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Category: Skin health

What are the foods that keeps healthy and supple skin?

What are the foods that keeps healthy and supple skin?

Numerous foods contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that can assist to improve the health of your skin.

Studies reveal that plant-based diets can actually assist enhance skin elasticity and hydration since they are particularly rich in nutrients that support the skin, such as vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, and beans. They might possibly aid in lessening wrinkle visibility.

There isn’t a special superfood for healthy skin. Instead, what matters is your entire nutritional pattern. The greatest method to encourage healthy skin is to consume a diet high in plants and oily fish in moderation.

It is becoming more and more obvious that what you eat has a substantial impact on the health and ageing of your skin as scientists understand more about diet and the body.

What makes food good for your skin?

Vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and polyphenols are a few elements found in plant-based meals that serve as antioxidants. These antioxidants maintain the structural support of the skin, lessen inflammation, and protect against oxidation. They also have a lot of beans, fruits, vegetables, coffee, and tea.

Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods like nuts, seeds, and fatty seafood, are essential for maintaining good skin. These fats, which comprise omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, may lessen inflammation, which could aid in the treatment of skin diseases like atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and acne.

According to one study, eating a diet high in plant-based foods is linked to less face wrinkles, whereas eating a diet high in red meat and snack foods is linked to more facial wrinkles. Therefore, it makes sense to consume less ultra-processed foods and more plant-based foods.

The best foods and beverages for your skin

Fatty fish

Salmon, mackerel, and herring are all good sources of fat for maintaining healthy skin. They are abundant in omega-3 fatty acids, which are crucial for preserving the health of the skin.

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for maintaining healthy, thick, supple skin. In actuality, a lack of omega-3 fatty acids can lead to dry skin. Since inflammation can result in redness and acne, fish’s omega-3 fats help to alleviate it. They may even lessen your skin’s sensitivity to UV rays from the sun.

According to some research, fish oil supplements may aid in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune skin disorders like lupus and psoriasis.


Healthy fats are abundant in avocados. These fats help your body in various ways, including with skin health. It’s crucial to consume enough of these fats to maintain skin supple and hydrated. A high consumption of total fat, specifically the good fats found in avocados, was linked to more elastic, springy skin, according to a study involving over 700 women.

Additionally, preliminary research suggests that avocados contain substances that could help shield your skin from solar damage. Wrinkles and other ageing symptoms can be brought on by UV damage to your skin.

Vitamin E, a vital antioxidant that aids in preventing oxidative damage to your skin, is another crucial nutrient that can be found in abundance in avocados. The majority of Americans do not consume enough vitamin E.


Walnuts are a great food for healthy skin because of a variety of factors. They are a good source of vital fatty acids, which your body needs but cannot produce on its own.

In fact, they contain more omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids than the majority of other nuts. An excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids may encourage inflammation, including skin diseases like psoriasis.

Omega-3 fatty acids, on the other hand, reduce inflammation throughout your body, especially in your skin. Omega-3 fatty acid sources are few compared to omega-6 fatty acid sources in the Western diet.

Walnuts have a healthy balance of these fatty acids, which may assist them combat any potential inflammatory reactions to too much omega-6.

Sunflower seeds

Nutrients that are excellent for the skin can be found in abundance in nuts and seeds. Sunflower seeds are a great illustration.

Sunflower seeds include 5.5 grammes of protein, 49% of the daily value (DV) for vitamin E, 41% of the DV for selenium, and 14% of the DV for zinc in one ounce (28 grammes).

The sweet potato

A nutrient called beta carotene is present in plants. It performs as a provitamin A, which means your body can change it into vitamin A. Oranges and vegetables including spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes contain beta carotene.

One half-cup (100 grammes) serving of baked sweet potatoes contains enough beta carotene to supply more than six times the DV for vitamin A, making them a great source. By serving as a natural sunblock, carotenoids like beta carotene aid in maintaining the health of your skin.

This antioxidant is absorbed into your skin after consumption and aids in shielding your skin’s cells from UV radiation. This may lessen the risk of skin cancer, cell death, and wrinkled, dry skin.

Yellow or red bell peppers

Bell peppers are a great source of beta carotene, which your body turns into vitamin A, just like sweet potatoes are. The amount of vitamin A in one cup (149 grammes) of finely chopped red bell pepper is equivalent to 156% of the DV.

Additionally, they are among the greatest sources of vitamin C. The production of the collagen protein, which maintains skin strong and firm, depends on this vitamin.

149 gram or one cup of bell peppers contain an astounding 211% of the daily value (DV) for vitamin C. Eating a lot of vitamin C was associated to a lower chance of developing wrinkles and dry skin as people age in a significant observational research involving women.


Zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C are just a few of the vitamins and minerals abundant in broccoli that are crucial for healthy skin.

Additionally, it has lutein, a pigment that functions similarly to beta carotene. Lutein aids in preventing oxidative skin damage, which can lead to dryness and wrinkles in the skin. But sulforaphane, a unique substance found in broccoli florets, also packs a powerful potential punch. Even some varieties of skin cancer may be resistant to it’s effects.

Sulforaphane is also an effective solar damage preventative. It functions in two ways: by scavenging dangerous free radicals and activating additional defence mechanisms within your body.


The main carotenoids, including lycopene, and vitamin C are all present in tomatoes. It has been demonstrated that beta carotene, lutein, and lycopene can shield your skin from UV damage. They might also aid in avoiding wrinkles.

Tomatoes are a great meal for preserving good skin since they are high in carotenoids. Think about combining foods like tomatoes that are high in carotenes with a source of fat, such cheese or olive oil. Your body absorbs more carotenoids if you are fat.


Isoflavones, a class of plant compounds found in soy, have the ability to either imitate or prevent the effects of oestrogen in your body. Your skin may benefit from isoflavones, among other regions of your body.

In a small research of middle-aged women, it was discovered that consuming soy isoflavones daily for 8–12 weeks decreased fine lines and increased skin suppleness. Soy may benefit postmenopausal women with skin dryness issues and may boost collagen production, which keeps skin strong and supple.

