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How does eating too much fructose cause obesity?

How does eating too much fructose cause obesity?

In the United States, more than 40% of adults are obese, with approximately 10% having extreme obesity.

Obesity increases the chance of developing a variety of ailments, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and several malignancies.

An energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories burned is the primary cause of obesity.

Obesity, however, may result from more than just calorie intake—it may also result from the calories.

According to recent studies, the simple sugar fructose, which is present in many foods, may be the cause of obesity and other related health issues.

Around 13% of persons globally, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), are obese. Although obesity rates are rising in low-income nations, the majority are in wealthy nations.

According to National Institutes of Health (NIH) data, 42.4% of adults and 19.3% of children and adolescents in the United States were obese in 2017–18. Additionally, these figures are rising.

Obesity raises the risk of a number of illnesses. It is linked to a poor diet and an unbalanced energy intake, but it may also have a genetic component. These are listed by the NIH as follows:

What connection exists between fructose and obesity?

According to recent study, obesity may not just be caused by an energy imbalance; rather, the source of that energy may be what causes the illness.

According to the study, which was published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, fructose may be the cause of obesity because of an evolutionary “survival switch” that makes people store energy from fructose rather than utilize it.

The study’s results were discussed by Dr. Eamon Laird, a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Limerick in Ireland who was not engaged in the study, he observed:

This is a highly intriguing theory, even though it is only a narrative overview and not a systematic meta-analysis of the available data. It is conceivable that our present energy-dense diets have altered an evolutionary pathway that was advantageous millions of years ago.

Fructose converts to energy reserves.

According to the study, metabolic diseases like obesity may have arisen as a result of overstimulation of an evolutionary-based biological reaction called the “survival switch,” which is meant to safeguard animals before a crisis like hibernation.

Contrary to glucose, which is used as immediate fuel, the researchers contend that fructose causes the body to conserve energy.

This is better for an animal going into long-term hibernation than for a person who has constant access to high-sugar diets.

This “survival switch” may be more detrimental than beneficial in areas where people have easy access to food. People develop fat reserves as a result of the constant availability of high-fructose foods, which causes obesity and related health issues.

Metabolic effects of fructose

What causes fructose to make the body store energy rather than use it?

Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is often utilised and swiftly replaced from nutritional intake or fat storage. ATP is the chemical that supplies energy to power all cell operations.

Fructose, on the other hand, lowers the amount of ATP present in cells and hinders the production of ATP.

A chain of chemical processes that stop the mitochondria of the cell from making more ATP and put them under oxidative stress are triggered when ATP levels fall low enough.

Fructose consumption increases appetite in addition to lowering ATP levels. Once deposited as fat, these extra calories. The ATP levels eventually rise once more, but the fat reserves are still there.

Repeated exposure to oxidative stress causes mitochondrial dysfunction to become persistent over time. The body of a mammal that is hibernating adjusts to the low ATP levels by lowering the resting metabolic rate.

Without reducing calorie consumption, this lower energy usage leads to weight increase in persons who still have access to plenty of food.

Dr. Laird concurred that this theory could help to explain the rise in obesity.

He said, “I agree it could be one component. But obesity and metabolic syndrome are complex conditions; there is seldom just one contributing cause. Lack of exercise, unhealthy eating habits, vitamin deficiencies, socioeconomic causes, and even risk factors related to one’s race and ethnicity are all significant risk factors.”

Therefore, even if fructose did affect obesity, it would only have a minor impact overall, he continued.

Dietary sources of fructose

Although fruit naturally includes fructose, which gives it its sweetness, a normal Western diet also contains a variety of additional sources of fructose.

The majority comes from table sugar, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a sweetener manufactured from cornflour, and sucrose, a molecule composed of glucose and fructose chemically bound together.

Fructose can make up to 55% of HFCS. To transform the glucose in corn syrup into the sweeter-tasting fructose, manufacturers must add enzymes.

Since the fructose in HFCS is present as free molecules, it is absorbed more quickly than it is in table sugar.

HFCS is included in practically all processed foods and many other foods. They consist of:

  • sodas
  • fruit juices with added sugar
  • crackers
  • ready-made meals
  • salad dressings and condiments
  • a few pastries and bread.

According to the scientists, the growth in sugar consumption, particularly that found in processed foods, fructose-sweetened beverages, and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (GI), is related to the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes.

Must you stay away from foods high in fructose?

Although he was not involved in the study, Dr. Mir Ali, a bariatric surgeon and medical director of the MemorialCare Surgical Weight Loss Centre at Orange Coast Medical Centre in Fountain Valley, California, stated that for people who are overweight or obese, “any source of sugar, including non-processed sugars, such as those found in fruits, can have a similar effect on the body.”

We advise our patients to minimize all sources of sugar, including fruits,” the doctor added.

However, Dr. Laird cautioned that most people should not worry excessively about fruit’s sugar content: Most of us don’t consume enough fruits, despite the fact that doing so would benefit our overall health by providing fibre, vitamins, and minerals. The modest amounts of fruit we do consume would probably not amount to much.

However, he continued, “The main risk probably arises when the fructose is highly concentrated and added to other foods (these foods often contain high fat, high sugar, and low nutrition), which could result in an increased risk of obesity.”

So maybe avoid that processed snack since it’s probably laden with fructose to help lower your risk of becoming obese.


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Longer naps may increase the risk of obesity & hypertension

Longer naps may increase the risk of obesity & hypertension

According to research, those who nap during the day for longer than 30 minutes appear to be more likely to be obese and have high blood pressure.

They observed that persons with shorter naps are less likely to develop high blood pressure.

Longer naps, according to specialists, may play a role in these illnesses because they can disturb both eating and sleeping patterns at night.

More than 30-minute naps during the midday may raise blood pressure, increase body mass index, and worsen diabetes and heart-related diseases, according to research.

The prevalence of high blood pressure was lower among people who took what are known as “power naps,” which are midday sleep sessions lasting 30 minutes or fewer.

Researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston evaluated more than 3,000 adults from a Mediterranean population—where midday naps, known as “siestas,” are common—for a recent study that was published in the journal Obesity.

The duration of siestas and their association with metabolic syndrome and obesity were investigated by the researchers.

According to studies, those who take siestas of at least 30 minutes are more likely than those who don’t to have higher blood pressure, a higher body mass index, and other diseases linked to diabetes and heart disease.

Additionally, compared to people who did not take a siesta, those who took brief naps were less likely to exhibit elevated systolic blood pressure. “Not all siestas are the same,” said Marta Garaulet, Ph.D., MS, a senior study author and a visiting professor in the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders. “The health effects of a nap can depend on the length of time, position of sleep, and other particular factors.”

