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Lets explore the ‘immunity’ secret to living to 100

Lets explore the ‘immunity’ secret to living to 100

The number of persons who reach their 100th birthday or older has increased along with the average lifespan of humans.

Researchers have discovered that centenarians have a distinct immune cell composition and activity, providing them an immune system that prolongs their lives. These discoveries, according to scientists, may be exploited to create treatments for healthy ageing.

Since 1900, the average human life expectancy has more than doubled. The average lifespan across the globe has increased from 31 years in 1900 to 73.2 years in 2023, and is predicted to reach 77.1 years in 2050.

The proportion of individuals who live to be at least 100 years old is also rising. Researchers predict that by 2050, there will be 3.7 million centenarians, who are known as centenarians, with an estimated 450,000 centenarians worldwide in 2015.

Globally, the number of individuals living to be 100 years or older was predicted to more than quintuple between 2005 and 2030, according to earlier data from the early 2000s. What makes some people able to live beyond their 100s while others cannot is one thing that is still unknown.

This question is being addressed by a recent study that was conducted under the direction of scientists from Tufts Medical Center and Boston University Sachool of Medicine and discovered that centenarians have a distinct immune cell composition and activity that allows them to have a highly functional immune system and live longer.

These results, according to scientists, may be utilised to create treatments that promote healthy ageing. In the most recent issue of Lancet eBioMedicine, the study was published.

Immune system as we age

All bodily systems, including the immune system, undergo changes as we become older.

There are two basic theories on how the immune system changes as we age, according to Dr. Scott Kaiser, a geriatrician and the director of Geriatric Cognitive Health for the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California.

The first is immunosenescence, which he defined as an age-related immunological malfunctioning process. Hence, ageing can cause a decline in immune function due to changes in the makeup and operation of our immune systems. And that’s strongly tied to how susceptible people are to infections, autoimmune conditions, and even different kinds of cancer, he added.

“And then there’s the problem of inflammaging, which is a term that’s been used to characterise age-related increases in inflammation as a result of high levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the blood and other bodily tissues. For example, neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease are strongly associated with that risk factor, according to Dr. Kaiser.

There is a lot to consider regarding immune function over time, he continued, and how our immune systems alter with age may either increase our vulnerability or provide protection for us.

A look at a “exceptional” immunity

For this work, blood samples from seven centenarians enrolled in the New England Centenarian Project were used to perform single-cell sequencing on an immune cell subset known as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

“We examined immune cells that pass through the immune system throughout the human lifespan using single-cell data and novel computational techniques. We examined the existence of particular immune cell types in younger ages and extreme old age and discovered cell type-specific alterations in ageing and extreme old age, according to Dr. Karagiannis.

We also used the same cell types to investigate how gene expression varies with age in order to identify distinct gene expression patterns of extreme longevity that fluctuate with age but are also specific to the very elderly.

Species-specific cell types in centenarians

After investigation, the researchers validated findings from earlier studies on ageing that pointed to distinct compositional and transcriptional alterations for each cell type that are only observed in centenarians and suggest a healthy immune response.

Also, they discovered that both genes with age-related alterations and genes expressed exclusively in centenarians showed cell type signatures unique to remarkable longevity in centenarians.

“Given that centenarians are an ageing population, we weren’t as shocked to uncover genes that change with age in them. What was unexpected were the varied ageing patterns we discovered, including aging-specific genes whose expression levels changed with advancing age but not in extreme longevity across distinct cell populations, according to Dr. Karagiannis

“Our findings can serve as a platform for further research into the causes of extreme old age, which may result in the development of therapies for healthy ageing. To better understand the protective factors of extreme longevity that contribute to the positive health outcomes seen in these people, we would like to examine longitudinal changes in immune cells of centenarians and younger aged persons.

Innovative treatments for disorders associated with ageing

After reading this study, Dr. Kaiser stated that he thought it was interesting because it examined individuals who had aged remarkably well—individuals who had essentially resisted aging—and then examined what was happening in them to see if there was anything we could learn from them.

The possible lessons from this, he said, “are in what makes us more resilient.”

“Looking at these people who had extreme longevity, living into their 100s and even beyond, and determining what is the nature, what is the characteristic of their immune system so that we could better understand what may be going on, and then determining how that could be translated into potential therapies for other people, so that more people can enjoy that”, said  Doctor Kaiser

We also discussed this study with Kathleen Cameron, senior director of the Institute for Healthy Aging at the National Council on Aging.

In order to help individuals live longer, she said it’s critical to comprehend the immunological changes related to ageing. And many individuals desire to live longer if it means maintaining their health.

“Treatments that extend life may be developed if we can identify what causes this immunological resilience in those who live to be over 100. Nevertheless, it would also be helpful if there were certain healthy habits that contributed to this resilience, Cameron continued.

She did, however, note that this is all very preliminary data and that further research should be done to help medical professionals comprehend this immunological resilience.


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Common sweetener in high doses may suppress immune system.

Common sweetener in high doses may suppress immune system.

According to a recent study, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, lowers immunological responses in mice when given in large amounts. In particular, it lessens their T cells’ level of activation. Researchers emphasise that sucralose ingestion by humans in usual amounts is unlikely to be detrimental.

Researchers plan to investigate if this popular sweetener could be utilised to calm down overactive immune systems in the future in high doses.

Sucralose, which goes by the brand name Splenda, is one of several artificial sweeteners that have been given the go-ahead for usage in the US. The sugar substitute has 600 times more sweetness than regular sugar.

Sucralose was given the go-ahead by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1999 to be used as a general-purpose sweetener for food.

In order to better understand how nutrition affects disease, Dr. Karen Vousden’s team at the Francis Crick Institute in London decided to study sucralose. She is a specialist in cancer biology.

“Sweetener consumption is rising quickly around the world, and comprehensive research by numerous regulatory bodies have demonstrated that they are safe at levels of usual consumption,” she said.

There have been reports in recent years suggesting that sweeteners may have more impacts than previously believed, including an impact on the gut flora. Hence, we conducted a study to examine these sweeteners’ impact on mice. Karen Vousden, Ph.D.

They recently had a publication about their study appear in Nature. It indicates the scientists discovered that sucralose lowers mice’s immune systems when taken in large dosages.