These isoflavones not only help to shield your body’s internal cells from harm but also your skin from UV radiation, which may lower your risk of developing some types of skin cancer.

Dark chocolate

Here’s one more justification, in case you needed it: On your skin, cocoa has some pretty amazing properties. Participants in one study reported fuller, more moisturised skin after taking an antioxidant-rich cocoa powder daily for 6–12 weeks.

Additionally, their skin had greater blood flow, which carries more nutrients to the skin, and was less scratchy and scaly, as well as less vulnerable to sunburn.

Another study discovered that consuming 20 grammes of high-antioxidant dark chocolate daily could increase your skin’s ability to withstand more than twice as much UV radiation before burning.

Similar outcomes, including changes in the appearance of wrinkles, have been seen in several other investigations. Keep in mind, nevertheless, that at least one study did not discover any appreciable effects.

Green tea

Your skin may benefit from green tea’s ability to prevent ageing and damage. Catechins, potent substances included in green tea, have been shown to benefit skin health in a number of ways. Green tea, like a number of other foods high in antioxidants, can help shield your skin from UV damage.

One 12-week study involving 60 women discovered that drinking green tea on a regular basis could cut sunburn redness by up to 25%. Additionally, green tea enhanced their skin’s elasticity, thickness, roughness, and moisture content.


Without mentioning the advantages of staying well hydrated, no list regarding skin health would be complete.

A wise decision is to constantly drink lots of water. Since water makes up up to 64% of skin cells, it significantly affects the health and appearance of your skin. While a severe dehydration can cause dry skin, several research suggest that drinking enough water has favourable effects on typical skin physiology.

Above list does not contain all of the food that can help in improving skin health.

Your skin’s health can be dramatically impacted by what you consume. Make sure you’re receiving the necessary nutrients to keep your skin protected. The foods on this list are excellent choices for maintaining the strength, radiance, and health of your skin.



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Lets explore the different stages of burn and treatment.

Lets explore the different stages of burn and treatment.

What are burns?

One of the most frequent injuries in the home is burns, especially for kids. The word “burn” refers to more than just the searing sensation this injury causes. Burns are defined by severe skin injury that results in the death of the impacted skin cells.

Depending on the source and severity of the damage, the majority of people can recover from burns without experiencing any severe health effects. To avoid complications and death, more severe burns require prompt emergency medical attention.

Stages of Burn

There are three layers to the skin, each of which serves as a barrier to bacteria and viruses entering the body. Which are:

  • the epidermis
  • the dermis
  • hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue

The epidermis

This is the skin’s apparent outer layer, which protects the body and aids in temperature regulation. There are no blood vessels in it.

Burns that are superficial or of the first degree simply damage the skin; it is unharmed. A first-degree burn is the least serious and is frequently cured at home.

Dermal layer

The dermis is the skin’s deeper layer. It is known as the papillary region and is made up of elastic fibres, nerve endings, collagen, and sweat glands. The skin’s deepest layer, it offers flexibility and strength.

A burn of the second degree involves the dermis. The severity of this exceeds that of a first-degree burn.

Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer

This is made up of adipose tissue, which stores energy as fat. Additionally, the body’s insulating and cushioning connective tissue.

A third-degree burn is one that penetrates the hypodermis and damages every layer of the skin. Burns of the third degree are serious and need to be treated right away.

Types of burns and their signs

All burns have the potential to hurt and show physical signs. When deciding how to proceed with medical care, it is crucial to comprehend the type and degree of the burn. Three tiers exist:

  • first-degree
  • second-degree
  • third-degree

First-degree burn

The most frequent kind of burn is one of the first degrees. These signs include:

  • minor edoema and dry skin
  • variations in skin tone
  • pain
  • itchiness
  • The capacity for touch

Blisters and peeling skin can sometimes happen. Skin could turn white when touched (lighten in color). Usually, the epidermis is unaltered.

Even though first-degree burns can hurt, they seldom cause long-term harm. Common causes of “superficial burns,” as they are also termed, include

  • slight sunburn
  • overturned hot liquids
  • a hot bath
  • cooking utensils
  • heated devices like a stovetop or iron
  • Skin-to-hard-surface friction can occur on carpets, floors, highways, sports fields, or other similar terrain.

Burns of the first degree frequently recover on their own after a week. In the event that the burn covers a sizable portion of skin, medical attention might be necessary. Ask a healthcare professional for guidance.

Second-degree burn

Second-degree burns can cause severe pain and harm deeper skin layers than first-degree burns.

Both the epidermis and dermis are affected, and the burn site frequently exhibits swelling and blistering. Additionally, the region may appear damp, and if the blisters rupture, a scab-like tissue may form. They are also known as partial-thickness burns by doctors.

Depending on where it is and how deep it is, a second-degree burn is more likely to require medical attention. Burns in the second degree can be caused by:

  • steaming water
  • fire’s blazing flames
  • warm stoves
  • lighting a candle
  • from an iron, steam
  • warm iron
  • serious incidences of sunburn across a vast area
  • toxic burns

Even though scar tissue might form, many second-degree burns recover in a few of weeks.

Third degree burn

The most serious burn type necessitates medical attention. The burn site frequently appears pale or burned due to nerve and blood vessel damage.

Due to damage to the nerve endings, third-degree burns are frequently painless despite their severity. They may be known as full-thickness burns by doctors.

Third-degree burns can be caused by:

  • boiling liquid
  • flames
  • an electric power supply
  • contact for a long time with a hot object
  • a substance source

The epidermis and skin follicles are destroyed with third-degree burns, thus new skin cannot regrow. Third-degree burn victims require emergency medical care.


The degree, size, and location of a burn determine how it should be treated. Some burns can be treated at home, but more serious burns require emergency medical attention.

Treating first-degree burns

These are usually not serious, and the majority go away very soon. First-degree burns can be uncomfortable though. A video from the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) offers instructions on how to handle first-degree burns.

Here’s a little explanation:

  • When the discomfort goes away, hold under cold water or apply a cool compress for 5–10 minutes.
  • Apply a sterile, non-stick bandage to the burn.
  • Gently wash the wound with lukewarm water.
  • everyday use of petroleum jelly
  • Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter (OTC) drug that can aid with pain and inflammation.

