). They then gave them a task to accomplish while using virtual reality goggles that enabled genuine motions. Participants in the trial followed a route that included two straight legs connected by a turn and was marked out by numbered cones. They then had to go alone back to where they had started.

The task was carried out under three different environmental conditions designed to test the participant’s navigational abilities: a virtual setting that remained intact, one in which all ground details were temporarily replaced with a plain texture, and one in which all landmarks were temporarily removed. The study’s findings revealed that patients with early Alzheimer’s regularly underestimated the number of turns along the route and shown greater directional unpredictability. The older participants who were in good health or those who had modest cognitive impairment, however, and who did not exhibit early indicators of Alzheimer’s disease, did not exhibit these particular abnormalities.

This may aid with diagnosis since it suggests that these navigational errors are unique to Alzheimer’s disease rather than an effect of normal aging or general cognitive loss. Dr. Andrea Castegnaro, co-first author and from the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, stated that by focusing on particular navigational errors, their findings “offer a new avenue for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.” We are aware that additional research is necessary to support these preliminary findings.

We work to create practical tests that are simple to incorporate into clinical settings while taking into account standard limitations like time and space. It can be difficult to achieve the standards of traditional navigation exams in a therapeutic setting. Our research focuses on particular navigational features that are better suited to these limitations.We are hoping to collect enough information for a trustworthy diagnosis in a time-effective manner by developing these tests to be both quick and comprehensive, boosting the chance of their general acceptance.

In the UK, there are reportedly 944,000 dementia sufferers, and Alzheimer’s disease is assumed to be the cause of more than 60% of cases. Similar predictions suggest that, barring medical advances, the number of Americans 65 and older who have Alzheimer’s disease could double, reaching 13.8 million by 2060. These patterns show the growing toll Alzheimer’s disease is taking on healthcare systems and society at large.

For improved disease management and therapy, early diagnosis is essential. Recent developments in blood testing can now identify amounts of tau and amyloid proteins that may indicate a possible Alzheimer’s disease, however these tests might not be enough on their own. According to Dr. Castegnaro, “Cognitive exams are still required to determine when the first cognitive impairments manifest, and existing spatial memory tests used in clinics frequently depend on verbal proficiency. Our tests are designed to provide a more useful tool that is independent of language or cultural context.


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Getting rid of belly fat could aid in reversing prediabetes.

Getting rid of belly fat could aid in reversing prediabetes.

Prior to developing into type 2 diabetes, prediabetes raises the risk of heart attack, kidney, eye, and other cancers. There isn’t a recognized pharmacological therapy for prediabetes at the moment. Researchers at the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) have now demonstrated the mechanisms by which prediabetes can be put into remission, or a condition in which blood glucose levels return to normal. The DZD multicenter trial further demonstrates that long-term improvement in renal and vascular function is linked to long-term protection against type 2 diabetes and prediabetes remission. The researchers write in The Lancet diabetic & Endocrinology that it’s interesting because the underlying mechanisms are distinct from those in type 2 diabetic remission.

People with type 2 diabetes are more likely to experience heart attacks, renal problems, strokes, and death. Up until a few years ago, type 2 diabetes was believed to be untreatable. We now understand that significant weight loss can significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in a large number of people. The majority of people often develop type 2 diabetes once more within a few years, therefore this remission rarely lasts. Due to their higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes as well as issues with the heart, kidneys, and eyes, among other things, people with prediabetes may need to know this.

But what triggers the remission of prediabetes? In order to answer this query, researchers from the Department of Diabetology, Endocrinology, and Nephrology at the University Hospital of Tübingen and the Institute of Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases (IDM) at Helmholtz Munich performed a post-hoc analysis on participants with prediabetes from the Prediabetes Lifestyle Intervention Study (PLIS).

In a one-year lifestyle intervention involving a balanced diet and more exercise, 1,105 people with prediabetes participated in this randomized-controlled multicenter trial run by the DZD. The 298 participants who had lost at least 5% of their body weight as a result of the intervention were next evaluated by the researchers. Participants who had responded were those whose fasting, 2-hour, and HbA1c levels had returned to normal after a year, indicating that they had entered remission. Non-responders were people who lost weight but still had prediabetes and did not go into remission.

