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Stress and constipation may make menopause worse.

Stress and constipation may make menopause worse.

Constipation is often characterized as having less than three full bowel motions in a given week. If it persists for three months or more, it is regarded as chronic. It can be challenging to completely empty your bowels when you are constipated. To eliminate the stool, you could feel like you need more assistance. Struggling to urinate and having firm, lumpy stools are further signs of constipation. It’s possible that you feel uneasy or sluggish in general.

In addition to menopause, there are many more common causes of occasional constipation. Even more than one cause may exist at once. Your menstrual cycles must have stopped for at least a year before you enter menopause. A decline in female hormones including estrogen and progesterone serves as a warning sign. Numerous parts of the body, particularly the digestive system, are impacted by these hormones. Some postmenopausal women have constipation as a result of this hormone reduction. However, during perimenopause, which occurs before menopause, changes in bowel habits can start.

Low levels of cortisol are one of the numerous things that estrogen is responsible for. The hormone cortisol is linked to stress. Cortisol levels increase as estrogen levels decrease. This may prolong the time it takes for food to break down by slowing down the digestive process. This might make passing stool more challenging. Your colon may become slower if you have insufficient progesterone. Your colon becomes dryer as food waste sits there for a longer period of time. Low levels of estrogen and progesterone are also associated with dryer stools.

The muscles in the pelvic floor are also weaker in some postmenopausal women. Stool elimination may be challenging as a result, especially if it is dry and firm.

Women who are older may also require drugs that indicate constipation as a potential side effect. Some blood pressure medications, iron supplements, thyroid meds, antidepressants, and calcium channel blockers are among these drugs.

Treatment options for constipation are numerous. Among them are dietary adjustments, digestion is typically sped up by consuming foods high in fiber and drinking enough of water. Constipation may be lessened or eliminated thanks to this. Try replacing some of your regular meals with high-fiber alternatives to see if anything changes.

Numerous over-the-counter and prescription drugs are available that could aid with constipation. Find out which of these might be appropriate for you by first speaking with your doctor. Your doctor can advise you on the best times of day to take them and how long you should take them for.

Constipation can be eased and bowel motions can be regulated with regular exercise. Aim for at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity each day. Exercises for your pelvic floor may also be advantageous. Many of them are intended to enhance bowel and bladder function especially. Your pelvic floor muscles can be strengthened by performing certain Pilates exercises and yoga poses like Malasana.


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Constipation increases the chance of cognitive downfall.

Constipation increases the chance of cognitive downfall.

Researchers looked into the relationship between constipation and deteriorating cognitive function in several recent studies.

In addition to various alterations in the gut flora, they discovered that having one bowel movement every three days or less frequently is associated with increased rates of cognitive deterioration.

More research is required to determine how these results might influence cognitive decline prevention and treatment approaches.

Constipation affects approximately 16% of the world’s population. Low levels of physical activity, being a woman, living in an area with high rates of constipation, and certain medical diseases, such as depression, hemorrhoids, and several cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal problems are all risk factors for constipation.

When a person has fewer than one bowel movement every three days or more, they are said to be chronically constipated. It has been connected to several illnesses, including sadness and anxiety.

According to studies, constipation is a frequent consequence of neurological diseases like Parkinson’s disease and is associated with a faster course of Alzheimer’s disease.

The development of treatments and preventative measures for cognitive decline and related disorders may be aided by knowing more about how constipation impacts the neurological system, and consequently, the brain and cognition.

The relationship between constipation and cognitive deterioration has recently been studied by experts. They discovered that a 73% higher likelihood of subjective cognitive deterioration was associated with having bowel movements every three days or less frequently.

Cognition and gut bacteria

Increases and decreases in specific gut flora have been associated with dementia and cognitive decline, according to several studies in this area.

According to Dr. Thomas Gut, an assistant professor at the Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell who was not involved in this study, “This research is a first step to investigating whether certain types of bacterial presence within our intestines protects our brains from certain types of cognitive diseases.”

Dr. Thomas Gut stated that although “this research does not even begin to address the question of whether promoting certain types of bacterial colonization could be protective of memory and brain function,” it does raise the issue and open up a new line of inquiry.”

Constipation linked to three additional years of age

The researchers analyzed information from 112,753 men and women for the study. the frequency of their bowel movements between 2012 and 2013, as well as self-reports of their cognitive function between 2014 and 2017.

Under the watchful eye of experts, a portion of 12,696 subjects also undertook neuropsychological testing. The participants also gave stool samples so that the amounts of various germs could be determined.

In the end, the researchers discovered that persons who had a bowel movement every three or more days had much lower cognition than those who had one each day, which is comparable to an additional three years of aging.

Additionally, they produced 73% less butyrate, a sign of good bacteria that aid in the digestion of dietary fibers, and had a lower overall risk of subjective cognitive decline.

The study’s findings also revealed that those who had more than two bowel movements each day had a somewhat higher risk of cognitive decline and tended to have more pro-inflammatory species in their microbiomes.

The study’s findings suggest that having fewer bowel movements is associated with poorer cognitive function and that this association may be explained by changes in the gut flora.

Certain gut bacteria linked to cognitive decline

Two more recent studies looked more closely at particular gut bacteria associated with an increased risk of dementia as well as those that may be neuroprotective.

In the initial investigation, data from 140 cognitively sound subjects with an average age of 56 years were analyzed. Data included measurements of the Alzheimer’s protein biomarkers amyloid and tau from PET brain scans as well as fecal samples.

They discovered that lower levels of the gut bacteria Butyricicoccus and Ruminococcus and higher levels of Cytophaga and Alistipes were associated with higher levels of amyloid and tau. They mentioned the possibility of neuroprotective benefits from Butyricicoccus and Ruminococcus.

According to a news statement from the researchers, the absence of some bacteria may increase gut permeability and the transport of some metabolites to the brain, which may in turn lead to an increase in amyloid-beta and tau protein formation.

They recommended testing if introducing, boosting, or decreasing particular gut microorganisms could advantageously alter levels of amyloid and tau. If so, this would be useful in locating potential novel Alzheimer’s treatment strategies.

In the second study, experts looked at fecal samples and the results of cognitive tests from 1,014 participants, with a mean age of 52. They divided the cohort into groups based on the results of their cognitive tests and contrasted those scoring in the bottom 20% with those scoring in the top 20%.

To learn more about the potential neuroprotective benefits of these bacteria, the researchers stressed that more study is required. They did, however, add that in the future, it might be able to control their abundance through food and prebiotics to maintain cognitive performance and brain health.

Uncertainty regarding causality

The National Institutes of Health’s Dr. J. Wes Ulm, a bioinformatic scientific resource analyzer and biological data specialist who was not involved in the study, was consulted by experts regarding its drawbacks.

The studies, he claimed, do not prove causation because of their early nature even though they reveal a link between constipation and cognitive deterioration.

It’s also unclear whether certain dietary habits, such consuming fibre or using probiotics or prebiotics, are related to the reported results, the author said.

Additionally, only a relatively small sample of the related patient population underwent objective testing using several methods to more reliably corroborate such a finding, making the majority of the findings of cognitive impairment in the patient group subjective.

Can overcoming constipation promote mental health?