The degree, size, and location of a burn determine how it should be treated. Some burns can be treated at home, but more serious burns require emergency medical attention.

Treating first-degree burns

These are usually not serious, and the majority go away very soon. First-degree burns can be uncomfortable though. A video from the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) offers instructions on how to handle first-degree burns.

Here’s a little explanation:

  • When the discomfort goes away, hold under cold water or apply a cool compress for 5–10 minutes.
  • Apply a sterile, non-stick bandage to the burn.
  • Gently wash the wound with lukewarm water.
  • everyday use of petroleum jelly
  • Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter (OTC) drug that can aid with pain and inflammation.

If the burn is on the face or body, providing a cool compress. Gently cleaning and bathing the burn – always wash your hands first. Wrapping loosely with a bandage if clothing or dirt is likely to irritate the burn.

Treatment for second-degree burns

The location and size of these burns will determine how they are treated. Second-degree burns can be brought on by hot water and objects, radiation, friction, electricity, or chemicals.

The skin may blanch when pushed, blister, and swell as symptoms. Within a few days, these burns go away.Home remedies consist of:

  • To relieve discomfort, run cool water over the burn; do not use ice because it could injure the surrounding tissue.
  • Taking off any jewellery, rings, or outfits that may become too constrictive around the swelling
  • If the burn is on the face or body, using a cool compress
  • Gently cleansing and cleaning the burn is always a good idea. If clothing or dirt is likely to irritate it, wrap it loosely with a bandage.
  • Applying lotion can be helpful, but make sure you follow all guidelines.
  • applying an ointment with an over-the-counter antibiotic
  • talking ibuprofen or acetaminophen as painkillers

Deeper partial-thickness burns can be brought on by hot oil, grease, or microwaved liquids. Since symptoms may not appear for several days, keeping an eye on the incision is essential to avoiding infection.

People who have second-degree burns that are more serious should seek medical attention. A course of antibiotics or an ointment may be recommended. In severe cases, a person can need a skin graft.

Treatment of third-degree burns

The most serious burns always require medical attention. A third-degree burn frequently damages the nerve endings, therefore the victim may not experience any pain while touching the region. The skin may become waxy and pallid, or raised, leathery, and dark brown.

Warmth and stillness should be provided for anyone who has third-degree burns. Possible complications include:

Skin grafts and intravenous antibiotics may be necessary for severe burns that cover a significant portion of the body. The length of recovery depends on the burn’s location.

Preventing all degrees of burns

The best method to treat burns is to avoid getting them in the first place. The majority of burns occur at home, despite the fact that some jobs put you at higher risk for them. Young children and infants are most susceptible to burns. Among the preventive steps you can take at home are:

  • Keep kids away from the kitchen while you are cooking.
  • Turn pot handles in the direction of the stove’s back.
  • Add a fire extinguisher to the kitchen or close by.
  • Every month, test the smoke detectors.
  • Every ten years, smoke detectors should be replaced.
  • Keep the temperature of the water heater below 120 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Before using, check the temperature of the bath.
  • Lock up your lighters and matches.
  • Install covers for the outlets.
  • Check for exposed wires in electrical cords and throw them away.
  • When using chemicals, keep them out of the hands’ reach and wear gloves.
  • Always use sunscreen, and stay out of direct sunshine.
  • Make sure that all smoking materials are totally stubbed out.
  • Dryer lint traps should be cleaned frequently.

It’s also crucial to establish a fire escape plan and to rehearse it once a month with your family. Make sure to crawl under smoke if there is a fire. As a result, there will be less chance that you’ll pass out and end up in a burning building.


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Important preventive measure to consider to avoid vitiligo.

Important preventive measure to consider to avoid vitiligo.

The condition known as vitiligo results in patches of skin losing its pigment. With time, the discoloured spots typically enlarge. Any portion of the body’s skin might be impacted by the illness. The tongue and hair can both be impacted by it.

Melanin often controls the hue of skin and hair. Melanin-producing cells die or stop working, which causes vitiligo. All skin tones are affected by vitiligo, however those with dark or black skin may notice it more. Neither the ailment is infectious nor life-threatening. It could cause stress or make you feel self-conscious.

The afflicted skin’s colour may return with vitiligo treatment. However, it doesn’t stop further skin colour loss or recurrence.

What is vitiligo?

Skin losing its colour in patches is a symptom of vitiligo. Each person’s entire amount of skin that vitiligo might affect is different. Additionally, it may have an impact on the hair, tongue, and eyes. The majority of the time, the affected areas are permanently stained.

Affected parts will be more sensitive to sunlight than unaffected ones since the disorder is photosensitive. It is difficult to foresee whether and how the patches will expand. It could take weeks for the patches to spread, or they could stay in for months or years.

People with darker or more tanned skin tend to have lighter spots that are easier to see

What are the types of vitiligo?

The emergence of flat, lighter-colored spots or patches on the skin is the only sign of vitiligo. The first white spot that stands out is frequently in a sun-exposed location. A little spot that is slightly lighter than the surrounding skin at first, it gradually becomes paler till it turns white over time.

The patches typically have an erratic form. On all skin tones, the edges can occasionally be irritated and have a reddish tone that might itch. However, it typically doesn’t result in any discomfort, irritability, soreness, or dryness of the skin.

Each person experiences vitiligo differently. For instance, whereas some people only see a few small white spots that never grow larger, others experience larger white patches that converge and damage wider sections of skin.

  • Generalized: This is the most prevalent kind of vitiligo, which results in macules showing up all over your body.
  • Segmental: Only one side of your body or one particular part of your body, such as your hands or face, is affected by this type.
  • Mucosal: Mouth and/or vaginal mucous membranes may be affected by mucosal vitiligo.
  • Focal vitiligo: It is a rare kind in which the macules only appear in a small area and do not spread outward over the course of one to two years.
  • Trichome: This kind creates a bullseye with a white or colourless centre, then a lighter-pigmented area, and finally a toned portion of your skin.
  • Universal: This uncommon form of vitiligo results in more than 80% of your skin being pigment-free.

