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Epilepsy risk is 2.5 times higher in hypertensive people.

Epilepsy risk is 2.5 times higher in hypertensive people.

Researchers looked into the connection between epilepsy and high blood pressure. They discovered that taking antihypertensive drugs lowers the risk of epilepsy. This is increased by high blood pressure by about 2.5 times.

They come to the conclusion that while high blood pressure is a risk factor for epilepsy, further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms that underlie the association.


After stroke and dementia, epilepsy is the third most prevalent neurological illness that affects elderly individuals.

According to research, late-onset epilepsy has increased in prevalence over the past 20 years. As the population ages, the prevalence of the disorder will undoubtedly continue to climb. This makes epilepsy a substantial public health concern.

Despite this, 32-48% of cases of epilepsy have unknown underlying causes. According to several studies, vascular risk factors may raise the chance of developing late-onset epilepsy. According to another study, epilepsy may be caused by vascular risk factors starting in a person’s 30s.

Policymakers may be better able to develop public health initiatives and preventive actions to lower and manage rates of the condition if they have a better understanding of the involvement of vascular risk factors in late-onset epilepsy.

A recent investigation of the relationship between vascular risk factors and the start of epilepsy was conducted by researchers in the United States under the direction of the Boston University School of Medicine.

They discovered a connection between hypertension and a nearly 2-fold increased incidence of late-onset epilepsy. For those who did not use medication to control their blood pressure, this risk was significantly larger.

Data evaluation

Data from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), an ongoing, community-based study that started in 1948, was used by the researchers. Through health exams every four years, the Offspring Cohort follows the health outcomes of 5,124 of the children of the original participants.

The researchers combined data from 2,986 individuals who underwent their fifth checkup between 1991 and 1995, were at least 45 years old at the time, and whose health records contained information on vascular risk factors.

Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured as vascular risk factors. The researchers defined high blood pressure as having a systolic pressure of at least 140 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and a diastolic pressure of at least 90 mm Hg, as well as taking antihypertensive drugs.

Additionally, the researchers looked for:

  • diabetes
  • cholesterin amounts
  • smoking history
  • a cardiovascular condition
  • stroke
  • BMI, or body mass index

The ICD-9 codes associated with epilepsy or seizures, self-reported seizures, routine chart reviews for neurological diseases, and antiepileptic medication use were utilised by the researchers to screen participants for epilepsy or seizures.

To identify cases of epilepsy, the researchers also analysed electroencephalography (EEG), cardiac, and other pertinent data, as well as brain imaging.

The study found 55 cases of epilepsy in the group, of which 26 were confirmed, 15 were likely, and 14 were suspected. The average age of the subjects at the time of a possible diagnosis was 73.8 years old.

The study’s findings revealed a nearly 2-fold increased risk of epilepsy in people with hypertension. The other risk variables, however, were unrelated to epilepsy.

They also discovered that the probability of having epilepsy increased by 17% for every 10 mm Hg change in systolic blood pressure.

Underlying processes

The connection between epilepsy and hypertension is explained by several theories. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure, may be one mechanism.

According to research, rats who have had repeated seizures had 2.6–8.2 times the RAS components of seizure-free mice. Antihypertensive medications that decreased RAS component levels postponed the start of seizures and decreased their frequency.

More investigation is required, though, as other studies indicate the system may only have a modest impact on the relationship between epilepsy and hypertension.

Small vascular disease (SVD), a disorder in which the walls of small arteries and capillaries are damaged and do not adequately convey oxygen-rich blood to numerous organs, is another potential underlying mechanism, claim the researchers. According to a recent study, the duration of high blood pressure is a reliable indicator of developing SVD in later life.

The researchers also mention that temporal lobe epilepsy and SVD are related. Cortical microinfarcts, tiny lesions in the cortical tissue, and the disruption of U fibers are a few potential explanations. These conditions may cause excessive excitability and hence seizures. U fibers link adjacent regions of the cerebral cortex.

The researchers draw the conclusion that hypertension is a standalone predictor of late-onset epilepsy and carries a 2-fold chance of getting seizures after 45 years.

