Why physical activity is essential for a long and healthy life.

Why physical activity is essential for a long and healthy life.

It appears that humanity has been searching for the “Fountain of Youth”—that is, means to guarantee a longer, healthier life—since the beginning of time. And while there may not yet be any “wonder” treatments or medical advancements that will allow us to live much past the age of 100, numerous recent studies have offered compelling proof that small, doable lifestyle adjustments can help us live longer and be healthier while lowering our chance of passing away too soon. For instance, research presented at the Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association in 2023 revealed that eight healthy habits could potentially halt the progression of biological aging by up to six years. These behaviors have to do with eating right, keeping a healthy weight, abstaining from tobacco, taking care of one’s sleep hygiene, controlling blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar, and—above all—remaining physically active. In the most recent episode of our podcast, “In Conversation,” Medical News Today speaks with Drs. Edwina (Eddie) Brocklesby and Borja del Pozo Cruz about the connection between exercise and a long and healthy life. Dr. Del Pozo Cruz is an adjunct associate professor in the University of Southern Denmark’s Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics and principal researcher in the Applied Health Sciences at the University of Cadiz in Spain.

Dr. del Pozo Cruz has worked with other researchers to carry out a number of studies examining the relationship between the risk of dying from various causes and the type of exercise. Dr. Being the oldest British woman to finish an Ironman Triathlon at the age of 72, Brocklesby earned the moniker “Iron Gran,” which has helped her become well-known. In addition, she founded and serves as CEO of Silverfit, a nonprofit that encourages lifetime fitness. Dr. del Pozo Cruz and colleagues examined data from 500,705 participants followed up for a median of 10 years in a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine in August 2023 to determine the relationship between various forms of exercise and an individual’s mortality risk. The effects of three types of physical activity were examined in the study: muscle-strengthening exercises like weightlifting, vigorous aerobic exercises like running, and moderate aerobic exercises like walking or light cycling. Its conclusions showed that the most effective way to lower the risk of death was to combine all of these types of exercise in a balanced way. More precisely, a reduced risk of all-cause mortality was linked to at least two strength training sessions per week, over 150 minutes of intense exercise, and approximately 75 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise.

Dr. del Pozo Cruz and his associates recommended combining at least 150–225 minutes of moderate physical activity with approximately 75 minutes of vigorous exercise, as well as two or more strength training sessions per week, to lower the risk of death specifically associated with cardiovascular disease. Dr. Brocklesby, also known as “Eddie,” is a prime example of the value of mixing up your workout routines. In fact, preparing for and competing in a triathlon entails strength training in addition to a balanced “diet” of moderate to intense exercise. Triathlons are endurance multisport races in which competitors swim, cycle, and run. What is the minimal “amount” of exercise that could help prevent some of the conditions that pose the greatest threat to health, though, for those who are not nearly as athletic? Dr. Del Pozo Cruz and associates might have also discovered a response to this query. The results of a prior study were released in the European Heart Journal in December 2022. According to this study, even two minutes a day of intense exercise could significantly reduce the risk of dying from cancer or cardiovascular events.

The study participants who never participated in intense exercise had a 4 percent chance of passing away within 5 years, but this risk was halved when they started participating in less than 10 minutes of intense activity each week, according to the researchers. Furthermore, the risk of death was further reduced by half for those who exercised for at least 60 minutes a week. Dr. del Pozo Cruz stressed in our podcast that practically any amount of exercise, no matter how small, is better than none at all. A recent study supports this assertion, saying that any activity, no matter how small, is better for heart health than leading a sedentary lifestyle. He did, however, issue a warning that, in contrast to exercise done for enjoyment, physical activity connected to household tasks or employment may occasionally cause more harm than good. Once more, new research indicating a connection between physically demanding jobs and an increased risk of cognitive impairment lends credence to his theory.

The study found that jobs involving a lot of standing and handling stressful situations, like nursing and caregiving, retail, and farming, were among the most frequently linked to intense physical activity. Therefore, even though physical activity of any kind is beneficial to health, engaging in intense or strenuous physical activity while working may increase the risk of developing certain illnesses. Furthermore, recreational exercise has been shown to have an impact on joint integrity and other aspects of physical health, especially as one ages. Dr. del Pozo Cruz and Eddie both stressed in our podcast how important it is to speak with a reliable healthcare professional who can offer personalized advice on the best types of exercise to undertake. Listen to our podcast episode in full below or on your preferred streaming platform to learn more about how and why various forms of exercise can support longevity, as well as to hear Edwina’s story of becoming “Iron Gran.”.

REFERENCES:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/in-conversation-why-exercise-is-key-to-living-a-long-and-healthy-life
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity
https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/pa-health/index.htm
https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/fitness/fitness-basics/why-is-physical-activity-so-important-for-health-and-wellbeing

For medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com

Parkinson’s disease and dementia may have an impact on the brain due to nanoplastics.

Parkinson’s disease and dementia may have an impact on the brain due to nanoplastics.

Scientists at Duke University School of Medicine have discovered that nanoplastics alter a particular protein in the brain, which results in alterations connected to dementias other than Parkinson’s. Worldwide, Parkinson’s disease affects more than 10 million individuals. Scientists are aware that a person’s lifestyle, genetics, and environment all contribute to the development of disease. Researchers at Duke University School of Medicine discovered that a particular protein in the brain is impacted by nanoplastics, which are minuscule plastic particles that break down in the environment and can seep into soil and water. These changes have been connected to Parkinson’s disease and other forms of dementia. Science Advances, a journal, published the study recently. Parkinson’s disease is thought to be the neurological ailment with the fastest global growth rate. According to research, the condition affects over 10 million people worldwide. For now, there is no treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Although the exact cause of the illness is still unknown, scientists do know that genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors all have an impact.