Dr. Ulm highlighted that although the exact causes and processes of chronic constipation are still unknown, other research have demonstrated a connection between inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders and factors that contribute to chronic constipation, such as inadequate fibre consumption, inadequate hydration intake, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Despite the fact that dietary guidelines regularly change in response to new scientific findings, he continued, strengthening general health practises may lower the risk of cognitive decline in the long run. Increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, fibre, and water, as well as more frequent exercise, are examples of such practises.

Dr. Ulm came to the conclusion that it would be interesting to observe the results of this research, from straightforward methods to ease constipation to focused adjustments to the gut microbiota, and how they can aid in preventing dementia and other forms of cognitive decline.


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Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by some gut bacteria, particularly certain strep species that are typically found in the mouth and digestive tract.

Gut bacteria in particular, according to researchers, may be connected to the development of plaque, which can result in clogged arteries.

According to experts, the new research expands on other studies that suggest a connection between gut flora and cardiovascular health. A new study reveals that the mouth and gut may be the origin of several cardiac issues.

A key contributor to heart attacks are deposits of fat, cholesterol, and other chemicals called atherosclerotic plaques, also referred to as clogged arteries.

According to Swedish researchers, a higher prevalence of these plaques is linked to the presence of specific oral bacteria, mainly Streptococcus, in the gut.

The research, conducted by scientists at Uppsala and Lund University and reported in the journal Circulation, was based on an examination of the gut flora and cardiac imaging of 8,973 persons between the ages of 50 and 65 who had no history of heart disease.

We found that oral bacteria, especially species from the Streptococcus genus, are associated with increased occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques in the small arteries of the heart when present in the gut flora,” said Dr Tove Fall, a study author and professor of molecular epidemiology at the department of medical sciences and the SciLifeLab at Uppsala University.

Information from the gut bacteria and heart health study

The development of plaque in the blood arteries of the heart was detected early by researchers using cutting-edge imaging technologies.

They coupled the details with genetic sequencing information on a variety of bacteria that live in the stomach (as well as the mouth and throat).

In addition to the link between Streptococcus anginosus and atherosclerotic plaque, researchers also noted that Streptococcus oralis appeared to be connected to plaque accumulation.

According to the study’s findings, levels of some Streptococcus species in the mouth and the gut were associated with fatty deposits in the arteries.

Dr. Marju Orho-Melander, a senior author of the study and a professor of genetic epidemiology at Lund University, said, “We have just begun to grasp how the human host and the bacterial community in the various compartments of the body affect one other.”

According to our study, people who carry streptococci in their stomach have changed cardiovascular health. We must now look into whether these bacteria have a significant role in the emergence of atherosclerosis, she added in a press release.

Plaque buildup is facilitated by two different bacteria species.

One of the most important links the researchers discovered after looking at cardiac imaging and gut flora was with two particular bacteria.

Streptococcus species and indicators of systemic inflammation in the blood have a close relationship. Researchers connected the bacteria with diseases of the oral cavity because they were the same species that were discovered in the mouth.

According to Mesilhy, “Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus oralis subsp. Oralis were the most prevalent in [this study group] patients with coronary atherosclerosis.”

Mesilhy continued, “Previous research in mice suggest that oral exposure to Streptococcus species induces plaque formation.

How do gut microbes affect heart health?

Dr. Kezia Joy, an advisor for the UK-based online healthcare company Welzo who was not involved in the study, said that “emerging evidence suggests that alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota, commonly referred to as dysbiosis, may contribute to various health conditions, including cardiovascular diseases.”

According to studies, specific gut bacteria can create metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which has been linked to the onset and development of atherosclerosis. “TMAO has been linked to increased oxidative stress, atherosclerotic plaque development, and inflammation. Furthermore, the development of physiological systems including lipid metabolism, inflammation, and immunological responses all of which are important contributors to the development of cardiovascular diseases can be influenced by the gut microbiota.”

Dr. Bina Joe, chair of the physiology and pharmacology department at the University of Toledo in Ohio and founding director of the school’s Centre for Hypertension and Precision Medicine, stated that “the strength of this study is that it’s a large cohort [of participants], the researchers have done a very careful analysis of them at an early stage of cardiovascular disease, and the use of biomarkers” to identify particular gut bacteria that may contribute to plaque formation.

The significance of studying gut microbes

The Swedish study, according to Joe, who has previously led research into the connections between gut bacteria and high blood pressure, is a significant advancement in a field of study where the link between bacteria and cardiovascular illness is more hypothesized than established.

For instance, flossing is now recommended by dentists as a technique to reduce the buildup of mouth germs that may increase the risk of heart disease.

We don’t know why, but it works,” said Joe.

Further investigation into the exact bacteria that affect cardiovascular disease and the execution of longitudinal studies that could demonstrate a causation rather than an association between gut flora and heart health are questions for future study, according to Joe.

Streptococcus bacteria, for instance, present in both the mouth and the gut, but it’s doubtful that just one strain is to blame for plaque formation because bacteria cannot thrive in both an anaerobic environment like the gut and an oxygen-rich one like the mouth.

Joe remarked, “It’s unclear whatever species of Streptococcus [the researchers] are referring to. In the end, a large community of bacteria may be at play rather than a specific strain.


A link between gut flora and coronary atherosclerotic plaques has been demonstrated by a recent study.

Researchers studied gut flora and cardiac imaging, and the results showed a strong connection between two different kinds of bacteria.

The study also demonstrated a connection between certain of the species linked to levels of the same species in the mouth and the accumulation of fatty deposits in heart arteries. These findings imply that microorganisms affect several biological systems.


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The importance of the stomach in Parkinson’s research.

The importance of the stomach in Parkinson’s research.

There is presently no cure for Parkinson’s disease, which affects millions of people worldwide. The specific etiology of this disorder is still unknown. Some academics are now focusing on the gut to comprehend the underlying mechanics. Why, and what might this study show? In this episode of our podcast In Conversation, we talk about how Parkinson’s disease may be influenced by gut health.

Parkinson’s disease is a neurological condition that affects mobility, balance, and muscle control in millions of people worldwide. However, it can also cause mood changes, digestive problems, a decline in memory and other cognitive abilities, and other symptoms.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease has doubled globally over the past 25 years and that the condition has caused “5.8 million disability-adjusted life years” globally.

Some of the current treatments for Parkinson’s disease include dopaminergic medications, deep brain stimulation, speech, and occupational therapy, but researchers are always looking for new and improved therapies.

Researchers are working to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying Parkinson’s disease to pave the path for more effective treatments.

In the last 12 months, several research have concentrated on one specific element of Parkinson’s disease, particularly gut health. But why, and what insights may it provide into Parkinson’s, can gut health provide?

In the most recent episode of our In Conversation podcast, we welcomed two guests: Dr. Ayse Demirkan and Gary Shaughnessy, to learn more about the most recent research and how the disease can affect particular people.

Why trust your gut?

There has been a growing body of research over the past few years suggesting that the brain and the gut are capable of two-way communication. This is known as the gut-brain axis by researchers.

The gut-brain axis has been linked to a variety of brain-related illnesses, including depression and dementia. And while the relationship between the gut and the brain may be less obvious in other disorders, it is actually more evident in Parkinson’s disease, which is also sometimes accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms like constipation.