Obesity and Naps

According to Garaulet, the group previously conducted research in the UK and discovered that siestas were linked to a higher risk of obesity. The next step was to examine siestas in a nation where afternoon naps were more prevalent in culture.

According to Garaulet, “in this case, Spain, as well as how the duration of siestas is related to metabolic health.” The group notes that there are more than 1 billion obese people in the world, which is a rising health risk.

In the course of metabolic processes, how people digest food has a connection to fat accumulation in the body. Researchers suggested that studying how habits, such as napping, alter certain metabolic pathways, could contribute in the understanding of how habits affect health.

Findings from the napping research

The group looked at information from 3,275 persons in the Murcia region of Spain.

Participants at the University of Murcia had their baseline metabolic parameters assessed, and information about their naps and other lifestyle elements was gathered. No siestas, shorter than 30 minutes, and more than 30 minutes were the categories into which the subjects were split.

In comparison to those who did not take siestas, subjects who took longer naps had higher body mass indices and were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (MetS).

The extended nap group exhibited greater waist circumference, fasting glucose levels, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure values as compared to the no-siesta group. Longer siestas were linked to later nighttime eating and sleeping, more energy consumed during lunch, and smoking.

Sleep and obesity

A lot of study has been done on the relationship between sleep and obesity, according to Becca Krukowski, PhD, a professor at the University of Virginia School of Medicine.

In contrast, Krukowski noted, “This article adds knowledge about sleep and health risks in a cultural context where naps are promoted among healthy people, across the lifespan, while also considering other potentially related factors, such as nap length and eating patterns.”

According to Krukowski, it’s probable that the health issues led to the lengthier sleeps rather than the other way around. The direction of these correlations cannot be determined from this study because it is cross-sectional. It’s likely that obese people sleep less soundly at night and require longer naps as a result.

The study, according to Krukowski, might be a first step towards more illuminating research.

“Previous studies have shown that weight loss interventions improve sleep quality,” said Krukowski. It could be interesting to look at whether weight loss is impacted by sleep therapies, such as controlling nap length and increasing nocturnal sleep.

More study is required on napping

The authors of the study acknowledged that it’s possible that some factors—rather than siestas per se—might be a result of obesity rather than being caused by siestas, as evidenced by a prior investigation of data from the UK Biobank that found a causal link between napping and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, which they refer to as the most harmful type.

The link between siestas and health indices was found to be mediated by a number of statistically relevant lifestyle factors, according to the authors.

They urge further investigation into whether a little siesta is preferable to a long one, especially for people who smoke, have bad habits like sleeping in late or delaying meals, or who have delayed sleep patterns.

The Brigham’s Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders’ Frank Scheer, PhD, a senior neuroscientist and professor in the Medical Chronobiology Programme, commented on the study’s findings in a statement. “This study shows the importance of considering siesta length and raises the question of whether short naps may offer unique benefits,” he said. Numerous institutions are starting to recognise the advantages of quick naps, mostly for work productivity but also more and more for overall health.


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The Risk of Depression May Rise If You Eat French Fries.

The Risk of Depression May Rise If You Eat French Fries.

According to a recent study, eating fried meals frequently is associated with greater rates of anxiety and sadness.

According to the study, eating fried foods frequently—especially fried potatoes—increases your risk of developing anxiety and depression by 12% and 7%, respectively.

This, according to experts, is due to a number of factors, such as disruption of the lipid metabolism, an increase in inflammation, and gut disruption.

Try boiling, poaching, or grilling your meal as an alternative to frying it to limit your intake of fried foods.

The two mental illnesses that are most common worldwide are anxiety and depression.

Fried foods make up a large portion of the Western diet and are becoming more popular everywhere. Consuming processed or fried foods, sweet goods, and alcoholic beverages have been related to an increased risk of depression, according to prior research.

Additionally, studies suggest that frying may alter the nutritious makeup of food and release toxic compounds. Acrylamide is produced when carbohydrates are fried, such as potatoes, and it has been connected to neurological problems, metabolic syndrome, and obesity.

Few research have looked into how acrylamide might impact anxiety and depression up until this point. Additional research into this connection may help shape public health initiatives and dietary treatments for mental health issues.

Researchers have recently looked into the relationship between eating fried meals and depression and anxiety. They discovered that eating fried food, particularly fried potatoes, is associated with a higher risk of developing anxiety and depression.

How the research was carried out?

The study, which covered 140,728 participants, found that eating regularly unhealthy fried foods increases one’s risk of anxiety and depression by 12% and 7%, respectively.

The pollutant known as acrylamide found in fried foods, according to the researchers, is “strongly associated” with an increased risk of anxiety and depression.

It has been established that this pollutant causes neuroinflammation and perturbs lipid metabolism, both of which have an impact on mental health.

Even though many who enjoy fried food may be disappointed by these findings, there is a positive aspect to them. We may be able to lower our risk of developing some mood disorders by paying closer attention to what we eat.

Examination of the impact of fried food

The researchers started by looking at data from 140,728 individuals in the UK Biobank. During an average follow-up period of 11.3 years, data on fried food consumption and the prevalence of anxiety and depression were collected.

The researchers found 12,735 cases of depression and 8,294 cases of anxiety towards the end of the study period. Overall, they discovered that compared to non-consumers, those who had more than one dish of fried food daily had a 12% higher risk of anxiety and a 7% higher risk of depression.

Males, younger people, and active smokers were most likely to consume fried food frequently. The researchers next looked into potential mechanisms explaining the association between fried foods and depression and anxiety.

They did this by watching how zebrafish were impacted over time by persistent exposure to acrylamide. They discovered that fish exhibited anxiety- and depression-like behaviour when exposed to low amounts of acrylamide.

Following additional tests, the researchers discovered that acrylamide decreased lipid metabolism, caused neuroinflammation, and decreased the blood-brain barrier’s permeability.

Relationship between food and mood

“As opposed to what is frequently portrayed, the relationship between food and mood is far more nuanced. However, there are undoubtedly dietary habits that seem to offer protection, according to Rohini Bajekal, a nutritionist and board-certified specialist in lifestyle medicine at Plant-Based Health Professionals.

“The results of this study are in line with what we would expect to see and are further confirmation of decades of research showing that fried and unhealthy foods in the typical Western diet increase the risk of common chronic diseases and mental health conditions,” says Rohini.

Fried meals contribute to inflammation in the body, which is linked to symptoms of anxiety and depression. This is one of the reasons why fried foods are linked to greater rates of anxiety and depression.

A 2017 study called the SMILES Trial, which Megan Hilbert, a registered dietitian at Top Nutrition Coaching, cites, shows that mental health outcomes were significantly better when a control group adhered to a diet rich in anti-inflammatory foods for 12 weeks.