Parkinson’s disease is not usually heritable or transmissible, according to Dr. Andrew West, professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology at Duke University School of Medicine and the study’s principal investigator. Environmental exposure to toxins and pesticides is thought to be a contributing factor in the disease’s risk. Dr. West told Medical News Today, However, the known environmental risks account for a very small percentage of what may be lurking out there, increasing our risk of getting sick. Once we have determined that there is a real risk of disease or that the disease will progress due to environmental factors, we can take precautions to reduce that risk. Mr. According to West, he and his colleagues first used various kinds of nanoparticles to help with biomarker assays for dementia and Parkinson’s disease diagnosis. By coincidence, they discovered that a protein called alpha-synuclein, which has been connected to brain disorders, could be greatly inhibited by some forms of nanoparticles.

In this study, three test tube models, cultured neurons, and a Parkinson’s disease-modeling mouse were utilized by the researchers. Dr. West and his colleagues discovered that the alpha-synuclein protein is drawn to and accumulates in response to nanoparticles of the plastic polystyrene used to make foam packing peanuts, egg cartons, and disposable drinking cups. Dr. West said, We discovered through various assays that nanoplastics may sever portions of the alpha-synuclein protein, which typically binds to lipids in the brain, and twist the protein into a form that may encourage aggregation associated with disease.. But the issues don’t end there; the plastics may also damage the machinery that is meant to break down aggregates, which are part of the lysosome, a component of the cell. Dr. West continued, We believe the interactions we observed in the model are driven by this ‘two-hit’ mechanism.

Microplastics are the first tiny particles formed when plastic degrades in the environment. After that, the microplastics keep breaking down to create new ones. According to a March 2022 study, people’s gastrointestinal tracts absorb roughly 5 grams of microplastic and nanoplastic per week on average. The general health of an individual may be harmed by both microplastics and nanoplastics, according to earlier research. For instance, studies have shown that nanoplastics may be connected to specific cancer types and can also interfere with the normal functions of lung and liver cells. Furthermore, there has previously been research on the connection between brain health and nanoplastics. According to studies that were released in June 2020, the brain can be adversely affected by micro- and nanoplastic exposure, which increases the risk of neuronal disorders. According to a study that was released in April 2023, mice that consumed nanoplastics had lower short-term memory and cognitive function.

According to Dr. West, these findings strongly suggest that technology should be developed to track the build-up of plastic pollution in the human brain and to track the susceptibility of various individuals to Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders based on their individual exposures. We could create laws and technological solutions to ensure that harmful nanoplastic actors stay out of our food and water if we understood the precise molecular makeup of these individuals. As for the research’s next steps, Dr. West stated that they hope to conduct longer-term studies using chronic dosing to find out how various nanoplastic kinds impact various molecular processes that are thought to be responsible for disease risk and progression. In order to make our lab models more informative, he continued, we also need to have a better idea of what lifetime exposures to different types of nanoplastics look like.. MNT also discussed this study with Dr. Rocco DiPaola, a neurologist who oversees the Movement Disorder Program at Jersey Shore University Medical Center’s Hackensack Meridian Neuroscience Institute.

According to Dr. DiPaola, this study could add to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying Parkinson’s disease and other disorders linked to alpha-synuclein. It has long been believed that a major contributing factor to the development of these disorders is a combination of genetic factors and an environmental trigger. It is an additional possible cause of these illnesses. When asked how readers can protect themselves from environmental factors that may increase their risk for Parkinson’s disease and other types of dementia, Dr. DiPaola said that while there is no way to mitigate all risks, limiting exposure to toxins, such as pesticides, would be one way to limit risk. Environmental factors are likely one of many factors that play a major role in the development of Parkinson’s disease. He continued, Previous environmental studies have found increased risk with exposure to well water, growing up in a rural area, and pesticide exposure.

REFERENCES:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/parkinsons-dementia-how-nanoplatics-affect-protein-in-brain#More-insights-into-what-may-cause-neurodegenerative-diseases
https://www.news-medical.net/news/20231117/Study-links-nanoplastics-to-Parkinsons-disease-and-dementia.aspx
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2023/11/231117181023.htm
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.adi8716

For parkinsons disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com/index.php?cPath=77_293

Alzheimer’s disease is associated with hidden belly fat in middle age.

Alzheimer’s disease is associated with hidden belly fat in middle age.

It has been discovered that higher concentrations of proteins that impair brain function are linked to visceral fat in the abdomen. According to researchers, creating metrics for visceral fat may help identify Alzheimer’s disease early on. According to experts, losing belly fat may help reduce the chance of getting Alzheimer’s. Adults in their middle years who have visceral fat around their internal organs in their abdomen may be more susceptible to Alzheimer’s. Based on research presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, having such fat deposits could cause changes in the brain related to Alzheimer’s up to 15 years before symptoms of the neurological disease appear — and as early as age 50. In this study, middle-aged people without any indications of cognitive problems were asked to participate in order to find correlations between high body mass index (BMI) scores, obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty abdominal tissue and amyloid and tau proteins, which are known to disrupt cellular communication in the brain.

Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis were led by Dr. Mahsa Dolatshahi, a post-doctoral research fellow at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR). Louis, the brain region known to be affected early by amyloid pathology in Alzheimer’s disease, previously reported that a higher visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio in the belly was associated with a higher presence of amyloids in the precuneus cortex. According to those researchers, there was a correlation between elevated brain inflammation and higher levels of visceral fat. According to the new study, men are more likely than women to have belly fat and Alzheimer’s diseaseNo previous study has linked a specific type of fat to the actual Alzheimer’s disease protein in cognitively normal people, despite other studies linking BMI with brain atrophy or even a higher dementia risk, Dolatshahi stated in a press release. Comparable research has not looked into the distinct roles of visceral and subcutaneous fat, particularly in relation to the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, as early as midlife. Dr. Mary Ellen Koran, an assistant professor of radiology and radiological sciences at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, said, It makes sense that visceral fat is linked to poorer brain health since we already know it’s linked to so many bad health outcomes, including heart health. But it’s important that we do the studies like these to define that link with evidence..

