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A large study links vitamin D to the severity of psoriasis.

A large study links vitamin D to the severity of psoriasis.

An inflammatory skin condition called psoriasis is characterized by elevated, irritated, scaly areas of skin that can also be unpleasant and itchy.

From person to person, psoriasis severity varies widely. According to recent studies, having more severe psoriasis may be linked to having low vitamin D levels.

In the US, psoriasis is a disorder that affects more than 7.5 million people. Low vitamin D levels may be linked to more severe psoriasis, according to recent research from the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

Scientists believe that psoriasis is an autoimmune illness, which means that it results from the immune system mistakenly attacking your body instead of protecting it. The specific etiology of psoriasis is still unknown. In psoriasis, this immunological activity speeds up the production of new skin cells, which leads to the development of thick, scaly patches on the skin’s surface.

Psoriasis symptoms can range from minor to severe. The National Psoriasis Foundation reports:

  • Less than 3% of the body is affected with moderate psoriasis.
  • 3–10% of the body is affected by mild psoriasis.
  • More than 10% of the body is affected by severe psoriasis.

The connection between psoriasis and vitamin D

Experts enquired as to the biological relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis from Eunyoung Cho, ScD, research team head and associate professor of dermatology and epidemiology at Brown University.

Your skin’s keratinocytes, which are cells, have vitamin D receptors. Currently, topical vitamin D analogs are used to treat psoriasis because they bind to vitamin D receptors on keratinocytes and stop their proliferation. These analogs replicate the effects of vitamin D. Dr. Eunyoung Cho explained that this multiplication causes the thick plaques that are typical of psoriasis.

Italian, Brazilian, and Nepalese researchers found that psoriasis patients have significantly lower serum levels of vitamin D, and that these levels are correlated with the severity of the condition.

Dr. Cho and her associates wanted to determine whether this association would hold true in a sizable, nationally representative US population because the majority of earlier investigations have been carried out outside of the US.

Vitamin D deficiency associated with more severe psoriasis

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were utilised by Dr. Cho’s team to determine the number of psoriasis cases between 2003 and 2006 and between 2011 and 2014. Out of the 40,401 people that were evaluated, they discovered 491 cases, including 162 from 2003 to 2006 and 329 from 2011 to 2014.

The amount of vitamin D in the blood, the body surface area affected by psoriasis (a measurement of the severity of psoriasis on the body), and other details including age, gender, race, body mass index, and smoking habits were also recorded.

The researchers employed a mathematical technique known as “multivariate linear regression” to evaluate the connection between low vitamin D levels and the severity of psoriasis.

They discovered that the severity of psoriasis increased as blood levels of vitamin D declined. The mean serum vitamin D levels of those with the least amount of psoriasis-affected body surface area were highest (67 nmol/L), whereas those with the most amount of psoriasis-affected body surface area had the lowest levels (56 nmol/L).

When they separated the population into groups based on the body surface area affected by psoriasis and examined the proportion of individuals with vitamin D deficiency in each group, the researchers observed a similar trend. Vitamin D deficiency affected 39% of the group with the most severe psoriasis compared to 25% of the group with the least severe psoriasis.

The new study adds to our understanding of psoriasis.

Lim was reported in a press release as saying, “Only one prior study, published in 2013, used NHANES data to analyse the relationship between vitamin D and psoriasis.” Our results are more current and statistically significant than those obtained from previously accessible data because we were able to include more recent data, which more than tripled the number of psoriasis cases analysed.

The University of California, San Francisco’s Dr. Tina Bhutani, an associate professor of dermatology, co-director of the Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Centre, and head of the dermatology clinical research unit, noted that these findings are not new because “similar associations have been reported in the past.”

Nevertheless, “the advantage of NHANES is that it is likely to be more representative of the US population vs. other prior studies,” Dr. Bhutani noted.

The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine’s James J. Leyden Professor of Dermatology and Epidemiology, Dr. Joel M. Gelfand, stated that the study “shows a modest association between vitamin D levels and psoriasis severity” but cautioned that it cannot be used to establish a causal relationship.

According to this study, “We cannot say whether slightly lower vitamin D levels cause more severe psoriasis or whether slightly higher vitamin D levels cause less severe psoriasis,” stated Dr. Gelfand.

What does this signify for those who have psoriasis?

Dr. Cho stated that even though “topical vitamin D analogs are already used to treat psoriasis, further research, such as large randomized clinical trials of oral vitamin D supplementation, is warranted before any firm medical recommendations are made on the use of oral vitamin D supplementation among psoriasis patients.”

Despite this, Dr. Cho advised that persons with psoriasis and vitamin D insufficiency “discuss this with their clinicians and treat the deficiency.”

Despite the correlation between vitamin D levels and the severity of psoriasis revealed by these data, Dr. Bhutani concurred that “we do not have enough information here to recommend the use of vitamin D supplementation in our psoriasis patients.”

Dr. Gelfand further stated that monitoring or augmenting vitamin D levels in psoriasis patients to treat or prevent psoriatic illness is not currently supported by sufficient levels or quality of data.

Drs. Bhutani and Gelfand both emphasised in their remarks that there have been conflicting outcomes from earlier research testing vitamin D supplementation for psoriasis.

According to Dr. Gelfand, a clinical trial that was conducted in 2022 “showed some evidence that vitamin D supplementation may marginally prevent the development of autoimmune diseases, with some evidence, though not statistically significant, that this includes prevention of psoriasis.”

However, a clinical trial that was released in 2023 revealed that vitamin D supplementation had no impact on the severity of psoriasis.

A cautionary tale is the experience of vitamin D and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease – after many years of intense investigation, large RCTs involving >25,000 patients showed no benefit of Vitamin D supplementation for preventing these major health outcomes,” noted Dr. Gelfand.


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How non-alcoholic wine is a Magnificent anti-aging tool?

How non-alcoholic wine is a Magnificent anti-aging tool?

Red wine has been used for its therapeutic properties for ages. Red, white, or rosé wines made from muscadine grapes are known to contain a significant amount of an antioxidant known as polyphenols.

A tiny amount of de-alcoholized wine prepared from muscadine grapes per day, according to University of Florida researchers, can help rejuvenate ageing skin.

Researchers have been debating the potential health advantages of wine, particularly red wine, for a long time. Since wine has been used medicinally for so long, some people think it may have been the earliest known “medicine.”

According to earlier research, drinking red wine may help to prevent heart disease, chronic inflammation, and cognitive deterioration. Additionally, additional studies indicate that consuming red wine may lengthen life and boost the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut microbiome.

Recent research from the University of Florida demonstrated how dealcoholized wine derived from muscadine grapes can help to improve ageing skin at NUTRITION 2023, the American Society for Nutrition’s premier annual meeting.

Skin that is more elastic and loses less water

Dr. Lindsey Christman, graduate research assistant in the University of Florida’s Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, and her group gathered 17 women between the ages of 40 and 67 for this study. They were given the option of drinking either a wine that had been decaffeinated or a placebo that had no polyphenols.