What are the symptoms of vitiligo?

Numerous signs of vitiligo include:

  • Skin colour loss that typically first manifests in patches on the hands, face, and regions near body openings and the genitalia.
  • premature greying or whitening of your eyebrows, beard, eyelashes, or scalp hair
  • tissues that border the inside of the mouth and nose losing colour (mucous membranes)

Although vitiligo can begin at any age, it often manifests before the age of 30. The following may be impacted by your vitiligo, depending on the type:

  • Almost every skin surface. This type of vitiligo, also known as worldwide vitiligo, causes practically all skin surfaces to darken.
  • lots of body parts. Generalized vitiligo is the most prevalent form, and the discoloured patches frequently progress on adjacent body parts in a similar manner (symmetrically).
  • Single side or portion of the body. This form, known as segmental vitiligo, typically starts earlier in life, progresses for a year or two, and then stops.
  • Just one or a few body parts. Localized (focal) vitiligo is the name given to this kind.
  • Hands and the face. Acrofacial vitiligo is the name given to this form, which affects the skin on the hands, face, and the areas around body openings like the eyes, nose, and ears.

The course of this illness is impossible to foresee. The patches may occasionally stop developing on their own. The majority of the time, pigment loss spreads until it affects the majority of the skin. The skin sometimes regains its colour.

What causes vitiligo?

Vitiligo is brought on by a shortage of melanin, the skin’s pigment. This does not make sense, for some reason. According to research, vitiligo may originate from:

  • An autoimmune disorder occurs when your immune system misidentifies healthy cells (melanocytes) as harmful bacteria or other foreign invaders that might harm your body. Your immune system overreacts to this, producing antibodies that attack your melanocytes.
  • Genetic modifications: A genetic mutation or alteration to your body’s DNA can have an impact on how well your melanocytes work. There are more than 30 genes that can make you more likely to get vitiligo.
  • Stress: If you frequently suffer physical stress on your body or mental stress on your body, particularly after an injury, the amount of pigment your melanocyte cells produce may alter.
  • Environmental triggers: Your melanocyte cells’ ability to operate can be impacted by conditions including exposure to harmful chemicals and UV light.

What increases your risk of vitiligo?

What specifically causes vitiligo is uncertain. Many vitiligo sufferers have no family history of the ailment, and it doesn’t seem to be inherited. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, however, cautions that having vitiligo or other autoimmune diseases in your family may raise your risk.

Having vitiligo-related genes like NLRP1 and PTPN22 may be additional risk factor, according to a 2018 research. Because your body is attacking its own cells, the majority of researchers think that vitiligo is an autoimmune illness. According to a 2016 study, roughly 20% of vitiligo patients also have another autoimmune condition.

Vitiligo may be linked to a wide range of autoimmune conditions, such as:

  • thyroiditis is brought on by a malfunctioning thyroid.
  • lupus
  • psoriasis
  • Baldness, or alopecia areata
  • diabetes type 1
  • Addison’s illness, pernicious anaemia, and poor vitamin B12 absorption
  • arthritis rheumatoid
  • scleroderma, a condition affecting the body’s connective tissue

Additionally, some specialists claim that vitiligo appears following:

  • serious wounds or sunburns
  • exposure to chemicals and poisons
  • high stress levels

How can I prevent vitiligo?

There is no known technique to stop vitiligo because it may have a number of causes. You can lower your chance of getting vitiligo by:

  • adopting sensible sun exposure practises.
  • employing a moisturiser on a daily basis to take care of your skin.
  • preventing physical stress or harm to your body.
  • managing any autoimmune disorders that may be present.


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How much harm can Leprosy cause to our body?

How much harm can Leprosy cause to our body?

What is Leprosy?

The infectious disease leprosy results in severe, disfiguring skin lesions as well as nerve damage in the arms, legs, and other skin-covered parts of the body. Leprosy has existed since antiquity. People have been impacted by outbreaks on every continent.

Leprosy, however, is not very contagious. Only close and repeated contact with mouth and nose droplets from a person who has untreated leprosy will cause you to contract it. Leprosy affects children more frequently than it does adults.

According to the World Health Organization, there are currently roughly 208,000 leprosy cases globally, with the majority occurring in Africa and Asia. Leprosy is diagnosed in about 100 Americans annually, predominantly in the South, California, Hawaii, and a few U.S. territories.

How does Hansen’s disease spread?

Mycobacterium leprae is the culprit behind Hansen’s illness. It is believed that Hansen’s disease spreads by contact with an infected person’s mucosal secretions. When a person with Hansen’s disease sneezes or coughs, this typically happens.

The illness is not very communicable. On the other hand, prolonged close contact with an untreated person can cause Hansen’s disease to develop.

The bacteria that causes Hansen’s illness grows very slowly. According to the World Health Organization, the disease has an average incubation period of five years (the interval between infection and the onset of the first symptoms) .

It could take up to 20 years before symptoms start to show. The disease can also be carried by and passed on to people by armadillos, which are native to the southern United States and Mexico, according to the New England Journal of Medicine.

What are the symptoms of leprosy?

The following are the top three signs of leprosy (Hansen’s disease):

  • Patches of skin that may be red or have lost their colour.
  • Patches of skin without or with decreased sensation.
  • Your hands, feet, arms, and legs may feel numb or tingly.
  • burns or wounds that cause no pain on the hands and feet.
  • muscle sluggishness

Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) patients may also experience:

  • stiff or thick skin.
  • periphery nerves that are larger.
  • loss of eyebrows or eyelashes
  • nasal blockage
  • Nosebleeds.

When the illness is advanced, it may result in:

  • Paralysis.
  • loss of vision
  • alteration to the nose.
  • Injury to the hands and feet that is permanent.
  • the fingers and toes become shorter.
  • ulcers on the bottom of the feet that are chronic and don’t heal.

After contracting the Mycobacterium leprae infection, leprosy symptoms take between three and five years to manifest. It may potentially take up to two decades in rare circumstances. It is challenging for medical professionals to pinpoint the time and location of the infection because of this.

