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Explore the latest link between MS and Your Gut.

Explore the latest link between MS and Your Gut.

The central nervous system is impacted by the chronic disease known as multiple sclerosis (MS). When the immune system targets the outer layer of nerve cells, symptoms including weakness in the muscles and visual issues appear.

MS’s precise causation is unknown, however scientists believe that a number of variables may be involved. A recent study discovered that MS may be brought on in persons with a genetic predisposition by a toxin produced by a common gut bacterium.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a persistent nerve system disease. Young adults between the ages of 20 and 40 are the most frequently affected, and women are more likely than males to experience it.

There are around 2.8 million MS sufferers worldwide, and the number is growing, according to the Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF).

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

The immune system of the affected person destroys the myelin sheath that protects the nerve fibers in this autoimmune illness. Sclerosis is a scar or lesion that results from damage. These lesions, which most frequently affect the central nervous system, can cause a variety of symptoms, such as:

Relapsing-remitting MS, the most prevalent type of MS that accounts for 85% of cases, is characterised by episodes of new or worsening symptoms and intervals during which symptoms subside or go away.

Scientists believe that environmental variables and genetic vulnerability may play a role in the development of the illness, while the specific reason is yet unknown. MS is riddled with many mysteries.

Epsilon toxin, which is produced by a bacteria that may be found in the small intestine, has now been linked to the development of MS and the maintenance of symptoms, according to study conducted by researchers at Weill Cornell Medicine’s Brain and Mind Research Center.

How the gut microbiota affects MS?

The trillions of bacteria that reside in your digestive system make up the gut microbiota. The majority of microbes are bacteria, but they can also include viruses, fungi, and the microscopic, single-celled creatures known as protozoa.

In general, these bacteria are beneficial and even essential to our health. Yet, dysbiosis, or an out-of-balance microbiota, can cause issues. According to studies, alterations in the microbiota may be a factor in various autoimmune diseases.

In MS patients, changes to the gut flora are frequent. According to this recent study, patients with MS are more likely than healthy controls to carry the pathogen Clostridium perfringens. Epsilon toxin, which is produced by C. perfringens, opens the blood arteries in the brain and permits inflammatory cells to enter the central nervous system (CNS).

What is the epsilon toxin?

Dr. Barbara Giesser stated that the researchers “investigated how the toxin induced an MS-like condition in a mouse model using unique and sensitive techniques to determine the presence of the bacterium.

The scientists collected faeces from both MS patients and healthy controls. They used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to examine these samples in order to find the epsilon toxin (ETX) gene, which is only present in C. perfringens.

They discovered that the ETX gene was present in 61% of samples from MS patients but only in 13% of those from healthy controls. Also, they discovered that compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, MS patients had a higher likelihood of having ETX-positive C. perfringens invade their gut microbiome.

Treatments to target this toxin

The current amount of knowledge regarding the gut microbiome in MS patients is expanded upon by this study. It has been demonstrated to respond to treatment with various disease-modifying treatments and is known to differ from those of non-MS controls, according to Dr. Barbara Giesser.

Epsilon toxin is only produced by C. perfringens during the rapid development phase. The researchers hypothesise that ETX is the cause of MS lesions, which would explain why the illness is episodic and manifests less symptoms when the toxin-producing bacteria are absent.

They draw the conclusion that the bacterium, its toxin, and MS exhibit a robust clinical connection. According to Dr. Giesser, this finding raises the prospect of therapies that target this pathway:

“The toxin facilitates central nervous system access for immune cells. This implies that medications that target the bacterium or the toxin may be effective in treating the condition.

The researchers point out that clinical trials would be required to see whether this could result in MS treatments.

Healthy microbiome

The development of MS may be significantly influenced by the gut microbiome, according to studies. An analysis of multiple research published in 2017 discovered that nutrition might be used to alter the gut flora and alter the course of MS.

The advantages of keeping a healthy gut microbiota are becoming more widely understood, and this study provides more proof that an unbalanced microbiota may lead to the onset of disease.

A healthy diet and lifestyle that promote the growth of advantageous gut flora may potentially lower the risk of MS as well as the risk of many other illnesses.

Improve gut health

Some elements, such as genetics and environment, are beyond your control. Although our gut microbiota is set up early in life, there are some things that can change it.

Certain modifications enhance the diversity and health of our microbiome. Alterations may be harmful.

These are some actions you may do to encourage a balanced, healthy gut microbiome:

  • Consume more fibre. All of the little microorganisms in your gut can eat fibre. Fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, nuts, seeds, and whole grains all contain fibre.
  • Drink less alcohol. There is evidence that alcohol causes dysbiosis. You might want to think about reducing your drinking if you do.
  • Consume fermented food. Foods that have been fermented are sources of good bacteria and may be beneficial to health. Among the foods that are fermented include kimchi, tempeh, yoghurt, kefir, miso, and sauerkraut.
  • Stress management. Your gut microbiota’s state of health can be impacted by stress. To manage tension, try some stress-relieving exercises like yoga or meditation.
  • Don’t overuse antibiotics. Antibiotics can kill some of the helpful bacteria in addition to the harmful ones. Dysbiosis may result from this. Antibiotics should only be used as necessary, and they should be taken exactly as prescribed. Some of the beneficial bacteria may be restored by taking a probiotic supplement.
  • Look into probiotic dietary supplements. Supplements with probiotics may be beneficial. To determine the appropriate dosage and strain for particular ailments, more research is required. Start with the US Probiotic Guide if you want to.