Visceral fat’s inflammatory secretions may lead to inflammation in the brain, one of the main mechanisms contributing to Alzheimer’s disease, according to DolatshahiWe don’t know whether this is a cause or effect—possibly an unhealthy lifestyle is linked to worse brain health in addition to more visceral fat, said Koran, a radiology expert who has identified Alzheimer’s disease. Before we can advance this clinically, more research in this area is necessary. For instance, she stated, It needs to be investigated because I don’t think we know what a ‘normal’ amount of visceral fat is. The results, according to researchers, may make it possible to identify Alzheimer’s disease early in an at-risk groupWe now have a uniquely better understanding of why this factor may increase risk for Alzheimer’s disease by moving beyond body mass index (BMI) in better characterizing the anatomical distribution of body fat on MRI, stated Dr. Cyrus Raji, senior study author, associate professor of radiology and neurology, and director of neuromagnetic resonance imaging at MIR.

According to Koran, the issue with utilizing BMI to evaluate health risks is that it ignores people who have a lot of muscle mass. Similarly, visceral and subcutaneous fat cannot be distinguished using waist circumference as a benchmark. Since visceral fat is known to be associated with a number of negative health outcomes, the expert suggested that alternative methods of assessing visceral fat be explored. Non-invasive imaging is a good fit for this purpose. Maybe in the future, we’ll be able to measure this using an inexpensive, radiation-free technique like ultrasound. According to the study, reducing belly fat may lower the risk of Alzheimer’s. According to Taylor Wilson, founder of Active Recovery Companions and an expert in nutrition and exercise, one strategy that has been proven effective in reducing belly fat is engaging in regular aerobic exercise, which includes activities like running, swimming, cycling, and dancing. These activities raise your heart rate and increase oxygen flow throughout your body. He told Medical News Today, Your body burns calories when you engage in aerobic exercise, including those stored in the belly area.Over time, a decrease in belly fat and overall weight loss may result from this calorie burn. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise significantly reduces belly fat in comparison to resistance training alone.

We know we can target fat with exercise and a healthy diet, but there are also new, effective drugs like Ozempic coming to market, Koran continued. However, more research is needed to determine how these medications affect visceral fat and brain function over the long run. Although the Food and Drug Administration has approved Ozempic and other comparable drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, most of them still lack the necessary approval to be used for weight loss. Currently, some doctors are prescribing some of those medications off-label to help patients lose weight.

REFERENCES:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/hidden-belly-fat-in-midlife-linked-to-alzheimers-disease
https://www.insideprecisionmedicine.com/topics/patient-care/hidden-belly-fat-linked-to-higher-alzheimers-risk/
https://neurosciencenews.com/midlife-visceral-fat-alzheimers-25235/
https://www.healthline.com/health-news/this-type-of-hidden-belly-fat-linked-to-higher-alzheimers-disease-risk

For alzheimer medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com/index.php?cPath=77_239

All highly processed foods associated with diabetes and cancer

All highly processed foods associated with diabetes and cancer

A recent study found that the emergence of several chronic conditions is linked to a diet high in ultra-processed foods. Extremely processed foods derived from animals and drinks with added sugar and artificial sweeteners are especially prone to cause diabetes, heart disease, and cancer at the same time. Experts advise against overindulging in ultra-processed foods like breads, cereals, and plant-based substitutes, even though this study did not find any such connection. Ultra-processed foods can be difficult to identify because they are usually grouped based more on processing level than nutritional value. Ultraprocessed food consumption has been connected to a number of distinct chronic illnesses, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. They are also connected to comorbidities, or combinations of these diseases, a large study now confirms. The study indicates that individuals with a diet high in ultra-processed foods have a 9 percent higher chance of developing cardiovascular and cardiometabolic comorbidities. The study found that beverages sweetened with artificial sweeteners and animal products had the highest increase in risk. The researchers did not discover any correlation between comorbidities, plant-based substitutes, and ultra-processed breads and cereals.

Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) are analyzed in this study. A prospective cohort study is being conducted to investigate the relationships between environmental, genetic, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors and cancer as well as other diseases. The researchers examined data from 266,666 participants for the new study. The NOVA index was used to rank the foods they consumed in relation to their processing level. A median of 11.2 years of follow-up was conducted to monitor the emergence of chronic illnesses. The precise characteristics that characterize a problematically processed food are a matter of debate. This is mostly due to the fact that most modern foods require some processing, unless they are purchased straight from the farm. Healthy foods like tofu, simple bread, canned tuna or beans, and cheese can all be considered processed foods. Ultra-processed foods, or UPFs, are the main cause for concern, though. Most researchers use the NOVA index, which was created by Carlos Monteiro and associates at Sao Paolo University in Brazil, as the standard. The World Health Organization’s scientist in nutrition and metabolism and lead investigator for the new study, Dr. Heinz Freisling, described how the index operates as follows: NOVA classifies foods into four categories: fresh or minimally processed, culinary ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed, not according to their nutrient profile.

The final category, according to study observer Michelle Routhenstein, a preventive cardiology dietitian at EntirelyNourished . com, is foods that are made solely with a combination of industrial processes. There is still opportunity for individual opinions because ingredients play a significant role in the overall story and processing level alone does not tell it all. According to Dr. Dot Freisling, foods classified as [u]ltra-processed are those that are unfit for home preparation due to a shortage of ingredients and equipment. Colorants, artificial sweeteners, food preservatives, and other substances are a few examples of these ingredients. It is not yet clear why ultra-processed foods show this strong link with a wide range of conditions, which makes it a hot topic of research why consuming them might lead to comorbidities, according to Dr. Freisling. He surmised that it might be related to the easily accessible and reasonably priced nature of these foods for the end user. People often overindulge in these because they are meant to be flavorful and shelf-stable. For instance, according to Dr. Freisling, a bag of tortilla chips can easily defeat a simple boiled corn cob. He added that artificial sweeteners and other additives might be involved. He went on to say that the modified food matrix, which is a food’s natural structure or matrix at the microscopic level, and the complete absence of dietary fiber might both be significant factors. Routhenstein pointed out that the process. She also mentioned that ultra-processed foods like chips, crackers, and cookies have the highest AGE levels per gram.