Contrary to what the researchers had hypothesized, there was no difference in relative weight loss between responders and non-responders, indicating that it was not weight loss that separated those who entered remission from those who did not. Individuals who were able to attain remission, as opposed to non-responders, showed a noticeable improvement in insulin sensitivity. In essence, they were better able to increase their sensitivity to the hormone insulin, which decreases blood glucose levels, than those who did not respond. The amount of insulin secreted did not change in either group, though. This distinction is important since type 2 diabetes remission mostly rely on increased insulin secretion.

The researchers compared the two groups in order to pinpoint the reason behind responders’ elevated insulin sensitivity. Despite reducing the same amount of body weight, the responders had reduced their abdomen fat more than the non-responders. The intestines are encircled by visceral abdominal fat, which is situated inside the abdominal cavity. An inflammatory response in adipose tissue is partly responsible for its effect on insulin sensitivity.

In fact, those subjects who achieved remission also had lower blood levels of inflammatory proteins. “Since the responders showed a reduction in abdominal fat in particular, it will be important in the future to identify the factors that promote the loss of this fat depot,” says Arvid Sandforth, one of the two primary authors. Surprisingly, the reduction of liver fat, which is a significant risk factor for the onset of diabetes, did not differ between the two groups. Even two years after the conclusion of the lifestyle intervention, the chance of acquiring type 2 diabetes was reduced by 73% in those who achieved remission. Additionally, they displayed fewer indicators of renal injury and improved blood vessel health.

To delay the emergence of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes is currently treated with weight loss and lifestyle changes, but without glucose-based objectives to direct the treatment process. The new analysis from the DZD closes this gap: Remission should be the new therapeutic goal for persons with prediabetes, according to the newly available evidence. According to co-first author Prof. Dr. Reiner Jumpertz-von Schwartzenberg, this could alter treatment strategies and reduce the risk of complications for our patients.The study found that remission in prediabetes is defined as a fasting blood glucose level of less than 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l), a 2-hour glucose level of less than 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), and a HbA1c level of less than 5.7 percent. When body weight is decreased and waist circumference shrinks by at least 4 cm in women and 7 cm in men, the likelihood of remission rises. According to researchers, these characteristics can now be applied as biomarkers.


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Could a Mediterranean diet and regular exercise promote brain health?

Could a Mediterranean diet and regular exercise promote brain health?

The combined impact of a Mediterranean diet and walking on dementia and cognitive decline is now being researched. The Mediterranean diet and regular walking have each been linked to brain health, but this study aims to evaluate the combined impact of both. By the end of 2023, the study will be finished. The “MedWalk intervention” is being studied to see if it can lower the risk of dementias like Alzheimer’s dementia and cognitive decline in people. The abbreviation “MedWalk” stands both “Mediterranean diet” plus “walking.”

The benefits of a combined MedWalk intervention have been previously related to both a Mediterranean diet and walking, and this current study seeks to validate those associations. The COVID-19 epidemic caused an interruption to the research being done by scientists from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, but it is still underway. But the information regarding their procedures and current analysis has been made public by the authors in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

The Mediterranean diet and cognition

According to Medical News Today, research from 2014 and 2023 revealed that adhering to a Mediterranean diet was connected with reduced instances of dementia. Conner Middelmann, a licensed nutritionist with a focus on the Mediterranean diet who was not part in the present study, made this observation. Numerous studies, including ones conducted in 2015 and 2023, have linked a Mediterranean diet to a decreased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, the most prevalent type of dementia. Middelmann issued a warning, noting that “[w]hile these studies suggest a link between the Mediterranean diet and a reduced risk of dementia, it’s important to bear in mind that many factors can influence dementia risk, including genetics, lifestyle, and overall health.”

“Therefore, maintaining a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean diet, is just one aspect of a comprehensive approach to brain health and dementia prevention,” she continued.
According to Middelmann, a Mediterranean diet may benefit brain health in a variety of ways because it is high in antioxidants that fight inflammation and oxidative stress, “which are thought to be significant contributors to cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.” It includes omega-3 fatty acids, in particular the essential docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which has been associated to better cognitive function and a reduced risk of cognitive decline. The high fiber content of the Mediterranean diet may contribute to the balance of the gut microbiota. The diet discourages the intake of ultra-processed foods, which have been related to dementia, and is low in processed grains and sugars, which lowers the risk of insulin resistance and inflammation.