Recommended sucralose consumption

Sucralose has an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 milligrammes per kilogramme of body weight per day, as set by the FDA. It has an ADI set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of 15 mg per kg of body weight per day.

Sucralose amounts to 12 milligrammes every packet of Splenda. In the United States, a person weighing 150 pounds can consume 340 mg of sucralose per day and still meet the ADI.

The researchers provided mice with access to water that was comparable to the ADI suggested by the EFSA (.72 mg) and the FDA for rodents for the experiments they conducted for their study (.17 mg).

Higher doses of sucralose

In order to examine the potential impact of sucralose on the immune system, the researchers conducted a number of laboratory tests on the T cells, a subset of white blood cells, of mice and people.

In one experiment, scientists fed mice either 0.17 or 0.72 mg of sucralose or sodium saccharin, a chemically unrelated sweetener (NaS). For several cell types, neither the amount of sucralose nor the presence of NaS had any discernible impact.

Another experiment assessed the homeostatic expansion of donor T cells in mice that were given sucrose but were unable to develop mature T cells or B cells. The growth of vital adaptive immune system cells was only prevented by sucralose.

Overall, results from numerous studies indicated that high sucralose exposure reduces T cell proliferation and differentiation.

Dr. Vousden, the senior author of the study, told that the team was shocked that “the effect was so evident across several mice models” due to sucralose’s poor absorption.

Sucralose did not appear to affect the activity of other immune cells, which shocked her team as well. “We were also startled to discover such a particular effect of sucralose on T-cells — none of the other sweeteners had this effect,” she said.

Effects of sucralose

Sucralose or NaS administration to mice for up to 12 weeks did not influence their dietary habits or body weight, according to the research. It also had no discernible impact on the mice’s fasting insulin levels or glucose tolerance.

Sucralose has been demonstrated to have an impact on the gut microbiota in certain studies, including one from 2008. But, in this most recent publication, researchers found “no consistent alteration in the bacterial species” in the mice given sucralose-treated stools.

The researchers also opted to investigate the medicinal potential of sucralose in the management of autoimmune diseases. They did this by administering sucralose to NOD (nonobese diabetic) mice.

According to Vousden, sucrose does not necessarily have a detrimental impact on the immune system. The findings suggest that the sweetener might one day be utilised therapeutically to treat autoimmune diseases, according to her.

The researchers treated mice that were engineered to be predisposed to type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that induces T cells to assault pancreatic cells, excessive dosages of the sweetener to test this notion in animals. Just approximately a third of the mice given the sweetener acquired diabetes after about 30 weeks; in contrast, all of the animals given simply water got the disease.

In the event that human studies reveal a similar outcome, according to Zani, he could imagine the sweetener being used in conjunction with more traditional immunosuppressive medications. As a result, doctors might be able to reduce the dosages of these medications. Walther believes that this line of enquiry is promising, particularly in light of the fact that sucralose is inexpensive to produce and would have less negative side effects.

long-term use of sucralose

In a 2018 study, Dr. Fabio Cominelli of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Ohio discovered that sucralose consumption by mice may negatively affect the intestinal flora. Dr. Cominelli is the director of the Digestive Health Research Institute.

Dr. Cominelli, who was not involved in the current study, stated that he was unsure of the reason why the microbiome did not undergo significant changes as reported by the researchers.

He did, however, draw MNT’s attention to the fact that the rodent testing relied on doses of the sweetener that are far greater than what humans generally ingest, meaning that the article may not be relevant to scientists interested in the long-term effects of sucralose on humans.


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Explore the warning signs of immune system problems.

Explore the warning signs of immune system problems.

It’s a lifesaver when your immune system is functioning properly. That may be excellent, but it is not faultless. This unique collection of cells, tissues, and organs occasionally behaves improperly.

With autoimmune illnesses, your immune system attacks your body unintentionally. Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and a few thyroid diseases are examples of these types.

What is an autoimmune disease?

Normally, the immune system protects against viruses and germs. It sends out an army of fighter cells to attack these foreign invaders as soon as it detects them.

The immune system can typically distinguish between your own cells and foreign cells. When you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system misinterprets your skin or joints as alien tissues. Autoantibodies, which are proteins released by the body, assault healthy cells.

Certain autoimmune disorders only affect a single organ. The pancreas is harmed by type 1 diabetes. Some illnesses, such as lupus or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), can have a total body impact.

A brief description of some of the most prevalent autoimmune illnesses is given below.

Why does the immune system attack the body?

Clinicians are unsure of the precise aetiology of immune system malfunction. Nonetheless, some people are more likely than others to develop an autoimmune disease.

According to a 2014 study, women are more likely than males to develop autoimmune illnesses (6.4% of women versus 2.7% of men). A lot of times, the illness strikes women who are fertile (ages 15 to 44).

Some ethnic groups are more likely to develop specific autoimmune illnesses. For instance, lupus affects white individuals less than it does African Americans and Hispanics.

Many autoimmune conditions, including lupus and multiple sclerosis, run in families. Although not every family member will necessarily have the same illness, they all have a propensity for autoimmune diseases.

Researchers believe environmental factors like infections and exposure to chemicals or solvents may potentially play a role in the rise in the prevalence of autoimmune illnesses.

Another possible risk factor for developing an autoimmune illness is a “Western diet”. Consuming meals that are rich in fat, sugar, and processing is likely to contribute to inflammation, which may trigger an immunological response. But there is no proof of this.

SHORT VERDICT: The precise causation of autoimmune disorders is unknown. A number of factors may be at play, including genetics, nutrition, infections, and chemical exposure.

Your chance of contracting COVID-19 may increase if your immune system is compromised. If you have symptoms, make sure to get checked as soon as possible.

Common signs of a weak immune system

Remember that there are numerous additional reasons why these potential signals might appear. You should visit your doctor to find out what’s wrong with your health.

Cold hands

Your fingers, toes, ears, and nose may have a tougher time maintaining heat if your blood vessels are irritated. When exposed to cold, the skin in these places may turn white, then blue. The skin may turn red after the blood flow has resumed.

“Raynaud’s phenomenon,” as doctors refer to it. It can be brought on by immune system issues as well as by smoking, some prescription medications, and artery-related illnesses.