Over the course of six weeks, study participants drank around two glasses of the given drink each day. After a three-week hiatus, individuals resumed drinking the beverage they had been abstaining from throughout the first six weeks of the study.

Each participant’s skin conditions and indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed at the start of the trial and at the conclusion of each six-week period.

Analysis revealed that participants’ skin elasticity had been greatly enhanced by consuming the de-alcoholized muscadine wine.

Dr. Christman, a co-author of this study, stated, “We were hoping that it would improve elasticity.” In dealcoholized muscadine wine, polyphenols such ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and myricetin may lessen UVB-induced protease activation. These proteases are in charge of the elasticity loss and sagging that come along with ageing.”

Additionally, the wine was linked to a reduction in water loss from the skin’s surface, suggesting that the skin’s protective barrier was more effective.

The amount of participants’ skin wrinkles did not significantly alter throughout the trial, according to the researchers.

Furthermore, there was no discernible change in these variables between the dealcoholized wine and the placebo drink, despite the fact that there were some improvements in skin smoothness and reduced indications of inflammation and oxidative stress compared to baseline.

What makes muscadine grapes unique?

The grape species known as the muscadine grape (Muscadinia rotundifolia) is indigenous to the Southeast of the United States. They grow well in warm, humid areas, unlike other grape varietals.

Typically, these grapes are a deep purple or black colour. Red, rosé, or white wines can be made from the juice.

Polyphenols, a type of antioxidant generally found in plants, are known to be present in significant amounts in muscadine grapes.

Comparing the muscadine grape to other red wine types, researchers discovered that it has a distinctive polyphenolic profile. As a result, the biological activity may differ from that of other red wines, according to Dr. Christman.

Pre-clinical research employing cells from triple-negative breast cancer and prostate cancer has already investigated the impact of muscadine grapes on specific cancers.

Additionally, dealcoholized muscadine wine may be able to lessen the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease, according to a mouse study that was published in June 2021.

Why is grape juice preferred over decaffeinated wine?

Wouldn’t muscadine grapes provide the same advantages given that they can also be used to manufacture alcoholic wine and grape juice? Not always, according to Dr. Christman.

These findings cannot be applied to wine that contains alcohol since alcohol introduces a new variable and could change the findings, she said. The procedure of decoholization may also have changed the wine’s overall chemical composition. Because of this, the findings also cannot be applied to juice.

However, Dr. Christman noted that the research “does suggest that muscadine wine polyphenols have the potential to improve skin conditions, so there may be a chance of the same results.”

However, a future study would need to be done with these products in order to confirm,” she continued.

An excellent source of antioxidants is muscadine grapes.

Dr. Alexis Livingston Young, a dermatologist of the Hackensack University Medical Centre, was also consulted by experts regarding this study.

The findings of the study, according to Dr. Young, were not unexpected given what we already know about the health advantages of consuming muscadine grapes.

She explained, “Muscadine wine is a good source of resveratrol, which is a potent antioxidant.”

Muscadine grapes have some of the greatest antioxidant levels of any fruit, and they contain more of this chemical than other varieties of grape. Antioxidants are known to help the body produce fewer free radicals,” she continued.

Free radicals are associated with several chronic conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, and aging-related cell and tissue damage. Therefore, the research demonstrated that the antioxidants in these grapes may definitely encourage improved skin and prevent the development of wrinkles,” according to Dr. Alexis Livingston Young.

Dr. Young stressed again how beneficial it would be to conduct more research on this issue.

Since this study was somewhat small, I would like to see additional research conducted with a larger sample size over a longer time frame. But I do believe that this is a fantastic place to start,” she added.

Ways to delay skin ageing

Your body’s largest organ is actually the skin that covers it.

A person’s skin has three layers:

  • The top layer is called the epidermis.
  • The middle layer, or dermis, is where the body’s blood vessels, nerves, and other crucial components are located.
  • The innermost skin layer, the hypodermis, includes fat cells.

The epidermal layer thins with age, making the skin appear more translucent. In parts of the epidermis that may have been harmed by excessive sun exposure earlier in life, dark age spots may start to appear.

Additionally, the collagen-containing connective tissue that holds the various skin layers together starts to deteriorate. The skin may start to sag and wrinkle as a result of this.

There are steps people may take to assist slow down the skin ageing process, even though it is impossible to stop the ageing process. The American Academy of Dermatology Association offers the following advice:

  • Put on sunscreen
  • daily use of a face moisturiser
  • Skip the tanning bed.
  • employ calming skin care products
  • examine retinol cream
  • maintain a healthy lifestyle.


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Melanoma: Black man at 26% higher risk to die.

Melanoma: Black man at 26% higher risk to die.

Significant melanoma discrepancies between racial and ethnic groupings have been discovered by researchers.

Using the National Cancer Database, researchers discovered that Black males had the lowest survival rates for melanoma diagnoses and a 26% higher mortality risk than white men.

Put on sun-protective clothing, use sunscreen, and examine your skin once a month to protect yourself from melanoma.

While there are many studies on both male and female melanoma instances, there is little information on how race affects this skin disease, particularly in men.

A group of experts looked over the National Cancer Database to find out more. They looked at male non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native instances of primary cutaneous invasive melanoma.

Their data showed melanoma incidence differences between racial and ethnic groupings.

The trunk was the most typical site for melanoma in both white people and American Indian/Alaskan Native people. Men of color Black, Asian, and Hispanic had their lower extremities found to have melanoma, though.

The majority of stage 3 or stage 4 melanomas (48.6%) were seen in Black people. White guys (75.1%) and Black males (51.7%) had the highest 5-year overall melanoma survival rates.

According to research, black people with melanoma had a 26% higher mortality rate than white people with the same diagnosis.

Dr. Bianka Bubic, study author and a dermatology research fellow at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Centre, said, “We hope that this study lays the foundation for future research to explore the reasons for why there are different presentations and survival among men of diverse racial groups in melanoma.”

Survival rates for melanoma vary by race

Researchers are currently looking into why Black people have a higher chance of developing severe melanoma. Pigmented lesions that may have variations in size, form, symmetry, or pattern can be early indicators of melanoma.

A board-certified dermatologist at Psoriasis Telehealth in Palo Alto, California, Dr. Faranak Kamangar, told that early detection of skin abnormalities in the Black community may be more challenging, thus postponing diagnosis.

She pointed out that the results emphasise the value of early cancer screening in many racial and ethnic groups.

Dr. Kamanger pointed out that socioeconomic issues such a lack of cheap insurance and medical treatment may disproportionately affect the severity of melanoma in Black communities, which could result in a diagnosis at a late stage.

