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Important parameter of Paget’s disease you need to know

Important parameter of Paget’s disease you need to know

Paget’s disease(Osteitis deformans), a chronic bone ailment, is characterised by excessive bone regeneration and disintegration in the diseased bone. Many individuals have no symptoms. The condition is uncommon in those under the age of 50 and becomes more prevalent as you become older. People with Northern European descent seem to get it more frequently.

What is Paget’s disease of the bone?

After osteoporosis, Paget’s disease affects bones in a rather high number of people. It is a disease of the process of remodelling bones, in which the body absorbs old bone and produces atypical new bone.

Errors in the bone remodelling process can lead to abnormal bone. With Paget’s disease, the body may produce new bone in the wrong places or shed old bone from its proper placements.

This process can result in fractures, arthritis, deformities, bone discomfort, and bone weakness. Due to the disease’s sometimes minor or undetectable symptoms, many people with Paget’s disease are unaware that they even have it.

Due to flaws in the bone renewal process, if a person with Paget’s disease fractures a bone, the healing process could take a very lengthy period.

Symptoms of Paget’s disease.

Due to the absence of symptoms, a lot of people are unaware that they have Paget’s illness. Additionally, any symptoms could be misdiagnosed as arthritis or another bone ailment.

Joint or bone pain is one of the most frequent complaints. The skin around the areas affected by Paget’s disease may be sensitive or red, and joints may swell. Some individuals only realise they have Paget’s disease when they break a fragile bone, which can happen in some cases.

Most frequently, the following bones are affected by Paget’s disease:

  • the femur
  • the back
  • the brain
  • thighbone, or femur
  • or shin bone, is the tibia.

Numerous important nerves in the body pass through or near the bones, therefore aberrant bone growth could result in a bone compressing, nicking, or damaging a nerve, resulting in discomfort.

Symptoms of Paget’s disease

Paget’s disease of the bone may have minimal or no symptoms in its early stages. If symptoms do materialise, they might comprise:

  • bone ache
  • joints hurt (especially in the back, hips, and knees)
  • headache
  • bones in the thighs and lower legs have grown in size.
  • bones in the thighs and lower legs bowing
  • enlarged skull at the region of the forehead

Later stages of the condition could see the emergence of the following symptoms:

  • afflicted limbs are bowing more than usual
  • stumbling steps
  • joint discomfort or potentially joint swelling (arthritis)
  • bones with impacted fractures
  • Sensational shifts
  • muscular challenges
  • loss of hearing (if the skull is affected)
  • distorted bones
  • bent spine

What causes Paget’s disease?

Paget’s disease of the bones has an elusive exact cause. There are, however, some risk factors connected to the illness:

  • Genetics: A possible factor is family history. A relative with Paget’s disease affects 10% to 30% of those who have the disease themselves.
  • Age: People under the age of 40 are rarely affected by the illness. As you age, your chance of getting Paget’s disease rises.
  • Geographical distribution: People of Anglo-Saxon ancestry living in North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe are frequently affected by Paget’s disease of the bone. In Scandinavia, Asia, and Africa, it is uncommon.
  • Viral infection: Infection with a “slow virus”: In individuals with genetic risk factors, the disease may be brought on by this virus. But additional study is required to prove the connection.

What happens to your bones with Paget’s disease?

In normal circumstances, the body regularly transforms old bone into new bone. Remodeling is the name of this process. Osteoclasts, which degrade bone, and osteoblasts, which promote bone regrowth, are the two types of cells involved.

Naturally, remodelling slows down over time. However, the procedure is hampered by Paget’s disease. Osteoblast activity decreases as osteoclast activity increases. In response, the osteoblasts reform an excessive amount of weak, irregular bone.

The sickness probably won’t interfere with your daily life in the early stages. That’s because early on, it only produces minor or no symptoms. But when the condition worsens, it may result in pain and skeletal abnormalities. Unless it is treated quickly, this might make it challenging to carry out daily tasks.

How do treat Paget’s disease?

You might not need therapy if you don’t have any symptoms. In this situation, you’ll need to see your doctor frequently so they can keep an eye on your symptoms.