Dry Eyes

If you suffer from an autoimmune condition, your immune system is attacking your body rather than protecting it. Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis are two examples.

Dry eyes are a common symptom for those with autoimmune diseases. You can get a sand-like, grainy feeling in your eye. Astringent discharge, discomfort, redness, or blurred vision are some potential symptoms. Even when they are angry, some people find they are unable to cry.


Extreme fatigue similar to what you experience from the flu may indicate a problem with your body’s defences. Sleep probably won’t do any good. Your muscles or joints may also hurt. However, there may be a variety of different causes for your feelings.

Light Fever

Your immune system may be beginning to overwork itself if your body temperature is higher than usual. It may occur as a result of an impending infection or the beginning of an autoimmune disorder flare-up.


Headaches can have an immune system component. Vasculitis, for instance, is the inflammation of a blood vessel brought on by an infection or an autoimmune disorder.


Your body’s first line of defence against pathogens is your skin. How it feels and looks may be an indication of how well your immune system is functioning.

Skin that is red, dry, and itchy is a typical sign of inflammation. The same goes for rashes that hurt or don’t go away. Lupus patients frequently develop a butterfly-shaped rash on their cheeks and nose.

Joint Pain

Your joints become sensitive to the touch when the lining inside them gets inflamed. It might affect more than one joint, and it may also be stiff or swollen. It can seem to be worse in the morning.

Patchy Hair Loss

The immune system can occasionally assault hair follicles. You can have a disorder called alopecia areata if you experience hair loss on your scalp, face, or other areas of your body. Hair breaking out in clumps or strands is another sign of lupus.

Continual Infections

Your body might not be able to effectively combat germs on its own if you need to take antibiotics more than twice per year (four times for kids).

Additional warning signs include persistent sinus infections, having more than four ear infections in a calendar year (for anybody older than 4), and recurring pneumonia.

Sun sensitivity

Photodermatitis, an allergic response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, can occasionally occur in people with autoimmune diseases. After being in the sun, you can develop blisters, a rash, or scaly spots. Alternatively you can get nausea, a headache, or chills.

Numbness or Tingling in Your Feet and Hands

That might be entirely benign. Yet, in other circumstances it may indicate that your body is targeting the nerves that communicate with your muscles. For example, numbness that begins in the legs and spreads to the arms and chest may be a symptom of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), the demyelinating type of GBS, lasts for two to thirty days, whereas chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) lasts longer. Longer-lasting is CIDP.

Difficulty swallowing

Your oesophagus, which transports food from your mouth to your stomach, may be enlarged or underdeveloped if you have trouble swallowing. Some individuals have a food-stuck sensation in their throat or chest. Those who swallow choke or gag. Your immune system could be one of the potential causes.

Unaccounted-for Weight Change

Even if your eating habits and exercise routine haven’t altered, you notice that you are putting on weight. Perhaps the number on your scale can fall without apparent cause. It’s possible that your thyroid gland has been harmed by an autoimmune disease as a result.

White Spots

Sometimes, melanocytes, the cells that produce colour in the skin, are targeted by the immune system. If so, your body will start to develop white patches of skin.

Your Skin or Eyes Are Turning Yellow

Jaundice, sometimes called biliary cirrhosis, is a condition where your immune system attacks and destroys healthy liver cells. This may result in autoimmune hepatitis, a disease.

Symptoms of autoimmune diseases

Several autoimmune illnesses have early signs and symptoms, including:

  • fatigue
  • stiff muscles
  • swell and erythema
  • minimal fever
  • difficulty concentrating
  • tingling and numbness in the hands and feet
  • hair fall
  • body rashes

Also, every disease may have a different set of symptoms. As an illustration, type 1 diabetes results in excessive thirst, weight loss, and exhaustion. IBD results in diarrhoea, bloating, and stomach pain.

Symptoms of autoimmune illnesses like psoriasis or RA can fluctuate. A flare-up is a time when symptoms are present. Remission refers to the time frame during which symptoms disappear.

VERDICT: Signs of an autoimmune disease may include weariness, muscle aches, swelling, and redness. With time, symptoms may appear and disappear.


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Skipping breakfast may compromise the immune system.

Skipping breakfast may compromise the immune system.

Many health advantages of fasting have been reported. However, a recent mouse study raises the possibility that there may be a trade-off in the form of weakened immunity. The research discovered that during fasting, immune cells moved from the animals’ circulation to their bone marrow. Also, they surged back when eating resumed.

When food is scarce, hunger causes a hormonal stress response in the brain that may force the immune system to save resources. Although it hasn’t been proven, research suggests that habitually skipping breakfast may weaken a person’s immune system.

Although many people refer to breakfast as “the most important meal of the day,” scientific evidence on the consequences of skipping breakfast on health is still ambiguous.

It is widely acknowledged that breakfast is “the most essential meal of the day,”. However, scientific study on the consequences of skipping breakfast for your health has not yet reached a firm conclusion.

Contrary to popular belief, numerous studies have discovered that regular midday fasting. They are often known as “time-restricted feeding,” provides several health advantages. For instance, research indicates that calorie restriction and fasting are associated with a lower risk of age-related diseases such hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes.

Yet, a recent investigation using mice raises the possibility that fasting has drawbacks. According to the study, animals who weren’t allowed to feed in the hours after they got up experienced a dramatic decline in the amount of circulating immune cells.

The study’s lead author, Filip Swirski, Ph.D., says there is growing recognition that fasting is healthy and that there is ample data supporting its advantages. He continues, “Our study offers a word of caution as it implies that there may potentially be a cost to fasting that carries a health risk.

How fasting affects immune cells?

Because they are nocturnal, mice spend the day dormant and only go scavenging at night. The researchers contrasted mice with unlimited access to food with mice with limited access to food in the hours after the onset of activity.

Monocytes, a type of immune cell, were found in lower concentrations in fasting mice bloodstream after only four hours. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and are typically seen scouring the body for infections. Moreover, the cells are involved in tissue healing and inflammation.

Further research by the researchers demonstrated that during fasting periods, immune cells returned from the bloodstream to the bone marrow. Yet as soon as feeding resumed, monocytes flowed back into the blood. This causes monocytosis, a condition in which there are abnormally large quantities of these immune cells.