The main tendency, that Black men are diagnosed with melanoma at later stages, making it less likely to be treated and probably leading to greater rates of morbidity and mortality for this population, has been known to us for some time. The research also confirms previously reported findings that Black men are more likely to develop acral lentiginous melanoma, a subtype of melanoma that is typically detected at a later stage and may occur in difficult-to-examine body regions. Bob Marley is a well-known illustration. He unfortunately had a late diagnosis of melanoma and passed away from it,” according to board-certified dermatologist Dr. Faranak Kamangar.

Acral lentiginous melanoma is the most prevalent melanoma subtype in Black people, but it is also more challenging to identify and diagnose early.

Dr. Wael Harb, a haematologist and medical oncologist at MemorialCare Cancer Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in Fountain Valley, California, said that acral lentiginous melanoma “typically appears on less noticeable or examined areas like the palms, soles, or under the nails.”

Are there genetic factors that influence melanoma risk?

Racial and ethnic inequalities in melanoma risk may also be influenced by genetics.

According to Dr. Kamanger, “Acral lentiginous melanoma has higher rates in this population due to genetic predispositions and, in general, is diagnosed at a later stage.”

We have now discovered genes that predispose to acral lentiginous melanoma, and this is the key factor contributing to greater risk among some groups. Diagnosis may be delayed if the nails and bottom of the feet are involved. Except for the amelanotic subtype, melanoma is often pigmented and brown in colour, according to Dr. Kamanger.

Dr. Harb emphasised that acral lentiginous melanoma frequently manifests in locations that are not as exposed to the sun. This may explain why certain body parts, such as the palms, soles, and areas under the nails, are particularly vulnerable.

Dr. Harb noted that “this type of melanoma frequently develops in areas with less melanin, which provides natural protection against UV damage.”

Dr. Harb contrasted this with the development of superficial spreading melanoma, which frequently appears as a new or changing mole or discoloured area on sun-exposed skin.

The different ways that melanoma manifests in Black and White people emphasizes the significance of thorough skin inspections that include all body parts, not just those that are regularly exposed to the sun.

Research on the prevalence of melanoma in various racial groups is still lacking.

The majority of research papers conducted so far focus on white people’s melanoma cases. Dr. Kamanger noted that as a result, the conclusions that may be drawn are limited by the tiny sample size of Black men.

The primary flaw with this study is that Black men make up less than 0.5% of the population. To obtain useful sub-data, this is a very small quantity, as Dr. Kamanger pointed out.

The study has some limitations, even if it offers insightful information. It does not take into consideration disease-specific survival, which limits our capacity to distinguish between melanoma mortality and death from other causes,” according to Dr. Harb.

Additionally, certain data were missing, which may have impacted the precision and thoroughness of the findings.

Additionally, compared to white people, there were significantly fewer instances of melanoma among ethnic minority groups. Dr. Harb continued that this can result in bias because the sample might not accurately reflect the entire population.

Taking steps to prevent melanoma

The first step in preventing skin cancer is to shield yourself from the sun. There is no safe level of ultraviolet light exposure, according to Dr. Kamanger, who described ultraviolet light as a real carcinogen.

“UPF clothing, SPF 30 and above sun protection, and seeking shade should be practised.”

Every part of your body, including your feet and nails, should be examined once a month, according to Dr. Kamanger.

When in doubt, schedule a yearly skin cancer test with a board-certified dermatologist, said Dr. Kamanger.

According to Dr. Bubic, “any lesions that may be changing, increasing in size, bleeding, or not healing appropriately should be evaluated.”


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Improve melanoma treatment with fecal transplant?

Improve melanoma treatment with fecal transplant?

Using immune checkpoint inhibitors like pembrolizumab or nivolumab in conjunction with fecal transplants demonstrated the procedure’s safety in patients with advanced melanoma, according to a phase 1 clinical trial.

65% of the trial participants experienced a favorable response to immunotherapy. Following the fecal transplant, positive responders’ gut microbiomes revealed a rise in helpful bacteria and a decrease in dangerous bacteria.

Larger phase 2 trials will be carried out, and the use of faecal transplants in difficult-to-treat malignancies like pancreatic cancer will be investigated.

Numerous cancer patients have recently benefited from a type of treatment called immunotherapy, which uses the immune systems of the patients to identify and eliminate cancer cells.

Some immunotherapy medications, such as pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and nivolumab (Opdivo), function by preventing the mechanism by which cancer cells can conceal themselves from the immune system.

These immune checkpoint inhibitors, also known as anti-programmed death (PD-1) medications, are successful in treating roughly 50% of patients with melanoma, a kind of skin cancer.

Recently, researchers investigated whether patients with metastatic melanoma might respond better if immunotherapy and fecal microbiota transplants were combined.

This combination was not only risk-free but most patients responded well to the therapy, with some obtaining complete remission.

Phase 1 of the trial

Faecal transplants were coupled with the licenced medications pembrolizumab or nivolumab, which are already the standard of care for advanced melanoma, in the phase 1 MIMic trial.

The objective of the clinical experiment was to determine whether it is secure to combine these two medications in melanoma patients. As a supplementary goal, the impact of faecal transplants on the immune system and gut flora was evaluated.

Following a technique that was approved by Health Canada, healthy donors were carefully chosen. Then, capsules were created using the faeces of healthy donors.

Twenty metastatic melanoma patients were enrolled in the trial from Lawson Health Research Institute, the Jewish General Hospital (JGH), and the Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM).

Each research subject was given capsules containing 80–100 mg of a fecal transplant from a single healthy volunteer donor. At least a week before receiving treatment with approved immunotherapy medications (either pembrolizumab or nivolumab), the fecal transplants were administered orally as capsules.

Is fecal transplantation plus immunotherapy safe?

The faecal transplantation operation was successfully completed by each of the 20 patients.

No major side effects were noticed prior to beginning immunotherapy, and no infections were spread through faecal transplantation. However, eight patients (40%) did have mild to moderate side effects from faecal transplantation, including diarrhoea, flatulence, and abdominal discomfort.

17 patients (85%) of the group encountered adverse immune-related events, the majority of which (70%) happened within the first three months of immunotherapy. Of these, five study participants (25%) experienced significant immune-related adverse effects, including nephritis (n = 1), arthritis (n = 2), exhaustion (n = 1), pneumonitis (n = 1), and arthritis (n = 2). These side effects forced the study participants to stop receiving their medication.

The researchers found no previously unreported adverse reactions to immunotherapy or faecal transplantation.

Did combined therapy lead to better results?

Four of the 20 participants in the trial (20%) experienced complete remission, making up 65% (13 out of 20) of the patients who responded favorably to the therapy.

All patients had strains of the donor’s bacteria in their gut microbiomes, according to analysis; however, this resemblance only got stronger over time in those patients who had a good response to the therapy. After receiving faecal transplants, respondents had higher levels of helpful bacteria and lower levels of dangerous bacteria.

The good impact of healthy donor faeces in boosting the efficiency of immunotherapy was further demonstrated in studies on mice by the researchers.

Fecal microbial transplantation: what is it?

Fecal transplantation, also known as fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), is a medical treatment in which the recipient’s intestines are filled with a healthy person’s donated poo (or feces).