Inflammation effects on body and brain

Because fried foods contain molecules called advanced glycation end products that stick to tissue, harm it, and promote inflammation, Hilbert claims that a diet high in fried foods contributes to neuroinflammation, or inflammation in the brain.

Although further research is needed on this subject, Hilbert points out that it is hypothesised that inflammation may reduce the release of dopamine and weaken the regions of the brain connected to rewards.

Fried meals also frequently lack fibre, phytonutrients, and healthy fats, all of which have been found to improve brain function. Your digestive system may then be impacted by this.

According to Hilbert, “a deficiency in these compounds can result in a breakdown in the communication between the gut and the brain.” The production of these neurotransmitters is thought to be influenced by abnormalities in our gut microbiota because upwards of 90 to 95% of our serotonin is created there. As a result, it is thought that these imbalances have a negative impact on our mood.

The primary toxin that may be harming mental health, according to the study’s authors, is acrylamide.

Hilbert says that when certain starchy foods are roasted, fried, or baked at high temperatures, a chemical called acrylamide can naturally occur. “Studies have shown that acrylamide is carcinogenic to animals and may be carcinogenic to humans.”

Hilbert emphasises the need of keeping in mind that the acrylamide concentrations utilised in animal experiments were at extremely high dosages.

Foods that promote mental wellness

We discussed whether there are any foods that can help or prevent depression and anxiety with Dr. Kelly Johnson-Arbor, Medical Toxicologist, Co-Medical Director, and Interim Executive Director at the National Capital Poison Centre, who was not involved in the study.

According to Dr. Johnson-Arbor, “There are no specific foods that have been proven to treat or prevent depression or anxiety.” However, compared to the “Western” diet, the Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains, is linked to lower levels of C-reactive protein.

Lower levels of C-reactive protein may help prevent the onset of depression, anxiety, and other illnesses impacted by inflammation because they are linked to inflammation, the author continued.


We discussed the ramifications of the study with Dr. Spiegel. He stated:

The results of this study suggest that eating more fried food, particularly potatoes, raises the level of acrylamides in the blood. Depression and anxiety may be brought on by the greater levels of this toxin, which affects how different types of nerve cells in the brain function. Among younger people, the effects are more obvious.

The key takeaway is to limit your intake of fried foods like French fries, hash browns, bacon, and others to special occasions. No more than one dish should be consumed per month, in my opinion. Consuming alcohol frequently may increase anxiety and depression as well as cause a number of other health issues, he said.


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Analyze the links between BMI, obesity & cognitive ability.

Analyze the links between BMI, obesity & cognitive ability.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), there were more than 650 million obese adults in the world as of 2016. Obesity has been linked in the past to an increased risk of cognitive deterioration.

Evidence from University College London researchers challenges the idea that fat and cognitive capacity are causally related.

Around the world, more than 1.9 billion adults were obese in 2016, with more than 650 million of those adults suffering from obesity, a disease in which a person’s weight is over normal ranges and may lead to various health issues.

According to current estimates, 167 million adults and children will be overweight or obese by 2025. A multitude of disorders, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, have been linked to obesity in previous studies, including these.

Furthermore, previous research has connected obesity to a higher risk of cognitive deterioration.

The causal relationship between obesity and cognitive performance has now been called into question by University College London academics. They contend that common family variables have tainted the research linking cognitive aptitude and BMI.


If a person’s present weight is excessive for their height, they are considered obese. The body mass index (BMI) is the most popular metric for determining a person’s level of obesity.

This tool determines if an adult is obese or not based on their height and current weight:

  • BMI less than 18.5 indicates underweight.
  • Suitable BMI range: 18.5-24.9
  • BMI of 25 to 29.9 indicates obesity
  • obesity: a BMI of 30 or above

Children and teenagers need a different BMI calculator, which considers height, age, and gender to evaluate obesity because they are still developing.

The BMI measurement is not without problems, though. It is unable to distinguish between muscle and fat when weighing someone. Additionally, it disregards a person’s race, overall body composition, or bone density.

Cognitive function and obesity

Lead author of this study and senior research fellow at the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at University College London in the U.K., Dr. Liam Wright, Ph.D., states that there are several reasons why the research team decided to investigate the causal relationship between cognitive capacity and obesity:

“Over the past forty years, there has been a significant rise in the prevalence of obesity, but BMI hasn’t increased uniformly throughout the population. Therefore, it is crucial to understand why some people are more predisposed to obesity than others.

Additionally, there is a substantial body of research in the field of cognitive epidemiology that demonstrates a connection between cognitive function and practically every measure of health and health behaviour, including obesity.

Unfortunately, the majority of the cognitive epidemiology literature employs observational research designs that may be biassed and fail to show causal effects, according to Dr. Wright. “There are some compelling theoretical arguments for why cognitive ability might have a causal effect on health, but regrettably, these arguments are based on observational research designs,” she said. Because a sibling design could take into account some of the variables that can skew relationships found in previous research, we felt it was crucial to investigate for a relationship between cognitive capacity and BMI.

Examining siblings to reduce bias

Dr. Wright and his research group evaluated data from four distinct young population cohort studies carried out in the United States that included 12,250 siblings from 5,602 homes. Each participant’s data were tracked from youth to age 62.

The scientists were able to take into consideration unobserved characteristics associated with family background by analysing the relationship between cognitive capacity and BMI among families.

“Sibling designs account for factors that are shared between siblings by design,” Dr. Wright said. They don’t require the measurement of these factors, which is both a benefit and a drawback because it is difficult to determine which common factors actually contribute.

With this qualification, he continued, “There are four main factors that we thought might be significant: genetics (siblings share 50% of DNA), parental socioeconomic class (wealth, location, etc.), parenting styles (particularly regarding dietary choices), and parental cognitive ability (cognitive ability could operate indirectly!). “Once more, we didn’t directly examine these.”

According to Dr. Wright, they predicted that these variables would make general population studies more biassed and lead to weaker relationships than in earlier studies, which is exactly what they found.

However, he cautioned, “remember that sibling designs have their own flaws, including the ability for siblings to influence one another, for example, by modelling one another’s behaviour. This may imply that our findings are also skewed, albeit downwardly and smaller than the actual causal effect.

Association between BMI and cognitive ability

When the researchers evaluated the data from study participants who were not related, they discovered that, after accounting for family socioeconomic status, the change in teenage cognitive capacity from the 25th to the 75th percentile was associated with an estimated 0.61 kg/m drop in BMI.

And when the researchers analyzed the information from siblings, they discovered that the change in BMI from the 25th to the 75th percentile of teenage cognitive ability was only correlated with a 0.06 kg/m drop in cognitive capacity.