REFERENCES:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/ultra-processed-foods-linked-to-cancer-diabetes
https://www.wcrf.org/latest/news-and-updates/new-study-reveals-ultra-processed-foods-linked-to-increased-cancer-risk-diabetes-and-heart-disease/
https://www.healthline.com/health-news/ultraprocessed-foods-cause-heart-disease-cancer
https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/242892/ultra-processed-foods-linked-increased-risk-cancer/

For cancer medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com/index.php?cPath=77_115

Can heart attacks and strokes be prevented with semaglutide injections such as Ozempic

Can heart attacks and strokes be prevented with semaglutide injections such as Ozempic

In a large new randomized controlled trial, semaglutide—the active ingredient in weight-loss medications Ozempic and Wegovy—significantly decreased the number of cardiac events in individuals without diabetes. Every study participant had pre-existing cardiovascular disease, defined as a BMI over 27 and a history of a heart attack, stroke, or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. Even though semaglutide-associated weight loss is probably a contributing factor to the decrease in cardiac events, the study’s authors observed a decrease in events even prior to reaching maximum weight loss. The chemical name for the blood-sugar-controlling medications Rybelsus, Wegovy, and Ozempic—which were created for diabetics—is semaglutide. Additionally approved as weight-loss drugs in the U.S. are Ozempic and Wegovy. S. According to earlier studies, semaglutide lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetics. According to a recent large-scale international trial, semaglutide may have positive cardiovascular effects even in those without diabetes. The new study found that taking semaglutide for three years reduced heart attacks, strokes, and deaths by 20% for individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) who were overweight or obese and took a placebo.

More than 17,000 persons with preexisting cardiovascular disease who were overweight or obese were enrolled in the randomized, controlled study. Neither type 1 nor type 2 diabetes was present. 15,425 participants ultimately finished the trial. On semaglutide, study participants lost an average of 9.4% of their body weight. Semaglutide causes weight loss that lasts as long as the patient takes the drug. It is usually taken for the rest of one’s life. Even though a significant weight loss may lower cardiovascular disease risk factors, the trial indicates that more is happening. Dr. 1. Semaglutide is a GLP-1 agonist; according to Michael Lincoff, it’s a hormone that’s derived from the gut. GLP-1 agonists are released into the gastrointestinal tract and work by going to the brain’s hunger centers to suppress appetite and cravings, according to Dr. Jayne Morgan, a cardiologist and clinical director of the Piedmont Healthcare Corporation’s Covid Task Force in Atlanta, Georgia, who was not involved in the study.

Semaglutide can inhibit glucagon, enhance the production of insulin, and slow stomach emptying by activating receptors in the pancreas. The result of all these activities is a decrease in food intake and appetite. The study’s authors speculate that participants’ heart health was enhanced by more than just losing weight. Dr. Lincoff stated, We saw differences in the [number of cardiovascular] event rates very early on, within a few months of starting the drug, but the maximum weight loss didn’t occur until 65 weeks after starting the drug. Dr. GLP-1 agonists stimulate the same receptors which are present in a lot of different parts of the body, according to Lincoff. These can be found in the pancreas, heart, blood vessels, brain, gut, and other organs. Dr. Nicole Weinberg, a cardiologist who was not involved in the study, hypothesized that semaglutide’s benefits for CVD patients might be related to a decrease in blood sugar levels that cause inflammation all over the body. Dr. Weinberg stated, The more chronic inflammation you have in your body, the more at risk you are for a variety of different conditions.

In cardiology, inflammation or the depositing or plaquing of cholesterol within the body are two of our main concerns. And a lot of that can be caused by the inflammation that high blood sugar causes, Dr. Weinberg went on. Furthermore, blood sugar spikes might not only affect those who have diabetes. Dr. Dot Weinberg continued, We’re beginning to understand that people have blood sugar spikes, and even just spikes in blood sugar are dangerous to people’s cardiovascular health.. Dr. Perhaps their blood pressure and cholesterol are well-managed, but we’re still seeing that there are continued levels of atherosclerosis that are depositing despite what one would consider to be traditional medical therapy, stated Weinberg, indicating that she will support semaglutide for specific patients. High blood pressure, diabetes, and other factors are frequently linked to obesity’s negative health effects. Semaglutide is the first medication that can directly lower the risk of obesity, according to Dr. Lincoff, who also stated that obesity carries an excess risk of heart disease, and that risk is not completely explained by or controlled by risks associated with high body weight.. As modifiable risk factors, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, and cholesterol put us in the same place. Beside those, obesity is another modifiable risk factor that can be controlled in order to prevent heart disease.

The price and accessibility of semaglutide are two practical problems. Dr. The drug costs $1,300 a month, according to Morgan, which is problematic if the medication is meant to be a lifetime maintenance treatment for heart disease, diabetes, and obesity prevention and mitigation. The annual cost of this medication alone is close to $16,000. Weinberg brought up U’s limited character. S. coverage for semaglutide insurance. It remains inaccessible to certain individuals. I believe that as research and data increase, obtaining this medication will get easier and easier for people, the speaker stated. Dr. Morgan would have preferred that the trials included a more representative sample of participants. Despite making up more than 51% of the global population, women made up only 28% of trial participants. Moreover, this trial did not even identify menopausal women, who have the highest risk of heart disease, she said. According to her, Black [people] fared even worse, comprising just under 4 percent of trial participants, despite making up nearly 18 percent of the world’s population. 9 percent of the world’s population is white, yet 85 percent of the study participants were white. Dr. Morgan stated that the medication may be a potential game-changer for diabetes management, obesity management, and cardiovascular health, especially as we age, even though more research is needed and accessibility concerns need to be resolved. The leading cause of death in the United States is heart disease. S. Heart disease was not overthrown, she noted, even during the height of the COVID pandemic. She stated, The cardiac endpoints are crucial pieces of information that continue to boost these compounds into prime time and beyond, with our growing obesity and diabetes epidemics in younger and younger demographics.