In order to address medical disorders linked to abnormalities in gut bacteria, this method involves introducing healthy bacteria into the recipient’s intestines.

The effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections is fecal transplantation. Fecal transplants are frequently administered via colonoscopy, however they can also be given as pills.

Gut and immune system interaction

So why do immune checkpoint inhibitors not work for everyone?

Recent research reveals that the bacteria in the gut may have an impact on how well the medications work. Immune checkpoint inhibitor-responsive individuals have a distinctive and healthy gut microbiome, often known as a “group of microorganisms in their gut.”

One of the study’s authors, Saman Maleki, Ph.D., assistant professor of oncology, pathology and laboratory medicine, and medical biophysics at Western University, as well as a researcher at the London Regional Cancer Programme and Lawson Health Research Institute, reasoned that altering a person’s gut microbiome to make it more diverse and healthy may enhance their response to immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Faecal microbial transplantation is one technique to modify the gut microbiota.

Will fecal transplants be used in the management of melanoma?

The principal study investigator, Dr. John Lenehan, a medical oncologist at the London Regional Cancer Programme, an associate scientist at the Lawson Health Research Institute, and an associate professor of family medicine and oncology at Western University, stated that the most significant finding in the study was that “none of the patients were harmed by the experimental treatment.”

Faecal transplants had been demonstrated to be beneficial by observational and pre-clinical studies, but “what happens in mice does not always translate to patients,” he noted. In fact, according to Dr. Lenehan, “more recent studies using similar therapies have shown harm, with patients having a worse response.”

He clarified that faecal transplantation was carried out differently in these other investigations than it was in the MIMic experiment.

“There are several factors, including bowel preparation, the number of FMTs required, the amount of stool required, and the identity of the donors. We had no idea if our approach would be secure or efficient. Thankfully, it appears that it was both! “, he exclaimed.

The director of the Supportive Oncology Research Group at the University of Adelaide and a research fellow at the Hospital Research Foundation Group, Hannah Wardill, Ph.D., who was not involved in this study, thinks this combination therapy strategy has the potential to be a successful treatment.

FMT is a reasonably accessible intervention, and this study shows it is safe and likely effective at improving immunotherapy response,” she added.

The combination of faecal transplants and immunotherapy results in an improved response rate in patients who would otherwise be unresponsive to immunotherapy, which indicates that “more people will benefit from immunotherapy,” according to Dr. Wardill.


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How bacteria can occupy the skin and elevate eczema growth?

How bacteria can occupy the skin and elevate eczema growth?

Researchers looked into how bacteria might impact the histology of eczema in a recent study. They claimed that S. aureus bacteria change in eczema patches, speeding up their spread.

Eczema, the most prevalent type of atopic dermatitis, is an itchy, dry skin condition that is not communicable. In the US, 30% of the population is affected by the illness.

Although there is no known cure for eczema, there are drugs available to treat its symptoms. These include topical emollients, topical immunosuppressants, and topical corticosteroids.

Eczema is believed to result from a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. A flare-up of eczema may occur when the immune system is triggered by irritants found in soaps and surface cleansers, for instance.

Variants in the gene that makes the protein filaggrin may cause lower production in eczema patients. Filaggrin is crucial for boosting skin elasticity.

People who have eczema may have breaks in their skin, which bacteria can enter and develop in. The immune system may try to stop this colonization by escalating the inflammation, which aggravates the itching and further damages the skin.

The creation of new medications to treat eczema may be aided by knowing more about how germs grow into eczema sufferers’ skin and how it causes inflammation.

Recent studies looked into how Staphylococcus aureus adjusts to the skin of eczema sufferers. They claimed that the bacteria undergo alterations that cause them to lose their cellular capsule, allowing them to grow more quickly on the skin.

Dr. Alain Michon, the medical director of Project Skin MD Ottawa in Canada and a non-participant in the study, was consulted by specialists over the results.

What kind of bacteria is S. aureus?

According to earlier studies, S. aureus can frequently be found on the skin of eczema sufferers. Their eczema tends to be more severe the more bacteria they have.

By secreting toxins and drawing in immune cells, S. aureus is hypothesised to contribute to the pathophysiology of eczema and worsen the condition of the skin barrier.

S. Aureus is present in the nasal passages of up to 30% of persons. While the majority of infections are not serious, they can result in pneumonia, bone and joint infections, and serious bloodstream infections.

Information from the study on bacteria and eczema

The 23 children in Mexico between the ages of 5 and 15 who had moderate to severe eczema were the subjects of this longitudinal study by the researchers.

Standard medical care, such as topical steroids, emollient moisturisers, and bleach baths, were given to all of the subjects.

The children’s skin microorganisms were sampled by the researchers once per month for three months, and then again at nine months. Samples were collected from common eczema-affected areas such as the inside of the elbows and the backs of the knees. Additionally, they collected samples from the noses and forearms, which are often unaffected by the bacterium.

After that, the scientists cultivated S. aureus cells from every location, producing nearly 1,500 different colonies. This allowed them to more closely track the evolution of the certain cells.

At the end of the trial, they discovered that the majority of participants had only one lineage of S. aureus, indicating that new strains did not develop over time from the environment or other participants. However, they observed that throughout the trial, each lineage underwent significant mutation.

A gene called caps, which codes for an enzyme required for synthesizing polysaccharide a capsule-like shell that protects S. aureus from immune cells suffered several changes that lowered or abolished function, the researchers found in particular.

In a third of the subjects, the researchers discovered that capD mutations completely dominated the S. aureus microbiome population over the course of the study.

The researchers initially identified four distinct capD mutations in one youngster. By the time the trial was through, one of the variations had taken over and had expanded throughout the entire microbiome.

Increased eczema immunodetection

Dr. J. Wes Ulm of the National Institutes of Health, who was not involved in the study, was interviewed by Medical News Today about how mutations that make S. aureus more detectable by the immune system increase the spread of the bacteria and eczema on the skin.

Ulm remarked that from some angles, S. aureus becoming more readily identifiable by the immune system could appear to be a drawback. But he went on to say that if capD expression is lost or reduced, the bacteria may be better able to grow and spread since the energy that would have been used to create a useful capsule can now be used to fuel development.

Additionally, the absence of a capsule would make it simpler for the bacterium to adhere to the skin’s surface, improving its ability to spread throughout the skin.

Its lack of capD makes it easier for the immune system to detect and target the capD-deficient strain when it becomes more prevalent on the [skin’s] microbiome, Ulm said. Consequently, “and this, in turn, can enhance the immune response and magnify the inflammatory reaction giving rise to the characteristic rash and symptoms of eczema.”

Problems with the eczema research

The study’s tiny sample size, according to Michon, limits how broadly these results may be applied to other populations.

The results, he continued, might have been impacted by the fact that certain individuals’ microbiomes may have changed among those who took antibiotics both before and during the trial.