According to Dr. Swirski, the study shows that, on the one hand, fasting reduces the amount of circulating monocytes. One may believe is a good thing because these cells are major components of inflammation”. However, the return of food causes a spike in the number of monocytes in the blood, which can be dangerous, he continues.

Fasting elicits a stress response in the brain

The relationship between the brain and monocytes when fasting was also investigated. Scientists discovered that being without food increases the brain’s stress response, which immediately causes a massive movement of monocytes from the blood into the bone marrow and back into the bloodstream after reintroducing food. According to the experts, this stress reaction to fasting also causes people to feel “hangry” (hungry and angry).

As food is reintroduced, a burst of monocytes returns to the circulation, which increases the hazards associated with fasting. According to the experts, fasting may have an impact on the body’s ability to fight against an infection in this way.

Fighting off infection

The effectiveness of mice’s capacity to fend off an illness was also evaluated by the researchers. They gave the mice a 24-hour fast, followed by a 4-hour feeding period, and then infected them with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that frequently causes pneumonia in hospitals.

The mice who fasted died earlier and in greater numbers than mice that had unlimited access to food throughout, possibly as a result of an increase in pulmonary inflammation.

It will be crucial to comprehend precisely how fasting affects monocytes because, as Dr. Swirski points out, they also play a significant role in diseases like heart disease and cancer. Further research by the researchers demonstrated that fasting altered the mice’s brains, which in turn caused the release of the stress hormone corticosterone.

The immune system called the immune cells back to the bone marrow in response to this stress signal. At times of resource constraint, this might aid the animals in resource conservation. The study demonstrates that the immunological and neurological systems interact, according to Dr. Swirski.

Costs and benefits of fasting

The benefits of fasting are well supported by evidence, according to Dr. Swirski. The latest study, he claimed, shows that there might nonetheless be a price. The balance between cost and benefit is what’s at risk in this situation, he claimed.

More measured kinds of fasting and controlled refeeding, as opposed to feasting after fasting, may be the key to striking a balance between the drawbacks and advantages, he suggested.

It is too soon to say whether studies done on mice, like the one mentioned above, have any relevance to people who skip breakfast or fast to lose weight. Dr. Swirski drew attention to several studies, however, which revealed that fasting also lowers blood monocyte levels in people.



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Explore the body functions affected by Multiple Sclerosis.

Explore the body functions affected by Multiple Sclerosis.

Your nerves are impacted by multiple sclerosis, which manifests as symptoms including weariness, trouble walking, and speech problems. There is currently no cure, however there are a number of therapies that can help you manage the symptoms.

A persistent disorder affecting your central nervous system is called multiple sclerosis (MS). Your immune system destroys myelin, the covering that surrounds nerve fibres, when you have MS.

Inflammation and transient lesions are brought on by MS. Additionally, it may result in long-lasting lesions brought on by scar tissue, making it challenging for your brain to communicate with the rest of your body. MS cannot be cured, but symptoms can be controlled.

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Although they are unsure of the actual cause of MS, researchers think it is an autoimmune condition that affects the central nervous system (CNS). The immune system assaults healthy tissue when a person has an autoimmune disease, just as it could attack a virus or bacteria.

In MS, inflammation results from the immune system attacking the myelin sheath, which covers and shields the nerve fibres. The nerves’ ability to swiftly and effectively conduct electrical signals is enabled by myelin.

“Scar tissue in numerous sites” is what multiple sclerosis signifies. Sclerosis, or a scar, results from the myelin sheath disappearing or being damaged in several places. These regions are also referred to by doctors as plaques or lesions. They mostly impact:

  • the cerebral stem
  • the cerebellum, which controls balance and movement coordination,
  • spinal cord
  • ocular nerves
  • Some brain areas have white matter.

Nerve fibres may rupture or suffer damage as more lesions appear. The electrical impulses from the brain do not reach the target nerve smoothly as a result. This implies that the body is unable to do some tasks.

Types of MS and stages

Multiple sclerosis comes in four different forms:

  • Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): When someone experiences their first bout of MS symptoms, medical professionals frequently classify it as CIS. Multiple sclerosis does not always develop in CIS patients.
  • Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS): It is the most prevalent type. Relapses or exacerbations, which are other terms for flare-ups of new or worsened symptoms, are common in people with RRMS. Following are times of remission (when symptoms stabilise or go away).
  • Primary progressive MS (PPMS): People with PPMS experience symptoms that slowly deteriorate over time without experiencing any relapses or remissions.
  • Secondary progressive MS (SPMS): People with RRMS who subsequently develop SPMS are commonly diagnosed with SPMS. Multiple sclerosis that is secondary-progressive causes ongoing nerve damage. Your symptoms get worse with time. You no longer have periods of remission following relapses or flares (when symptoms worsen), even if you may still have some of these (when symptoms stabilise or go away).

Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

Experts are still unsure about the precise cause of multiple sclerosis. To assist pinpoint the disease’s underlying causes, research is ongoing. Several things can cause MS, such as:

Exposure to specific viruses or bacteria: According to some studies, MS may develop later in life if a person is exposed to particular illnesses (such as the Epstein-Barr virus).

Your residence: Your chance of acquiring MS may be influenced by your environment. The prevalence of the disease is noticeably higher in some regions of the world than others. MS is more prevalent in regions that are farthest from the equator. That might be because the sun doesn’t shine as brightly in certain areas. A risk factor for MS development is reduced vitamin D levels in people who spend less time in the sun.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, which affects the way your immune system works. Researchers are trying to determine why immune cells in some people attack healthy cells inadvertently.

Gene mutations: Having an MS-afflicted family member does enhance your likelihood of developing the condition. However, it is still unknown precisely how and which genes contribute to the onset of multiple sclerosis.

Early signs and symptoms

MS symptoms can appear in any part of the body since the CNS, which regulates all bodily processes, is affected by the disease.

The most typical signs of MS include:

Weak muscles:

People may experience weak muscles as a result of inactivity or stimulation brought on by nerve injury.

One of the first signs of MS is Numbness and tingling, which can affect the face, body, arms, and legs and feel like pins and needles.