The Braak hypothesis is one view on Parkinson’s disease. According to a reliable source, there are typically two ways for an unknown infection to enter the brain, one of which involves the gut.

The vagus nerve, the longest cranial nerve that connects the brain to, among other organs, the intestines, may be one route by which pathogens enter the body, travel through the gut, and then advance to the brain. Parkinson’s disease may then start to manifest as a result of this.

In our podcast, Dr. Demirkan recognized that it may initially seem strange to think about using your gut to learn more about Parkinson’s disease, but that the Braak hypothesis offers an intriguing lens through which to examine potential underlying mechanisms.

“Through the Braak hypothesis, there comes the idea that the disease actually starts in the intestines, and then through the vagus nerve, it spreads to the other tissues, and towards the brain,” she said.

She claims that for one straightforward reason alone, Parkinson’s disease is the neurological disorder that is most intriguing to examine regarding gut health because its gut microbiome stands out the most.

Parkinson’s disease has a distinct gut microbiota.

Dr. Demirkan and her colleagues recently discovered that people with Parkinson’s disease have unique gut microbiomes that were characterised by dysbiosis, the phenomenon of imbalance between so-called good and bad bacteria.

According to their research, those with Parkinson’s disease have gut flora that is different from those who do not have it by about 30%.

Dr. Demirkan stated in the podcast that “we found one-third of these microbes in the gut of people with Parkinson’s disease to be different.”

As a result, this strongly suggests dysbiosis. Also different were the bacteria’s modes of operation and the types of genes they possessed. We observed a decrease in the number of short-chain fatty acid manufacturers, such as gut-friendly bacteria. Escherichia coli and other harmful bacteria were identified in greater numbers, and numerous bacterial pathways were disrupted, which may have an impact on the health of the neuronal tissues,” according to Dr. Ayse Demirkan.

In the guts of Parkinson’s disease patients, Dr. Demirkan and her colleagues discovered that levels of bacteria like Bifidobacterium dentium, which can result in infections like brain abscesses, were noticeably raised.

Desulfovibrio bacteria may be related to Parkinson’s disease, according to research from the University of Helsinki that was published in the May 2023 issue of Frontiers. These microorganisms release hydrogen sulfide, which can cause different types of inflammation.

Desulfovibrio was mentioned in another study from The Chinese University of Hong Kong that was published in Nature Communications in May 2023. This study found an “overabundance” of these bacteria in persons with REM sleep behavior disorder and early Parkinson’s disease indicators. The goal of the study was to find a way to diagnose Parkinson’s disease earlier.

What potential mechanisms exist?

The question that arises is: What mechanisms might mediate gut bacteria’s impact on neurological health, assuming that they do in fact contribute to Parkinson’s disease?

Given that some of the bacteria that are overabundant in this condition are pro-inflammatory, which means they can cause inflammation, one theory raised in the studies on the connection between the gut and the brain in Parkinson’s is that systemic inflammation may be one of the processes involved.

Research reveals that immunosuppressant medicine may reduce the chance of Parkinson’s disease, which raises the possibility that a medication of a similar kind may potentially assist manage the disease.

Parkinson’s disease is characterised by chronic brain inflammation, and some studies appear to suggest that systemic inflammation may exacerbate chronic brain inflammation and speed up the course of the disease.

In fact, some inflammatory disorders have been associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s. For instance, a 2018 Danish study found that those with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) had a 22% higher chance of developing Parkinson’s disease than their non-inflammatory counterparts.

In the podcast, Dr. Demirkan concurred that “bad” bacteria in the stomach may be the source of inflammation associated with Parkinson’s disease. She emphasised that more investigation is required before drawing clear conclusions because this proposed mechanism is not yet established.

Could nutrition help Parkinson’s patients with dysbiosis?

It could be logical to assume that nutrition could aid in the fight against gut dysbiosis and perhaps offer a simple option for symptom treatment if gut bacteria may play a role in Parkinson’s disease.

While there are certain dietary suggestions and nutritional supplements that may help some people with symptom alleviation, it’s still not clear how much food can actually do to change how this condition develops.

According to one study from 2022, diets rich in flavonoids, which are natural pigments present in many fruits, may be associated with a lower risk of mortality from Parkinson’s disease.

Additionally, an earlier study from 2018 suggested that a protein called parvalbumin, which is present in many types of fish, may help prevent Parkinson’s disease by preventing alpha-synuclein from clumping together in the brain, which occurs in the brains of people with Parkinson’s and disrupts signals between brain cells.

Dr. Demirkan did, however, show some scepticism when asked about the ability of food and vitamins to control gut flora in Parkinson’s patients.

She emphasised that it is challenging to provide generic advice that would truly be useful because different persons have various risk factors for Parkinson’s as well as varied forms of the disease.

“I find it very challenging to offer advice to anyone because each of us has a unique gut microbiota. Therefore, I believe that preventing the condition is one thing and that long-term maintenance, along with the various consequences of the disease, is another. I can’t really offer any advice because of this, although research indicates that consuming more sugar is problematic.

Can exercising treat Parkinson’s disease?

Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that exercising can help people with Parkinson’s disease manage their symptoms.

According to a study from 2022 that was published in Neurology, those with early-stage Parkinson’s disease may benefit from regular, moderate-to-vigorous exercise since it can delay the disease’s progression.

According to research published in 2017, doing at least 2.5 hours of exercise each week can assist Parkinson’s patients become more mobile while also delaying the onset of the disease.

Dr. Demirkan concurred that using exercise as a management tool for Parkinson’s disease can be beneficial. Exercise by itself is a fantastic technique to mould our brain and body, she claimed.

“There are some significant physiological consequences that we can consider in terms of reversing [Parkinson’s] disease. Your body must endure a lot of stress when you run a marathon, for instance. For instance, you may notice that your body temperature rises steadily and in a feverish manner. One thing is that there is a long-term rise in core heat, and it should unquestionably have a significant impact on the stomach,” she said.

In fact, some study indicates that the heat stress experienced during exercise may decrease intestinal blood flow, which may ultimately have an impact on the gut microbiota by allowing for the expansion of some bacteria while suppressing others.

In terms of the optimum type of exercise for persons with Parkinson’s disease, a Cochrane study that was released in January 2023 came to the conclusion that pretty much all types of exercise can assist those with this illness to live better lives. The authors of the review state that the available evidence “probably has a large beneficial effect” on the quality of life of aqua-based training.


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Is Mirikizumab useful for ulcerative colitis as per study?

Is Mirikizumab useful for ulcerative colitis as per study?

In a recent clinical trial, a novel drug being developed to treat ulcerative colitis showed promise.

Researchers found that those receiving the medication lebrikizumab experienced remission from ulcerative colitis twice as frequently as those taking a placebo.

The results, according to experts, are encouraging; nonetheless, more clinical trials are required because the medicine has not yet received approval from federal regulators.

Research in the New England Journal of Medicine found that people receiving the medication lebrikizumab experienced remission from ulcerative colitis almost twice as frequently as those taking a placebo.

Researchers examined the effectiveness and safety of lebrikizumab, a novel injectable drug being created to treat ulcerative colitis. The use of lebrikizumab in the US has not yet received approval from the Food and Drug Administration.