Other restrictions were also mentioned by Cameron K. Rokhsar, FAAD FAACS, a dermatologist and fellowship-trained cosmetic and laser surgeon in Manhattan and Long Island, New York, who was not associated with the study.

The drawback of these discoveries, according to Rokhsar, is that bacterial overgrowth only accounts for a portion of the overall puzzle. “The malfunctioning barrier specific to these people is the real problem with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics are given to patients to reduce atopic dermatitis flare-ups, but they do not treat eczema.


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Can we manage chronic inflammation with psoriasis?

Can we manage chronic inflammation with psoriasis?

Psoriasis is regarded by medical professionals as an immune-mediated inflammatory illness even though the actual origin is uncertain. This indicates that the underlying cause of the disease is inflammation.

Psoriasis affects up to 3% of people in the US. It can affect other bodily components, such as the joints and eyes, and manifest signs on the skin, such as elevated plaques and discoloration.

According to experts, inflammation may be the common culprit affecting these various locations.

Psoriasis: What is it?

Skin inflammation is brought on by the autoimmune disease psoriasis. Psoriasis symptoms include thick patches of scale-covered, discolored skin. Plaques are the name for these scaly, thick patches.

As a chronic skin disorder with no known cure, psoriasis can flare up at any time.

Psoriasis comes in a variety of forms, including:

Plaque psoriasis: The most prevalent form of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis. Plaque psoriasis affects between 80% and 90% of those with psoriasis.

  • Inverse psoriasis: This kind develops in the creases of your skin. It results in tiny, scale-free plaques.
  • Guttate psoriasis: A streptococcal infection-related sore throat may be followed by the development of guttate psoriasis. It frequently affects children and young adults and appears as tiny, red, drop-shaped scaly patches.
  • Pustular psoriasis: This form of the condition features tiny, pus-filled lumps on top of plaques.
  • Erythrodermic psoriasis: This form of psoriasis is severe and affects a significant portion (greater than 90%) of your skin. Skin shedding and extensive skin discolouration are the results.
  • Sebopsoriasis: This kind often manifests as lumps and plaques with a greasy, yellow scale on your face and scalp. This is a hybrid of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis.
  • Psoriasis of the nails: Psoriasis of the nails can change your fingernails and toenails as well as the skin of your hands and feet.

What results in psoriasis inflammation?

Immune system malfunction in psoriasis patients leads to an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the dermis, the middle layer of skin. Additionally, the disease accelerates the proliferation of skin cells in the epidermis, the top layer of the skin.

Skin cells typically develop and slough off over the course of a month. In those with psoriasis, this process accelerates to only a few days. Skin cells accumulate on the skin’s surface instead of being shed, causing painful symptoms such elevated plaques, scales, edoema, and redness or discolouration.

Even though psoriasis is a skin disorder, the inflammation it causes affects the entire body. It can raise the risk of cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriatic arthritis, heart disease, and others.

Is inflammation curable in any way?

Although immune system dysregulation is the cause of the inflammation in psoriasis, research indicates that patients can lessen this inflammation by making dietary and lifestyle adjustments. This may aid in symptom reduction and quality-of-life enhancement.

Many psoriasis sufferers can sustain remission—a prolonged period without having psoriasis symptoms—using these techniques.

In addition, certain psoriasis treatments work by lowering inflammation. Topical corticosteroids, biologics for injection, and oral drugs are some of these.

Psoriasis affects people differently. Some patients will need longer-term care than others.

Managing inflammation

Although there is presently no cure for psoriasis, the following behaviors may lessen inflammation caused by psoriasis and raise a person’s chances of going into remission.

Consuming a wholesome diet

Diet and systemic inflammation are closely related. According to studies, some inflammatory food habits might worsen psoriasis symptoms and increase the likelihood of developing the condition.

Everybody’s definition of a healthy diet is unique. However, the actions listed below could assist someone in establishing one:

Avoiding pro-inflammatory foods: Some foods and drinks include ingredients that promote inflammation, which exacerbates psoriasis symptoms. Soda and highly processed foods like salty snacks, sweets, and animal items are two examples.

A diet high in fruits, vegetables, and other nutrient-dense foods has been shown to reliably reduce the symptoms of psoriasis. For instance, a 2018 study of 35,735 individuals, 3,557 of whom had psoriasis, found that those who consumed a diet similar to the Mediterranean diet had fewer severe cases of psoriasis than those who did not.

Being healthy in terms of weight

A risk factor for the onset of psoriasis is obesity. Overweight or obese psoriasis sufferers may also have more severe symptoms than those who are of moderate weight.

In individuals with excess body weight, weight loss may lower inflammatory indicators and assist in reducing psoriasis symptoms.

In a 2020 study, it was discovered that individuals with psoriasis and obesity or overweight who underwent a 10-week program to lose 12% of their body weight saw a 50–75% reduction in the severity of their psoriasis. An average of 23 pounds were lost by participants.

Introducing additional healthful practises

There are a number of behaviorist that might lessen inflammation and enhance psoriasis symptoms, including:

  • Avoiding or giving up smoking: Smoking hurts one’s health and aggravates inflammatory conditions like psoriasis.
  • Limiting alcohol consumption: Drinking too much might aggravate psoriasis symptoms and cause inflammation.
  • Staying active can assist with psoriasis symptoms by preventing extended periods of inactivity. According to one assessment of the literature, those with psoriasis who lead sedentary lifestyles experience more severe symptoms than those who engage in regular exercise.
  • Getting enough sleep: A lack of sleep can cause the body to become inflammatory. According to studies, getting little or no sleep might raise blood levels of inflammatory indicators. Adults should sleep for 7-9 hours every night, according to experts, to maintain good health.
  • Managing stress: Long-term stress causes the immune system to become overactive and promotes inflammation. Up to 88% of psoriasis sufferers cite stress as a symptom cause. Stress-relieving exercises like yoga and meditation may be beneficial.

When should I get medical help?

Anyone who is going through a psoriasis flare and is curious about how to lessen the symptoms and inflammation of the condition might want to think about consulting their healthcare team, which includes their dermatologist.

They can offer suggestions for diet and lifestyle modifications that may help lower inflammation and lessen psoriasis symptoms, as well as treatment options depend on the severity of the symptoms. Additionally, they could advise taking vitamins or supplements.


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Brain’s unique “pain fingerprint” may help pain management

Brain’s unique “pain fingerprint” may help pain management

When nerve cells notice damage, they experience pain and send signals to the brain for interpretation.

Because everyone experiences pain differently, it is difficult for doctors to identify and manage it.

Gamma oscillations and brain waves associated with pain perception have variable timing, frequencies, and locations in various individuals, according to a recent study that used brain scans to gather its data.

This discovery might result in pain management strategies based on these unique “pain fingerprints.”

When nociceptors, which are nerve endings in the skin, notice damage and send messages to the brain, people experience pain. The pain may be chronic, lasting for a considerably longer time and being more difficult to treat, or acute, abrupt onset, typically short-lived, and manageable by addressing the source of the pain.