What causes Leprosy?

A form of bacteria called Mycobacterium leprae, which grows slowly, is the culprit behind leprosy (M. leprae). Another name for leprosy is Hansen’s disease, Hansen being the name of the researcher who discovered M. leprae in 1873.

It is unclear how leprosy is spread exactly. When a person with leprosy coughs or sneezes, they may release droplets that another person can breathe in that contain the M. leprae germs. Leprosy is spread by close personal contact with an afflicted person. It cannot be passed on through innocuous interactions such as handshakes, hugs, or sitting next to an infected person on a bus or at a table while eating.

Leprosy cannot be transmitted from pregnant women to their unborn children. Additionally, it cannot be spread through sexual contact.

How is Hansen’s disease diagnosed?

For the purpose of spotting early disease indicators, your doctor will do a physical examination. Additionally, they’ll perform a biopsy in which they take a tiny fragment of skin or nerve and send it to a lab for analysis.

The type of Hansen’s disease may potentially be identified by a lepromin skin test administered by your doctor. A tiny amount of the inactivated Hansen’s disease-causing bacterium will be injected beneath the skin, often on the upper forearm.

A beneficial outcome at the injection site will be felt by those who have tuberculoid or borderline tuberculoid Hansen’s illness.

How is Hansen’s disease treated?

In order to treat all forms of Hansen’s disease, the WHO created a multidrug therapy in 1995. It is accessible anywhere without cost.

Furthermore, a number of antibiotics work to treat Hansen’s illness by eradicating the bacterium that causes it. These antibiotics consist of:

  • dapsone (Aczone) 
  • rifampin (Rifadin) 
  • clofazimine (Lamprene) 
  • minocycline (Minocin) 
  • ofloxacin (Ocuflux)

More than one antibiotic will probably be prescribed by your doctor concurrently.

They might also recommend that you take an anti-inflammatory drug such thalidomide, prednisone, or aspirin (Bayer, Rayos, and Rayos) (Thalomid). The course of treatment could extend for one to two years, or for many months.

If you are or may become pregnant, you should never take thalidomide. Serious birth abnormalities may result from it.


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Candidiasis: The most dangerous fungal infection possible?

Candidiasis: The most dangerous fungal infection possible?

On your skin, various bacterial and fungal species can be found. The majority of them are not harmful. Most of them are necessary for your body to function normally. However, some can spread illnesses if they start to grow out of control.

One of these potentially hazardous species is the Candida fungus. An infection may happen if there is an overgrowth of Candida on the skin. The term “candidiasis of the skin” or “cutaneous candidiasis” refers to this condition.

A red, itchy rash frequently develops as a result of cutaneous candidiasis, most frequently in the folds of the skin. Other body parts may also become affected by this rash. Even though the symptoms can be annoying, they are typically treatable with better hygiene with antifungal creams or powders.

Symptoms of candidiasis of the skin

A rash is the primary sign of cutaneous candidiasis. The rash frequently produces redness and excruciating itching. In some instances, the infection might result in painful, cracked skin. Additionally possible skin conditions include pustules and blisters.

Although the rash can appear anywhere on the body, it most frequently appears in skin folds. This covers regions under the breasts, between the fingers, in the groyne, and between the armpits. Additionally, candida can result in infections in the corners of the mouth, nails, and nail edges.

Other medical diseases that resemble skin candidiasis include:

  • ringworm
  • hives
  • herpes
  • skin problems associated with diabetes
  • Dermatitis from touch
  • Dermatitis seborrheica
  • Eczema
  • psoriasis

What causes candidiasis of the skin?

Skin infections with Candida lead to the development of candidiasis. On the skin, Candida fungus normally exist in modest numbers. But when this kind of fungus starts to grow out of control, it might result in an infection. This might happen as a result of

  • a warm climate
  • slender clothing
  • bad hygiene
  • irregular underwear changes
  • obesity
  • using medicines to eradicate safe microorganisms keeps Candida under control.
  • using corticosteroids or other drugs that have an impact on the immune system
  • a compromised immune system brought on by diabetes, pregnancy, or another health issue
  • inadequate skin drying after being damp or wet

Candida fungi flourish and spread in warm, humid environments. This explains why the illness frequently affects regions with skin wrinkles.

Skin candidiasis typically isn’t contagious. However, those with compromised immune systems run the risk of contracting the disease after coming in contact with an infected person’s skin. A serious infection brought on by candidiasis is also more likely to occur in people with weakened immune systems.

Types of Candiasis and treatment

  • Cutaneous candidiasis – A variety of topical antifungal medications can be used to treat the majority of localised cutaneous candidiasis infections (eg, clotrimazole, econazole, ciclopirox, miconazole, ketoconazole, nystatin)
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Oral azoles are typically used to treat this illness.
  • Oropharyngeal candidiasis – Treatment options for oropharyngeal candidiasis include systemic oral azoles or topical antifungal medications.
  • Esophageal candidiasis – Treatment for esophageal candidiasis involves fluconazole systemic therapy.
  • VVC – Fluconazole can be taken orally or applied topically to treat fungus.
  • Candida cystitis – Fluconazole should be used to treat Candida cystitis in non-catheterized patients; in catheterized patients, the Foley catheter should be changed or removed; and if the candiduria still occurs after the catheter change, fluconazole can be used to treat the patient.


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What are the symptoms and causes of Melanoma?

What are the symptoms and causes of Melanoma?

What is melanoma?

The most dangerous kind of skin cancer is melanoma, which means “black tumour” in Latin. It spreads easily to any organ and expands swiftly. Melanocytes, which are skin cells, are the source of melanoma. Melanin, a dark pigment that gives skin its colour, is produced by these cells. However, some melanomas are pink, red, purple, or skin-colored. Melanomas are often black or brown in hue.

The majority of melanomas start in normal skin, however about 30% start in moles that already exist. Given that the majority of melanomas don’t begin as moles, it is crucial to remain alert to changes in your skin. Your skin’s propensity to acquire melanoma may, however, be predicted in part by the number of moles you have. Finding out if you belong to a melanoma skin cancer risk category is crucial.