In comparison to those who took a placebo, participants reported having a better clinical response, endoscopic remission, and reduced urgency in bowel movements.

Clinical studies for a new medication for ulcerative colitis

52 weeks of treatment were spread across two phase 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. 1,281 adults with ulcerative colitis who had moderate to severe inflammation participated in the experiment.

LUCENT-1, the first, ran for 12 weeks. Three participants received 300 mg of lebrikizumab for each one who received a placebo. 294 patients received a placebo, whereas 868 patients received lebrikizumab.

The maintenance phase, LUCENT-2, was continued with the participants who were deemed receptive. Rectal haemorrhage and stool frequency were measured by the researchers.

At the conclusion of the 12-week period, 179 placebo patients and 365 mirikizumab users both reported responsiveness.

Participants were given a 200 mg dose of mirikizumab or a placebo during the second stage, which is known as the maintenance phase.

Nearly 50% of those who got mirikizumab and 25% of those who received a placebo experienced remission by week 40 of the maintenance phase (or by week 52 of both phases combined).

Eli Lilly, a pharmaceutical corporation, supported the research.

Expert response to medication research for ulcerative colitis

Longer trials are being conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of mirikizumab over longer periods of time.

“This study shows that we have another tool for people with ulcerative colitis and that this might help those who do not respond to other medications,” said Dr. Ashkan Farhadi, a gastroenterologist at MemorialCare Orange Coast Medical Centre in California who was not involved in the study. However, I’m not giddy with excitement over the figures.

And before we can get this to the patients, it will be a while. The phase 4 trial comes first. We have the insurance companies to get through if that advances us to the next round, Farhadi said.

“These medicines are outrageously expensive, and insurance companies frequently need us to pass hurdles before receiving clearance. For instance, they might advise the patient to try several other medications first,” he continued.

“In general, I believe having additional tools is a good thing. However, the numbers do not now make this my top pick, said Farhadi.

Ulcerative colitis: What is it?

A chronic inflammatory bowel illness is ulcerative colitis.

It is regarded as an autoimmune condition that affects the lining of the colon and rectum and results in sores and ulcers.

The signs consist of:

  • Diarrhea
  • stool with blood in it
  • Continent pain

The condition ulcerative colitis cannot be cured. The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation lists the following as treatments:

  • drugs that reduce inflammation
  • biologics
  • immunomodulators
  • a variety of drugs taken together
  • surgery

During a flare, doctors also advise sticking to a diet of soft, bland foods. They could advise cutting back on hot and high-fiber foods as well.

How drugs can treat ulcerative colitis?

According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, when ulcerative colitis patients take medication, remission occurs in about two-thirds of cases. 80 percent of them will continue to be in remission.

Dr. Arun Swaminath, chief of gastroenterology and director of the Inflammatory Bowel Programme at Northwell Lenox Hill Hospital in New York, who was not involved in the study, said, “This is very difficult to understand.” “Response rates for other autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, range from 80 to 90 percent. But because of ulcerative colitis, we cannot travel there. It’s possible that the reason why inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have such a high burden of inflammation.

The release of a new IBD drug always excites medical specialists. According to Swaminath, the mechanism of action for mirikizumab is distinct. Its physiological effects will be different from those of other drugs.

“There are some positives, such as the fact that this study enrolled many people in the severe category,” he continued. “It is challenging to determine how much the medication works when studies mostly include people in the moderate category. I was quite inspired to learn that participants with advanced illnesses still experienced success.

What’s coming up in medication research for ulcerative colitis?

A phase 3 experiment was the current investigation. According to the National Cancer Institute, phase 3 trials examine a new drug’s safety as well as how well it performs over a longer time frame than in earlier trials.

A phase 4 clinical trial would presumably follow the FDA’s approval of mirikizumab. Thousands of participants frequently participate in phase 4 trials.

The next phase “might answer some lingering questions” because so many more people will be involved, according to Swaminath. “For instance, while I read the paper, I pondered the situation of those who had previously taken Stelara. Does the fact that they were rejected from phase 3 indicate that they won’t be suitable candidates for this medication? In addition, there were two cases of induction-phase cancer and two cases of maintenance-phase cancer. Were those cancers prevalent at the time? To learn what transpires when the drug is administered to a big population, we must monitor the subsequent phase.


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Explore the latest link between MS and Your Gut.

Explore the latest link between MS and Your Gut.

The central nervous system is impacted by the chronic disease known as multiple sclerosis (MS). When the immune system targets the outer layer of nerve cells, symptoms including weakness in the muscles and visual issues appear.

MS’s precise causation is unknown, however scientists believe that a number of variables may be involved. A recent study discovered that MS may be brought on in persons with a genetic predisposition by a toxin produced by a common gut bacterium.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a persistent nerve system disease. Young adults between the ages of 20 and 40 are the most frequently affected, and women are more likely than males to experience it.

There are around 2.8 million MS sufferers worldwide, and the number is growing, according to the Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF).

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

The immune system of the affected person destroys the myelin sheath that protects the nerve fibers in this autoimmune illness. Sclerosis is a scar or lesion that results from damage. These lesions, which most frequently affect the central nervous system, can cause a variety of symptoms, such as:

Relapsing-remitting MS, the most prevalent type of MS that accounts for 85% of cases, is characterised by episodes of new or worsening symptoms and intervals during which symptoms subside or go away.

Scientists believe that environmental variables and genetic vulnerability may play a role in the development of the illness, while the specific reason is yet unknown. MS is riddled with many mysteries.

Epsilon toxin, which is produced by a bacteria that may be found in the small intestine, has now been linked to the development of MS and the maintenance of symptoms, according to study conducted by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine’s Brain and Mind Research Center.

How the gut microbiota affects MS?

The trillions of bacteria that reside in your digestive system make up the gut microbiota. The majority of microbes are bacteria, but they can also include viruses, fungi, and the microscopic, single-celled creatures known as protozoa.

In general, these bacteria are beneficial and even essential to our health. Yet, dysbiosis, or an out-of-balance microbiota, can cause issues. According to studies, alterations in the microbiota may be a factor in various autoimmune diseases.

In MS patients, changes to the gut flora are frequent. According to this recent study, patients with MS are more likely than healthy controls to carry the pathogen Clostridium perfringens. Epsilon toxin, which is produced by C. perfringens, opens the blood arteries in the brain and permits inflammatory cells to enter the central nervous system (CNS).

What is the epsilon toxin?

Dr. Barbara Giesser stated that the researchers “investigated how the toxin induced an MS-like condition in a mouse model using unique and sensitive techniques to determine the presence of the bacterium.

The scientists collected faeces from both MS patients and healthy controls. They used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to examine these samples in order to find the epsilon toxin (ETX) gene, which is only present in C. perfringens.

They discovered that the ETX gene was present in 61% of samples from MS patients but only in 13% of those from healthy controls. Also, they discovered that compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, MS patients had a higher likelihood of having ETX-positive C. perfringens invade their gut microbiome.

Treatments to target this toxin

The current amount of knowledge regarding the gut microbiome in MS patients is expanded upon by this study. It has been demonstrated to respond to treatment with various disease-modifying treatments and is known to differ from those of non-MS controls, according to Dr. Barbara Giesser.