However, you could require treatment if you experience symptoms or if you’re at risk for consequences. Treatment’s objective is to:

  • lessen the likelihood of complications
  • control skeletal and joint pain
  • slow down the renovation
  • avoid or treat fractures
  • fix skeletal abnormalities

The most effective treatments depend on how serious your problem is. Your physician might advise:

  • Diet: No specific diet is required for Paget’s disease of the bones. However, it’s crucial to consume enough calcium and vitamin D, which are necessary for strong bones.
  • Assistive devices: A cane may be helpful if you get symptoms in your pelvis or leg. Additionally, a brace may lessen pain.
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) are available over-the-counter and can help control minor bone discomfort. Aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen are examples of such medications.
  • Medication: Intravenous administration of bisphosphonates can slow down the fast remodelling of bone. Calcitonin can control how new bone is formed.
  • Surgery: Surgery may be used to treat Paget’s disease complications. Surgery for fractures, malformed bones, or severe arthritis falls under this category.

Points to remeber

  • The bone disease Paget’s is a chronic disorder that worsens gradually over time. The bone grows abundantly because it degrades too quickly. Deformed and weak bones result from this.
  • Most of the time, especially in the first stages, the disease exhibits only minor or no symptoms. When symptoms do show up, they frequently include discomfort, trouble walking, and a higher chance of fractures.
  • However, medicine can be used to manage Paget’s disease of the bones. Early intervention can reduce risks and preserve quality of life.


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What are the ways to treat and diagnose Gastritis?

What are the ways to treat and diagnose Gastritis?

What is Gastritis?

Gastritis is a disorder that causes the mucosa lining of the stomach to become inflamed. This inflammation results in stomach pain, dyspepsia, bloating, and nausea. It can trigger other issues. Gastritis can develop gradually (chronic) or suddenly (acute) (chronic). Reducing stomach acid and modifying your diet can help with gastritis symptoms.

The mucosa is the protective mucus lining that lines your stomach. Your stomach’s lining shields it from the powerful stomach acid that aids in food digestion. The protecting mucosa gets inflamed and leads to gastritis when something weakens or harms it. The most frequent bacterial cause of gastritis is a kind of bacterium known as Helicobacter pylori.

About 8 out of every 1,000 people get acute (sudden) gastritis. Long-term, chronic gastritis is less frequent. Approximately two out of every 10,000 people are impacted.

Types of Gastritis

There are two main categories of gastritis:

Erosive (reactive): Erosive gastritis results in both stomach lining erosion and inflammation. Reactive gastritis is another name for this illness. Alcohol, smoking, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, viral or bacterial infections, stress from diseases or injuries, and corticosteroids are some of the causes.

Non-erosive: Stomach lining inflammation that does not cause erosion or compromise the lining.

What Causes Gastritis?

Inflammation brought on by heavy alcohol use, frequent vomiting, stress, or the use of specific medications like aspirin or other anti-inflammatory therapies can result in gastropathy. Additionally, it might result from any of the following:

  • Abuse of alcohol: Prolonged drinking can irritate and damage the stomach lining.
  • Autoimmune disease: In certain people, the stomach lining’s healthy cells are attacked by the immune system.
  • Bacterial infection: Peptic ulcer illness and chronic gastritis are mostly brought on by the H. pylori bacterium (stomach ulcers). Inflammation is brought on by the bacteria’s destruction of the stomach’s barrier lining.
  • Reflux of bile: Your liver produces bile to aid in the digestion of fatty foods. Reflux is a reflowing action. When bile bypasses the small intestine and instead rushes back into the stomach, this condition is known as bile reflux.
  • Medication: Regularly taking corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) to treat chronic pain can irritate the stomach lining.
  • Stress on the body: A sudden, serious sickness or injury might cause gastritis. Gastritis frequently occurs even following trauma to the body that does not affect the stomach. Brain injuries and severe burns are two common causes.

Symptoms of gastritis

There are many cases of gastritis without symptoms. When symptoms do occur, many people mistake them for indigestion. Additional indications of gastritis include:

  • tarry, dark stool
  • Bloating.
  • vomiting and nauseous.
  • greater satiety during or after a meal.
  • decrease in appetite.
  • abdominal ulcers
  • shedding pounds without intending to.
  • discomfort or soreness in the upper abdomen (belly).
  • throwing up blood.

How is gastritis diagnosed?