The relationship between cognitive capacity and BMI was less pronounced when siblings were compared than when the entire population was, according to Dr. Wright, but he was not surprised by this given the overall characteristics he mentioned.

However, he noted, “I was shocked at how little of an association there was when comparing siblings. As said, there are strong arguments to support the idea that cognitive ability has an impact on health and health-related decision-making“.

“Two possibilities for this small association are that one, our results were biassed towards finding smaller associations (e.g., by siblings influencing each other), and two, reflective decision-making isn’t as important in determining BMI as other factors like satiety, etc.,” Dr. Wright continued. Both of these are hypothetical.

Unproven causality

As a parent and a neurologist, Dr. Segil claimed that he has never observed a connection between obesity or a healthy weight and cognitive aptitude in people.obese

The purpose of this study, according to Dr. Segil, “is to argue that people with higher cognitive abilities, who have a higher socioeconomic position, have made healthier decisions.” Additionally, it’s possible that people’s cognitive function increases as their BMI decreases when they make healthier decisions.

He continued, “I do not believe that there is any evidence linking obesity to cognitive function. And I believe that their research’s use of siblings or other family members who are in a similar social economic situation to real-life situations such as brothers or sisters or siblings is realistic.”

After reading this study, Dr. Segil stated that he would be curious to know whether maternal or paternal obesity had a greater impact on adolescent cognitive development.

As a result of reading this, they claimed that adolescent cognition is linked to a lower adult BMI, he continued. So I’m keen to know if stronger adolescent cognitive abilities are related to the maternal and paternal BMI. Does having a thin or fat parent, using the same dataset, alter their children’s cognitive ability?I was shocked, though, by how little of an association there was when comparing siblings. As mentioned, there are strong arguments to support the idea that cognitive ability has an impact on one’s health and decision-making in relation to their health.


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Trial Obesity therapy can lead to nausea-less weight loss.

Trial Obesity therapy can lead to nausea-less weight loss.

Researchers have created a new class of peptides that might offer gastric bypass surgery’s advantages without requiring intrusive procedures. According to recent research, these peptides helped obese rats lose a large amount of weight and lower their blood glucose levels.

The injectable substances minimise eating while also increasing calorie burn, and they do so without the side effects of nausea and vomiting that are frequently associated with modern weight reduction and diabetic medications.

Diabetes and obesity are both major public health issues, with the former being one of the main risk factors for the latter. A good therapeutic option is bariatric surgery, which includes the gastric bypass, gastric sleeve, and gastric band. It can lead to long-term weight loss and even the remission of diabetes.

These procedures, nevertheless, have significant risks, are not appropriate for everyone, and are not easily accessible to the majority of people. Therefore, some researchers propose that a different therapeutic choice would be to treat metabolic problems with medication that mimics the long-term benefits of surgery.


According to the National Institutes of Health, obesity and being overweight are chronic illnesses that are widespread in the United States.

These problems can worsen a variety of other medical conditions and are associated with heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.

The following are some of the factors that contribute to obesity:

  • eating habits, such as consuming meals and drinks that are high in calories but poor in nutrients
  • sleep deprivation
  • absence of exercise
  • Many drugs, including those prescribed for diabetes, depression, or high blood pressure
  • genealogy and genetics

Overweight or obesity affects over three-fourths of US adults over the age of 20. Obesity affects 20% of kids between the ages of 2 and 19 years.

Body mass index (BMI) is used by medical practitioners to check for overweight and obesity. The formula is: Height squared divided by weight (in kilos) (in meters.) Online BMI calculators abound, one of which is provided by the CDC.

Sood told that he would like future research on weight loss to evaluate both weight loss and body composition. “We just lack sufficient knowledge to determine whether patients taking gut hormone agonists for weight loss are mostly losing fat or a mixture of fat and muscle,” says the researcher (the latter is more likely). To age properly and retain a strong metabolism as we age, losing muscle would be counterproductive.

Gut peptides

Some patients who have had gastric bypass surgery benefit from specific health advantages linked to adjustments in the gut’s hormone output.

The hormones in question, such as peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), signal fullness, curb hunger, and aid in blood sugar regulation.

Targeting GLP-1 receptors in the pancreas and brain, scientists have created medications that seek to mimic these effects.

These medications have been effective in managing type 2 diabetes and weight loss. There is a need for better solutions with fewer side effects because some people are unable to handle the negative effects of these medications, and studies show that roughly half of those who start taking them stop within a year.

Better option

To meet this demand, a group led by scientists from Syracuse University in New York has created a novel peptide. On March 26–30, they discussed their most current findings at the ACS Spring 2023 meeting.

The researchers suggest that an alternate treatment for those with metabolic issues would be a substance that matches the long-term advantages of gastric bypass surgery.

Several strategies have been devised by researchers to alleviate the negative effects of medications that only target one hormone receptor in the stomach. Designing medications to interact with several receptor types is one approach.

In a prior investigation, the group produced a peptide named GEP44 that activates two peptide YY receptors and one glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

When this substance was tested on obese rats, it was discovered that the animals that received it consumed up to 80% less food than usual and on average lost 12% of their body weight over the course of the 16-day experiment.

In a recent study, they compared the novel peptide GEP44’s efficacy in treating obesity to that of the medication liraglutide.

According to the study, rats given GEP44 lost more weight than rats given liraglutide. When tested on rats and shrews, GEP44, unlike liraglutide, did not exhibit any signs of nausea or vomiting.

According to the researchers, this might be as a result of GEP44 activating a number of receptors, which might stop the intracellular signalling cascade that results in these symptoms.

Weight loss and high energy expenditure

This study also suggests that the weight reduction brought on by GEP44 is a result of increased energy expenditure rather than just a decrease in food consumption. The manifestation of this rise in energy expenditure can take several forms, including an increase in heart rate, body temperature, or physical activity.

By directing glucose into muscle tissue to be used as fuel and by transforming specific pancreatic cells into cells that produce insulin, peptide treatments like GEP44 not only aid in weight reduction but also aid in lowering blood sugar levels.

GEP44 must be administered numerous times daily to maintain its effectiveness because it has a brief half-life in the body. The team has created a novel peptide, however, that requires only one or two injections per week and has a far longer lifespan.

The researchers discovered that rats treated with this novel molecule continue to lose weight even after the treatment has ceased, which is unusual for medications currently on the market that have been licenced to treat obesity.

“Obesity is obviously an increasing epidemic worldwide,” Dr. Becca Krukowski, professor of public health sciences at the University of Virginia and a non-participant in this study, told us.

What does it implies?