Due to melanomas’ rapid rate of growth, delaying treatment might occasionally mean the difference between life and death. Since melanomas have a 99% cure rate if identified in the earliest stages, knowing your risk might help you be especially alert in detecting changes in your skin and obtaining skin checks. Early identification is crucial since the depth of the malignant development directly affects the effectiveness of the treatment.

How common is melanoma?

Though it only accounts for around 1% of all skin malignancies, melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. It is one of the most prevalent cancers in people under the age of 30, particularly among young women.

Over the past 30 years, melanoma incidence has substantially increased. It is widely acknowledged that one of the primary causes of this sharp increase in melanoma cases is rising UV exposure levels.

Signs of melanoma

Any part of your body might develop melanoma. Even your internal organs and eyes can get melanoma. Melanoma is more likely to form on the trunk of men, frequently the upper back. Melanoma on the legs is more common in women.

Because early melanomas can often be successfully treated, it is crucial to know how to recognise them. Moles, scaly patches, open sores, and elevated bumps can all be symptoms of melanoma.

The “ABCDE” memory aid from the American Academy of Dermatology will help you remember the indicators that a lesion on your skin can be melanoma:

  • Asymmetry: One half is different from the other.
  • Border: The borders are not straight.
  • Color: There are varying hues of brown, black, grey, red, and white that are speckled and irregular.
  • Diameter: The spot’s diameter is larger than the diameter of a pencil eraser (6.0 mm).
  • Evolving: The spot is changing in size, shape, or colour or is new.

Tell your doctor if you see any sores that won’t heal, odd bumps or rashes, changes in your skin, or any moles you already have because not all melanomas follow the ABCDE rule.

The ugly duckling sign is another method for detecting melanoma. The ugly duckling mole is one that stands out from the rest and needs to be examined by a dermatologist.

What causes melanoma?

The majority of medical professionals concur that excessive sun exposure, especially sunburns while you are young, is a significant risk factor for melanoma. According to statistics, solar ultraviolet (UV) rays are the primary cause of 86% of melanomas. What causes skin cancer in the sun? UV exposure can alter specific genes that control how cells grow and divide by damaging a cell’s DNA. When your skin’s DNA is harmed and those cells begin to divide, issues could arise.

The World Health Organization has classified UV radiation from tanning beds as a carcinogen, or substance that causes cancer, because it increases the risk of melanoma. Over 6,000 melanoma cases are thought to be linked to tanning bed use each year in the US.

Although anyone can get melanoma, those who have the following risk factors are more likely to do so:

  • A personal account of having melanoma.
  • a melanoma family history.
  • Blue eyes, blond or red hair, and fair skin with freckles.
  • excessive sun exposure, which can result in painful sunburns.
  • A residence near the equator or at a high elevation may expose you to more UV radiation.
  • a background of using tanning beds.
  • an immune system compromise.
  • a lot of moles, particularly unusual moles.

Melanoma can affect anyone, however it is more prevalent in white people. Melanoma most frequently develops on the palms, soles, and nails of those with darker skin.

Preventing melanoma

  • Although melanoma cannot always be prevented, you can lessen your risk of acquiring it by staying out of the sun (even going pink in the sun).
  • When on vacation overseas or in the UK during the summer, most individuals become sunburned when engaging in outdoor activities like gardening, tanning, or playing cricket.
  • You must exercise extreme caution at these times, especially if you have fair skin and numerous moles.
  • By using sunscreen and dressed responsibly in the sun, you can aid in preventing yourself from suffering from sun damage.
  • Avoid using sunlamps and sunbeds.
  • Regular skin examinations can aid in an early diagnosis and improve the likelihood of a successful cure.


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What are the most effective ways of treating sunburn?

What are the most effective ways of treating sunburn?

What is a sunburn?

Skin that has been sunburned is red, painful, and warm to the touch. Within a few hours of spending too much time in the sun, it frequently manifests.

Simple self-care procedures, such as taking painkillers and cooling the skin, can help you recover from a sunburn. But the sunburn could not go away for several days.

Everyone should take steps to protect their skin from the sun all year long by applying sunscreen and other skin-protection techniques. Even on chilly or overcast days, it is crucial when you’re outside.


Symptoms of sunburn include:

  • On white skin, inflamed skin appears pink or red; however, it may be more difficult to discern on brown or black skin.
  • the sensation of hot or heated skin
  • Itching, discomfort, and pain
  • Swelling
  • small, potentially breakable blisters packed with fluid
  • If the sunburn is severe, headache, fever, nausea, and exhaustion may result.
  • eyes that are dusty or hurt

Any exposed body part, including the lips, scalp, and earlobes, is susceptible to burning. If, for instance, clothing has a loose weave that lets ultraviolet (UV) light through, even covered areas can burn. The eyes can burn as well because they are very sensitive to UV light from the sun.

After being exposed to the sun for a few hours, sunburn symptoms frequently develop. The top layer of the damaged skin may peel off within a few days as the body begins to mend itself. Healing from a severe sunburn could take several days. Any persistent alterations in skin tone often disappear with time.


Too much ultraviolet (UV) light exposure results in sunburn. Sunlight or man-made sources like sunlamps and tanning beds both produce UV light. The wavelength of light known as UVA can damage skin over time by penetrating to its deepest layers. Sunburn is brought on by UVB rays, which penetrates the skin more superficially.

Skin cells are damaged by UV radiation. Erythema, or inflamed skin, or sunburn, is a result of the immune system’s reaction, which involves increasing blood flow to the injured areas.

On chilly or cloudy days, sunburn is still possible. UV rays can reflect off of water, sand, and other surfaces, and they can also burn skin.


A physical examination is typically part of the diagnosis of sunburn. Your doctor might also inquire about your signs and symptoms, prescriptions you’re taking, history of sunburns, and UV exposure.

Your doctor may advise phototesting if you experience sunburn or a skin reaction after only a brief period of exposure to the sun. In order to simulate the issue, measurable levels of UVA and UVB light are applied to small patches of skin during this test. You’re labelled sun-sensitive if your skin reacted to phototesting (photosensitive).