REFERENCES:

https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Wellness/semaglutide-helps-reduce-risk-heart-attack-stroke-people/story?id=104844299
https://www.uchealth.org/today/wegovy-study-finds-weight-loss-drug-semaglutide-cuts-heart-attacks-strokes-cardiac-deaths/
https://www.healthline.com/health-news/semaglutide-reduces-heart-attack-stroke-risk
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/semaglutide-injections-ozempic-wegovy-help-prevent-heart-attacks-stroke

For heart disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com/index.php?cPath=77_99

Consuming strawberries has been associated with better mood and cognitive function in overweight adults.

Consuming strawberries has been associated with better mood and cognitive function in overweight adults.

A recent randomized, controlled study found that eating strawberries in middle age may help prevent depression and cognitive decline in later life. Participants in the study were middle-aged individuals who self-reported as having mild cognitive decline and who were overweight and insulin resistant. According to the study’s authors, the neuroprotective agent may be anthocyanins, which are bioactive compounds found in berries like blueberries, strawberries, and others. A neurologist endorsed strawberries as a nutritious food, but he was dubious about the study’s conclusions. A recent study found that middle-aged adults with obesity and insulin resistance who ate strawberries for 12 weeks experienced less depression and memory impairment. Because cognitive disorders, like Alzheimer’s disease, progress slowly over years starting in midlife, the authors of the study looked into dietary changes that might improve mood and slow the progression of dementias. The nutritional substance found in strawberries called anthocyanins is the subject of the study. The lead author of the study found that anthocyanins, which are also found in blueberries, may have enhanced executive brain function in earlier studies.

This investigation was a small-scale, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. There were 25 women and 5 men present. Two groups were formed out of them: one got a placebo and the other got strawberries. Prior to the commencement of the 12-week trial, the individuals’ neurocognitive health and mood were evaluated by the researchers. The experimental group was given instructions to consume one packet of powder mixed with liquid during the trial. The powder was made from freeze-dried and milled whole strawberries. The California Strawberry Commission, which provided funding for the study, determined that one cup of whole, fresh strawberries was the equivalent of one strawberry packet. The strawberry powder’s taste, appearance, and carbohydrate load were all replicated in the formulation of the placebo by the researchers. To avoid skewing the results of the study, neither group consumed any other berries during the trial period. This is because other berries might contain their own unique neuroprotective compounds. The study’s authors determined that participants’ self-reported mood and the frequency of intrusion errors were the main effects to be measured following the trial period. Repetition or memorization of words not included in a word-learning task are referred to as intrusion errors.

Following the study, the researchers saw a decrease in the number of intrusion errors as well as a decrease in the occurrence of depression. According to preventive cardiology dietitian Michelle Routhenstein, RD, CDE, CDN, who was not involved in the study, strawberries are rich in anthocyanins, which may have positive effects on cognitive and emotional health. The red color of strawberries is attributed to anthocyanins. Strong antioxidants with anti-neuroinflammatory qualities, anthocyanins are good for mental and emotional well-being. According to Routhenstein, anthocyanins are also present in other fruits, including mulberries, blackberries, blueberries, bilberries, and black currants. For many, frozen strawberries are the only options available for much of the year. According to Routhenstein, frozen strawberries are just as nutritious as fresh strawberries and, given their seasonality, may often be more tasty and convenient to eat, so there’s no need to worry. In order to prevent the vitamin C content from being destroyed when it is exposed to heat, like when microwaving, it is best to thaw them naturally, like in the refrigerator overnight. The authors of the study postulate that the anti-inflammatory properties of strawberries’ anthocyanins may provide protection against cognitive decline by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

It’s very hard as a clinical neurologist to say that food that’s going to be anti-inflammatory is going to protect you from memory loss, expressed skepticism from neurologist Dr. Clifford Segil. This is because we give people anti-inflammatory drugs like Motrin, Advil, and Alleve. How is a smart anti-inflammatory food going to affect you if those don’t protect you against memory loss? Strawberries seem like a good option. Dr. Segil continued. However, it’s difficult to say whether it would have neuroprotective effects. Dr. Studies like this one, according to Segil, frequently come across his desk, My favorite study to date has been one on syrups and how maple syrups are protective. My only wish is that syrup would be neuroprotective because my kids adore it. Nevertheless, some studies have linked the consumption of strawberries and their bioactive compound, pelargonidin, to a lower risk of the tau tangles that are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.

REFERENCES:

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/us/does-eating-strawberries-reduce-risks-of-dementia-know-what-researchers-have-to-say/articleshow/105190225.cms
https://www.psychiatrist.com/news/study-on-strawberries-and-brain-health-bears-fruit/
https://www.ndtv.com/science/a-cup-of-strawberries-a-day-may-reduce-dementia-risk-claims-study-4572642
https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/new-study-highlights-connection-with-strawberries-cognition-and-mood-in-middle-aged-overweight-adults-301981311.html

For medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com

How studies on tiny blood vessels could aid in the prevention of vascular dementia and stroke.

How studies on tiny blood vessels could aid in the prevention of vascular dementia and stroke.

Small blood vessel models are being grown in a lab to help researchers investigate the possible causes of cerebral small vessel disease. They stated that they hope to find viable treatments for the ailment, which can affect patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Although the results are encouraging, experts warn that there is still much work to be done in this area of study. In order to determine what causes small blood vessel-like models to leak in people with specific medical conditions that raise the risk of vascular dementia and stroke, scientists at Cambridge University in England have grown the models in a lab. The journal Stem Cell Reports published the study’s findings today.