Epsilon toxin is only produced by C. perfringens during the rapid development phase. The researchers hypothesise that ETX is the cause of MS lesions, which would explain why the illness is episodic and manifests less symptoms when the toxin-producing bacteria are absent.

They draw the conclusion that the bacterium, its toxin, and MS exhibit a robust clinical connection. According to Dr. Giesser, this finding raises the prospect of therapies that target this pathway:

“The toxin facilitates central nervous system access for immune cells. This implies that medications that target the bacterium or the toxin may be effective in treating the condition.

The researchers point out that clinical trials would be required to see whether this could result in MS treatments.

Healthy microbiome

The development of MS may be significantly influenced by the gut microbiome, according to studies. An analysis of multiple research published in 2017 discovered that nutrition might be used to alter the gut flora and alter the course of MS.

The advantages of keeping a healthy gut microbiota are becoming more widely understood, and this study provides more proof that an unbalanced microbiota may lead to the onset of disease.

A healthy diet and lifestyle that promote the growth of advantageous gut flora may potentially lower the risk of MS as well as the risk of many other illnesses.

Improve gut health

Some elements, such as genetics and environment, are beyond your control. Although our gut microbiota is set up early in life, there are some things that can change it.

Certain modifications enhance the diversity and health of our microbiome. Alterations may be harmful.

These are some actions you may do to encourage a balanced, healthy gut microbiome:

  • Consume more fibre. All of the little microorganisms in your gut can eat fibre. Fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, and whole grains all contain fibre.
  • Drink less alcohol. There is evidence that alcohol causes dysbiosis. You might want to think about reducing your drinking if you do.
  • Consume fermented food. Foods that have been fermented are sources of good bacteria and may be beneficial to health. Among the foods that are fermented include kimchi, tempeh, yoghurt, kefir, miso, and sauerkraut.
  • Stress management. Your gut microbiota’s state of health can be impacted by stress. To manage tension, try some stress-relieving exercises like yoga or meditation.
  • Don’t overuse antibiotics. Antibiotics can kill some of the helpful bacteria in addition to the harmful ones. Dysbiosis may result from this. Antibiotics should only be used as necessary, and they should be taken exactly as prescribed. Some of the beneficial bacteria may be restored by taking a probiotic supplement.
  • Look into probiotic dietary supplements. Supplements with probiotics may be beneficial. To determine the appropriate dosage and strain for particular ailments, more research is required. Start with the US Probiotic Guide if you want to.

Conclusive note

  • The human body is home to trillions of microorganisms. The gut contains the majority of them.
  • The possibility that the sorts of bacteria in our guts may have an impact on our health is intriguing.
  • Dysbiosis is more likely to occur in MS patients. When the gut microbiota is out of equilibrium, it is called dysbiosis. Inflammation and autoimmune illnesses are now more likely as a result.
  • A healthy gut microbiota can be supported by consuming fermented foods and a high-fiber diet.
  • There is continuing research into the potential benefits of altering the gut microbiome for MS patients.


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How gut bacteria can boost cancer immunotherapy efficacy?

How gut bacteria can boost cancer immunotherapy efficacy?

Researchers looked into how gut bacteria affected mice’s response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. They discovered that ICIs enable specific gut bacteria to get through tumor locations. It then stimulates the immune system, which then destroys cancer cells.

To confirm whether these results may apply to humans, more research is required.

Immunotherapy includes the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). They function by “taking the brakes off” of the immune system so it can eliminate cancer cells by blocking certain proteins that restrict immune function, such as CTLA-4 or PD-1.

Unfortunately, ICI therapies are ineffective in up to 50% of cancer patients. The effectiveness of ICI treatment may be influenced by the gut flora, according to a growing body of research.

According to research, animals with impaired gut flora or those given antibiotic treatment react to ICI less favourably. Studies have also shown that faecal transplants of new microbiota may improve ICI responsiveness.

The best gut bacteria for boosting ICI response and the mechanism by which gut bacteria enhance immune response are still unknown.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors(ICI) and gut bacteria

Recent studies examined the relationship between gut bacterial diversity and ICI effectiveness in a mouse model of melanoma.

They discovered that ICI treatment results in gastrointestinal inflammation. This allows bacteria to get through the intestines. Thereby moves to lymph nodes close to tumors where they activate immune cells.

The research is published in Science Immunology. Even though checkpoint inhibitor treatment has demonstrated unheard-of clinical success, a sizable portion of responders will later develop acquired resistance. As previously mentioned, the gut microbiota has a significant impact on host anti-tumor immunity in several ways. This affects the clinical reactions and outcomes of cancer immunotherapy patients.

Dr. Anton Bilchik, chief of medicine and director of the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Program at Saint John’s Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California, as well as a surgical oncologist and division chair of general surgery at Providence Saint John’s Health Center, did not take part in the study.

Investigating ICI efficacy

Mice with and without melanoma tumours received ICI therapy as part of the study.

They discovered that ICI treatment exacerbated gastrointestinal inflammation, allowing certain bacteria to pass from the gut to lymph nodes close to the tumour as well as the tumour site. In that location, the bacteria triggered a group of immune cells that destroyed tumour cells.

The effectiveness of ICI may be impacted by antibiotic exposure, according to the study. To do this, mice were first given antibiotic treatment. Further followed by melanoma tumor implantation and ICI treatment a week later.

They discovered that exposure to antibiotics lowered the number of immune cells and the migration of the gut microbiota to the lymph nodes.

Finally, they looked at whether giving out certain bacteria may counteract the effect of the antibiotics on the effectiveness of the ICI. They discovered that using Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in treatments increased ICI effectiveness.

Fecal microbiome transplantation

FMT is the most direct way to change the microbiota. Feces from one donor is given to another by lyophilized or frozen pills that are taken orally. Also, they can be delivered directly via colonoscopy or gastroscopy.

With almost 300 registered clinical trials as of now, FMTs are being investigated as a treatment alternative for an increasing range of illnesses (, accessed Aug 2021). Over the past ten years, it has been clear that FMTs are extraordinarily effective at treating resistant and recurring Clostridium difficile infections. This helps patients feel better and get rid of their clinical symptoms.

Dietary intervention and lifestyle

The relationship between diet and the microbiota has been studied for numerous years at various resolution levels because gut microbes have a role in food digestion. In fact, distinct microbial communities are closely involved in the sequential host digestion and nutrient extraction, with the gut microbiota playing the major role.

On the one hand, the host’s inability to digest a large number of chemicals released by the gut microbiota affects the food’s ability to provide nutrients. Contrarily, both short- and long-term dietary modifications can affect the microbial transcriptome and metabolomic profiles, especially for newborn nutrition. This may have long-term effects through microbial modulation of the immune system. For instance, high-fat diets are linked to significant changes in the makeup of the colonic microbiota. This includes decreases in both Gram-positive.

Study restrictions

Dr. Andrew Koh, senior author of the present work and associate professor at the Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center at UT Southwestern, was contacted by MNT to discuss its limitations.

They only employed one preclinical cancer model, which, according to Dr. Koh, is a significant restriction, necessitating additional research to see whether the results also apply to other cancers.

Although we have not yet produced evidence to support that notion, we think that our findings may also be applicable to other tumours, he said.

