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Important factors of Hepatitis C you need to know.

Important factors of Hepatitis C you need to know.

After contracting the hepatitis C virus, you experience hepatitis C, an inflammation of the liver. This virus is bloodborne, which means that the only way to spread or get it is through blood that has the virus in it.

Acute or chronic hepatitis C are both possible.

  • Acute hepatitis C: Many times, acute hepatitis C has no symptoms at all. Any symptoms you do have may start to show up a week or two after exposure. They may go away on their own in a matter of weeks.
  • Chronic hepatitis C: On the other hand, chronic hepatitis C symptoms may emerge (and worsen) over the course of months or even years. Sometimes symptoms don’t show up until they’re quite bad.

Around 58 million people worldwide are thought to have chronic hepatitis C, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Hepatitis C is one of the most prevalent hepatitis kinds in the United States, along with hepatitis A and B. A vaccination to prevent hepatitis C does not yet exist, in contrast to those for hepatitis A and B.

If untreated, hepatitis C can result in serious, sometimes fatal health issues, such as:

  • cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
  • liver damage
  • liver tumour

However, hepatitis C is typically curable. Rapid testing and treatment can lessen your risk of developing severe symptoms and liver failure.

Symptoms of hepatitis C


Most sufferers of acute hepatitis C don’t exhibit any symptoms. If they do, symptoms usually start to manifest two to twelve weeks following exposure. Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed since there are no clear signs. As a result, physicians frequently refer to hepatitis C as the silent pandemic.

The severe symptoms resemble those of other viral illnesses quite closely. Acute hepatitis C symptoms include:

  • the fever
  • fatigue
  • abdomen ache
  • reduced appetite
  • dizziness or vomiting
  • dark faeces
  • stool in a shade of clay
  • joints hurt
  • jaundice, hardly ever

These illnesses frequently only last a few weeks and are minor. You might not require medical therapy if you have acute hepatitis C. This is because your body can sometimes fight the illness on its own.

It’s possible that you won’t even be aware of having the illness if you don’t exhibit any symptoms. Even though you may not be experiencing any symptoms, you can still spread the infection to others.


Acute hepatitis C will progress to chronic hepatitis if your body cannot rid itself of the hepatitis C virus. Of those who have hepatitis C, between 55 and 85% go on to have chronic hepatitis C.

Without treatment, the chronic type of hepatitis C won’t go away on its own, and your symptoms may worsen. There may be long-term health effects from these symptoms. They might potentially result in liver cancer and long-term liver damage.

Chronic hepatitis C symptoms include:

  • chronic fatigue
  • a general sense of being sick
  • Aches and pains in muscles and joints
  • unaccounted weight loss
  • mood swings, including depressive or anxious thoughts
  • difficulty paying attention or remembering things

The chronic type of the illness won’t always result in immediately noticeable symptoms, similar to acute hepatitis C. You should get tested as soon as you can if you have any of the aforementioned symptoms and think you may have been exposed to the virus.

Causes of hepatitis C

Blood-to-blood contact is how the virus is spread. In other words, if the blood of a person who has hepatitis C comes into touch with your blood, you could contract the virus. This could occur because of:

  • transplantation of organs
  • sharing goods like toothbrushes and razors
  • sharing syringes
  • childbirth (the person giving birth can spread the infection to the infant) 
    the exchange of blood during sexual intercourse
  • piercing or getting a tattoo using non-sterile tools
  • If you’ve already had the virus, you could get it again.

Blood transfusions were thought to be a very plausible source of hepatitis C virus transmission before 1992. You now have a far lower probability of catching the virus through a transfusion because to medical advancements in blood screening.

You could be at an increased risk of transmission if you:

  • before 1992, you had a blood transfusion
  • had a transplanted organ before 1992
  • received blood products or clotting factor concentrates prior to 1987
  • received long-term hemodialysis treatment
  • hepatitis C-positive mother gave birth to them
  • had a hepatitis C-infected sexual partner
  • used needles that weren’t sterile

You can avoid spreading hepatitis C by:

  • kissing, embracing, or otherwise touching
  • feeding your infant
  • sharing meals and beverages
  • sneeze and coughing

Is hepatitis C curable?

Hepatitis C infections, whether acute or chronic, are frequently fully curable. (Keep in mind, though, that you still risk getting the virus again.)

Antiviral medication-based therapy can effectively treat hepatitis C 95% of the time. When tests no longer show the virus in your blood 12 weeks after the conclusion of treatment, medical specialists will consider you to be cured.

How is hepatitis C treated?

Hepatitis C patients do not always require therapy. Your immune system might be strong enough to successfully combat the illness and eliminate the virus from your body. Medication is typically effective in treating the illness if your immune system is unable to eradicate the infection.

Hepatitis C medications

Hepatitis C can be treated with a wide range of drugs. Antivirals are the most common type of treatment, while Riboviria may also be recommended if other measures have failed.

Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), a class of medications, work to completely eradicate the hepatitis C virus from your body. It also assist in the prevention of liver damage.