Small vessel disease (SVD) of the brain primarily occurs in two forms. The most prevalent usually affects people in their middle years and is linked to type 2 diabetes and elevated blood pressure. People in their mid-30s are typically found with the other rare form, which is inherited. A COL4 gene mutation is one of the causes. Researchers at Cambridge’s Victor Philip Dahdaleh Heart and Lung Research Institute used skin samples from patients suffering from a rare form of SVD brought on by COL4 gene mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cells, which can differentiate into nearly any type of cell in the body, were produced using these. By using these cells to create new cells, the researchers were able to model the disease that affects the brain vessels. The complex support system that surrounds cells, known as the extracellular matrix, was disrupted by the mutations in this particular form of SVD, according to the scientists. Tight junctions were especially affected by this disruption, which made the blood vessels leaky. The overproduction of molecules known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are required to preserve the extracellular matrix’s structure, was also linked to the disturbance that the researchers saw. The group used medications that block MMPs to treat the cells. To do this, they employed the anti-cancer medication marimastat, the antibiotic doxycycline, or both. According to the researchers, blocking the MMPs with medication halted the leak and undid the harm. They did point out that these medications can have harmful side effects.

SVD patients are routinely treated by Dr. Sean Savitz, a professor and the director of the Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases at UTHealth Houston. He expressed his admiration for the study’s conclusions to Medical News Today, but he issued a warning, noting that the researchers only examined rare genetic mutation cases. This is a very well-done study that raises some interesting questions about the biological and molecular alterations that may be underlying some of the pathologies observed in brains affected by small vessel disease (SVD). Not involved in the study, Savitz stated, SVD is very common, especially in older patients with vascular risk factors. He continued, It’s very interesting to use skin cells to recapitulate the conditions in small vessel disease. The fact that a common antibiotic could undo some of the changes seen was intriguing. But we must remember that the patients from whom the cells were taken had uncommon genetic mutations.

According to the researchers, approximately half (45%) of dementia cases globally and roughly one-fifth of ischemic strokes are caused by SVD. These happen when the brain’s blood and oxygen supply are cut off by a blood clot. They represent the most prevalent kind of stroke. According to an article published in Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, cerebral small vessel disease is the most prevalent, progressive, and chronic type of vascular disease. It impacts the capillaries, arterioles, and tiny veins that supply the brain’s deep structures, including the white matter. According to Dr. Shae Datta, director of cognitive neurology at NYU Langone Hospital—Long Island and co-director of NYU Langone’s Concussion Center in New York, SVD causes cognitive impairment, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, problems with mobility, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Datta, who was not involved in the study, told Medical News Today that regular exercise, healthy diet, Mediterranean diet, folic acid, and vitamin B12 and avoiding adverse lifestyle factors like smoking, excess alcohol, or high dietary sodium, are all associated with having fewer SVD features in observational studies.

According to Dr. Catherine Arnold, a neurologist at Northwell Lenox Hill in New York who was not involved in the study, there are typically multiple coexisting conditions with SVD. These may obstruct the course of therapy. In an interview with Medical News Today, Arnold stated, The results of this study allow a better understanding of some of the potential mechanisms behind the development of small vessel disease (SVD) and potential mechanisms for future treatments. However, this study alone does not provide enough clarity or insight to change practice entirely, given the likelihood of multiple co-existing processes that contribute to the disease, the speaker continued. Future research is necessary to determine whether the findings hold true for the majority of patients with cerebral small vessel disease who also have vascular risk factors like diabetes and hypertension, according to Savitz. Therefore, the results of these experiments cannot be immediately applied to a clinical setting; however, the study lays the groundwork for particular future treatment development directions. Other than vascular risk factor modifications, which include blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and adherence to a healthy diet, we do not currently have any specific treatments.

Treating the underlying cause of a condition, such as an ischemic stroke, is often the first step in treatment. According to Morales, secondary prevention strategies often involve the use of statins, glycemic control, antihypertensives, antithrombotics, and other medications in addition to encouraging social interaction, a Mediterranean diet, and frequent exercise. Medication side effects can contribute to compliance issues, which can arise frequently. Is it effective? Evidence suggests that some of the effects and progression of vascular disease can be mitigated by our current strategies; however, more effective precision-based medical strategies that target these mechanistic pathways are clearly needed.

REFERENCES:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/how-research-into-small-blood-vessels-may-help-prevent-stroke-vascular-dementia
https://www.port.ac.uk/news-events-and-blogs/news/tiny-blood-vessels-in-brain-could-be-key-to-treating-vascular-dementia
https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/lab-grown-small-blood-vessels-point-to-potential-treatment-for-major-cause-of-stroke-and-vascular

For medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com

How studies on tiny blood vessels could aid in the prevention of vascular dementia and stroke.

How studies on tiny blood vessels could aid in the prevention of vascular dementia and stroke.

Small blood vessel models are being grown in a lab to help researchers investigate the possible causes of cerebral small vessel disease. They stated that they hope to find viable treatments for the ailment, which can affect patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Although the results are encouraging, experts warn that there is still much work to be done in this area of study. In order to determine what causes small blood vessel-like models to leak in people with specific medical conditions that raise the risk of vascular dementia and stroke, scientists at Cambridge University in England have grown the models in a lab. The journal Stem Cell Reports published the study’s findings today.

Small vessel disease (SVD) of the brain primarily occurs in two forms. The most prevalent usually affects people in their middle years and is linked to type 2 diabetes and elevated blood pressure. People in their mid-30s are typically found with the other rare form, which is inherited. A COL4 gene mutation is one of the causes. Researchers at Cambridge’s Victor Philip Dahdaleh Heart and Lung Research Institute used skin samples from patients suffering from a rare form of SVD brought on by COL4 gene mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cells, which can differentiate into nearly any type of cell in the body, were produced using these. By using these cells to create new cells, the researchers were able to model the disease that affects the brain vessels. The complex support system that surrounds cells, known as the extracellular matrix, was disrupted by the mutations in this particular form of SVD, according to the scientists. Tight junctions were especially affected by this disruption, which made the blood vessels leaky. The overproduction of molecules known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are required to preserve the extracellular matrix’s structure, was also linked to the disturbance that the researchers saw. The group used medications that block MMPs to treat the cells. To do this, they employed the anti-cancer medication marimastat, the antibiotic doxycycline, or both. According to the researchers, blocking the MMPs with medication halted the leak and undid the harm. They did point out that these medications can have harmful side effects.