According to published research, various human cancers include specific or unique tumour microbiomes, and many of the prominent taxa are bacteria that normally live in the gut. Dr. Bilchik stated that it is still unclear whether the results apply to people when asked about the study’s other limitations.

Interventional gastroenterologist Dr. Lance Uradomo, who is not affiliated with the study and practice in Irvine, California at the City of Hope Orange County Lennar Foundation Cancer Center, stated that “the type of therapy applied for testing melanoma can be linked to adverse side effects, such as colitis.”

Before it is known if microbiome therapy — and the proper administration — is genuinely successful, more research is required, he continued.


The gut microbiome appears to have a significant impact on host immunity and therapeutic response in cancer, either locally within the tumour microenvironment or via systemic antiviral immune responses, according to strong evidence from preclinical and clinical research. The latter is most likely the reason why the gut microbiota is able to control how the body reacts to immunotherapy and traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, eventually having a variety of effects on patient outcomes.


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Explore each types of Colitis and its numerous symptoms.

Explore each types of Colitis and its numerous symptoms.

When your big intestine becomes inflamed, colitis develops. It can result in discomfort as well as other symptoms like ulcers, bloating, and diarrhoea. Different therapies are needed for various forms of colitis.

Your colon, sometimes referred to as your large intestine, is inflamed when you have colitis. You will have abdominal discomfort and agony if you have colitis. This discomfort could be modest and recurrent over time, or severe and striking out of nowhere.

On the colon’s lining, ulcers can develop in serious situations. These ulcers may bleed, resulting in the production of pus and mucous. There are many different drug options, and doctors can customise the course of treatment to match specific needs.

Types and causes of colitis

Ulcerative colitis

One of two disorders categorised as inflammatory bowel disease is ulcerative colitis (UC). The second is Crohn’s illness. The inner lining of your large intestine becomes inflamed and develops bleeding ulcers as a result of the chronic condition known as UC. Typically, it starts in the rectum and progresses to the colon.

The most typical colitis diagnosis is UC. Experts don’t know why the immune system overreacts to bacteria and other chemicals in the digestive tract, which causes it to happen.

Typical forms of UC include:

  • Proctosigmoiditis, a condition that affects the rectum and lower colon,
  • Left-sided ulcerative colitis, which starts from the rectum and affects the left side of the colon.
  • Having an effect on the entire large intestine, pancolitis

Pseudomembranous colitis

The expansion of the bacterium Clostridium difficile causes pseudomembranous colitis (PC) (C. diff). In the intestine, this type of bacteria is typically present, but because “good” bacteria exist to balance it out, it doesn’t create any issues.

Antibiotics in particular are known to kill beneficial bacteria. This enables C. diff to take control and release inflammatory toxin-producing toxins.

Ischemic colitis

When blood supply to the colon is abruptly cut off or reduced, ischemic colitis (IC) develops. A abrupt blockage may be brought on by blood clots. The most common cause of recurrent IC is atherosclerosis, or the accumulation of fatty deposits in the blood arteries supplying the colon.

This kind of colitis frequently results from underlying diseases. These may consist of:

  • An inflammatory condition of the blood vessels is called vasculitis.
  • diabetes
  • stomach cancer
  • dehydration
  • losing blood
  • heart disease
  • Blockage or hindrance
  • injury or trauma

Although it’s uncommon, taking certain medications, including fibrates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can cause IC (NSAIDs). To fully comprehend all drugs that might be a contributing component, more research is required.

Microscopic colitis

A physician can only diagnose microscopic colitis by using a microscope to examine a sample of colonic tissue. A doctor will search for inflammation-related indicators, such as white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Occasionally, doctors would divide microscopic colitis into lymphocytic and collagenous colitis. When a large number of lymphocytes are found, a doctor says the patient has lymphhocytic colitis. The tissues and lining of the colon, however, are not abnormally thickened.

Collagenous colitis is a condition in which the outermost layer of tissue of the colon’s lining thickens abnormally as a result of an accumulation of collagen. Doctors are unsure of the specific cause of microscopic colitis. They are aware that certain persons are more susceptible to the disease than others.

People who are more vulnerable are:

  • habitual smokers
  • individuals who were born as females
  • persons who have had an autoimmune disease in the past
  • those over the age of 50
  • those who take specific medications, such as some varieties of:
  • proton pump blockers (PPIs)
  • inhibitors of selective serotonin reuptake (SSRIs)
  • Aspirin and other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications)

The following are the signs and symptoms of microscopic colitis:

  • persistent diarrhoea
  • stomach bloating
  • abdominal pain

Babies with allergic colitis

Infants are susceptible to the disorder known as allergic colitis, which typically appears in the first few months following birth. Infants with the syndrome may have the following symptoms:

  • reflux
  • uncontrollable spitting up
  • fussiness
  • potential blood specks in a baby’s poop

Doctors are unsure of the specific cause of allergic colitis. One of the most widely accepted explanations is that some components in breast milk cause allergic or hypersensitive reactions in newborns with allergic colitis. A review of papers published in 2020 suggested that formula, cow’s milk, or breast milk protein allergies may be at blame.

Infants with similar symptoms may also develop an allergic colitis called eosinophilic colitis. Similar to that, its causes are unknown, but they are probably connected to a protein allergy.

Symptoms of Colitis

Typically, diarrhoea is ulcerative colitis’s initial sign. Stools becoming gradually looser, and some people may get cramping in their stomachs and have a strong urge to use the restroom.

The onset of diarrhoea may be gradual or abrupt. The degree and spread of inflammation affects the symptoms.

The following list of ulcerative colitis symptoms is common:

  • abdomen ache
  • crimson and mucus-filled diarrhoea

Some folks might also go through:

  • drowsiness or tiredness
  • slim down
  • reduced appetite
  • anaemia
  • an increased temperature
  • dehydration
  • a persistent urge to urinate

Early in the morning is usually when symptoms are worse. Mild or nonexistent symptoms may last for months or years at a time. However, depending on the area of the colon that is afflicted, they frequently come back without therapy.

Risk factors of colitis

Following are a few well-known risk factors for ulcerative colitis:

  • Age: Although ulcerative colitis can affect anybody, it is more prevalent in people between the ages of 15 and 30.
  • Ethnicity: White people and persons of Ashkenazi Jewish origin are more likely to develop the illness than other ethnic groups.
  • Genetics: Although new research has discovered particular genes that may contribute to ulcerative colitis, the relationship is unclear because environmental variables also play a part.

Diagnosis of Colitis

Your symptoms may be frequently asked about by your doctor, along with when they first appeared. The doctor will do a complete physical examination and use diagnostic procedures like:

  • A flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the anus to see the rectum and colon during a colonoscopy.
  • Similar to a colonoscopy but only displaying the rectum and lower colon, sigmoidoscopy
  • stool specimens
  • scans of the abdomen using MRI or CT technology
  • ultrasonography, which, depending on the area being examined, can be useful
  • An X-ray of the colon taken after it has been injected with barium, which improves image clarity, is known as a barium enema.

Treatment of colitis

Treatments, which attempt to lessen symptoms, can differ depending on things like:

  • a kind of colitis
  • age
  • overall state of health

Bowel rest

Limiting your oral intake can be beneficial, especially if you have IC. It could be required to administer fluids and other nutrients intravenously at this time.