Finally, Middelmann said that other components of the Mediterranean diet that have been linked to brain health include eating meals with loved ones and friends and engaging in regular exercise.

How exercise can preserve mental health

In a similar vein, regular walking is linked to a slower rate of cognitive decline. A study conducted in 2022 discovered a dose-dependent connection between the quantity of steps walked and lowering the chance of dementia. According to that study, walking 10,000 steps each day cut the risk of dementia by 50%. An Australian and American study conducted in 2023 discovered a connection between walking pace and dementia, and a British Journal of Sports Medicine study from 2017 indicated that cardiovascular exercise, such as walking, can exacerbate cognitive decline.

“Walking may benefit the brain in a number of different ways. Depending on the amount, length, and frequency of walking, Ryan Glatt, a brain health coach at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute who was not involved in this study, stated that walking may enhance brain blood flow. Additionally, according to Glatt, it “benefits levels of brain activity, and may reduce feelings of overall stress while improving feelings of well-being.” According to Glatt, walking may also include social interaction and exposure to nature, both of which may be good for the brain. By the end of 2023, all data will have been collected for the current project.

Many diets have been suggested throughout the years as ways to stay healthy or lower the risk of particular diseases, but few of them have withstood serious scientific examination. The Mediterranean diet appears to be an exception, though. Studies are increasingly demonstrating that adopting this eating strategy has major advantages for one’s health. In addition to lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, research has indicated that it may also improve cognition, lower the risk of diabetes, lower the risk of some malignancies, and lessen the symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

What is the Mediterranean diet?

The term “Mediterranean diet” refers to a broad range of diets that are inspired by the traditional eating patterns of those who reside near the Mediterranean Sea. High intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, and legumes; low-fat or fat-free dairy products; fish, poultry, non-tropical vegetable oils; and nuts; and limited consumption of sodium, highly processed foods, refined carbohydrates, saturated fats, and fatty or processed meats, according to the American Heart Association, which advises this type of diet for cardiovascular health. In addition to these suggestions, the Harvard School of Public Health emphasizes the value of healthy fats such olive oil, avocados, almonds, and oily fish.

It suggests limiting people’s consumption of red meat to just a few times a week while encouraging them to consume small amounts of chicken, eggs, and dairy products on a daily basis. Although people should mostly drink water, the typical Mediterranean diet allows for one or two small glasses of red wine each day. Researchers do note, however, that daily enjoyment-based physical activity should be combined with a nutritious diet.


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Globally, non-melanoma skin cancer now has a higher mortality rate than melanoma.

Globally, non-melanoma skin cancer now has a higher mortality rate than melanoma.

Worldwide, non-melanoma skin malignancies caused more fatalities than melanoma because they are far more prevalent. Skin cancer rates may be rising in part due to the aging population. Skin cancer that is non-melanoma is curable and, in most circumstances, preventative.

According to a study being presented at the European Academy of Dermatology and Neurology Congress 2023, non-melanoma skin malignancies now account for more deaths globally than melanoma alone. The prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancers is so great that even though they are less lethal than melanomas, the number of fatalities from them is larger, according to the study’s authors. In contrast to the 324,635 occurrences of melanoma, there were approximately 1.2 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer in 2020. According to the study, non-melanoma skin cancers caused 63,700 deaths globally and 78% of all skin cancer cases in 2020. At the same time, 57,000 people died from melanoma.

What to know about skin cancers other than melanoma

Skin cancers other than melanoma grow slowly in the top layers of the skin. Squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are common varieties. These malignancies are easier to cure and have a lower propensity to spread to other parts of the body. In spite of relatively low death rates, the study’s authors noted that fair-skinned and older people in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, and Italy experience a high incidence rate of skin cancer. The researchers point out that skin cancer risk exists even in nations with a significant population of people with dark complexion.

“This study offers a fascinating look into the incidence and fatality rates of skin cancer around the world. According to Dr. Michele Green, a cosmetic dermatologist at Northwell Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City who was not involved in the study, “It is interesting that the availability of dermatologists in a given area did not correlate with melanoma incidence or mortality rates, suggesting that other factors besides dermatologist density successfully decrease mortality-to-incidence ratios. “It is also surprising to see how high the mortality rate for non-melanoma skin cancers is, as most would assume melanoma to be the most lethal skin cancer type,” she said in an interview with Medical News Today.