Several of the brands of these medicines include:

  • Zepatier
  • Harvoni
  • Epclusa
  • Vosevi
  • Mavyret

Hepatitis C has been classified into 6 distinct genotypes, or strains, by researchers.

Knowing your genotype will help your doctor or other healthcare provider decide which drug will work best for you. Your genotype may have an impact on the kind of treatments you can receive because some strains have acquired a tolerance to some drugs.


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Does ovulating & menstruating women need more Progesterone?

Does ovulating & menstruating women need more Progesterone?


The menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species are all influenced by the endogenous steroid and progestogen hormone known as Progesterone. It is a member of the class of steroid hormones known as progestogens and is the primary progestogen in the body.

Estrogen is typically a component of hormone replacement treatment, which is used to alleviate menopause symptoms and lower the chance of contracting certain diseases. Estrogen can, however, also lead to an unnatural thickening of the uterine lining and raise the risk of uterine cancer.

The danger of getting uterine cancer is reduced and this thickening is prevented by progesterone. In women of reproductive age who have previously ceased menstruating after experiencing regular periods, progesterone is also used to induce menstruation (period).

There is no reliable scientific evidence to support the use of progesterone supplements or other over-the-counter medications for infertility, menopausal symptoms, or any other condition.

Progesterone levels in over-the-counter medications may differ from those listed on the label. FDA approval is not necessary for these goods. With a healthcare professional, go over the use of prescription progesterone products. Don’t mistake progesterone for pregnenolone or wild yam, either. They are not equivalent.

How to consume Progesterone?

Progesterone is available to us in an oral pill form. Typically, one dose is given in the evening or right before bed. Progesterone is typically used on a rotating regimen, which alternates 10–12 days of progesterone use with 16–18 days without the drug. When exactly to take progesterone will be specified by your doctor.

Take progesterone at roughly the same time every evening to help you remember to take it. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any instructions on your prescription label that you are unsure about following. Progesterone should be taken as prescribed. Never take it in larger or less amounts or more frequently than directed by your doctor.

Side effects

Common side effects observed while medicating with progesterone are:

  • headache
  • muscle, joint, or bone pain
  • tiredness
  • problems urinating
  • mood swings
  • irritability
  • excessive worrying
  • sneezing
  • cough
  • vaginal discharge
  • runny nose
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • breast tenderness or pain
  • upset stomach

Inform the doctor if any of these conditions persist or get worse. There are also some severe side effects which must be informed to the doctor right away if observed such as:

  • seizures
  • stomach pain or swelling
  • severe dizziness or faintness
  • slow or difficult speech
  • weakness or numbness of an arm or leg
  • sharp chest pain
  • coughing up blood
  • leg swelling or pain
  • depression
  • hives
  • skin rash
  • itching
  • difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
  • breast lumps
  • migraine headache
  • loss of vision or blurred vision
  • bulging eyes

Other negative effects of progesterone are possible. If you experience any strange issues while taking this medicine, contact your doctor right away.

Precautions before using Progesterone

There are certain medical conditions or interaction of drugs in a human body in which intake of Progesterone must be limited or avoided in order to prevent complications, such as:

  • If you have any of the following allergies: peanuts, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), hormone replacement treatment, progesterone, or any other drugs, let your doctor and pharmacist know right once.
  • Please let your doctor know if you are taking any herbal supplements, especially St. John’s wort.
  • Inform your physician if you experience or have previously experienced any of the following: unexplained vaginal bleeding between periods; a miscarriage where some tissue was left in the uterus; cancer of the breasts or of the female reproductive organs; seizures; migraine headaches; asthma; diabetes; depression; blood clots in the legs, lungs, eyes, brain, or anywhere else in the body; stroke or ministroke; vision issues; or liver, kidney, heart, or gallbladder.
  • Inform your doctor if you are expecting, intend to get pregnant, or are nursing a baby. Call your doctor if you become pregnant while taking progesterone.
  • Inform your doctor or dentist that you are taking progesterone if you are having surgery, including dental surgery.
  • Progesterone may cause you to feel lightheaded or sleepy. Prior to understanding how this drug affects you, avoid using machinery or driving a car. Take your regular dose of progesterone at bedtime if it does cause you to feel woozy or sleepy.
  • Progesterone may make you feel faint when you stand up too rapidly from a resting position, which is something you should be aware of. When you first begin taking progesterone, this is more typical. Get out of bed gradually, resting your feet on the floor for a few minutes before standing up, to avoid this issue.

Progesterone need fo ovulatioin and menstruation

  • Lower progesterone before ovulation

Progesterone levels are low at the beginning of the menstrual cycle (during the period) and they stay low throughout the follicular phase.

  • Increased progesterone after ovulation

After ovulation, progesterone predominates among the hormones (the luteal phase). The area on the ovary where the follicle that housed the ovulated egg collapsed, known as the corpus luteum, produces progesterone. In the middle of the luteal phase, progesterone levels reach their highest. If conception is unsuccessful, the corpus luteum begins to degrade 9 to 10 days after ovulation, which lowers progesterone levels and signals the onset of the period.


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