Lhermitte’s sign:

When a person moves their neck, they could feel an electric shock-like sensation; this is referred to as Lhermitte’s sign.

Bladder issues:

Urge incontinence, or the sudden or frequent need to urinate, can make it difficult for a person to empty their bladder. An early indication of MS is losing control of one’s bladder.

Bowel issues:

Fecal impaction brought on by constipation might result in bowel incontinence.

One of the most typical symptoms of MS is fatigue, which can make it difficult for a person to perform at work or at home.

Along with balance and coordination impairments, vertigo and dizziness are frequent ailments.

Sexual dysfunction:

Both sexes may become uninterested in having sex.

Muscle spasms and stiffness:

are early signs of MS. Painful muscle spasms, particularly those in the legs, can be brought on by damage to the nerve fibres in the spinal cord and brain.


Some MS patients may have uncontrollable trembling.

Having trouble seeing:

Some people may have double, blurry, or even complete loss of eyesight. One eye is typically affected at a time by this. When the eye moves, pain due to optic nerve inflammation may be experienced. Vision issues are a precursor to MS.

Changes in gait and mobility:

MS can alter a person’s gait owing to muscle weakness, issues with balance, weariness, and dizziness.

Depression and emotional changes:

Demyelination and brain nerve fibre loss can cause emotional alterations.

Memory and learning issues:

These can make it difficult to focus, prioritise, learn, plan, and multitask.


MS patients frequently experience pain. While localised pain may be brought on by muscle stiffness or spasticity, neuropathic pain is directly related to MS.

Less frequent signs include:

  • headaches
  • loss of hearing
  • itching
  • breathing or respiratory issues
  • seizures
  • speaking issues
  • swallowing difficulties

Additionally, there is a greater chance of losing mobility, diminished activity, and urinary tract infections. A person’s career and social life may be impacted by these.

Risk factors for MS

There is still no known cause for MS. There are, however, a number of risk factors for MS development.

These risk elements consist of:

  • having a family member with MS
  • obesity
  • some infections
  • smoking
  • a few autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis

How is multiple sclerosis (MS) managed or treated?

MS presently has no known cure. The main goals of treatment are to control symptoms, lessen relapses (times when symptoms return), and reduce the disease’s course. Your detailed treatment programme can include:

  • Disease-modifying treatments (DMTs): The FDA has approved a number of drugs for the long-term treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). These medications lessen relapses (also called flare-ups or attacks). They impede the spread of the illness. Additionally, they can stop the growth of new lesions on the spinal cord and brain.
  • Relapse prevention drugs: Your neurologist could advise a high dosage of corticosteroids if you experience a severe attack. The drug has a rapid anti-inflammatory effect. They mitigate harm to your nerve cells’ protective myelin coating.
  • Physical therapy: Multiple sclerosis might impair your physical capabilities. Maintaining your physical fitness and strength will assist your mobility.
  • Counseling for mental health: Managing a chronic illness can be emotionally taxing. Furthermore, MS might occasionally impair your mood and memory. A crucial component of treating the condition is working with a neuropsychologist or receiving other emotional assistance.



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Risk factors involved with Primary immunodeficiency disease

Risk factors involved with Primary immunodeficiency disease

Immune deficiencies make it difficult for your body to fight off illnesses and infections. You are more likely to contract viruses and bacterial illnesses if you have this kind of condition.

Disorders of the immune system can be either inherited or acquired. You are born with a congenital, or primary, disease. A secondary or acquired disorder is one that develops later in life. Congenital disorders are less frequent than acquired disorders.

The following organs are part of your immune system:

  • spleen
  • tonsils
  • blood marrow
  • lymph glands

Lymphocytes are processed and released by these organs. These are T cells and B cells, two types of white blood cells. Antigen-based intruders are fought by B and T lymphocytes. B cells release antibodies that are tailored to the illness your body has identified. Some T cells eliminate abnormal or alien cells.

Your B and T cells may need to defend themselves against various antigens, for instance:

  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • melanoma cells
  • parasites

Your body’s capacity to fight itself against these antigens is interfered with by an immunodeficiency condition.

What is a weak immune system?

You are immunocompromised if your immune system is impaired. This indicates that, compared to healthy individuals, your body is less capable of fending off viruses or diseases.

A weakened immune system can momentarily be brought on by treatments like anticancer therapies and radiation therapy, despite the fact that it is primarily brought on by certain illnesses, starvation, and specific genetic problems.

A stem cell or organ transplant may also momentarily impair your immune system.

Signs of an immunodeficiency disorder

Immunodeficiency illnesses come in many different shapes and sizes. Each illness has distinct symptoms that may be recurrent or persistent. There are, however, a few red flags that suggest your immune system may be malfunctioning.

Those who suffer from immunodeficiency disorders frequently get infections of certain illnesses, such as:

  • red eye
  • sinus problems
  • thrush
  • colds
  • persistent gum disease (gingivitis)
  • pneumonia
  • Candida infections

Immunodeficiency condition sufferers may experience chronic stomach pain as well as weight loss over time. Your doctor may do an immunodeficiency disorder test if you notice that you are susceptible to illnesses and viruses, and that you have trouble recovering from them.

Types of immunodeficiency disorders

When the immune system is not functioning as it should, an immune deficiency disease or disorder develops. It is referred to as primary immunodeficiency disease if you are born with a deficiency that has a hereditary aetiology. Primary immunodeficiency disorders number over 200.

Primary immunodeficiency disorders include, for example:

  • common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
  • severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is also known as alymphocytosis
  • chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)

When your body is weakened by an external factor, such as a chemical or virus, secondary immunodeficiency problems develop. A secondary immunodeficiency condition can result from the following:

  • a lot of burns
  • chemotherapy
  • radiation
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • malnutrition

Secondary immunodeficiency disorders include, for example:

  • AIDS
  • immune system malignancies, such as leukaemia
  • immune-complex diseases, like viral hepatitis
  • multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells, which produce antibodies)

Causes of immunodeficiency disorders

Numerous primary immunodeficiency diseases are inherited and are acquired from either one or both parents. Many of these immune system flaws are brought on by issues with the DNA, which serves as the body’s blueprint for genetic construction.