Your doctor will examine you physically and inquire about your medical history and symptoms. Your doctor might also recommend one or more of the following tests:

  • Breath test: You ingest a capsule or liquid containing the radioactive substance urea during an H. pylori breath test. Then you exhale into a bag that resembles a balloon. Urea is converted into carbon dioxide by H. pylori bacteria. The breath test will reveal a rise in carbon dioxide if you have the bacteria.
  • Blood test: Checking for antibodies that combat the H. pylori bacteria through a blood test.
  • Stool test: H. pylori bacteria are detected in your stool during this test of your faeces (poop).
  • Upper endoscopy: Your doctor examines your stomach using an endoscope, a lengthy, thin tube with a camera attached to it. The oesophagus, which joins your mouth to your stomach, is where the doctor puts the scope. Using an upper endoscopy, your doctor can look at the stomach lining. Additionally, a tissue sample (biopsy) from the lining of your stomach may be taken in order to check for infection.
  • Upper GI examination: For an upper GI examination, you ingest barium, a chalky material. Your stomach lining is coated by the fluids, giving the X-ray technician more precise images.

How is gastritis treated?

Depending on the reason, there are many treatments for gastritis. While some medicines treat symptoms of dyspepsia, others kill bacteria. Your healthcare professional might advise:

Antibiotics: The bacterial infection may be treated with antibiotics. For a few weeks, you might need to take many different kinds of antibiotics.

Antacids: Calcium carbonate drugs that act as antacids lessen exposure to stomach acid. They could aid in reducing inflammation. Heartburn can also be treated with antacids like Tums and Rolaids.

Histamine (H2) blockers: Drugs like ranitidine (Zantac), cimetidine (Tagamet), and other analogues reduce the formation of stomach acid.

Proton pump inhibitors: These drugs lessen the amount of acid your stomach generates. Examples include omeprazole (Prilosec) and esomeprazole (Nexium). Proton pump inhibitors also treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and stomach ulcers.


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Is there a permanent cure for Erectile dysfunction?

Is there a permanent cure for Erectile dysfunction?

What is erectile dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction is basically a disorder found in men which could be a sign of physical or psychological condition. The symptoms associated with this disorder is found in men’s reproductive organ i.e. inability to keep an erection firmer and longer enough during a sexual activity.

There are many men who experience erectile dysfunction occasionally because of stress, fatigue, alcohol, or emotional issues, but 25% of men have recurring episodes of the disorder. People dealing with erectile dysfunction will be:

  • Unable to achieve erection at anytime needed.
  • might achieve erection sometime but not when needed like during sexual activity.
  • might able to achieve erection when needed but not long enough

Causes of Erectile dysfunction

There are many factors involved in male sexual arousal, including hormones, emotions, nerves, muscles, and the blood vessels. There are a number of factors that can contribute to erectile dysfunction. It is also possible for erectile dysfunction to be caused or worsened by stress and mental health concerns.

Following are multiple reasons due to which men may experience erectile dysfunction.

  • Diabetes, especially uncontrolled type 2 diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Atherosclerosis (hardening of the walls of the arteries)
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
  • Fatigue
  • Drug abuse
  • Excessive alcohol or tobacco consumption
  • Certain medications (antidepressants, blood pressure medications, sedatives, appetite suppressants, or medications to treat prostate cancer)
  • Injury to the brain or spinal cord
  • Psychological issues, such as anxiety, stress, or depression, or relationship problems
  • Radiation therapy to the testicles or pelvic region
  • Hypogonadism (reduced levels of the male hormone testosterone)
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Stroke
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Obesity
  • Surgeries on the bladder or prostate
  • Lack of physical activity

Permanent cure for Erectile dysfunction

A recurrent struggle to achieve and maintain an adequate erection for pleasurable sexual activity is known as erectile dysfunction, or ED.

A complex process including blood vessels, nerves, muscles, brain signals, and psychology goes into achieving and sustaining an erection. Problems can arise along the route because there are so many steps involved. However, unless it occurs to you, you might not be aware of how frequent it is. Fortunately, not all ED-related causes are serious or long-lasting.

Let’s go over a few of the treatable reasons of ED. When we use the term “curable/cured,” we refer to ED conditions that can be prevented or treated without the need of drugs, surgery, injections, or implants.

1. Medication side effects

At least 25% of all occurrences of ED are caused by drugs that can have ED as a side effect. Diuretics, a class of pharmaceuticals used to treat high blood pressure, several antidepressants (particularly SSRIs and SNRIs), some indigestion treatments, some antihistamines, and some opioid painkillers are the worst offenders. However, to a lesser extent, Parkinson’s drugs, some chemotherapies, and some prostate cancer treatments can also lead to ED.

Speak to your doctor about your medication if you believe it may be the cause of your ED. They might advise you to take it less frequently, stop taking it altogether, or switch to a different medicine with a lower risk of ED.