They do acknowledge that their study has some limitations. It might not accurately represent all races and ethnicities because it was mostly made up of white people. The study’s observational design, according to the researchers, precludes the ability to establish causality.

Dr. Jason Hauptman, a neurosurgeon at Seattle Children’s Hospital, told us that these findings were particularly intriguing because there has been debate over whether elevated blood pressure (hypertension) is a standalone risk factor for stroke.

living with high blood pressure and epilepsy

A healthy blood pressure reading is less than 120/80 mmHg; if you are unsure of your current blood pressure, ask your doctor. High blood pressure is closely linked to a variety of health risks, including cardiac arrest, so it is important to try and maintain this level. The good news is that there are lots of easy lifestyle adjustments you can make to lower your blood pressure, like:

  • healthy eating
  • not a smoker
  • controlling stress
  • lowering the consumption of alcohol
  • Exercising
  • consuming less salt

Speak to your doctor if you have concerns about your epilepsy and high blood pressure. They can assist you in creating a management strategy to lower your blood pressure through dietary and activity modifications. while also making sure that you are controlling your seizures.


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New brain imaging techniques for the treatment of epilepsy.

New brain imaging techniques for the treatment of epilepsy.

In a recent study, researchers identified a brain circuit that can be targeted with brain stimulation by mapping abnormalities in the brain linked to epilepsy.

They stated that they hoped their discoveries could lessen the symptoms that come along with seizures.

They stated that the brain mapping method might also aid in predicting whether stroke survivors will experience seizures.

According to a recent study published in the journal JAMA Neurology, deep brain circuit stimulation may be able to identify whether people who have had a stroke may eventually acquire the disease and assist treat epilepsy.

Scientists from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Massachusetts examined five datasets that had more than 1,500 individuals with brain injuries for their study.

The lesions have several diverse causes, such as tumors, trauma, and stroke.

The ability to explore across many brain regions and forms of brain injury for common network connections associated with epilepsy as a result allowed researchers to do so.

Brain mapping: What is it?

There are specific functions for each region of the brain. The surgeon wants to comprehend how the brain regions close to the seizure onset operate before doing any type of brain surgery, including epilepsy surgery. This enables your team to determine how much of the seizure focus can be safely removed.

The process of brain mapping can be used to pinpoint the functions of various brain areas.

Different people have different locations for different bodily processes (such as movement, voice, vision, and more). Tumours, seizures, or other brain abnormalities may alter which regions of the brain are in charge of a certain function. Sometimes general laws don’t apply.

By activating particular brain regions, one can create a “map” of each person’s brain. The map reveals to medical professionals which regions of the brain are in charge of vital processes like speech, sensation, or movement.

Brain mapping for epilepsy

The sites of brain damage in epilepsy patients and those without the condition were compared by the researchers.

According to the researchers, the brain was filled with lesions connected to epilepsy. They did, however, have a common network.

The researchers pointed out that epilepsy may be brought on by disruption of brain connections rather than the site of the damage. The basal ganglia and cerebellum, two deep-brain regions, were the locations of the linkages.

According to the researchers, identifying lesions in a brain network may aid in determining whether or not a person may experience epilepsy following a stroke. They claimed that common brain pathways could connect various damages and result in epilepsy.

The researchers point out that earlier studies have linked deep brain regions to modifying and regulating seizures in epilepsy-prone animals. They might have a braking effect on the brain.

How have scientists used deep brain stimulation?

The researchers examined the deep brain stimulation results in 30 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

If the stimulation was linked to the same brain network they discovered when mapping brain lesions, they claimed that the benefit would be greater.

Dr. Frederic Schaper, an assistant scientist at the Centre for Brain Circuit Therapeutics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and an instructor of neurology at Harvard Medical School in Massachusetts, said, “In our study, we analysed existing data from patients that received deep brain stimulation for drug-resistant focal epilepsy.”

Although all patients had electrodes for deep brain stimulation implanted in the anterior thalamus, Schaper informed us that each patient’s precise electrode placement and stimulation sites varied slightly. “We found that patients with deeper brain stimulation sites that were more connected to deep brain regions in the cerebellum and basal ganglia had better seizure control than patients who were less connected to these regions.”