SVD patients are routinely treated by Dr. Sean Savitz, a professor and the director of the Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases at UTHealth Houston. He expressed his admiration for the study’s conclusions to Medical News Today, but he issued a warning, noting that the researchers only examined rare genetic mutation cases. This is a very well-done study that raises some interesting questions about the biological and molecular alterations that may be underlying some of the pathologies observed in brains affected by small vessel disease (SVD). Not involved in the study, Savitz stated, SVD is very common, especially in older patients with vascular risk factors. He continued, It’s very interesting to use skin cells to recapitulate the conditions in small vessel disease. The fact that a common antibiotic could undo some of the changes seen was intriguing. But we must remember that the patients from whom the cells were taken had uncommon genetic mutations.

According to the researchers, approximately half (45%) of dementia cases globally and roughly one-fifth of ischemic strokes are caused by SVD. These happen when the brain’s blood and oxygen supply are cut off by a blood clot. They represent the most prevalent kind of stroke. According to an article published in Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, cerebral small vessel disease is the most prevalent, progressive, and chronic type of vascular disease. It impacts the capillaries, arterioles, and tiny veins that supply the brain’s deep structures, including the white matter. According to Dr. Shae Datta, director of cognitive neurology at NYU Langone Hospital—Long Island and co-director of NYU Langone’s Concussion Center in New York, SVD causes cognitive impairment, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, problems with mobility, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Datta, who was not involved in the study, told Medical News Today that regular exercise, healthy diet, Mediterranean diet, folic acid, and vitamin B12 and avoiding adverse lifestyle factors like smoking, excess alcohol, or high dietary sodium, are all associated with having fewer SVD features in observational studies.

According to Dr. Catherine Arnold, a neurologist at Northwell Lenox Hill in New York who was not involved in the study, there are typically multiple coexisting conditions with SVD. These may obstruct the course of therapy. In an interview with Medical News Today, Arnold stated, The results of this study allow a better understanding of some of the potential mechanisms behind the development of small vessel disease (SVD) and potential mechanisms for future treatments. However, this study alone does not provide enough clarity or insight to change practice entirely, given the likelihood of multiple co-existing processes that contribute to the disease, the speaker continued. Future research is necessary to determine whether the findings hold true for the majority of patients with cerebral small vessel disease who also have vascular risk factors like diabetes and hypertension, according to Savitz. Therefore, the results of these experiments cannot be immediately applied to a clinical setting; however, the study lays the groundwork for particular future treatment development directions. Other than vascular risk factor modifications, which include blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and adherence to a healthy diet, we do not currently have any specific treatments.

Treating the underlying cause of a condition, such as an ischemic stroke, is often the first step in treatment. According to Morales, secondary prevention strategies often involve the use of statins, glycemic control, antihypertensives, antithrombotics, and other medications in addition to encouraging social interaction, a Mediterranean diet, and frequent exercise. Medication side effects can contribute to compliance issues, which can arise frequently. Is it effective? Evidence suggests that some of the effects and progression of vascular disease can be mitigated by our current strategies; however, more effective precision-based medical strategies that target these mechanistic pathways are clearly needed.

REFERENCES:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/how-research-into-small-blood-vessels-may-help-prevent-stroke-vascular-dementia
https://www.port.ac.uk/news-events-and-blogs/news/tiny-blood-vessels-in-brain-could-be-key-to-treating-vascular-dementia
https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/lab-grown-small-blood-vessels-point-to-potential-treatment-for-major-cause-of-stroke-and-vascular

For Alzheimer’s disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com/index.php?cPath=77_239

A study reveals that alcohol and caffeine deplete sleep quantity and quality.

A study reveals that alcohol and caffeine deplete sleep quantity and quality.

Sleep deprivation is regarded by researchers as an underappreciated global health problem. Alcohol is frequently used at night to aid in sleep and caffeine during the day to keep people awake when they have sleep problems. Researchers at the University of Washington School of Medicine discovered that users of both drugs did not feel as though their quality of sleep had decreased. Scientists surmise that this misguided perception could set off an unconscious cycle of self-medication that results in restless nights. Researchers believe that sleep deprivation is an underappreciated global health issue. Studies from the past indicate that symptoms of insomnia affect about one-third of people worldwide. Furthermore, up to 70 million Americans suffer from a sleep disorder. Caffeinated beverages are frequently consumed during the day by people who experience daytime fatigue due to inadequate sleep. These same individuals might also use alcohol as a sleep aid at night. This new research, which looks at how using alcohol and caffeine affects overall sleep, is the first of its kind and was just published in the journal PLOS ONE. Even though each substance lowers perceived sleep quality when studied separately, researchers from the University of Washington School of Medicine discovered that study participants who used alcohol at night and caffeine during the day did not perceive a reduction in their sleep quality.

Scientists surmise that this misguided perception could set off an unconscious cycle of self-medication that results in restless nights. Frank Song, lead author of this study and a researcher in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Washington School of Medicine, notes that while previous research has shown people the detrimental effects of alcohol and caffeine on sleep, no study has examined the combined effects of the two substances on sleep as people go about their daily lives. A study on alcohol use that was released in October 2021 discovered that a higher alcohol intake was linked to shorter sleep duration and lower sleep quality. Alcohol is known to cause sleep disturbances in a number of ways, including aberrant circadian rhythms and an increase in breathing-related sleep disorders, according to research published in December 2019. Regarding caffeine consumption during the day, a September 2023 study found that caffeine can postpone the onset of REM sleep. Furthermore, studies have shown that prolonged caffeine use can impair the quality of a person’s sleep, even though it may help someone feel and stay awake during the day.

For this study, Song and his colleagues measured the sleep-related metrics and alcohol and caffeine consumption patterns of 17 male, full-time financial traders over the course of six weeks using digital daily surveying tools. “We decided to focus on financial traders since, as an investment analyst on Wall Street, I worked with many traders, and we know from research that this is an adult population that regularly consumes both caffeine and alcohol,” Song told Medical News Today. “They value alertness and mental acuity during the day, which I think represents the lifestyles of many working adults,” he said. “Also, their profession requires high attention and cognitive speed.”. When caffeine consumption was examined separately, researchers discovered that, on average, each cup consumed the day before decreased the amount of sleep that study participants reported getting. Based on earlier studies on caffeine and sleep, Song stated, “We had anticipated we would find an actual caffeine-induced decrease in sleep duration.”. The size of the reduction caught us off guard because it was greater than we had anticipated. Additionally, they discovered that individuals who had alcohol the night before reported, on average, a 3% decline in sleep quality with each drink. “This made sense to us because we had also predicted this decline based on what we learned from prior research on alcohol and sleep,” Song said.