Although these are preliminary results in lab animals, Dr. Krukowski said that “over time, our research may lead to novel drugs that are safe and beneficial for patients.” But before being widely administered, this medication would need to go through the deliberate deliberate slow and thorough multi-stage and multi-year testing process, she warned.

However, if this treatment characteristic was verified in trials with humans, Krukowski continued, “the possible lack of weight regain after ceasing treatment would be extremely interesting.”

Both positive and negative impacts from this research, according to Bishoff, are possible. “The benefits being that patients can take lesser doses of medications that can deliver desired results while reducing nausea and vomiting side effects.

On the other hand, it’s possible that weight loss medications lower caloric intake to the point of malnutrition or deficiency. In the end, additional study will be required, which may take several years.

Although there may be some medical advantages to weight reduction medications, it’s crucial that patients understand they shouldn’t be used as a substitute for a healthy lifestyle. They can be viewed as a tool as opposed to a fix. When controlling weight and diabetes, eating a variety of well-balanced meals, sticking to daily caloric goals, and exercising frequently should always be encouraged, according to Haley Bishoff.


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The natural peptide could help tackle obesity and diabetes.

The natural peptide could help tackle obesity and diabetes.

Smaller versions of proteins known as peptides can serve a variety of functions. This includes the potential to lessen the effects of ageing, reduce inflammation, or stimulate the creation of new muscle.

In 2015, scientists made the discovery of a kind of peptide known as PEPITEM and recognized its role in the adiponectin-PEPITEM pathway. It controls the onset and severity of autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders.

The potential for this peptide to provide a game-changing treatment for numerous diseases has just been discovered by new study in animal models.

The study suggests that the peptide may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and. Other illnesses are connected to obesity, like fatty liver disease.

Obesity alters the metabolism of adipose (fat) tissue significantly, damages the pancreas, reduces insulin sensitivity, and finally results in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes.

It also causes a low-grade inflammatory response throughout the body. This encourages the infiltration of white blood cells into a variety of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue. It is a deep-lying fat deposit that surrounds organs like the liver and gut, as well as the peritoneal cavity, a thin membrane that encloses the gut.

According to a recent study, the adiponectin-PEPITEM pathway connects obesity, the related low-grade inflammatory response, and changes in the pancreas that take place before the onset of diabetes. The study was published in Clinical and Experimental Immunology.

To see if the effects of a high-fat diet on the pancreas could be avoided or even reversed, the researchers used a mouse model of obesity and a slow-release pump to inject the peptide PEPITEM.

When PEPITEM was given to mice on a high-fat diet, the researchers discovered that this significantly decreased the size of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Also, the quantity of white blood cells in the visceral adipose tissue and peritoneal cavity as compared to the control group.

Small protein impacts some effects of obesity

The adiponectin-PEPITEM pathway, which is important in regulating the onset and severity of auto-immune and chronic inflammatory illnesses, is where the peptide employed in this study plays a part.

Obesity can have a variety of negative impacts on the body. This includes altering the metabolism of adipose tissue (fat), harming the pancreas, decreasing insulin sensitivity, etc. Ultimately causing the high glucose levels associated with type 2 diabetes.

But, it also triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, causing white blood cells to flow into visceral adipose tissue, which surrounds organs like the liver and gut, as well as into the area of the abdomen that houses the intestines, stomach, and liver (peritoneal cavity).

In the latest research, which was released on March 9 in the journal Clinical and Experimental Immunology, mice were administered PEPITEM in addition to a high-fat diet.

The size of the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin was reduced in mice who received the peptide as compared to those who did not. Also, they noticed a reduction in the quantity of white blood cells in the peritoneal cavity and visceral adipose tissue.

“Our results show us that PEPITEM can both prevent and reverse the impact that obesity has on metabolism,” study author Asif Iqbal, PhD, an associate professor at the University of Birmingham’s Centre of Cardiovascular Sciences, said in the release.

The next step, he continued, is to transform these promising findings into human-useable treatments.

Reversing obesity

Dr. Christoph Buettner, an endocrinologist and professor of medicine at the Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Brunswick, New Jersey, told Healthline that experts have known for many years that obesity and diabetes are connected with elevated inflammation.

In contrast, “although in mice various medications that particularly lower inflammation have demonstrated to also reduce obesity and diabetes, in humans—where obesity is also typically related with inflammation—the facts are much less clear,” he noted.

The current study’s findings imply that PEPITEM may be effective in lowering some of the negative consequences of obesity, including the growth of insulin-producing beta cells and the accumulation of white blood cells in particular regions.

Yet, mice given PEPITEM still put on weight when given a high-fat diet. The researchers added that there was “no effect” on fasting glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, both of which are impacted in type 2 diabetics.

“To me, that suggests that this is an anti-inflammatory treatment that is unlikely to have a meaningful effect on either obesity or high blood sugar,” said Buettner.

Aiding in type 2 diabetes prevention

This could “potentially be a useful additional tool for patients regarding the prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes, especially as related to the decrease in enlargement of the beta cells,” according to Nicole Anziani, a registered dietitian, certified diabetes care and education specialist, and senior clinical manager for Cecelia Health who was not involved in the study.

For the purpose of examining PEPITEM’s effects on obesity, Anziani noted that the mice used in the study were fed a high-fat diet either before or during the administration of PEPITEM.

Anziani emphasised that it’s crucial to recognise that obesity has a complex aetiology, which means it can be brought on by a variety of variables and isn’t always related to a high-fat diet. Moreover, Anziani emphasised that obesity was “more than just a biological phenomenon.”

Discovering the root of obesity

While it’s great that there are more options for patients to help with the biochemical aspects of obesity and preventing systemic inflammation, especially when there may already be pancreatic damage present, Anziani told us that it’s also crucial to acknowledge the behavioural and social aspects related to the development of obesity and other related ailments.

To properly understand these pathways, she continued, “additional research into the relationship between inflammation and obesity is still needed.” “Although this therapeutic strategy is being examined to get to the underlying cause of obesity-related disorders,” she noted.

While stating that “additional studies would be required,” Dr. Bosa-Osario concurred and said that “the findings appear encouraging.”

PEPITEM might be a useful treatment target for additional causes, he added. “While the body can make a bioprotein comparable to PEPITEM, it can be made in a lab and administered to patients. He remarked, “That’s exciting.

Currently authorised effective weight loss medications

Several medications have previously been approved to treat obesity, but more research is required to determine whether PEPITEM will be useful in the management of illnesses linked to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes.

This contains semaglutide, a type of medication known as a GLP-1 agonist (brand names Ozempic, Wegovy, and Rybelsus). Those who took semaglutide in clinical trials saw weight loss and a decrease in inflammation. In one trial, participants lost up to 14.9% of their starting weight.