2. Recreational drugs and nicotine

Though you would believe that using alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methadone, amphetamines, or barbiturates can increase arousal and sexual confidence, the truth is quite the opposite. All of these drugs can actually make it much more difficult to achieve and maintain a good erection. So avoid using drugs. They won’t achieve anything but disappointment.

Similar to how it affects becoming hard, nicotine (both smoked and vaped) can make it harder to inspire sexual desire in the first place.

Look at your social habits if you’re having sexual dysfunction. Do you smoke, consume beer, use marijuana or other drugs recreationally? If you do then there is a good likelihood that these could be the root of your erectile dysfunction.

3. Obesity

By raising your risk for conditions including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol, all of which are factors in erectile dysfunction (ED), obesity and extra fat around the waist can contribute to ED. Did you know that obesity affects the amount of testosterone in your body? Your erection maintenance and sex drive are also impacted by low testosterone levels. More on that will follow.

If you are obese, resolving your erectile dysfunction is only one of the numerous advantages to losing weight via healthier food and regular exercise.

4. Hormone imbalances

Erectile dysfunction can be brought on by low testosterone levels, excessive prolactin levels, aberrant thyroid hormone levels, and abnormal cortisol levels.

A hormone imbalance can improve ED symptoms by being treated. For instance, a 2004 research of 51 males with ED brought on by high prolactin levels revealed that when their high prolactin levels were treated over 6 months, both sexual function and low testosterone levels improved.

5. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

According to a 2009 research of 401 German males, ED occurs more frequently in men with OSA (69% vs. 34% of men without OSA). Although the exact cause is yet unknown, it appears to be connected to nightly low blood oxygen levels.

Obstructive sleep apnea-related ED can be treated. A 2013 research of males with OSA and ED supported this finding, demonstrating that therapy with a nighttime breathing mask (CPAP) to raise low blood oxygen levels enhanced sexual performance.

6. Psychological or emotional causes

The physical processes that result in an erection are greatly accelerated by the brain. Because of this, erectile dysfunction can be brought on by traumatic experiences in the past, anxiety linked to performance, relationship issues, stress, anxiety, and depression, among other things. ED frequently results from problems with both mental and physical health.

Counseling, psychotherapy, and therapies for stress, anxiety, and depression are ways to address these issues, which will help with ED symptoms as a result.

7. High Cholesterol

Blood arteries, especially those in the penis, can be harmed by an excess of cholesterol, which can also lead to ED.

It’s very clear from the studies that lowering your high cholesterol levels will also help your ED symptoms. Men with high cholesterol and ED who took statins (drugs that decrease cholesterol), such as atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin, showed a 25% improvement in their erectile function, independent of age, according to a 2014 meta-analysis of 11 randomised trials.

8. Biking

Erectile dysfunction may have a (reversible) cause that involves biking. According to the hypothesis, spending a lot of time in the saddle on a bike might put strain on the nerves and blood arteries that supply the penis, which can lead to numbness and occasionally erectile dysfunction.

Simple modifications to your bike seat may help with ED symptoms if you ride a bike frequently. Riders with ED who are serious about their riding should select wide seats without a nose and check that the seat is at the proper height and not tilted up. There is evidence for this: For instance, a 2002 German study discovered that although padding did not appear to make much of a difference, wide saddles were preferable than narrow ones for maintaining blood flow to the penis.


Therefore, erectile dysfunction is treatable, but it relies on the underlying cause. Some ED-related factors are simpler to “treat” than others. But with the correct diagnosis, encouragement, and care, ED may be cured without the need of ED drugs like Viagra (sildenafil) or Cialis (Tadalafil).


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How can some medications cause you erectile dysfunction?

How can some medications cause you erectile dysfunction?

What is Erectile dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction is basically a disorder found in men which could be a sign of physical or psychological condition. The symptoms associated with this disorder is found in men’s reproductive organ i.e. inability to keep an erection firmer and longer enough during a sexual activity.

Erectile dysfunction is a treatable disorder which includes many possible methods such as natural remedies, alternative medicine, and prescription drugs. In this article, let us discuss about some faster ways to treat this disorder.