However, not everyone experiences pain in the same way, making it challenging for medical professionals to gauge how much someone is hurting.

They frequently employ a number scale, with zero denoting no pain at all and ten denoting the most excruciating suffering possible. Other strategies include:

  • The doctor uses a verbal descriptor scale to specify the type of pain by asking several descriptive questions.
  • short pain inventory: a written questionnaire that aids medical professionals in determining the impact of a patient’s pain and tracking changes in pain to look for patterns.
  • Respondents to the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) select three main categories of word descriptors (sensory, affective, and evaluative) to describe their subjective pain experience.
  • Faces scale: This is mostly used for kids. The doctor displays a range of emotive faces, from sad to pleased, and the kids use them to convey how much pain they are in.

How does the brain register pain?

Senior lecturer at the University of Essex’s Centre for Brain Science and lead author Dr. Elia Valentini said the following to us:

The sense of pain may be mediated by these fast brain oscillations known as gamma, according to previous research. Our research shows that, despite the fact that we all experience pain to a similar degree, some of us will exhibit these gamma oscillations in response to painful stimuli while others won’t.

In essence, he said, “we propose that gamma oscillations are not necessary for pain, but that they constitute a stable and repeatable property of the individual when present.

What reactions does the brain have to pain?

Seventy volunteers underwent pain testing for the researchers. The average age of those who participated in the study was 24, and they were all in good health. Males made up the majority.

They kept track of the outcomes of two independent studies. In the first, there were 22, and there were 48 in the second.

In the first experiment, subjects were repeatedly exposed to touch and pain stimuli on the right hand’s back twice, two weeks apart. A Tm: YAG laser produced the pain stimuli. Participants graded both stimuli on a scale of 0 to 10.

In the second experiment, a Nd: YAG laser used to deliver high- and low-intensity pain stimuli to subjects. Each subject was exposed to 80 stimuli of high and 80 of low intensity. On a scale of zero for no discomfort to one hundred for the most manageable pain, they were asked to rate them.

In all studies, individuals wore an electrode cap while being exposed to the stimuli, which produced electroencephalogram (EEG) data from which the gamma responses were analysed.

How is pain quantified?

Dr. Vernon Williams, a sports neurologist and pain management expert who founded the Cedars-Sinai Kerlan-Jobe Institute’s Centre for Sports Neurology and Pain Medicine who was not engaged in this study, provided the following explanation to us:

“An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience connected to, or similar to, actual or potential tissue injury is referred to as pain. It is a “experience,” not a “sensation.” As a result, it is always unique, subjective, and personal. The fact that gamma oscillations differ greatly from person to person is therefore not surprising.

In addition to the fact that the pattern of gamma oscillations varied between individuals, the researchers also discovered that it did not change for each person who underwent the repeat trial.

“Our work demonstrates that there is a remarkable stability: Participants with high/low gamma activity and high/low pain ratings in the previous recording had high/low gamma activity and high/low pain ratings two weeks later,” said Dr. Valentini.

This could be beneficial for pain management, according to Dr. Williams: “Interestingly, the findings are reproducible within an individual, and that may have future implications regarding objective measures of pain and objective measures to assess pain interventions/treatments, particularly in the short term.”

Dr. Valentini cautioned, nonetheless, that the significance of gamma oscillations for pain processing may be greatly exaggerated. It serves as a timely warning that, even when a large group-level association is replicated by multiple research, we might still be duped into interpreting the results as causative.

Do the results have any clinical application?

Dr. Valentini summarised the findings by saying, “In a nutshell, we suggest that gamma oscillations are not necessary for pain, but when present, they are a stable and repeatable feature of the individual.”

As Dr. Valentini said, “Our work resonates with the idea of personalized medicine whereby clinicians may focus on the specific individual’s biological patterns to achieve faster and better diagnosis or treatment.” Their findings may result in more personalized pain management.

Despite the fact that there are no obvious therapeutic implications of our findings, he explained that they “pave the way to a more precise assessment of neural responses mediating the experience of pain.”

Dr. Williams concurred that there was cause for hope. He explained to us that “reproducible” in the trials indicated that subjects’ results were consistent across tests conducted two weeks apart.

That might not be the case if tests are conducted two months or two years apart, or if social, psychological, or biological circumstances have changed in the interim. Dr. Williams continued, “If changes take place under various circumstances, that might imply that the person’s ‘fingerprint’ can change over time (or if circumstances change).”

“That gives us cause for hope because it implies that their experience—the pain they feel—can be diminished, enhanced, or completely erased with the proper mix of therapies. He said, “Chronic pain does not have to last ‘forever’.

Dr. Valentini intends to conduct additional research because, in his words, “my colleagues and I believe that gamma and other brain oscillations are an important area of investigation for pain neuroscience. Maybe some of us will be able to repeat similar studies in individuals with acute or chronic pain, better addressing the therapeutic applicability of our research.


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Boost skin cancer immunotherapy by targeting proteins.

Boost skin cancer immunotherapy by targeting proteins.

A protein that aids tumors in evading immune response and supports the growth of melanoma has been discovered by new research.

According to researchers, immunotherapy should be more effective with tailored medicines directed particularly at this protein.

One of the most prevalent malignancies, melanoma is typically brought on by exposure to UV light, while hereditary factors also play a part in its development.

Experts advise staying away from tanning beds and direct sunshine, as well as keeping an eye out for any moles that seem out of the ordinary.

The growth of melanoma has been the subject of recent research, which has also opened up new potential treatment options.

In a study that was published in the journal Science Advances, researchers showed how a protein called NR2F6 aids tumor growth by assisting tumours to elude the immune system.

The scientists discovered that in mice, eliminating the protein made the immune treatment work more effectively.

“This tells us that NR2F6 helps melanoma evade the immune system, and without it, the immune system can more readily suppress tumour growth,” said Dr. Hyungsoo Kim, a research assistant professor at Sanford Burnham Prebys, a research centre in La Jolla, California, and the study’s first author.

Treatments that prevent the protein’s action are thought to be twice as effective since it behaves the same way whether it is in a tumor or the tissues around it.

The scientists are currently searching for fresh medications that can particularly target NR2F6.

learning about melanoma

Melanoma develops when the DNA in skin cells is harmed, according to dermatologist Dr. Ahmad Chaudhry of the United Kingdom, who spoke to us.

According to Chaudhry, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or tanning booths is frequently to blame for this. “Due to this damage, the melanocytes (cells that produce melanin) proliferate out of control and aggregate into a mass of malignant cells. The development of melanoma in the eyes or internal organs does occur occasionally, but it is less frequent.”

While there are some hereditary risk factors that can potentially play a role, sunshine and tanning beds are linked to skin cancer for a reason.

We were informed by Dr. Sudarsan Kollimuttathuillam, a medical oncologist and haematologist at the City of Hope cancer research organization’s Huntington Beach and Irvine Sand Canyon locations, that 7% to 15% of people with melanoma also have a family member who has the condition.