More than 300 different primary immunodeficiency illnesses have been identified so far, and new ones are constantly being discovered. Based on whatever immune system component is impacted, they can be roughly divided into six groups:

  • Lack of B cells and antibodies
  • defects in T cells
  • a combined lack of B and T cells
  • flawed phagocytes
  • Deficits in the complement
  • Unknown (idiopathic)

Risk factors

A larger risk of acquiring primary immunodeficiency disorders in oneself exists in those with a family history of such conditions. An additional immunodeficiency condition can result from anything that impairs your immune system. As an illustration, exposure to HIV-infected bodily fluids or organ excision and replacement are both potential causes.

Additionally, ageing can impair your immune system. Some of the organs that make or process white blood cells decrease and perform less effectively as you age. Proteins are essential for maintaining immunity. Your immune system may become weakened if you don’t consume enough protein.

While you sleep, your body also generates proteins that aid in the body’s ability to fight infections. Because of this, getting too little sleep can weaken your immune system. Additionally, cancer and chemotherapy medications can lower your immunity.

Prevention of immunodeficiency disorders

There is no method to prevent primary immunological illnesses because they are brought on by genetic alterations. However, there are precautions you can do to avoid infections if you or your child has a compromised immune system:

  • Maintain proper hygiene. Use a light soap to wash your hands after using the restroom and before eating.
  • Maintain good oral hygiene. At least twice a day, brush your teeth.
  • Proper diet, An illness can be avoided with a healthy, balanced diet.
  • Be active physically. Your whole health depends on maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Find out what activities are suitable for you by asking your doctor.
  • Get adequate rest. Try to get the same amount of sleep each night and try to go to bed and wake up at the same time each day.
  • Stress management. According to certain research, stress may weaken your immune system. Massage, meditation, yoga, biofeedback, or hobbies can help you manage your stress. Figure out what works for you.
  • Prevent exposure. Avoid crowds and persons who have colds or other diseases.
  • Consult your doctor regarding vaccines. Learn which ones you ought to have.


AIDS: Important guide for this life threatening condition.

AIDS: Important guide for this life threatening condition.

What is AIDS?

HIV-positive individuals have the potential to acquire AIDS. It is HIV’s most advanced stage. However, merely having HIV does not guarantee that a person will get AIDS. CD4 cells die due to HIV. A healthy adult’s CD4 count typically ranges from 500 to 1,600 cells per cubic millimetre. AIDS will be declared in an HIV patient whose CD4 level is less than 200 cells per cubic millimetre.

A person with HIV may potentially be identified as having AIDS if they experience an opportunistic infection or malignancy that is uncommon in persons without HIV.

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is an example of an opportunistic illness that only affects people who are extremely immunocompromised, such as those with advanced HIV infection (AIDS).

If left untreated, HIV can develop into AIDS in ten years. Currently, there is no therapy for AIDS, and the life expectancy upon diagnosis is just approximately three years. dependable source If the individual contracts a serious opportunistic sickness, this could be cut short. However, antiretroviral medication therapy can stop the onset of AIDS.

If AIDS does arise, it indicates that the immune system is seriously damaged, or weak to the point where it can no longer effectively fight off most infections and diseases.

As a result, they are more susceptible to a variety of diseases, such as:

  • pneumonia
  • tuberculosis
  • a fungal infection of the mouth or throat known as oral thrush
  • the herpes virus cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • A fungus in the brain causes cryptococcal meningitis.
  • Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic brain disease.
  • A disorder brought on by an intestinal parasite called cryptosporidiosis
  • malignancy, such as lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma (KS)

It is not a direct consequence of the condition itself that untreated AIDS is associated with a shorter life expectancy. Instead, it’s a result of the illnesses and problems that come with having an immune system that has been compromised by AIDS.

Where did HIV come from?

A certain chimpanzee species in Central Africa is where humans first contracted HIV. According to studies, the HIV virus may have spread from chimpanzees to humans as early as the late 1800s.

Simian immunodeficiency virus is the name of the virus that affects chimpanzees. The likelihood is that HIV was spread to people when they killed these chimpanzees for food and came into touch with their diseased blood.

HIV progressively expanded over Africa over many years, then to other regions of the world. In the United States, the virus has been around since at least the mid- to late 1970s.

Symptoms of HIV

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is referred to. HIV, which has generally gone untreated for many years, weakens the immune system in people with this condition. The likelihood of developing AIDS is reduced if HIV is identified and treated with antiretroviral medication at an early stage.

When HIV is discovered too late or when a person knows they have HIV but doesn’t take their antiretroviral medicine regularly, they run the risk of developing AIDS. If they have an HIV strain that is resistant to (or does not react to) antiretroviral therapy, they may also go on to develop AIDS.

People with HIV may experience an earlier onset of AIDS without effective and continuous therapy. By then, the immune system has suffered significant damage and struggles to mount a defence against illness and infection.

Antiretroviral medication allows a person to retain a chronic HIV diagnosis without progressing to AIDS for many years.

Among the signs of AIDS are:

  • persistent fever
  • chronically enlarged lymph nodes, particularly in the groyne, neck, and armpits
  • persistent tiredness
  • morning sweats
  • black spots inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids or under the skin.
  • Anus lumps, lesions, or rashes of the skin, sores, spots, or lesions of the lips and tongue; genital lesions,
  • Chronic or recurring diarrhoea
  • quick loss of weight
  • neurological issues include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty focusing
  • both tension and despair

Antiretroviral therapy manages the infection and typically stops the development of AIDS. Treatment options exist for AIDS-related complications and other infections. The person’s specific needs must be taken into account when designing the treatment.

How is HIV transmitted?

HIV can be distributed in a variety of ways:

  • by having unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person. It spreads primarily in this manner.
  • lending each other a needle.
  • by coming into contact with an HIV-positive person’s blood.
  • During pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding, from mother to kid.

You CANNOT obtain HIV via kissing, sharing food or beverages, or using the same fork or spoon since saliva (spit) is not how HIV is communicated. Additionally, HIV cannot be transmitted through hugging, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. And a toilet seat cannot transmit HIV to you.