Treatment for sunburns can reduce pain, swelling, and irritation but does not repair the skin. Your doctor could advise using a prescription corticosteroid cream if self-care measures fail to relieve your sunburn or it is extremely severe.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Use a painkiller.

As soon as you can following overexposure to the sun, take a nonprescription pain medication for pain management. Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, among others) and acetaminophen are two examples (Tylenol, others). You could also try applying a gel pain reliever to the area.

Skin cooling down.

Apply a clean cloth soaked with cool running water to the afflicted area of skin. Alternately, take a cool bath with 2 ounces (60 grammes) of baking soda added per tub. Several times per day, cool the skin for roughly 10 minutes.

Use a lotion, gel, or moisturiser.

Calamine lotion or an aloe vera gel might be calming. Before using, try putting the product in the refrigerator to cool it. Avoid anything alcoholic-related.

For a day, take in more water. By doing this, dehydration is avoided.

Be patient with blisters.

The skin might recover faster if the blister is intact. If a blister does rupture, use a pair of tidy, tiny scissors to remove the dead skin. Use mild soap and water to gently wash the area. The wound should then be dressed with an antibiotic cream and a nonstick bandage.

Gently handle skin that is flaking.

The impacted area may start to peel after a few days. This is how your body removes the top layer of unhealthy skin. Use moisturiser even if your skin is flaking.

Use an anti-itch medication.

As the skin starts to peel and repair underneath, an oral antihistamine such diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Chlor-Trimeton, other brands) may help to reduce itching.

Use a calming, medicinal cream.

Apply non-prescription 1% hydrocortisone cream to the affected region three times each day for three days if you have a mild to moderate sunburn. Before using, try putting the product in the refrigerator to cool it.

eye sunburn treatment. 

Use a clean towel that has been soaked with cool running water. Contact lenses shouldn’t be worn until after ocular symptoms have subsided. Avoid rubbing your eyes.

Stop exposing yourself to the sun more.

Avoid the sun or utilise other sun protection techniques while your sunburn heals. You might want to try a product with sunscreen and moisturisers.

Avoid using products with the suffix “-caine,” such as benzocaine.

Such lotions may aggravate skin irritation or result in an allergic reaction. A rare but possibly fatal illness that reduces the quantity of oxygen that the circulation can carry has been connected to benzocaine (methemoglobinemia).


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How To Use Glutathione For Skin Whitening?

How To Use Glutathione For Skin Whitening?

If your doctor suggests skin-whitening procedures and deems them safe, there is no danger in trying them out. This is how the glutathione skin-whitening procedure functions.

Even as the world becomes more accepting of body acceptance, many people still prioritise skin whitening and lightening when it comes to beauty. Some people want for quicker outcomes while others simply don’t get effects from home cures. There is no risk in picking skin-whitening procedures, but you must make sure you are selecting the most secure one. The topic of glutathione skin whitening has received a lot of attention lately.

What is glutathione?

Our bodies naturally contain the chemical glutathione. Glycine, glutamic, and cysteine acid are the three amino acids that make up this antioxidant. In addition to helping with various body processes, it promotes skin lightening by healing damaged cells. Despite the fact that glutathione is naturally created by our bodies, as we get older, our systems produce less of it, necessitating the need of supplements or other treatments.

Dr. Noopur Jain, a dermatologist, told Health Shots that glutathione is one of the body’s most potent antioxidants when they contacted her. In terms of skin whitening treatments that achieve the desired pigmentation with little to no side effects, this is gaining popularity. It is applied topically using a glutathione cream or whitening tablet.

How To Use?

It can be purchased as whitening skin supplements in the form of pills, capsules, injections, soaps, lotions, and creams. In India, you can buy medications, creams, lotions, and soaps online. You should conduct some research and look for a dermatologist before getting any injections.


To observe some good benefits in terms of skin lightening and whitening, take no less than 500mg daily. along with doubling your vitamin C intake. In India, there are numerous brands of glutathione supplements. Before purchasing the pills, do your homework and read reviews.

How do they work?

  • It effectively eliminates pollutants as it has excellent anti-oxidant properties
  • The skin tone is lightened and brightened by glutathione.
  • improves the texture and brings about a shine.
  • Glutathione lessens skin pigmentation, such as freckles, dark bags under the eyes, age spots, pimples, and ulcers.
  • No more blemishes and lines

It’s not that easy. Once you stop taking glutathione, your skin will ultimately return to its previous tone. These effects of glutathione are just temporary.

Overall Benefits of glutathione

  • Lowers levels of oxidative stress
  • Might lessen psoriasis
  • Makes persons with peripheral artery disease more mobile
  • Lessens Parkinson’s disease symptoms
  • Lessens alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease cell damage
  • Reduces insulin resistance in elderly people
  • Might lessen the consequences of uncontrolled diabetes
  • Could lessen symptoms of respiratory diseases
  • Might aid in the battle against autoimmune illness
  • Can lessen oxidative damage in autistic youngsters.

Side effects of Glutathione

There are no hazards associated with a diet high in foods that increase glutathione. Supplement use, however, might not be recommended for everyone. To find out if glutathione is right for you, discuss it with your doctor. Among the potential negative consequences are:

  • stomach pains
  • bloating
  • bronchial constriction causing breathing difficulty
  • allergic responses, like rash


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What are the different ways to treat Acne?

What are the different ways to treat Acne?

What is Acne?

Acne is a common skin condition in which the pores of your skin become blocked by dead skin cells, sebum (an oily substance), hair and bacteria. There are many types of pimples caused by these blockages, including blackheads, whiteheads, nodules, and cysts. You are not alone if you suffer from acne.

The most common skin condition that people experience is eczema. About 80% of people between 11 and 30 will experience at least a mild form of acne, and most people will experience it at some point.

Even though acne doesn’t pose a serious threat to your health, it can still be painful, especially if you have severe acne. Scarring may also occur over time as a result of acne.

Aside from acne’s physical effects, emotional distress can also result from acne. You may experience feelings of anxiety or depression when you have acne on your face or another visible part of your body and acne scars can contribute to these feelings.