According to him, having characteristics like pale skin, freckles, or blonde or red hair raises one’s overall risk of developing skin cancer. Atypical mole syndrome is another genetic disorder that dramatically raises the lifetime risk of melanoma and is characterized by a high number of moles with odd forms or color.

Risk can be reduced, but genetics cannot be changed. Doctors advise limiting exposure to the sun during peak hours, staying away from tanning beds in general, and wearing sun protection when outdoors to reduce your risk of acquiring skin cancer.

In the words of Kollimuttathuillam, “regular skin examinations by both you and a dermatologist will help detect melanoma at an early stage, when it is more treatable.”

Experiencing melanoma

One of the most prevalent types of cancer are skin malignancies like melanoma.

More than 97,000 Americans are expected to receive melanoma diagnoses in the US in 2023, according to the American Cancer Society.

As previously mentioned, melanoma can be detected early by a number of telling indications, including genetics and moles. The following procedure usually entails removing and then examining the mole if a doctor suspects it may be malignant. Melanoma presence or absence can be assessed by a range of tests.

It’s crucial to get an early diagnosis of melanoma because it spreads quickly.

According to Kollimuttathuillam, melanoma is the type of skin cancer that is most likely to spread to distant organs or bones. Because of this, imaging technologies may be utilized to spot cancer cells that have done so.

After receiving a melanoma diagnosis, a patient has a variety of treatment choices at their disposal, including radiation therapy, surgery, and immunotherapy.

In the earliest stages of melanoma, patients typically do not require imaging tests because, as Kollimuttathuillam noted, “we know that the best way to stop cancer is to prevent it.” “I cannot emphasize enough how crucial it is for patients to be advocates for their skin health to avoid advanced stages of this disease,” the doctor said.

Types of Immunotherapy

Medication is used in immunotherapy to boost your immune system. This might aid in its attack on cancer cells.

Severe melanoma is treated with a variety of immunotherapies, including:

Checkpoint blockers. The PD-1 blockers nivolumab (Opdivo) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda) as well as the CTL4-blocker ipilimumab (Yervoy) are among these drugs. These medications could aid T cells in your immune system in identifying and eliminating melanoma cancer cells.

Oncolytic virus therapy. In this procedure, melanoma tumors are injected with talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, Imylgic), a modified virus. In addition to killing cancer cells, this virus may also cause your immune system to fight cancer cells.

Cytokine therapy. Immune cells can interact with one another with the aid of a class of proteins called cytokines. Interleukin-2 (aldesleukin, proleukin) therapy may enhance your immune system’s defense against cancer.

Your doctor may recommend a single immunotherapy treatment or a cocktail of immunotherapy medications. They might prescribe Yervoy and Opdivo combined, for instance.

Individuals with stage 4 melanoma now have better survival rates thanks to immunotherapy. However, there is a chance that this treatment will have negative side effects.

Contact your doctor straight away if you suspect any potential side effects.


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Important note about light therapy for psoriasis.

Important note about light therapy for psoriasis.

Some people can treat their psoriasis with over-the-counter or prescription creams. However, you can attempt phototherapy if your skin continues to be itchy, scaly, and red. Another name for it is light therapy.

Psoriasis treatments like phototherapy have the potential to relieve the itching and pain associated with the condition. UV radiation, which lessens inflammation and delays the production of new skin cells, is frequently used.

Eczema and other skin disorders can benefit from phototherapy. It’s not as easy as just going outside in the sunshine, though.

Treatments with UV light come in a variety of forms. It’s important to figure out which one will work best for you if you’re interested in pursuing this strategy.

It is best to discuss your alternatives with your doctor in order to be treated with phototherapy in a safe manner. Your physician will guarantee that it’s secure for you.

What is light therapy for psoriasis?

Plaques can shrink in size, become less itchy, and appear more subtly when treated with light therapy, which includes shining ultraviolet (UV) light on the skin. Perhaps it will completely resolve them.

Psoriasis cannot be cured, however light treatment can help people manage their condition and enhance their quality of life.

Light treatment for psoriasis lowers plaque development by slowing down the expansion of skin cells. By interfering with the DNA’s ability to function, it also restricts the proliferation of skin cells.

Light therapy procedure

A person can have phototherapy on their entire body or just one location, such their hands or scalp, depending on which parts of their body are affected by psoriasis. Before administering treatment, a medical expert will cover sensitive skin parts including the eyes and genitalia.

To progressively increase the skin’s exposure to UV light and give it time to heal, light treatment requires numerous sessions.

During the course of two to three months, patients typically have three to five weekly light treatment sessions. Depending on the type of light treatment, people typically notice improvements in 2-4 weeks.

Each person’s skin responds to phototherapy in a unique way, which may be seen in the degree of improvement in their psoriasis symptoms as well as the duration of those benefits. 3–12 months is the typical length of remission.

Doctors advise people to only utilise 150 sessions of psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) phototherapy throughout the course of their lifetime due to the increased risk of skin cancer.

Types of light therapy

Delivering light therapy for psoriasis can be done in a variety of ways using a variety of lighting and apparatus.

Based on the following criteria, a medical practitioner will decide which phototherapy technique to apply:

  • how much of the body is affected by psoriasis
  • which bodily areas are affected by psoriasis
  • what degree psoriasis has on a person’s quality of life
  • a person’s general well-being
  • the skin tone of a person

The type of UV light used in treatment is a significant distinction between the many types of phototherapy:

  • Long wavelengths characterise UVA. The skin’s deepest layers can be reached, and it can pass through glass windows. Psoralen, which makes the skin more responsive to UVA radiation, must be used in conjunction with UVA treatments.
  • The shorter wavelength of UVB. It does not require psoralen and merely penetrates the upper layers of the skin.

The various forms of light treatment for psoriasis consist of:

  • limited-band UVB. The most popular kind of light therapy, narrow-band phototherapy, restricts the light wavelengths utilised in treatment to 311-313 nanometers in order to minimise any potential negative effects.
  • UVB with a broad spectrum. The most traditional type of light therapy for psoriasis is called broad-band phototherapy. Compared to narrow-band therapy, it employs a larger wavelength.
  • UVB laser. Smaller, more focused UVB beams are used in laser technology. When psoriasis only affects 5% or less of the body, medical specialists prefer this method.
  • PUVA topical. With PUVA, the skin is prepared for the UV radiation treatment by either soaking in a bath or applying a lotion containing psoralen.
  • Mouth PUVA. In the case of oral PUVA, the patient must take psoralen pills before to phototherapy. For exceptionally thick plaques, this type of treatment may be especially beneficial.
  • Pulsed dye laser (PDL). PDL is most frequently used by medical practitioners to treat nail psoriasis or tiny lesions on the skin’s surface.
  • Balneophototherapy. In this case, a person will receive UV light treatments either during or right after a bath in a salt-based solution.
  • laser or low-level light treatment. Doctors advise this therapy, also known as “cold laser” treatment, for other types of inflammation and persistent discomfort.
  • Home UVB phototherapy. Using hand-held or smaller-scale light boxes, patients can manage their psoriasis and any “flares,” or escalation of plaques and itching, at home with the help of a doctor’s prescription for at-home follow-up care.