To help you control the symptoms of colitis, your doctor may recommend a number of drugs. These medicines may consist of:

  • Corticosteroids or 5-aminosalicylates are examples of anti-inflammatory drugs that can be used to alleviate pain and swelling.
  • immune system suppressants such cyclosporine, azathioprine, or tofacitinib (Xeljanz) (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)
  • Biologics like ustekinumab, adalimumab, and infliximab (Remicade) (Stelara)
  • antibiotics for infection treatment
  • taking painkillers
  • antibiotics for diarrhoea
  • spasmolytic medications
  • nutritional deficiency supplements


Your colon or rectum may be completely or partially removed during surgery for colitis. In the event that other therapies fail, this might be required.

Prevention of colitis

Surgery is the only surefire method of avoiding a flare-up of colitis. You can lessen the likelihood of flare-ups by doing the following if you want to avoid surgery:

  • To keep note of the things that can make symptoms worse, keep a food journal.
  • Find out from your doctor whether you should alter how much fibre you consume.
  • Ask your doctor if eating more frequent, smaller meals will benefit you.
    If you can, up your level of activity.
  • Learn stress-reduction techniques like yoga, meditation, and mindfulness practises.
  • Always follow the directions on your prescriptions, and let your doctor know if you haven’t.
  • Make sure your doctor is aware of all of your other prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as vitamins.



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Characteristics of peptic ulcers and its complications.

Characteristics of peptic ulcers and its complications.

What are peptic ulcers?

If you have open sores in your stomach or upper small intestine, you may have a peptic ulcer. That occurs when the mucus lining your digestive tract’s protective layer is removed by stomach acids. There can be no symptoms, or there might be discomfort or a sharp ache. Internal bleeding brought on by peptic ulcers can occasionally need receiving blood transfusions in a medical facility.

Researchers predict that 8.09% of people worldwide experienced at least one peptic ulcer in 2019; which is a 25% increase since 1990. According to the same study, fewer occurrences have been documented in the US since the first half of the 20th century. Between 1990 and 2019, they started to rise once more.

Peptic ulcers come in three different varieties:

  • Internal stomach ulcers are referred to as gastric ulcers.
  • Esophageal ulcers are so named because they appear inside the oesophagus.
  • Duodenal ulcers are ulcers that form in the duodenum, the upper portion of the small intestine.

Symptoms of peptic ulcers

Peptic ulcers may not show any symptoms at all or they may just produce minor discomfort. Others can feel a stomach ache that is both dull and searing.

Additional signs can include:

  • meal is tough to swallow
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • feeling full or bloated
  • sticky, dark stool (if bleeding)

Ulcers can result in severe symptoms, bleeding, and indications. These are symptoms of an ulcer that is bleeding:

  • throwing up blood
  • faeces that are dark crimson in colour or that are black and tarry
  • nausea and vomiting that is particularly intense and continuous

A medical emergency is indicated by these symptoms. The patient has to see a doctor right away or dial 911.

Causes of peptic ulcers

There are numerous potential causes of peptic ulcers, however the two most frequent ones are as follows:

H. pylori cause ulcers

It is unclear why H. pylori bacteria only cause ulcers in some people, despite the fact that many people naturally carry them. H. pylori spread via water and food. They reside in the mucus that covers the lining of the stomach and duodenum and generate the enzyme urease, which reduces the acidity of stomach acid, neutralising it.

The stomach creates more acid to make up for this, which irritates the stomach lining. Additionally, the germs irritate the stomach and impair its immune system.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause ulcers

NSAIDS are a class of drugs frequently used for headaches, menstrual cramps, and other symptoms. They can also aid in lowering inflammation and fever. Ibuprofen and aspirin are two examples. Many NSAIDs are accessible over-the-counter.

They lessen the stomach’s capacity to produce a thick layer of mucus for protection. As a result, stomach acid has a greater potential to harm Trusted Source. NSAIDs may also hinder blood flow to the stomach, which would hinder the body’s capacity to repair cells.

Other causes of peptic ulcers

Among the additional probable causes of peptic ulcers are:

  • Genetics: Many people who have peptic ulcers have relatives who also have the condition, indicating that hereditary factors could be at play.
  • Smoking: It’s possible that people who smoke tobacco frequently have a higher risk of developing peptic ulcers than people who don’t smoke, though it’s unknown how smoking affects peptic ulcers specifically.
  • Alcohol consumption: Alcohol consumption can aggravate the lining of the stomach and raise acidity.
  • Use of corticosteroids: Studies have shown that those who use high or ongoing dosages of corticosteroids are also at higher risk.

Studies on the link between stress and an increased risk of ulcers are contradictory, but one study revealed that psychological stress may make peptic ulcers more common in a way that cannot be explained by other factors like NSAID use.

Complications of a peptic ulcer

Ulcers that are left untreated may worsen over time. They may trigger additional, more severe health issues like:

  • Perforation: An infection results from a hole that forms in the stomach or small intestine lining. A perforated ulcer can cause abrupt, excruciating stomach pain.
  • Internal bleeding: Because bleeding ulcers can cause severe blood loss, hospitalisation is often necessary. Lightheadedness, wooziness, and dark stools are symptoms of a bleeding ulcer.
  • Scar tissue: After an accident, thick tissue known as scar tissue forms. Food has a tough time moving through your digestive tract because of this tissue. Vomiting and weight loss are indications that there is scar tissue.

All three issues are significant and might necessitate surgery. If you suffer any of the following symptoms, get emergency medical help right away:

  • unexpectedly acute abdominal ache
  • extreme perspiration, fainting, or confusion, as these could be symptoms of shock
  • blood in the stool or vomit
  • a difficult-to-touch abdomen
  • stomach ache that gets better when lying perfectly motionless but gets worse when you move around

Diagnosis of peptic ulcers

During a regular exam, a doctor will frequently become suspicious of a peptic ulcer due to a patient’s description of their symptoms.

The following tests can support a diagnosis:

  • an H. pylori blood test, while a positive result does not usually indicate a current infection
  • a breath test that detects H. pylori using a radioactive carbon atom.
  • a stool antigen examination to find H. pylori in the stools
  • using a GI (upper gastrointestinal) X-ray) to look for ulcers

The most popular device used by doctors to make diagnoses is Upper endoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. In order to check for the presence of an ulcer in the stomach and upper intestine, a tube must be inserted through the mouth.

The doctor may take a biopsy (a small sample of tissue) to be examined under a microscope if the test reveals an ulcer. A biopsy can check for cancerous tissue and test for H. pylori. A second endoscopy may be required a few months later to check on the ulcer’s progress.

Treatment of peptic ulcers

The goal of treatment will be to either completely eradicate the H. pylori infection or reduce stomach acid levels to allow the ulcer to heal. The following are typical treatments that a doctor might suggest:

  • Antisecretory substances. To help reduce the production of stomach acid, these include proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists.
  • Triple treatment. To get rid of H. pylori, two antibiotics plus a proton pump inhibitor are used.
  • Staying away from NSAIDs. If someone regularly uses NSAIDs, doctors advise against using them.
  • Surgery. A doctor may advise surgery in cases of bleeding, with an average recovery time of 8 to 12 weeks.


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Important causes & treatment of dyspersia you need to know.