Cause of Acne


Under the skin of humans are oil glands, which are connected to pores. Glands are connected to pored through follicles(small sacks that produces and consist of liquid). These liquids are oilly in nature called sebum. These liquids are responsible to carry dead cells to the surface of skin through follicile.

Pimples are generally formed when folliciles are blocked and oil gets buildup under the skin. These serum, skin cells, and hair, together form into a plug which could be infected by bacteria which result in swelling. These plugs break down causing pimples formation.

Hormonal Factors:

Rise in androgen level is though ot be the main reason behind acne followed by range of other factors. When adolescence begins, the hormonal level of Androgen begins rising. This elevation causes glow in oil glands under the skin. The enlarged produces sebum which when get excess could cause several pores in the skin. This cause bacterias to grow in them.

Other triggering factors:

  • some medications that contain androgen and lithium
  • greasy cosmetics
  • hormonal changes
  • emotional stress
  • menstruation

As per several studies, genetic factors might also increase th risk of acne.

Ways to treat acne:

  1. Wash twice a day and after sweating. It is imperative to wash your skin as soon as possible after sweating, especially if you are wearing a hat or helmet.
  2. Use your fingertips to apply a soothing, non-abrasive cleanser. Anything else you choose can irritate your skin, such as a washcloth or mesh sponge.
  3. Be gentle with your skin. Use gentle products, such as those that are alcohol-free. Use products that are not irritants for your skin, such as astringents, toners, and exfoliants. It makes acne appear darker when the skin is dry and red.
  4. Scrubbing your skin can make acne worse. Avoid the temptation to scrub your skin.
  5. Rinse with lukewarm water
  6. Shampoo regularly. If you have oily hair, shampoo daily.
  7. Let your skin heal naturally. Your skin will take longer to clear if you pick, pop, or squeeze your acne, and you will have an increased risk of acne scarring.
  8. Keep your hands off your face. Touching your skin throughout the day can cause flare-ups.
  9. Stay out of the sun and tanning beds. Tanning damages your skin. Furthermore, some acne medications can make your skin very sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light, which is emitted by both the sun and indoor tanning lamps. Using tanning beds increases your risk for melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, by 75%.
  10. Consult a dermatologist if:
    • Feel embarrassed or shy because of your acne.
    • You haven’t found a product that works for you.
    • Scars or darkening of your skin are caused by acne.


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Top ways to keep a healthy skin condition

Top ways to keep a healthy skin condition

What is a skin?

Skin is the largest of all the organs in the human body. As long as we keep it in proper health, it forms several protective layers that shield us from different exposures. However, when its maintenance is compromised, the skin’s ability to function as an effective and protective barrier is compromised. 

Our skin is the biggest window to your body that could reveal the history of your life. Both your age and your health are reflected in your skin, from acne breakouts during your teenage years to pregnancy glows and sunspots.

Skin functions

There are many functions performed by skin, making it the ultimate multitasker of the body. The most important role of our immune system is to protect us from bacteria, viruses, pollution, and chemical substances that we encounter at home and at work.

A number of external factors can damage the skin, including unprotected sunlight and excessive washing. Unhealthy diets, stress, inadequate sleep, insufficient exercise, dehydration, smoking, and certain medications all decrease the effectiveness of the skin’s protective barrier.

There is a compiled list of skin health tips to help you banish wrinkles, get a radiant glow, and keep your skin supple and soft all year long.

1. Healthy diet

Your diet is just as significant as the products you use on your skin. In order to maintain a clear complexion, you need to eat a healthy diet from the inside out. Following are some of the food very beneficial for your skin.

  • Tomatoes
  • Green tea
  • Olive oil
  • Mango
  • Omega-3
  • Kale
  • White tea
  • Soy, etc.

An individual must also make sure to have a calorie restricted diet and must also avoid intake of alcohol.

2. Stress check

Stress level has some serious links with skin health and conditions. As per several studies and reports, people having higher stress are associated with unhealthy skin or skin with some issues such as darkning. In a study of college students, those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to experience skin issues such as:

  • itchy skin
  • hair loss
  • flaky, oily, or waxy patches on the scalp
  • troublesome sweating
  • scaly skin
  • hand rashes

Stress increases the production of sebum, the oily substance that blocks pores, according to the researchers. This, in turn, leads to greater acne severity. Stress reduction may help you achieve clearer skin. Consider stress reduction techniques such as tai chi, yoga, or meditation if your skin is affected by stress.

3. Maintain skin moisture

Moisturizers keep the top layer of skin cells hydrated and seal in moisture. There are three types of moisturizers: humectants, occlusive agents, and emollients. Humectants attract moisture, occlusive agents retain moisture in the skin, and emollients smooth the pores between the cells.

As per American Academy of Dermatology, following are the resommended ways to prevent dry, red, and itchy skin:

  • Take one 5- to 10-minute shower or bath per day. Excessive washing can strip away the oily layer of the skin and dry it out.
  • Use warm water instead of hot water.
  • Minimize the use of harsh soaps. Use a gentle and fragrance-free cleanser.
  • Stay away from abrasive scrub brushes, bath sponges, and washcloths that can damage the skin’s surface.
  • Pat skin gently dry with a towel.
  • Moisturize immediately after washing. To trap in moisture, ointments, lotions, and creams need to be applied within minutes of drying off.
  • Use ointments or creams rather than lotions in order to minimize irritation.
  • Never scratch the skin. Cold compresses and moisturizers should help to control itching.

4. Quit smoking

Smoking accelerates the aging process of your skin. You will also need more time to heal your wounds if you smoke. Research shows that smoking worsens some skin conditions, such as psoriasis and hidradenitis suppurativa.

Furthermore, the constant repetitive expressions that are made while smoking such as pursing the lips, can contribute to wrinkles on the face.

5. Get necessary amount of daily sleep

According to the National Sleep Foundation, adults should sleep between seven and nine hours every day. It can be detrimental to your health, and to your skin in particular, when you don’t get enough sleep.

There is a link between chronic sleep deprivation and obesity, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cancer, but sleep quality may also have an impact on skin function and aging.


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