REFERENCES:

https://fox59.com/news/national-world/alcohol-and-caffeine-together-have-a-surprising-effect-on-sleep-study/
https://newsroom.uw.edu/news/brief-surprise-study-alcohol-caffeine-and-sleep
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292246/
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/alcohol-caffeine-hurt-sleep-quality-sleep-quantity

For Sleep deprivation medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here https://mygenericpharmacy.com/search.php?keywords=sleep

Arthritis risk may increase with lower testosterone levels.

Arthritis risk may increase with lower testosterone levels.

A common and chronic ailment is arthritis. Sometimes it’s hard to tell why some people get arthritis and others don’t. Researchers continue to look into the factors, including hormones, that most predispose individuals to developing arthritis. Reduced serum testosterone levels may be linked to a higher risk of arthritis, according to a recent study. Although anyone can get arthritis, some people are more susceptible to certain types of the disease than others. Researchers looked at the relationship between testosterone levels and arthritis risk in a recent cross-sectional study that was published in Scientific Reports. They discovered that a higher risk of arthritis development was linked to lower testosterone levels through their examination of more than 10,000 adults. Future studies can examine how this relates to clinical practice and potential strategies for reducing the risk of arthritis. Mobility and joints are impacted by arthritis. Although arthritis comes in various forms, joint inflammation and pain are the two main symptoms. Osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis are among the various forms of arthritis. People with arthritis may find it difficult to work, carry out daily duties, and exercise.

A person’s risk of developing arthritis can be increased by a few factors, such as being overweight and having specific joint injuries. Risk factors for osteoarthritis include aging, weak muscles, and damaged joints. Some people who have one predisposing condition may also develop osteoarthritis. A certain genetic makeup and smoking are risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis. Not involved in the recent research, Dr. Alexander King, an osteopathic physician with a focus on neuromusculoskeletal medicine and owner of King Osteopathic Medicine and Medical Acupuncture, highlighted specific risk factors for arthritis to Medical News Today. These included an individual’s weight, joint ailments, and line of work. Dr. King informed MNT that “having a high body mass index or being obese raises the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis.”. “Excess weight puts additional stress on weight-bearing joints like the knees and hips,” he clarified. This risk can be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise. He added, “Overuse or injury to joints, such as repetitive stress or knee bending, can contribute to the development of osteoarthritis,” and suggested that people take care of their joints by engaging in exercises that are specifically designed for that purpose. Similar to this, Dr. King stated that “jobs involving repetitive knee bending and squatting are associated with knee osteoarthritis.”. “Make sure the area where you work is.

The current study’s authors pointed out that earlier investigations had already hinted that testosterone levels might have an effect on the onset of arthritis. In their study analysis, they wished to explore the association in more detail. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which gathered data from Americans, was used by the researchers for this. Researchers included 10,439 participants in their analysis after removing individuals with missing data on testosterone levels or arthritis. They took into consideration a number of factors when gathering their data, such as marital status, sex, level of education, smoking, diabetes, and alcohol consumption. To take into account covariates that varied slightly, they employed three models. Participants in the study who did not have arthritis had higher serum testosterone levels than those who did. Additionally, an analysis using specific models revealed a link between a higher risk of arthritis and lower testosterone levels. According to their subgroup analysis, female participants and those with a higher body mass index showed a stronger correlation between lower testosterone and arthritis. In addition, the researchers used the participants’ testosterone levels to separate them into four groups. This was done, and the results showed that the group with the highest testosterone level had a 51 percent lower risk of developing arthritis than the group with the lowest testosterone level.

Chief clinical advisor at Biote and functional medicine specialist Dr. Cory Rice, who was not involved in this study, provided MNT with commentary on the results. He states that “this is an interesting study because it is a pattern that many of us see among our patients on a regular basis in clinical practice.”. That is to say, patients who have the lowest hormone levels—male or female—also tend to complain of pain that is similar to arthritis. This covers both the autoimmune-type arthropathies that are becoming more common in outpatient medicine as well as general age-related wear-and-tear types of joint arthropathies, Dr. Rice continued. There were several other restrictions on this study. First and foremost, the authors issued a warning, stating that no causal relationship between any of the factors could be established by this kind of study. Second, participant reporting was used by the researchers to diagnose arthritis, which may have introduced bias. The results might not apply to individuals or groups in other areas, the researchers added. Additionally, some covariables had missing data, which could have compromised the validity of the study. Lastly, they acknowledged that measurement errors and the omission of certain confounders were possible.

“The study didn’t necessarily reveal a ‘causal’ relationship between testosterone levels and arthritis,” Dr. King said to MNT. It is important to look into potential causes of subjects with higher testosterone levels having fewer cases of arthritis. These may include more exercise, a more balanced diet, and a decrease in body weight. It appears that individuals with healthier lifestyles will have higher testosterone levels and fewer arthritic causes. Overall, the findings suggest that monitoring testosterone levels in individuals who are more susceptible to arthritis may be beneficial. “Our studies have demonstrated a significant association between serum testosterone levels and arthritis,” the authors wrote in their conclusion. The significance of serum testosterone levels in arthritis patients is highlighted by the recent findings. However, more thorough prospective studies are needed as the findings were unable to establish a causal relationship. “.

REFERENCES:

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20231109/Study-links-lower-testosterone-levels-with-increased-arthritis-risk.aspx
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10630339/
https://www.healthline.com/health/low-testosterone/joint-pain
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/lower-testosterone-levels-may-increase-the-risk-of-arthritis#Study-limitations-and-continued-research

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