“This finding suggests an important role for brain networks distant from the anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation site in the mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation for epilepsy and seizure control,” he continued.

Deep brain stimulation principles

The American Association of Neurological Surgeons defines deep brain stimulation as a surgical procedure in which electrodes are placed in particular parts of the brain. Then, in order to assist manage aberrant brain activity, these electrodes transmit electrical impulses.

The amount of stimulation is managed via an implanted programmable device that resembles a pacemaker. The device is connected to the brain’s electrodes by a wire.

The full mechanism through which deep brain stimulation reduces seizure frequency is unknown, according to Schaper. “Previous research in people and animal models indicates that deep brain stimulation disturbs the brain networks responsible for seizures. It is uncertain, nevertheless, whose brain networks are in charge of [deep brain stimulation]-induced seizure control.”

Schaper mentioned that deep brain stimulation is a safe and efficient treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy and has received approval from federal regulators.

Improving epilepsy symptoms

In this investigation, brain networks were sought after. They claimed that deep brain stimulation can lessen epilepsy symptoms if it activates just one node in the network.

“This study is quite exciting,” said Dr. Jean-Philippe Langevin, a neurosurgeon and the director of the Restorative Neurosurgery and Deep Brain Stimulation Programme at the Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California. He was not involved in the research.

“The scientists discovered that networks were more associated with epilepsy than brain lesions. “They could influence epilepsy symptoms if they could concentrate stimulation within the networks,” Langevin told us.

The roadways in the brain are called brain networks. The roadside stops are called lesions. The researchers discovered that the entire network was influenced when electrical currents were applied anywhere along a network of streets.

According to Langevin, “Deep brain stimulation works for other diseases.” These include essential tremors, Parkinson’s condition, dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and dystonia. For certain conditions, “working within a single network would also hold true.”

“This is exciting because, in the future, when patients come to us with seizures, a scan can look at how the network is connected, making it easier to use [deep brain stimulation],” continued Langevin. “The scans do exist, but we don’t typically use them in the study.”

Symptoms of a seizure

Different people experience different pre-seizure warning symptoms.

But there are a few widespread indications:

  • a sense of impending disaster
  • For every seizures, the same tone or sound is produced.
  • trouble generating ideas
  • having trouble finding the right words
  • Having underwater-like audio perception
  • experiencing déjà vu or believing that nothing is familiar
  • feeling queasy in the stomach
  • having the impression that everything is deformed, either larger or smaller than it should be.

It is suggested that you lay on your side if you are experiencing a seizure. Someone else should roll a seizure victim over if they are unable to move.

Additionally, a person experiencing a seizure ought to be relocated to a location where they won’t damage themselves. For instance, a space free of any furnishings.

Ensure that they are not wearing anything tight around their neck, such as a necktie, scarf, or button-up shirt. If so, you ought to take these things off.

Never abandon a person experiencing a seizure. Until the seizure is finished, be at their side.


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Potential causes and symptoms of Epilepsy you must know.

Potential causes and symptoms of Epilepsy you must know.

What is Epilepsy?

Unprovoked, repeated seizures caused by the neurological disorder are called Epilepsy. A seizure is a sudden spike in aberrant brain electrical activity. When you experience two or more seizures without another obvious explanation, a doctor will diagnose epilepsy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 50 million people throughout the world have epilepsy, while the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 3.5 million individuals in the United States have epilepsy (CDC).

Epilepsy can affect anyone, however it typically starts in young children and elderly people. Men are more likely than women to acquire epilepsy, probably as a result of higher exposure to risk factors such alcohol consumption and head trauma.

There are two primary categories of seizures:

  • universal seizures
  • focused epilepses

Your entire brain is affected by generalised seizures. Only one area of your brain is impacted by focal or partial seizures.

It could be challenging to identify a minor seizure. You might be awake during it, and it might only last a few seconds. Spasms and uncontrollable muscular twitches might result from more severe seizures. They may cause confusion or unconsciousness and last anywhere from a few seconds to many minutes. You might not remember having a seizure afterward.

Epilepsy cannot currently be cured, but it can be controlled with medicine and other methods.