Yet according to Buettner, “it does not imply that [these drugs] function by reducing inflammation” because they aren’t often thought of as anti-inflammatory medications. As an alternative, “they function in the brain to decrease appetite and balance the autonomic nerve system,” he said.

Some medications also have side effects, including nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Buettner is therefore concerned about whether people will be able to handle these medications over the long term, which may be necessary to assist people in maintaining a healthy weight throughout their lives.

That’s why other medications to treat obesity are still needed, he added, including ones that function through different mechanisms than GLP-1 agonists and don’t have the adverse effects of those treatments.

According to Buettner, “for now, the tolerance for the adverse effects is still high, but with time, patients may become dissatisfied with the [lower enjoyment of eating food].”


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How metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of Gout?

How metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of Gout?

Obesity, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease all seem to be more common in people with metabolic syndrome(MetS). This may make them more likely to develop in tandem.

The syndrome is a group of risk factors that have been linked to an elevated risk of acquiring additional disorders rather than a single, separate disease.

Metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of developing gout, according to research from the Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in South Korea. Its a kind of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in the joints.

A recent study as per the journal Arthritis & Rheumatology, examined over 1.3 million men between the ages of 20 and 39 who had health examinations. The relationship between modifications in the participants’ METs and the onset of gout was examined.

They identified those who had gout using a database of diagnoses. Also, they utilised a statistical model to examine the connection between changes in metabolic syndrome and the onset of gout.

They found that males with metabolic syndrome or those who developed MetS had a higher risk of developing gout. Men who had high triglyceride levels and abdominal obesity—two factors associated with MetS—were at a substantially higher risk.

What is metabolic syndrome (MetS)?

A clinician may suspect metabolic syndrome if a patient displays at least three of the following five signs and symptoms:

  • Specifically, a waist size of more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women is considered central, visceral, abdominal obesity.
  • 100 mg/dL or more for fasting blood sugar.
  • values of 130/85 mm/Hg or above for blood pressure.
  • Blood triglyceride values of 150 mg/dL or higher.
  • levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol at or below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL or less for men.

What is gout?

An extremely painful, inflammatory, and inflexible form of arthritis known as gout causes the joints to become stiff.

The metatarsophalangeal joint, which is situated at the base of the big toe, is typically affected. An excessive buildup of uric acid in the body is the source of the disorder.

Researchers find

18,473 males in the recent study experienced gout. Compared to people having MetS, people having metabolic syndrome had a nearly four-fold increased risk of developing gout.

The researchers also noted that a participant’s probability of developing gout quadrupled if they had MetS. Yet, the likelihood of developing gout was practically cut in half for those who recovered from MetS.

High triglyceride levels and abdominal obesity were found to have the highest associations with gout risk. This is as per reports of metS factors.

Comparison was made for those in their 20s, 30s, and those who were underweight or had a normal weight. People with underweight were more likely to experience a connection between changes in MetS and gout.

This is the first extensive study to look at the relationship between alterations in the metabolic syndrome and the risk of gout. According to the study, young persons’ chance of developing gout can be greatly decreased by avoiding MetS or recovering from it.

Reports as per studies

Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed that, when compared to controls, those with hyperuricemia and gout had a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.

In a cross-sectional research of 21,544 participants who completed work-related health examinations, those with serum urate levels 9 mg/dL had about a five-fold greater chance of developing metabolic syndrome. This is compared to those with serum urate levels 7 mg/dL.

Ford et al used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2002. They conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1370 children and adolescents to ascertain the relationship between serum urate and metabolic syndrome.

In the lowest to highest quartiles of serum urate, risk of metabolic syndrome was 1.0%, 3.7%, 10.3%, and 21.1%, respectively. The top quartile of urate had a roughly 15-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome than the lowest two quartiles.

When comparing data from 1988-1994 to 1999-2006, NHANES also revealed that the prevalence of gout and metabolic syndrome were rising continuously and at comparable rates.

Rashad Barsoum, MD, FRCP, FRCPE, emeritus professor of medicine at Cairo University, and Rheumatology Advisor talked about the epidemiologic link between gout and metabolic syndrome. It is still disputed whether hyperuricemia is a surrogate marker or a confounding risk factor, but the statistical correlation does not suggest causality, he says, despite the significant evidence linking it to the metabolic syndrome.

Action to reduce risks

The findings of this study, according to Mitchell, “should at the very least act as a wake-up call for the children. Diabetes and hypertension are no longer considered “diseases of the elderly.”

“Gout is merely one of the numerous additional hazards that come with these chronic illnesses. In addition to lowering quality of life, early onset of these diseases may also shorten lifespans. This is over the next few decades, according to the expert.

To “promote the findings of this study to the general public and build a gout prevention programme,” Trinh made a number of recommendations, stating that the following actions may be taken:

Make educational materials that describe the connection between MetS and gout, such as pamphlets, posters, and infographics. Also, the information in these materials must to cover lifestyle modifications for managing MetS.

Join up with medical professionals including primary care doctors and endocrinologists to promote gout prevention strategies and share information about the study’s findings.

Use social media: Share information about the study’s findings and encourage healthy lifestyle choices. By using social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, this can be done.

To inform those who have MetS about the connection between the condition and gout and to offer advice on how to treat it with lifestyle changes, hold workshops or webinars for them.

To promote gout prevention practises to a larger audience, work with neighbourhood organisations like wellness centres or municipal health agencies.



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Quick peek of study in the Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Quick peek of study in the Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Blood clots commonly form in a deep vein in the leg, which is where deep vein thrombosis occurs. The disorder can also affect pelvic veins in addition to leg veins. The condition known as venous thromboembolism includes the conditions of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).

A medical emergency is DVT. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 10–30% of persons with DVT in the leg die within a month of their diagnosis due to severe consequences.

What is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)?

Blood clotting known as DVT occurs in deep veins, frequently in the pelvis or leg. Doctors refer to a thrombus or blood clot breaking off as an embolus. A PE can develop if emboli reach the lung.

As in the case of those who have Paget-Schotter illness, clots can also form in the arm veins. DVT is the most frequent reason for maternal death in the industrialised world, according to a 2017 analysis.

DVT in children is incredibly uncommon. The most recent statistics, according to a 2016 study, indicate that 0.30 of every 100,000 children under the age of nine and 0.64 of every 100,000 children between the ages of 10 and 19 get DVT.

DVT symptoms

Only about half of DVT patients, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), experience symptoms. Typical DVT signs include:

  • swelling on one side of your leg, ankle, or foot
  • cramping pain, which typically starts in the calf, in the affected leg.
  • acute, irrational foot and ankle pain
  • a patch of skin that feels warmer than the rest of the body
  • depending on skin tone, the skin over the affected area becomes pale, reddish, or bluish in hue.