HIV infection was once spread through blood transfusions. However, it is now completely safe to give or receive blood in medical facilities. In addition to testing donated blood for HIV and other illnesses, doctors, hospitals, and blood donation facilities never reuse needles.


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Is there any possibility to prevent tetanus infection?

Is there any possibility to prevent tetanus infection?

A bacterium that produces a toxin is the source of the deadly neurological condition known as tetanus. Muscle contractions brought on by the illness, particularly in the neck and jaw muscles, are common. Lockjaw is the popular name for tetanus.

Tetanus consequences might be fatal if they are severe. Tetanus has no known treatment. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms and side effects while the tetanus toxin’s effects are still present.

Tetanus cases are uncommon in the United States and other industrialised nations due to the extensive use of vaccinations. Those who are not up to date on their vaccinations continue to be at risk from the disease. It occurs more frequently in underdeveloped nations.

The infection can ultimately be fatal and result in severe muscle spasms, significant breathing problems, and other symptoms. Tetanus therapy is available, however its efficacy varies. Getting the immunisation is the best method to prevent tetanus.

Causes of Tetanus

The bacterium Clostridium tetani is responsible for causing tetanus. Spores of Clostridium tetani have a lengthy shelf life outside of the body. The two places where they are most frequently discovered are polluted soil and animal dung.

Tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin, is released when Clostridium tetani enter the body and grow quickly. It enters the bloodstream and quickly spreads throughout the body, producing tetanus signs and symptoms.

Tetanospasmin causes muscle spasms and stiffness by interfering with the impulses that leave the brain and travel to the spinal cord’s nerves, which in turn travel to the muscles.

Primarily by skin puncture or cut wounds, Clostridium tetani enters the body. Any cut should be cleaned thoroughly to help against infection.

Tetanus is frequently acquired in the following ways:

  • wounds that have been infected with excrement or saliva
  • burns
  • compression wounds
  • Dead tissue-filled wounds
  • Puncture marks

There are a few unusual ways to get tetanus, including:

  • operative methods
  • skin-level injuries
  • insect stings
  • Complicated fractures
  • drug usage intravenously
  • injections put into muscles
  • dental maladies

Symptoms of Tetanus

In most cases, tetanus symptoms start to show up 7 to 10 days after the original infection. But it can take anything from 4 days to around 3 weeks, and in extreme situations, it might even take months.

In general, the incubation period is greater the more away the lesion site is from the central nervous system. Shorter incubation periods are associated with more severe symptoms in patients. Spasms and stiffness are among the signs of muscles. Lockjaw gets its name from the chewing muscles, which are where stiffness typically begins.

After that, neck and throat muscles started to spasm, making it difficult to swallow. Patients frequently have facial muscular spasms. The rigidity of the neck and chest muscles can make breathing difficult. Some patients also experience issues with their leg and abdominal muscles.

The following symptoms will also be present in the majority of tetanus patients:

  • soiled stools
  • diarrhoea
  • fever
  • headache
  • the capacity for touch
  • unwell throat
  • sweating
  • quick heartbeat

Can tetanus be prevented?

Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are the three diseases that a DTaP vaccination protects against. The CDC advises giving children 5 DTaP vaccinations. At 2, 4, and 6 months of age, the first three shots are given. The fourth shot is administered between 15 and 18 months of age, and a fifth one is administered between the ages of 4 and 6 when a child first enrols in school.

An 11- or 12-year-old should receive a Tdap dosage at routine checkups. The tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccine is included in the Tdap booster. The Td booster should be substituted with a dose of Tdap if the adult did not receive one as a preteen or adolescent. Adults should have a Td booster every ten years, though it can be administered earlier. For advice, consult your healthcare provider at all times.


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What are the causes and symptoms of Corona Virus?

What are the causes and symptoms of Corona Virus?

A lot of medical professionals think that pangolins or bats are where the new coronavirus strain most likely got its start. The initial human transmission occurred in Wuhan, China. Since then, person-to-person contact has been the primary method of viral transmission.

A class of viruses known as coronaviruses can infect both humans and animals with sickness. One example of a coronavirus is the SARS-CoV virus strain, which causes the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In 2002–2003, SARS spread quickly.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the name of the new coronavirus strain (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus illness is brought on by the virus (COVID-19).

Approximately 80% of COVID-19 patients recover without specialised care. These individuals could have minor flu-like symptoms. However, 1 in 6 individuals may develop serious symptoms, such as breathing difficulties.

What is a Corona Virus?

A group of viruses known as coroviruses can make people sick with respiratory conditions. Because the virus’s surface is covered in spikes that resemble crowns, they are known as “corona.” Examples of coronaviruses that affect people include the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory disease (MERS), and the common cold.

What caused coronavirus?

Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei region, was the site of the most recent outbreak. In December 2019, the first COVID-19 cases were reported.

Certain animal species, including cattle and camels, frequently contract coronaviruses. Despite the rarity, coronaviruses can occasionally be transmitted from animals to people. According to a reliable source, this new strain most likely originated from bats, while one study raises the possibility that pangolins were the original host.

It is still unknown how the virus originally infected humans, though. According to some reports, the first cases originated at a seafood and livestock market in Wuhan. SARS-CoV-2 may have begun to spread to humans from this location.

How it spreads?

Through small communities, SARS-CoV-2 transmits from one person to another. People who have COVID-19 cough or exhale little droplets containing the virus. These droplets can cause an infection if they go into someone’s mouth or nose who doesn’t have the virus.

Close contact with an infected person is the most typical way that this disease spreads. Close proximity is approximately 6 feet.  When a person’s symptoms are the worst, the disease is most contagious. But even someone who is symptom-free can transfer the infection. According to a recent study, 10% of infections come from persons who don’t have any symptoms.

The virus may also droplets that land on neighbouring surfaces or objects. By touching these surfaces or objects, other people could contract the infection. If the person then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes, infection is probably going to occur.

It is significant to note that research on COVID-19 is still in its early stages. The new coronavirus may be spread through additional channels as well.

Symptoms and Complications

The symptoms of COVID-19 infection might range from little to no symptoms to serious sickness and death. Most illnesses start up to 14 days following exposure and are typically mild.