The increase in cases of non-melanoma skin cancer

Dr. Brian Toy, a dermatologist and clinical professor in the School of Medicine at the University of Southern California who was not involved in the study, said that historically, melanoma has a much higher risk of death than non-melanoma skin cancers like basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, which are typically not life-threatening. Despite important developments in treating metastatic melanoma with immunotherapy, which has essentially supplanted conventional chemotherapy, Toy stated to Medical News Today that this is still the case. Immunotherapy has significantly improved patients’ chances of surviving, especially those with metastatic melanoma.

“In this study, the absolute number of patient deaths attributed to non-melanoma skin cancer did exceed those with melanoma, but that is only because the sheer number of non-melanoma skin cancers (1,198,073) far exceeded the number of melanomas (324,635),” he continued. “An analogy would be to compare the number of fatalities from motor vehicles to those from motorcycles. Despite the fact that driving a car is statistically safer than riding a motorbike, there are more car accidents every year because so many more people drive than ride bikes. People ought to visit a dermatologist frequently. The doctor checks for non-melanoma skin cancers during routine checkups and advises early treatment to stop them from progressing to a life-threatening stage.

Non-melanoma skin cancer incidence and mortality rates are rising, according to Green, for a number of reasons. One of them is the aging of the world’s population. As we become older, our cumulative exposure to UV radiation raises our risk of getting skin cancer. Another reason is the thinning of our ozone layer. By absorbing UV rays, the ozone layer shields our atmosphere from harm.

Unless it has personally touched them, a friend, or a family member, “patients in the United States are generally unaware of the signs and symptoms of skin cancer,” Toy added. “Countries with a skin cancer epidemic, like Australia and New Zealand, where the incidence is extremely high due to the sheer number of fair-skinned people living in a sunny climate, have much more awareness.” The authors propose that stepping up public education campaigns about risk factors can be beneficial. In order to manage the condition, programs should include dermatologists, general practitioners, and other medical professionals.

The report offers incidence and death statistics for every country, including those where they are significantly higher than in the United States. Dr. Trevan Fischer, a surgical oncologist and assistant professor of surgical oncology for Saint’s John’s Cancer Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in California who was not involved in the study, notes that it also lumps several types of non-melanoma skin cancers together. “Kaposi sarcoma and Merkel cell carcinoma are two additional, extremely uncommon, but potentially aggressive forms of skin cancer. The death rates increased as a result of their being included with non-melanoma malignancies. According to Fischer, Medical News Today, basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas have substantially lower mortality rates.

He continued, “The other question regarding death rates is, did the patients die from the skin cancer or another health condition, but they had skin cancer?” For instance, if someone has a kidney transplant and later dies from a heart attack, did they pass away from kidney disease or did they pass away from a heart attack while they were suffering from kidney illness? These are two distinct objects.

Treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer

The kind, size, and location of skin cancer all affect how it is treated. Except in cases when the tumor is deep or has migrated to other parts of the body, dermatologists are able to treat the majority of cases of non-melanoma skin cancer. After that, an oncologist is frequently contacted. Excision and Mohs surgery are two surgical alternatives for treating the condition, according to Green. “A biopsy is taken during excision surgery and sent to a lab to make sure there is no trace of cancer still present. During Mohs surgery, the lesion is removed one layer at a time. A pathologist examines each layer as it is removed to check for abnormal cells, and the process is continued until there are no aberrant cells left in the tissue.

Cryosurgery or curettage and electrodesiccation may be suggested by your doctor if surgery is not an option, she continued. “Curettage and electrodesiccation involves scraping the lesion’s surface with a curette before burning the residual lesion with a hyfrecator. In order to treat superficial lesions, cryosurgery uses liquid nitrogen; it can be used alone or after curettage and electrodesiccation. A topical treatment called fluorouracil, which prevents the abnormal cells from dividing, can also be used to treat some basal cell carcinomas, according to Green.