What happens in your brain when you have epilepsy?

All parts of your body can communicate with and receive information from the cells in your brain. A constant electrical impulse that moves from cell to cell is used to transmit these messages.

This periodic electrical impulse pattern is disturbed by epilepsy. Instead, there are electrical activity spikes between cells in one or more regions of your brain, much like an erratic lightning storm. Your awareness (including loss of consciousness), sensations, emotions, and muscle actions are all affected by this electrical disruption.

Types and symptoms of epilepsy

The primary epilepsy symptom is seizures. The symptoms of a seizure vary from person to person and depending on the type.

Focused (partial) seizures

Previously known as a simple partial seizure, a focal aware seizure doesn’t cause unconsciousness. These signs include:

  • Sense of taste, smell, sight, hearing, or touch changes
  • dizziness
  • limb twitching and tingling

Unaware focal seizures (previously called complex partial seizures) involve a loss of consciousness or awareness. Additional signs include:

  • looking vacant
  • unresponsiveness
  • performing frequent motions

Universal seizures

The entire brain is involved in generalised seizures. Subtypes consist of:

  • Absence seizures. “Petit mal seizures” were the previous name for absence seizures. They frequently result in a brief loss of awareness, a blank stare, and occasionally repeated actions like blinking or lip-smacking.
  • Tonic seizures. Sudden stiffness in your legs, arms, or trunk muscles is a symptom of tonic seizures.
  • Atonic seizures. Muscle control is lost as a result of atonic seizures. Because a sudden loss of muscle power can cause you to fall quickly, they are also known as “drop seizures.”
  • Clonic seizures. Repeated, jerky muscular movements of the face, neck, and arms are hallmarks of clonic seizures.
  • Myoclonic seizures. Arms and legs twitch quickly and spontaneously as a result of myoclonic seizures. These seizures can occasionally group together.
  • Seizures with tonic-clonic. Grand mal seizures are another name for tonic-clonic seizures. These signs include:
    • rigidification of the body
    • shaking
    • a lack of bowel or bladder control
    • gnawing at one’s tongue
    • consciousness is lost

You might not remember having a seizure afterward or you might have mild nausea for sometime.

What causes epilepsy?

According to the WHO, the cause of epilepsy cannot be identified in roughly 50% of cases. Seizures can be brought on by a number of circumstances, including:

  • Traumatic head injury or another type of head injury
  • following a brain injury, brain scarring (post-traumatic epilepsy)
  • severe ailment or extremely high fever

According to the CDC, stroke accounts for roughly half of older people’ instances of epilepsy with no known aetiology.

  • oxygen deprivation in the brain
  • brain cyst or tumour
  • incorporating Alzheimer’s illness, dementia
  • a mother’s use of certain medicines, an accident during pregnancy, a brain abnormality, or a newborn’s lack of oxygen
  • Infectious diseases such as HIV, AIDS, and meningitis
  • genetic, developmental, or neurological conditions

Although epilepsy can manifest at any age, it is typically diagnosed in the first few years of life or after the age of 60.

What are seizure triggers?

Some people can pinpoint the events or circumstances that cause their seizures. The following are a handful of the known triggers that are most frequently used:

  • absence of sleep
  • a fever or sickness
  • stress
  • flashing or patterned lights, or both
  • Caffeine, alcohol, or alcohol withdrawal, narcotics, or prescription medications
  • skipping meals, overindulging, or certain dietary components
  • really low blood sugar
  • a brain injury

Finding triggers is not always simple. It’s not necessarily true that a single occurrence qualifies as a trigger. Frequently, a seizure is brought on by a number of circumstances. Keeping a seizure notebook can help you identify your triggers. Keep the following in mind following each seizure:

  • time and day
  • which activity you engaged in
  • what was going on in the area
  • strange sounds, scents, or sights
  • unexpected stressors
  • how much you ate or how long it
  • Depending on what you were eating or how recently you had last eaten
  • the degree of your exhaustion and the quality of your sleep the night before

Your seizure notebook can also be used to check on the effectiveness of your medication. Take note of any adverse effects and how you felt right before and right after your seizure.