People who have an arm blood clot or an upper extremity DVT may not exhibit any symptoms. If they do, typical signs include:

  • a stiff neck
  • shoulders hurt
  • the hand or arm swelling
  • deeper or bluer tinge to the skin
  • from the arm to the forearm moving discomfort
  • fragility in the hand

It’s possible for someone to discover they have DVT only after receiving emergency care for a pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lung).

A DVT clot that has entered the lung from the arm or leg may cause a pulmonary embolism. It is life threatening and necessitates immediate medical attention when an artery in the lung becomes blocked.

Causes and risk factors

A blood clot is the root cause of DVT. The clot prevents blood from flowing through a vein and into your body normally. Various things can cause a DVT or raise the chance of getting one.

They consist of:

  • Injury: Blood flow can be restricted or blocked when a blood vessel’s wall is damaged. As a result, a blood clot may develop.
  • Surgery: Blood vessels may be harmed during surgery, which may cause a blood clot to form. Following surgery, bed rest with minimal to no activity may potentially raise your chance of developing a blood clot.
  • Reduced mobility or inactivity: Blood can accumulate in your legs, especially the lower ones, when you sit regularly, such on a lengthy flight. The blood circulation in your legs may dwindle if you are immobile for a lengthy amount of time. This may lead to the formation of a clot.
  • A few drugs: Some medications make it more likely for your blood to clot. These include antidepressants, glucocorticoids, hormone treatment medications, and birth control pills.
  • Age: DVT can occur at any age, however it is more common as people get older. DVT only occurs in 1 in 10,000 people under the age of 20, whereas it occurs in 1 in 100 people beyond the age of 80.
  • Trauma: A blood clot may form as a result of a wound that weakens your veins, such as a bone fracture.
  • Obesity. Being overweight might increase strain on the veins in your pelvis and legs.
  • Pregnancy: DVT risk is higher during pregnancy. Actually, compared to non-pregnant people, pregnant people have a 5–10 times higher risk of developing DVT.
  • Family history: If you have DVT, you may be more prone to get it.
  • Catheter: Inserting a catheter into a vein can make it more likely for a blood clot to form.
  • Smoking: This is linked to an increased risk of DVT.

Additionally, a number of other medical disorders can raise the risk of DVT.

These consist of

Complications of DVT

Pulmonary embolism is one of the main side effects of DVT. If a blood clot travels to your lungs and clogs a blood vessel, you could have a pulmonary embolism.

Your lungs and other organs could suffer severe harm as a result. Immediately seek medical attention if you experience any pulmonary embolism symptoms. These indicators include:

  • dizziness
  • sweating
  • coughing or taking big breaths causes chest pain that intensifies
  • quickly breathing
  • spitting blood
  • quick heartbeat

Treatments of DVT

Some DVT sufferers may require inpatient treatment. Others might be eligible for outpatient care.

Compression stockings, elevating the affected leg(s) during the day, and taking anticoagulant drugs (blood thinners) are all forms of treatment. In rare instances, intrusive therapies (catheter-based procedures) may be necessary when the DVT is severe.

The main objectives of treatment include:

  • Ensure that the clot doesn’t spread or include other veins.
  • Avoid having a venous clot fragment escape and travel to your lungs.
  • reduce the possibility of a new blood clot.
  • Prevent long-term complications from the blood clot (like chronic venous insufficiency).

Prevention of DVT

Many required modifications are included into a healthy lifestyle to stop blood clots from forming. This entails increasing physical activity, giving up smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight. Your risk of developing DVT can also be decreased by:

  • control of blood pressure
  • quitting smoking
  • keeping a healthy weight

In order to reduce your risk of getting clots following surgery, take whatever blood thinners your doctor recommends. When you sit for longer than four hours, your chance of getting DVT increases.

When you’ve been sitting for a while, moving your legs around will also keep your blood circulating. After being confined to bed, getting up and moving around can stop clots from developing. During long travels, get out of the vehicle and take regular breaks to stretch.


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Challenges of Insomnia in an individual’s life.

Challenges of Insomnia in an individual’s life.

What is Insomnia?

Millions of individuals all around the world constantly experience insomnia, a sleep problem. A person with insomnia has trouble getting to sleep and staying asleep. Depending on their age, adults, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), require between 7-9 hours of sleep every night.

According to research, 25% of Americans report having insomnia each year, although 75% of these people do not go on to have a chronic condition. Short-term insomnia can cause daytime weariness, attention problems, and other issues. Long-term, it could raise the risk of contracting certain illnesses.

An insomniac has trouble getting to sleep or staying asleep. They might often get up too early.

This may result in problems like:

  • Lethargy and tiredness during the day
  • an overall sense of being physically and mentally ill
  • anxiety, impatience, and changes in mood

Additionally, the aforementioned problems may be causes, effects, or both of insomnia.

In addition, chronic illnesses like the following may be influenced by insomnia:

  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • a cardiovascular condition
  • depression

It can also impair a person’s effectiveness at work and school and restrict their capacity to carry out daily tasks.

Causes of insomnia

There are many different medical and psychological causes of insomnia. Frequently, a transient issue, such as transient stress, is the root reason. In certain other cases, an underlying medical problem is the cause of the sleeplessness. Typical causes include

  • dealing with any additional adjustments to the body’s internal clock, such as jet lag, shift changes at work, or other circumstances
  • If it prevents sleep, it could be the bed being uncomfortable, the room being too hot, cold, or noisy, or taking care of a family member.
  • getting insufficient exercise
  • experiencing nightmares or nocturnal terrors
  • utilising drugs for fun, such cocaine or ecstasy

Some people experience insomnia as a result of stress or a mental health condition. A person might be going through:

Other medical disorders that may interfere with sleep include:

  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • excessive thyroid activity
  • nap apnea
  • GERD, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • COPD, also referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • chronic pain

Sleeping problems are frequently caused by signs of various health problems or by changes in the natural world. For instance, hormonal changes during menopause might cause night sweats, which can keep you awake. Sleep patterns are disturbed or altered in patients with Alzheimer’s disease due to abnormalities in the brain.

Additionally, some people experience fatal familial insomnia, a rare genetic disease that makes it difficult to fall asleep and may possibly be fatal.

Symptoms of insomnia

In addition to interrupted sleep, insomnia can result in various problems, including:

  • daytime drowsiness or weariness
  • irritation, sadness, or worry
  • signs of the digestive system
  • low dynamism or motivation
  • insufficient focus and attention
  • an absence of coordination that results in mistakes or accidents
  • anxiousness or fear about sleeping
  • using sleeping pills or booze
  • stress headaches
  • having issues working, learning, or socialising

According to experts, sleep deprivation is a major contributing factor in car accidents.