Who should get light therapy?

If creams and lotions are ineffective at reducing the symptoms of psoriasis, a doctor or skin specialist known as a dermatologist may suggest light treatment.

Light treatment might be helpful for people with mild to severe psoriasis. With moderate psoriasis, 3–10% of the body is affected, whereas in severe psoriasis, more than 10% of the body is affected.

Phototherapy should not be used on those who use prescription drugs or over-the-counter substances that increase their skin’s sensitivity to UV light.

These drugs that cause photosensitization include:

Before committing to phototherapy, discuss any current supplements or drugs with a medical expert.

The use of light therapy for psoriasis should be avoided by pregnant women and those who have:

  • a background of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin malignancies
  • lowered immunological response
  • lupus
  • recognised photosensitivity problems

Side effects of light therapy

When designing a phototherapy regimen, a medical practitioner will take the patient’s susceptibility to UV light into account. Even with this care, adverse outcomes are still possible.

The following are potential negative consequences of light therapy:

  • light sunburn, which is normally not harmful and can be treated by reducing UV exposure
  • a burning or itchy feeling
  • an increased risk of cold sores in those who are susceptible to them
  • Dark patches and loose or leathery skin are early symptoms of ageing skin.
  • blisters
  • a higher risk of developing skin cancer


Although there is no known treatment for psoriasis, patients can manage their symptoms and enhance their quality of life with it. For those with moderate to severe psoriasis, phototherapy can be quite beneficial.

Those receiving intensive phototherapy should have their skin checked by a doctor on a frequent basis due to the possibility of an increased risk of developing skin cancer.


For Skin disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Wound-healing and Anti-aging found in an invasive weed.

Wound-healing and Anti-aging found in an invasive weed.

Many people are expressing a desire for skin care products made from natural ingredients. Fruit from the cocklebur plant contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics. This may make it effective as a skin protectant, according to researchers presenting at Discover BMB.

In 3D tissue models, researchers discovered that cocklebur extracts sped up wound healing and decreased UVB damage. More and more individuals are looking for substances that are naturally derived when it comes to skin care. According to previous customer polls, many women prefer all-natural skin care products.

According to recent studies, the fruit of the cocklebur plant, a noxious weed, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities that may not only make it beneficial as a skin protectant but also aid reduce UVB damage and speed wound healing.

The research is presented at Discover BMB, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology’s annual meeting, March 25–28 in Seattle, Washington.

What is the cocklebur plant?

The cocklebur plant, or Xanthium strumarium as it is named in science, is a summer-growing weed. The weed has both male and female heads as it grows. Its maximum height at maturity is six feet.

With burs, the weed produces blooms. The “fruit” of the plant is found inside these burs. The burs can attach to an individual and disseminate to other locations when a person or animal rubs up against the plant.

Plants called cocklebur are indigenous to parts of China, Central Asia, and Southern Europe. The United States is one of the places in the globe where they are presently, nevertheless.

From ancient times, the cocklebur has been utilised in traditional Chinese medicine, most frequently to relieve headaches and rhinitis. More recently, researchers have investigated using the cocklebur plant to treat cancer, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Cocklebur extract and skin protection

In this work, scientists examined how the molecular characteristics of cocklebur fruit extracts can impact collagen synthesis, wound healing, and UVB radiation damage using cell cultures and a 3D tissue model resembling human skin.

Upon examination, researchers discovered that the cocklebur fruit extracts accelerated the healing of wounds and boosted both the creation and breakdown of collagen. It had a protective effect against UVB radiation at lesser doses as well, but at the highest measured dose, it reduced the ability of the cell to react to UVB.

Eunsu Song, a PhD student at Myongji University in South Korea and the study’s principal author, told that there have been numerous published studies that describe the chemical makeup of cocklebur fruit.

The identification of bioactive substances in natural goods is greatly helped by solvents. In the majority of published studies, solvents were extracted using methanol, which may not be suitable for usage as food or cosmetic additives. The initial step in our research, according to Song, was the ethanol extraction and examination of the cocklebur fruit’s bioactive component.

As a result, the primary phenolic ingredient in cocklebur was the antioxidant chlorogenic acid, she said. Additionally, the predominant phytosterol in cocklebur was ß-sitosterol. Both bioactive substances have been investigated because of their antioxidant, skin-allergenic, and wound-healing properties.

Potential toxicity of cocklebur in high doses

Although the research team’s findings are encouraging, they also issued a warning that cocklebur fruit extract taken in large dosages may be dangerous. To ascertain the safe limits for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes, more study must be done.

According to Song, the carboxyatractyloside found in the burs of cocklebur is what gives it its toxic properties. That can be one of the causes of the poisonous effects in the high cockleburs concentration. At high amounts, additional substances than carboxyatractyloside can also be hazardous. As a result, it is crucial to determine the optimum dose using acute toxicity studies.

It hasn’t been clear up until now whether cocklebur actually promotes collagen formation and wound healing, two processes that are crucial to the molecular health of the skin. We need to identify any potential molecular mechanisms before moving on to the next phase. Following that, we’ll test cocklebur using additional non-animal methods.

Intriguing anti-aging, healing potential

Dermatologist Dr. Alexis L. Young, clinical assistant professor in the department of internal medicine at the Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, provided the following commentary on this study:

According to her, the field of cosmeceuticals as well as wound healing could be greatly impacted by this new study, which she called “extremely exciting.” “The key principles of anti-aging products include promoting collagen synthesis, preventing collagen degradation, using antioxidants to ward off DNA damage and the ageing effects of free radicals, and boosting the skin’s elasticity and volume. This plant could be able to do those tasks in cell and tissue culture.

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a temporary addition to the skin that briefly plumpens the skin for around 15 minutes before disappearing, according to Dr. Young. “A topical agent that can genuinely boost collagen and HA formation would be new. Presently available retinols, which promote collagen synthesis and prevent its deterioration, can be quite irritating to the skin. We’re constantly looking for skin-care products that are more tolerable yet still effective.

This study, according to Dr. Lamb, is interesting since it reveals a novel development that may be employed as both an antioxidant and a skin protectant: “Naturally derived goods are currently popular, and this is a fresh one that can be quickly added to the arsenal.”

The main concern will be whether or whether something similar can induce allergic contact dermatitis, as the plant itself can. Whilst the research is encouraging, we must wait to see if we should put it on the skin because it actually seems to be quite irritating. If it can do more harm than good, we should avoid using it.

The conclusion

Compounds found in the cocklebur’s fruit, according to South Korean researchers, may aid in skin protection. These substances accelerated wound healing, lowered UVB exposure damage, and boosted collagen formation in tests employing cells and tissues. But more research is still required.


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