Important causes & treatment of dyspersia you need to know.

Indigestion, commonly referred to as dyspepsia, is a feeling of discomfort or pain in the upper belly that frequently follows eating or drinking. It is a symptom, not a sickness. Up to 30% of people experience dyspepsia, making it a widespread issue. Bloating, discomfort, feeling overly full, nausea, and gas are typical symptoms.

It typically occurs after eating or drinking. A change in lifestyle can frequently be beneficial. Medical problems including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the usage of specific drugs are among the other causes.

One of the most typical functional disorders is functional dyspepsia. 10% to 20% of patients who seek medical attention for their symptoms are thought to have functional dyspepsia. But the number of people who have it may be far higher than we realise because many people never seek medical attention for their symptoms.

Different types of dyspepsia

Functional dyspepsia symptoms can be divided into two groups, according to some medical professionals:

  • Epigastric persistent pain (EPS). Only the symptoms connected to upper abdomen discomfort and burning are referred to as epigastric persistent pain (EPS).
  • Postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). Only post-eating symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and early fullness, are referred to as postprandial distress syndrome (PDS).

Not all people’s symptoms fit neatly into one of these two groups, but when they do, it makes it easier for medical professionals to address those symptoms as a group.

Causes of dyspepsia

Indigestion can have a variety of causes. These may include things like dietary and lifestyle choices, adverse drug reactions, and life-threatening underlying diseases.


Indigestion occurs when your body has trouble digesting food normally. Eating excessively or eating too quickly may be the cause of this.

Indigestion risk is also increased by greasy, fatty, and spicy foods. Too soon after eating, lying down can hinder proper digestion. Your chance of experiencing stomach pain rises as a result.

Other typical reasons for inadequate digestion include:

  • smoking
  • overindulging in booze
  • stress


The negative effects of taking some drugs can include indigestion. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen are a few examples of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that might aggravate dyspepsia.

Antibiotics, which treat or prevent bacterial infections, can also have the adverse effect of irritating the digestive tract and causing indigestion.

Food allergy

An unidentified food allergy may be causing an inflammatory reaction in your intestines. White blood cell counts in some FD patients are greater, which may indicate that the gut immune system is active.

Others disclose food sensitivities on their own, notably to wheat. The causes of nausea, flatulence, and inflammation may be due to an allergic reRisk for Indigestionaction. Bloating and pain could be brought on by inflammation.

Medical conditions

In addition, indigestion can be brought on by a number of medical issues. These comprise:

  • illness of the stomach and oesophagus (GERD)
  • digestive cancer
  • anomalies in the pancreas or bile ducts
  • digestive ulcers
  • gluten, lactose, and other intolerances
  • idiopathic bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • gastroparesis

You could occasionally feel dyspepsia for no apparent reason. Functional dyspepsia is the term used in medicine for this.

Symptoms of dyspepsia

The symptoms of dyspepsia come and go: They appear and disappear for unknown reasons, and it is difficult to determine what specifically makes them better or worse. Functional dyspepsia is a chronic condition that lasts for a long time, yet it can occasionally go away for a while before coming back for no apparent cause.

You must have experienced symptoms within the last three months and consistently for at least six months in order to receive a diagnosis. Additionally, you’ll experience multiple of the following signs:

  • Stomach discomfort. Under the ribs, there is pain in the upper abdomen. Your stomach, small intestine, pancreas, and liver are all located in this area, which is referred to as the epigastrium.
  • Stomach bloat. belly pressure or a sense of being overstuffed, especially after eating.
  • Early satiety or appetite loss. Feeling “full” immediately following or during eating.
  • Heartburn. This is a searing pain that typically results from acid reflux and is felt in the area between the stomach and the oesophagus.
  • Acid reflux. The oesophagus serves as a conduit for stomach acid, which causes your mouth to burn and frequently leave you with a sour taste.
  • Vomiting and nauseous. Fullness and appetite loss may become actual nausea or vomiting in severe cases.

Risk of dyspersia

Indigestion can affect people of all ages and genders. It’s quite typical. The following factors raise a person’s risk:

  • excessive alcohol use
  • Use of medications that can cause stomach irritation, such as aspirin and other painkillers
  • conditions in which the digestive tract is aberrant, such as an ulcer
  • emotional issues like depression or anxiety
  • Obesity
  • Smoking


A physician will enquire about:

  • their indications
  • their medical history, both personal and familial
  • any further medical issues, drugs they use, and dietary practises

They might also check the stomach and chest. This may entail applying pressure to various abdominal regions to feel for any spots that might become sensitive, tender, or painful when pressed.

The tests listed below may occasionally be used by a clinician to rule out an underlying medical condition:

  • Blood test: This can diagnose illnesses such as anaemia, liver issues, and others.
  • Tests for H. pylori infection: In addition to a blood test, these tests could also involve urea breath tests and stool antigen tests.
  • Endoscopy: The physician will take pictures of the digestive system using a long, thin tube equipped with a camera. Additionally, a tissue sample for a biopsy may be taken. They can use this to identify a tumour or an ulcer.

Complications of dyspersia

Rarely, problems can result from severe and ongoing dyspepsia. These consist of:

Esophageal stricture

Upper gastrointestinal scarring can result from prolonged exposure to stomach acid. Chest pain and difficulties swallowing can result from the tract becoming narrow and restricted. The oesophagus can be widened through surgery.

Pyloric stenosis

In some instances, stomach acid can irritate the pylorus, which connects the stomach and small intestine, over an extended period of time. The pylorus may narrow if it develops scar tissue. A person might require surgery if that occurs since they might not be able to digest meals adequately.


The lining of the digestive tract can deteriorate over time as a result of stomach acid, which can result in peritonitis. Medications or operations might be required.

Treatment for Dyspersia

Usually, indigestion goes away on its own and will go away eventually. As your body starts to digest the food you’ve eaten, for instance, if you have indigestion following a large meal, your abdominal discomfort may subside. You may manage and prevent the symptoms of indigestion, though, with the aid of some drugs and lifestyle modifications.


In order to address typical indigestion symptoms, your doctor may prescribe drugs, but these drugs may have negative effects. Pepcid and other H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) lessen gastric acid. Although they are rare, side effects can include:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • itching or rashes
  • constipation
  • headache
  • bruising or bleeding

Similar to Prilosec, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce stomach acid but are more potent than H2RAs. Some adverse effects are:

  • nauseous and dizzy
  • constipation
  • diarrhoea
  • cough
  • headache
  • backache
  • dizziness
  • abdomen ache

Prokinetics, such the pharmaceutical drugs Reglan and Motilium, enhance the digestive tract’s muscular function. However, using these drugs may have unwanted effects, such as:

  • depression
  • anxiety
  • uncontrollable tics or spasms
  • fatigue
  • A home remedy

Indigestion can be treated in addition to with medication. With lifestyle adjustments, you might be able to enhance digestion and ease painful symptoms. For instance, it may be beneficial to:

  • avert eating things that cause heartburn
  • more slowly
  • avoid eating before going to bed.
  • If you smoke, make an effort to stop.
  • Keep your weight at a healthy level.
  • Reduce your consumption of coffee, soft drinks, and alcohol.
  • through practising yoga or relaxation techniques, lower stress


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