When you visit the doctor, bring the journal with you. If changing your prescription dosage or looking into alternative treatments is or becomes required, it might be helpful for your doctor to know.


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What are the possible side effects of using Serpentina?

What are the possible side effects of using Serpentina?

A member of the milkweed family, rauwolfia (Rauwolfia serpentina), often spelled ravolphia, is a useful shrub. Its root is either marketed as pills or capsules, or it is ground into a powder and packaged in this way. It is a substance that is frequently utilised in Asian medicine, particularly the traditional Ayurvedic treatment that originated in India.

About 50 alkaloids, which are its active constituents, have been identified; however, reserpine, rescinnamine, and deserpidine seem to produce the strongest psychedelic effects. Indian snakeroot should not be confused with Yohimbe or Rauvolfia vomitoria. They are not equivalent.


Indian snakeroot is used to treat mental illnesses such agitated psychosis and insanity, as well as mild high blood pressure, anxiety, and sleeplessness. It is also used as a tonic for general debilities and for snake and reptile bites, fever, constipation, feverish intestinal problems, liver disorders, achy joints (rheumatism), fluid retention (edoema), and epilepsy.

Indian snakeroot has a substance that is similar to the prescription medication reserpine. Reserpine is used to treat schizophrenia, mild to severe hypertension, and a few signs of impaired circulation.

  • Difficulty sleeping (insomnia). Early research suggests that Indian snakeroot, when taken with two additional plants, may be able to treat insomnia.
  • Nervousness.
  • illnesses of the mind like schizophrenia.
  • Constipation.
  • Fever.
  • liver issues.
  • painful joints
  • due to inadequate circulation, leg spasms.
  • mildly elevated blood pressure
  • other circumstances

Side effects

When a standardised extract is administered under the guidance of a medical expert with experience using it, Indian snakeroot is POSSIBLY SAFE. Standardized Indian snakeroot has a predetermined dosage of medication. Indian snakeroot has a range of compounds, including reserpine, depending on the plant.

Indian snakeroot contains reserpine and other potentially hazardous compounds; therefore, a skilled healthcare expert must accurately calculate the dosage and monitor any side effects. Nasal congestion, stomach cramps, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, drowsiness, seizures, Parkinson’s-like symptoms, and coma are just a few of the side effects that can range in severity from mild to serious. When driving or operating heavy machinery, Indian snakeroot should not be taken because it can impair reaction time.


Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Indian snakeroot is NOT SAFE to take during pregnancy or when nursing a baby. Indian snakeroot has compounds that could lead to birth abnormalities. Additionally, it is NOT SAFE to utilise this Indian snakeroot when nursing. It contains toxins that can enter breast milk and damage a nursing infant.

Shock therapy (electroconvulsive therapy, ECT): Indian snakeroot should not be administered by patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as shock therapy. Indian snakeroot should be stopped at least a week before starting ECT.

Gall stones: Indian snakeroot may exacerbate gallstones and gallbladder disorders.

Stomach ulcers, intestinal ulcers, or ulcerative colitis: If you have ever experienced stomach, intestinal, or ulcerative colitis, you should not use Indian snakeroot.

Allergic reaction to reserpine or other drugs classified as rauwolfia alkaloids: If you have an allergy to any of these medications, avoid taking Indian snakeroot.

Depression: If you have depression or suicidal thoughts, avoid using Indian snakeroot.

Pheochromocytoma: An adrenal gland tumour that raises blood pressure to hazardous levels: In this case, stay away from Indian snakeroot.

Surgery: Indian snakeroot may hasten the central nervous system during surgery. There is a worry that it can make surgery more difficult by raising blood pressure and heart rate. Before any scheduled surgery, stop using Indian snakeroot at least two weeks in advance.


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What is meant by erectile dysfunction nerve damage?

What is meant by erectile dysfunction nerve damage?

About 30 million men in the United States alone suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED), a frequent type of sexual dysfunction. If you struggle to get or keep an erection strong enough for sex, you may have erectile dysfunction.

Another possibility is that you can have an erection, but not frequently enough to engage in sexual activity when you want to. ED can be brought on by a number of things, including cardiovascular problems and psychological conditions including sexual performance anxiety.