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Climbing over 50 steps of stairs a day may help reduce heart disease risk

Climbing over 50 steps of stairs a day may help reduce heart disease risk

A recent study suggests that climbing 50 stairs each day can cut the risk of cardiovascular conditions like stroke, blood clots, and heart attacks by as much as 20%.The study compared participants who climbed five flights of stairs each day to those who did not to see these advantages. Walking up steps can be a more challenging form of aerobic exercise since it requires more muscular use and energy expenditure as the body fights against gravity to move upward.

According to a recent study, routinely climbing stairs may dramatically lower your risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general. According to the study, persons who climbed 50 stairs during the day had a 20% lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those who did not climb any stairs at all. Although the study’s main focus was atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), which also encompasses stroke, heart attacks, and blood clots, its corresponding author claims that the study’s findings are applicable to CVD in general.

The results are presented in the publication Atherosclerosis.

Climbing stairs helps keep your heart healthy.

The authors of the study examined information from 458,860 adult UKBiobank members. They first gathered baseline data on the subjects’ stair climbing, lifestyle, and sociodemographic characteristics, and then they did it again five years later. They kept track of the subjects for 12.5 years. Then, using coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, or acute complications as markers of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for this study, they compared the participant’s stair climbing behaviors with these conditions. The researchers assumed that a typical staircase would have ten steps. The incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was monitored for those who climbed their stairs between one and five, six and ten, eleven and fifteen, sixteen and twenty, and at least 21 times per day.

Although the largest protective impact of stair climbing was related with individuals not thought to be at special CVD risk due to genetics, stair climbing also reduced the CVD risk of other participants.

How stair climbing is good for your heart

Dr. Cheng-Han Chen, the medical director of the Structural Heart Program at Saddleback Medical Center in Laguna Hills, California, who was not involved in the study, said: “It’s basically [a]n enhanced form of aerobic exercise because not only do you get the motion the movement that you get from the walk  you actually engage other muscle groups.” Walking up stairs is more difficult than walking on flat ground, as you might assume. That’s because you’re pushing yourself up and out, which is equivalent to pushing against gravity, in addition to moving your body. You are truly developing the muscles in your lower body, but you are also developing the muscles in your lower back and core, according to Dr. Chen.

Dr. Chen hypothesized that ascending the stairs quickly would be important because doing so results in a greater workout.

when climbing stairs is challenging

The only activity one can do to enhance and preserve their health is stair climbing, though. Dr. Chen expressed worry over not deterring people from making the best possible efforts. He emphasized that having joint issues can make it difficult to climb even a few stairs, let alone 50. “Even walking on flat ground is wonderful, so I don’t want to discourage people from doing it. Any exercise is preferable to none, he told MNT.

‘Oh, boy, you know, they want us to run up the stairs, and I’m 75 years old, and my joints hurt,’ a reader could think when they read an article. Simply said, I won’t do it. No exercise is possible for me. Walking is undoubtedly preferable to sitting on the couch, but going upstairs is certainly preferable to doing so, said Dr. Chen.

The dangers of cardiovascular illness

According to a 2022 study, 24.0 million Americans, or around 10% of the population over the age of 21, had ASCVD overall in 2019. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 695,000 of the 1.4 million deaths that occurred in the United States in 2021 were attributable to CVD. Annually, 605,000 Americans have their first heart attack; the remaining 805,000 Americans experience repeat attacks. In the West, coronary heart disease which encompasses angina, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery stenosis is the primary factor in 370,000 fatalities each year.

In the United States, approximately 795,000 people have a stroke annually, which results in 137,000 fatalities. Strokes are the top cause of major long-term disability in America and the sixth largest cause of death. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the cause of ischemic strokes, the most prevalent type of stroke. Men experience atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease more frequently than women do in their youth, but this disparity disappears after menopause, possibly as a result of the aging-related loss of women’s protective sex hormones.


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Insomnia and other sleep issues may be caused by high blood pressure.

Insomnia and other sleep issues may be caused by high blood pressure.

According to a recent study, women who have difficulties sleeping or get insufficient sleep have a higher chance of developing hypertension. Although the reason of either high blood pressure or poor sleep is unknown, there is a strong correlation between the two. The authors of the study advise paying great attention to one’s blood pressure and treating insomnia and sleeping issues properly.

The study’s authors advise women who don’t get enough sleep to get their blood pressure checked and, if they have difficulties falling asleep, to look into solutions.