Types of insomnia

Depending on the duration, insomnia can be categorised as follows:

  • A short-term issue is acute, brief sleeplessness.
  • It may take months or years to overcome chronic insomnia.

The causes are also classified by doctors:

  • A problem in and of itself is primary insomnia.
  • Secondary insomnia is brought on by another medical condition.

They also categorise it according to severity:

  • Mild insomnia is characterised by a lack of sleep that causes fatigue.
  • Daily functioning may be impacted by moderate insomnia.
  • Life is significantly affected by severe sleeplessness.

When determining the kind of insomnia, doctors also take into account additional variables, such as whether the patient regularly wakes up too early or experiences difficulty:

  • a sound slumber
  • remaining in bed
  • getting quality sleep


Depending on the underlying issue and the type of insomnia, several approaches may be best, however some possibilities include:

  • counselling
  • CBT stands for cognitive behavioural therapy.
  • medicines on prescription
  • several over-the-counter sleep aids that can be purchased online
  • Melatonin, which can be purchased online as well

Melatonin may promote sleep, however there isn’t enough convincing evidence to support this claim.


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Is there any side effects of using too much Cinnamon?

Is there any side effects of using too much Cinnamon?

What is Cinnamon?

On toast and in lattes, cinnamon is a spice. But for thousands of years, extracts from the cinnamon tree’s bark, leaves, blossoms, fruits, and roots have also been utilised in traditional medicines all throughout the world. It is added to many foods and used in baking and cooking.

The four main types of cinnamon are as follows. The variety of cinnamon that is most frequently offered in the US is cassia, which is darker in colour. Southeast Asia is where it is raised. True cinnamon, commonly referred to as Ceylon cinnamon, is widely utilised abroad.

One of the two primary varieties of cinnamon i.e. Ceylon or Cassia, or a combination of the two—could be the cinnamon you purchase at the shop. Ceylon is easier to grind, but its health benefits might not be as good.

Health Benefits of Cinnamon

Cinnamaldehyde is one of the most significant active components in cinnamon. It is utilised in scents and flavourings. It might be the cause of some of cinnamon’s potential health advantages.

According to certain studies, cinnamon may benefit diabetics. According to a study of 18 studies, cinnamon may help reduce blood sugar levels. Hemoglobin A1C, a marker of blood sugar levels over time, was unaffected, nevertheless. In diabetics, it may also decrease cholesterol.

Numerous studies lack information about the sort of cinnamon they used or have other issues that cast doubt on the accuracy of their conclusions. According to one analysis, cinnamon may aid in reducing obesity and weight gain. Irritable bowel syndrome and other stomach and intestinal issues are occasionally treated with it. But its effectiveness is unclear.

Cinnamon has been proposed to be beneficial for

  • Heart condition
  • Alzheimer’s condition
  • Cancer
  • HIV
  • Infection
  • dental decay
  • Allergies

However, a large number of research have used animal or cell models. Although cinnamon has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties, there are currently insufficient studies to support their effectiveness in treating human conditions.

Side effects of Cinnamon

Cinnamon consumption in moderation is unlikely to have a significant negative influence on your health. Consuming excessive amounts of it is also not recommended.

There is no established dosage for cinnamon because it is an unproven treatment. Some experts advise taking 2-4 grammes of powder, or 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, per day. The amount of cinnamon used in some studies ranged from 1 to 6 grams. High doses could be harmful.

May Cause Liver Damage

A 130-pound (59-kg) person can consume 5 mg of coumarin daily, or approximately 0.05 mg per pound (0.1 mg per kilogramme) of body weight. Accordingly, consuming even a single teaspoon of cassia cinnamon could cause you to exceed the daily limit.

Unfortunately, a number of research have revealed that consuming too much coumarin may harm and poison the liver.

As an illustration, after only one week of taking cinnamon supplements, a 73-year-old woman experienced a sudden liver infection that resulted in liver damage. But in this instance, the dose was larger because of the supplements used than it would be from food alone.

May Increase the Risk of Cancer

An excessive intake of coumarin, which is present in large quantities in Cassia cinnamon, has been linked to an increased risk of some malignancies in animal experiments.

For instance, research on rodents has revealed that consuming too much coumarin might result in the growth of malignant tumours in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. It’s unclear how coumarin might result in tumors.

However, some scientists think that over time, DNA damage brought on by coumarin increases the risk of cancer.

May Cause Mouth Sores

Mouth sores have been reported in certain consumers after consuming items with cinnamon flavouring.

When taken in excessive quantities, the chemical cinnamaldehyde found in cinnamon may cause an allergic reaction. Small doses of the spice don’t appear to trigger this reaction because saliva keeps chemicals from coming into prolonged contact with the mouth.

Other signs of a cinnamaldehyde allergy besides mouth sores include:

  • tongue or gum enlargement
  • a feeling of burning or itching
  • mouth with white spots
  • Although not always serious, some symptoms can nonetheless be uncomfortable.

It’s crucial to remember that cinnamaldehyde only causes mouth sores in people who are allergic to it. A skin patch test can be used to check for this kind of allergy.

May Cause Low Blood Sugar

It is commonly known that cinnamon can reduce blood sugar levels. According to studies, the spice can replicate the actions of the hormone insulin, which aids in removing sugar from the blood.

Although consuming a small amount of cinnamon may help lower blood sugar, doing so excessively may cause it to drop too low. It is known as hypoglycemia. It may cause fatigue, wooziness, and even fainting.

Those who are taking diabetes treatments are particularly at risk of having low blood sugar. This is due to the possibility that cinnamon could intensify the effects of these drugs and cause your blood sugar to drop too low.

May Cause Breathing Problems

This is so that it won’t be difficult to inhale due to the spice’s fine texture. Its accidental inhalation can result in:

  • coughing
  • gagging
  • trying to catch your breath is difficult

Additionally, the cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon irritates the throat. It might result in additional respiratory issues. Being unintentionally exposed to cinnamon should be avoided by those who have asthma or other breathing-related illnesses because they are more prone to have breathing difficulties.

Interact with Certain Medications

With the majority of drugs, cinnamon is safe to consume in small to moderate doses. If you are taking medication for diabetes, heart disease, or liver disease, taking too much may be a problem. This is due to the possibility that cinnamon may interact with such drugs, either amplifying their effects or causing more severe side effects.

For instance, cassia cinnamon has a lot of coumarin, which is poisonous to the liver and might harm it if ingested in large quantities.

A lot of cinnamon may increase your risk of liver damage if you use drugs that could harm your liver, like paracetamol, acetaminophen, and statins.


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