Sometimes, issues with your neurological system can have an impact on how you behave sexually and either induce or exacerbate erectile dysfunction. The term “neurogenic” or “neurological ED” is used to describe this kind of erectile dysfunction.

Neurological ED

Any form of erectile dysfunction brought on by a neural system disorder is referred to as neurological erectile dysfunction, or neurological ED. The development and maintenance of an erection both before and during sex are significantly influenced by your neurological system.

Arousal and stimulation are the precursors to erections. The erectile tissue inside your penis receives impulses from neurons in your brain and pelvic region when you become aroused by physical contact or sexual imagery.

Due to the expansion of the blood vessels that supply your erectile tissue as a result of these impulses, more blood is pumped into your penis. The size and strength of an erection are a result of this blood.

The tunica albuginea, a fibrous membrane, contracts as blood continues to flow into your penis, trapping the blood inside the tissue and maintaining your erection, enabling you to engage in sex. Several factors influence this process such as:

This process may be disrupted when your nervous system is compromised, making it impossible for you to achieve and/or maintain an erection.

Causes of Neurological ED

There are a number of disorders that can lead to neurological erectile dysfunction, including neurological conditions that harm the nerves in specific areas of your body and injuries or surgeries that cause damage to your nervous system.

Typical neurological ED causes include:

Injuries to the neurological system

Sexual problems including erectile dysfunction and anejaculation are frequently brought on by injuries to the neurological system, such as spinal cord injuries (inability to ejaculate). These problems are frequently transient. For instance, after two years, the majority of men with spinal cord injuries resume some penile function, according to study.

Surgery on the bladder or prostate

The nerves and blood vessels surrounding the penis can be harmed during several surgical treatments for prostate or bladder cancer, which could result in erectile dysfunction. Many men discover that as they heal from this kind of surgery, their erection quality and sexual function gradually improve.

Diabetic nerve injury (nerve damage due to diabetes)

Diabetes, especially when it’s uncontrolled or inconsistently treated, can result in diabetic neuropathy, a type of nerve damage. Strong erectile dysfunction and poorly controlled diabetes have been linked in research. In fact, erectile dysfunction brought on by neuropathy affects 40 to 50 percent of men with diabetes.

A number of sclerosis

The central nervous system is harmed by multiple sclerosis (MS), which finally results in irreversible nerve loss. Erectile dysfunction may eventually result from this nerve injury. In some circumstances, drugs intended to treat MS symptoms may also cause ED.

Parkinson’s condition

Parkinson’s disease is an illness of the nervous system that worsens over time, and one of its symptoms is impotence. Other sexual difficulties, such as diminished sexual arousal and trouble initiating orgasm, are frequently experienced by men with Parkinson’s disease.


Some epileptic males experience erectile dysfunction. The levels of sex hormones like testosterone and prolactin, which are involved in sex drive and erections, may be affected by epileptic discharges as the source of this, according to experts.

Additional neurological reasons

Heavy metal toxicity and alcoholism are two more potential reasons of neurological ED, both of which can have an impact on the nerve tissue throughout your body. if you are afflicted, more than one component may be involved in the development of your neurological ED symptoms.

Symptoms of Neurological ED

Neurological erectile dysfunction, like ED brought on by poor cardiovascular health or psychological problems, can vary in severity. Those who experience neurological erectile dysfunction may:

  • having trouble getting an erection at any time or finding it impossible
  • being able to erect yet having trouble keeping it up long enough to engage in sex
  • possess the ability to erection but not frequently enough to engage in sex when you want to

Similar signs and symptoms to cardiovascular ED can be found in neurological ED.

Treatment for Neurological Erectile dysfunction

Damage to your neural system, whether through an accident, surgery, a disease that impairs nerve function, frequently results in ED. While certain neurological ED types go better with time, others need constant care and management.

Neurological ED can be treated with a variety of ED medications, gadgets, and surgical techniques. Many men discover that they can actually result in noticeable increases in their erections and sexual performance. Although they aren’t successful for everyone.

These medicines need to be discussed with a qualified healthcare provider online. They will decide whether or not a prescription is necessary.


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