There are many men who experience erectile dysfunction occasionally because of stress, fatigue, alcohol, or emotional issues, but 25% of men have recurring episodes of the disorder. People dealing with erectile dysfunction will be:

  • Unable to achieve erection at anytime needed.
  • might achieve erection sometime but not when needed like during sexual activity.
  • might able to achieve erection when needed but not long enough

Causes of Erectile dysfunction

Arousal of male sexual desire is a complex process that involves the brain, hormones, emotions, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. There are a number of conditions that can cause erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can also be caused or worsened by stress and mental health concerns.

The cause of erectile dysfunction can be a combination of physical and psychological factors. The anxiety surrounding maintaining an erection might be caused by a minor physical condition that slows your sexual response. A person experiencing anxiety may suffer from erectile dysfunction or have it worsened.

Can medicines cause Erectile dysfunction?

There are several factors that can cause or contribute to erectile dysfunction. As an example, a person might take medications. There is a possibility that medicines that affect the blood flow to the sexual organs and the sex drive may increase the risk of Erectile Dysfunction.

In older men, it is more likely that they are taking some kind of medication, which contributes to erectile dysfunction. An estimated 25% of cases of ED are related to medication side effects, according to the Harvard Special Health Report on Erectile Dysfunction.

Take a look at your medicine cabinet if you are having problems achieving or maintaining an erection. Erectile dysfunction may be caused by many prescription medications and over-the-counter medications. Despite the fact that these drugs may be used to treat certain disorders, they can also affect a man’s hormones, nerves, or blood circulation, which can result in ED or increase the risk of it.

Medicines that may cause Erectile dysfunction

1. Blood pressure medicines

Usually, people with heart disease are more likely to take blood pressure medicines. The most common type of medicine that may lead to erectile dysfunction are blood pressure medicine, especially the water pills. Some blood pressure medications that commonly cause ED incudes:

  • Thiazide diuretics like chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide
  • Loop diuretics like furosemide, torasemide and ethacrynic acid
  • Spironolactone
  • Clonidine
  • Guanethidine
  • Methyldopa

Beta-blockers, another type of heart medicine, have a small risk of ED. Some of these drugs include metoprolol (Lopressor), atenolol (Tenormin), propranolol (Inderal) and bisoprolol (Zebeta). These medications aren’t all bad for people with ED who take them. 

2. Antidepressants

There is a strong correlation between depression and low sexual drive and erectile dysfunction. The problem with many antidepressants is that they can cause low sexual drive and erectile dysfunction, or worsen them.  Some of such antidepressants include:

  • SSRIs: citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft)
  • SNRIs: venlafaxine (Effexor), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq), duloxetine (Cymbalta)
  • MAOIs: isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate)
  • Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, clomipramine

Antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed and most likely to cause ED. However, they are the most effective medications against depression.

Some of the antidepressants that are less likely to cause ED includes:

  • Bupropion (Zyban)
  • Mirtazapine (Remeron)
  • Selegiline patches (Emsam)

3. Antihistamines

Antihistamines like Benadryl, Dramamine, and Phenergan can also cause erectile dysfunction. The action of antihistamines is to block the release of histamine from the body, a chemical that is involved in allergic reactions and healthy erections.

4. Acid reflux medications

In the same way as antihistamines, certain acid reflux drugs called H2 blockers may also inhibit histamine production and lead to erectile dysfunction. This class of drugs is characterized by the highest risk for ED of cimetidine (Tagamet), and the lowest risk for ED of ranitidine (Zantac) and famotidine (Pepcid).

5. Opioid pain medications

There is also a connection between opioids and ED. Low testosterone levels and erectile dysfunction are possible side effects of long-term opioid use. The three most common opioid medications are hydrocodone, oxycodone, and morphine.

6. Antiepileptics

It is common for patients on antiepileptic drugs to experience sexual dysfunction. It has been reported that gabapentin and topiramate are associated with orgasmic dysfunction in both men and women, and reduced libido in women.

7. Immunosuppressants

An immunosuppressant reduces the immune system’s activity. It is usually given to the person to help control an autoimmune condition or during organ transplant surgery to prevent organ rejection. A potential side effects of this drug category is impaired sexual function. Medicines include:

  • sirolimus
  • everolimus
  • tacrolimus
  • cyclosporine

Always inform the doctor if you notice any medication causing you erectile dysfunction. The medication might be discontinued or other method could to be used to counter ED along with ongoing medical condition.

The above list and categories of medicine are not every possible medication that must be taken of to prevent ED. However, if you are dealing with ED, there is 25% chance that it is caused due to your meds. If you think that your meds are causing you erectile dysfunction, it is always advisable to speak about it to your doctor.


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