The most typical signs are:

  • a new or worsening cough
  • Fever
  • Tiredness
  • Chills
  • muscle pain
  • Headache
  • diarrhoea, vomiting, or nauseous

Additional signs include:

  • respiratory issues or shortness of breath
  • unwell throat
  • swallowing that hurts or is challenging
  • eye colour (conjunctivitis)
  • a diminished appetite
  • loss of flavour or scent

Some individuals, nevertheless, could experience other, more serious consequences like pneumonia or respiratory failure. People who are not fully immunised, pregnant women, adults 60 and older (risk rises with age), people with underlying chronic medical conditions (such as heart disease, diabetes, lung disease), people who are obese with a BMI of 40 or higher, and people with weakened immune systems are at higher risk of developing a severe illness from COVID-19.

In certain instances, COVID-19 infection might result in chronic symptoms that persist for several weeks or months after the patient has recovered. This is referred to as a lengthy COVID or a post COVID-19 condition. Regardless of the severity of your infection or whether you have symptoms, you could develop post-COVID-19 illness.

Symptoms that commonly affect adults include:

  • Tiredness
  • memory issues
  • trouble sleeping
  • breathing difficulty
  • Concern and sadness
  • general discomfort and suffering
  • having trouble focusing or thinking
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Typical signs that children experience include:

  • Tiredness
  • Headaches
  • Loss of weight
  • muscle ache
  • trouble sleeping
  • runny or stuffed nose
  • having trouble focusing or thinking


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What are the possible side effects of using Emergen-C?

What are the possible side effects of using Emergen-C?

Vitamin C and other minerals are found in Emergen-C, a dietary supplement that will strengthen your immune system and give you more energy.

It can be combined with water to make a beverage, and people frequently choose it during the cold and flu season for added infection prevention.

What is Emergen-C?

It is said that Emergen-C, a powdered supplement with high dosages of vitamin C and B vitamins, would strengthen your immune system and give you more energy.

The product is sold in single-serving packets that should be dissolved in 4-6 ounces (118–177 ml) of water before use.

The finished beverage has a gentle fizz and contains 10 oranges’ worth of vitamin C. The ingredients in the original Emergen-C formulation, which is available in 12 varieties, are as follows:

  • 35 calories
  • 6 grammes sugar
  • 1,000 mg, or 1,667% of the daily value, of vitamin C (DV)
  • 10 mg, or 500% of the DV, of vitamin B6
  • 25 mcg, or 417% of the DV, of vitamin B12
  • 100 mcg of vitamin B-9 (25 percent of your RDA)
  • 0.5 mcg of manganese (25 percent of your RDA)
  • 2 mg of zinc (13 percent of your RDA)


  • Immunity can be strengthened by vitamin C. It might also aid in collagen production to support healthy skin.
  • A healthy neurological system and the metabolism of red blood cells and lipids may both be supported by vitamin B-6.
  • Red blood cells transport oxygen throughout the body, and vitamin B-12 may aid in their production. In order to produce energy, food must be metabolised.
  • Folic acid supports the synthesis of amino acids.
  • Your overall immune system is supported by manganese, which also strengthens your skin and bones.
  • Assists in enhancing immunity is zinc.

How to use Emergen-C Tablet?

Take this medication as indicated, generally once daily. Chew it well before swallowing. Follow all the instructions on the product’s packaging or do what your doctor advises. Never take more than the dosage that is advised. Ask your physician or pharmacist if you have any queries.

To get the most benefit from this medication, take it frequently. Take it at the same time every day to aid in memory.

Side effects of Emergen-C

You could experience diarrhoea, constipation, or a stomachache. These side effects are typically transient and can go away as your body becomes used to the medicine. Inform your doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible if any of these side effects persist or get worse.

Rarely will this medication cause a very serious allergic reaction. However, if you have any of the following signs of a significant allergic response, you should seek immediate medical attention. Reaction includes rash, itching or swelling (particularly of the face, tongue, or neck), severe dizziness, or difficulty breathing.

The list of potential negative effects is not exhaustive. Contact your doctor or pharmacist if you have any other side effects not covered above.


Drug interactions could alter how your medications function or raise the possibility of major negative side effects. All probable medication interactions are not included in this document. Keep a list of everything you use, including herbal products, prescription and over-the-counter medications, and provide it to your doctor and pharmacist.

Avoid taking your multivitamin, if it contains iron, at the same time as antacids, levodopa, bisphosphonates (such as alendronate), thyroid drugs (such as levothyroxine), or some antibiotics (for example, tetracyclines, quinolones such as ciprofloxacin). Find out how long you should wait between doses from your doctor or pharmacist, and ask them for assistance in creating a dosing schedule that will work with all of your drugs.This medication may affect some lab tests, leading to potentially inaccurate test results. Make sure all of your doctors and lab staff are aware that you use this medication.


Inform your doctor or pharmacist before using this medication if you have any allergies to any of its ingredients or if you have any other allergies. Inactive chemicals in this product have the potential to trigger allergic reactions or other issues. To learn more, speak with your pharmacist.

Inform your doctor or pharmacist about your medical history before using this drug, especially of alcohol use or abuse, liver problems, stomach/intestinal disorders (such as ulcer, colitis).

Tell your doctor or pharmacist before taking your multivitamin if it contains folic acid and you suffer from pernicious anaemia or vitamin B12 deficiency. Without addressing this anaemia, folic acid may have an impact on several laboratory tests for vitamin B12 deficiency. Serious nerve issues could arise from vitamin B12 deficiency if left untreated. For more information, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

This medication may affect some lab tests, leading to potentially inaccurate test results. Make sure all of your doctors and lab staff are aware that you use this medication.

Bottom line

  • The dietary supplement Emergen-C contains significant amounts of the minerals zinc and vitamin D, as well as other vitamins and nutrients critical for immunity and energy levels.
  • It is unclear if these nutrients are beneficial for healthy adults, despite some evidence to the contrary.
  • Although it’s probably safe to use Emergen-C in moderation, taking too much vitamin C, vitamin B6, or zinc may cause stomach trouble, nerve damage, or a copper deficiency.
  • To enhance your immune system, in addition to eating the correct meals, you should also take care of your gut, exercise frequently, get adequate sleep, and manage your stress.

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