Hypertension risk is increased by sleeping troubles.

The Nurses’ Health Study 2 (NHS2) included 66,122 women, and its researchers monitored their health. The participants were between the ages of 25 and 42. All had normal blood pressure at the time of enrolment in 2001. For 16 years, the researchers monitored the individuals’ health and measured their blood pressure every two years. They noticed 25,987 additional instances of hypertension during the follow-up period. The risk of hypertension in women was found to be influenced by both insufficient sleep and difficulty falling asleep after the researchers took into account lifestyle and demographic risk variables. Women who slept for five hours or less each day had a 10% increased risk of hypertension, whereas those who slept for six hours had a 7% increased risk.

Women who slept longer than eight hours, worked night shifts, or had an evening chronotype did not have a higher risk of developing hypertension. Compared to women who rarely had difficulty sleeping, those who said they occasionally or frequently had trouble sleeping were 14% and 28% more likely to develop hypertension, respectively.

What sleep has to do with hypertension

The study did not include Dr. Nicole Weinberg, a cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California. She observed that it is challenging to determine whether sleep causes hypertension, whether it is the other way around, or even if they are connected at all. Which is it: the egg or the chicken? Dr. Weinberg enquired, “Like, what is the driving force here. The study’s principal investigator, Dr. Shahab Haghayegh, a Harvard research fellow and biomedical engineer, proposed a potential mechanism through which sleep can encourage hypertension.

“Sleep problems may trigger a series of actions that may raise cardiac output, arterial stiffness, and salt retention, potentially resulting in hypertension. The activity of blood vessels that control vascular tone and the function of the cells can both be affected by disruptions to the sleep/wake cycle. On the other hand, a hypothesis cited in the article proposes a counterfactual situation in which hypertension causes poor sleep. Perhaps it disrupts the 24-hour blood pressure cycle, which typically sees a reduction in blood pressure during sleep and a rise in blood pressure upon waking.

Dr. Haghayegh stressed that this is only an assumption and said, “So the difficulty in falling asleep and maintaining sleep usually occurs during the period at night when a drop in blood pressure would be expected, preventing the sleep-time dipping in blood pressure pattern.” This would result in a rise in blood pressure when you wake up at the other end of sleep. The researchers could not discover any connection between early rising and hypertension, though. Dr. Haghayegh stressed that this was just a theory and called for more research in subsequent studies.

High BMI and nutrition linked to sleep issues

The study also discovered that women who struggled to get a decent night’s sleep had higher body mass indices (BMI), took part in less physical activity, did not consume a diet rich in nutrients, and were more likely to smoke, consume alcohol, and be postmenopausal. The mystery becomes much more complicated because several of these issues include high blood pressure as a contributing factor. Dr. Haghayegh stated, “High blood pressure may be a result of poor sleep quality or duration, or both hypertension and poor sleep may be results of other underlying illnesses.

What happens when we sleep?

What happens while we sleep has long been a mystery, which is what Dr. Weinberg found to be most intriguing about the sleep problem. Dr. Weinberg gave the example of having to urinate during the middle of the night. They say, “Oddly, I didn’t have to go to the bathroom in the middle of the night,” after you put a CPAP on them. She said, “It’s not like the sensation went away. Is the sensation caused by a blood pressure problem, or are there renal flow alterations that are activating these people in a way that we simply wouldn’t have recognized in the past because we simply lacked the means to obtain that information?

As a result, Dr. Weinberg is excited about the growing amount of sleep-related data that is being made available to professionals, praising the success of the Apple Watch’s sleep tracking feature in particular. They are able to understand what is happening when we are sleeping in a way that we have never, ever, ever been able to. And as a result, it’s assisting us in understanding the progression of disease. I find it incredibly fascinating,” she declared.

Identifying the root reasons of poor sleep

What he believed people should take away from the study was described by Dr. Haghayegh. “Maintain vigilance in monitoring blood pressure,” he said, “as our findings clearly demonstrate a substantial association between poor sleep and hypertension.” “Everyone is being encouraged to sort of speak up for themselves. You may genuinely think to yourself, “Maybe I have a sleep disorder,” if your sleep is not as restorative as you had hoped or is restless. Dr. Weinberg continued, “Your practitioner can then take it from there. Maybe I should be looking into that further.


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