Conclusive note

  • The human body is home to trillions of microorganisms. The gut contains the majority of them.
  • The possibility that the sorts of bacteria in our guts may have an impact on our health is intriguing.
  • Dysbiosis is more likely to occur in MS patients. When the gut microbiota is out of equilibrium, it is called dysbiosis. Inflammation and autoimmune illnesses are now more likely as a result.
  • A healthy gut microbiota can be supported by consuming fermented foods and a high-fiber diet.
  • There is continuing research into the potential benefits of altering the gut microbiome for MS patients.


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Diabetes and Erectile Dysfunction: What’s the connection?

Diabetes and Erectile Dysfunction: What’s the connection?

Erectile dysfunction is basically a disorder found in men which could be a sign of physical or psychological condition. The symptoms associated with this disorder is found in men’s reproductive organ i.e. inability to keep an erection firmer and longer enough during a sexual activity.

The causes of erectile dysfunction includes a number of reasons be it physical, psychological, and sometimes even both. One of the main cause of erectile dysfunction is men dealing with diabetes.

As per studies, around 35-37% of men dealing with diabetes will get affected by erectile dysfunction earlier than men without diabetes.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs either when your pancreas are unable to produce enough insulin or when your body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces to regulates the blood glucose. Hyperglycemia, also called raised blood glucose/sugar level, is a common effect of diabetes that is not controlled. Overtime, it can lead to serious damage to many systems and parts of our body which typically includes nerves and blood vessels.

Diabetes affected 8.5% of adults over the age of 18 in 2014. Diabetic complications directly caused 1.5 million deaths in 2019; 48% of these deaths occurred before the age of 70. Diabetic kidney disease results in 460 000 deaths, and raised blood glucose contributes to around 20% of cardiovascular deaths.

Age-standardized mortality rates from diabetes increased by 3% between 2000 and 2019. The death rate due to diabetes increased by 13% in countries with lower-middle incomes. Between 2000 and 2019, the probability of dying from any of the four main noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes) decreased by 22% worldwide. 

Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Type 1 (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by low insulin production and requires daily insulin administration. In 2017, there were 9 million people living with type 1 diabetes; the majority are in high-income countries. We do not know what causes it or how to prevent it.

The most common symptoms are excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, loss of weight, and changes in vision.

Type 2 Diabetes

It is caused by the body’s inefficiency in using insulin, which is formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Approximately 95% of diabetics have type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes is largely the result of excess body weight and poor lifestyle choices.

The symptoms are similar to those of type 1 diabetes, but are often less pronounced. Therefore, the disease may be diagnosed years after onset, after complications have already developed. This type of diabetes was previously seen only in adults, but is becoming increasingly common among children.

Diabetes and Erectile dysfunction

It is believed that diabetes is associated with ED because it affects the circulation and nervous system. The blood sugar levels in the body should be controlled properly in order to avoid damage to the small vessels and nerves. An erection that is firm enough to engage in sexual interaction can be impeded by damage to the nerves that control sexual stimulation and response. It is also possible for ED to be caused by reduced blood flow from damaged blood vessels.

Sexually aroused men release a chemical called nitric oxide into their bloodstreams. A large amount of blood flows into the penis thanks to this nitric oxide, which relaxes the arteries and the muscles there, resulting in erection. Diabetes patients often struggle with blood sugar swings, especially if their condition isn’t managed well.

Blood sugar levels become too high, causing nitric oxide production to slow down. An erection cannot be achieved or maintained if there is not enough blood flowing into the penis. Those who suffer from diabetes often have low levels of nitric oxide.

While men who experience occasional erectile difficulties can eventually develop ED permanently, this is rarely the case. The combination of adequate sleep, quitting smoking, and reducing stress may still help you overcome ED if you have diabetes.

Preventing erectile dysfunction through Diabetes

Control your blood sugar: Your blood sugar levels will be better controlled when you eat a diabetes-friendly diet, and your blood vessels and nerves will be less damaged. Erectile dysfunction can be reduced by eating a diet that is geared towards keeping your blood sugar levels in check. Nutrition can also improve your mood and energy levels, both of which can reduce the chances of developing erectile dysfunction. A dietitian who is also a certified diabetes educator may be able to help you adjust your eating style.

Treatments for Men With Diabetes and Erectile Dysfunction

If you have diabetes and are having trouble getting and/or keeping an erection, you can take oral medications like avanafil (Stendra), sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra).

Diabetes patients also tend to have problems with their hearts, so these medications may be inappropriate for them and could interact with heart medications in a dangerous way. Determine what treatment is best for you with the help of your doctor.

Among the treatments men with diabetes could consider are intracavernous injections, vacuum erection devices (not constriction devices), venous constriction devices (for venous leak syndrome), intraurethral therapy, penile prostheses (inflatable and malleable), and sex therapy.

Details on such treatments are discussed in other ED related blog on this website. Feel free to learn something new from us.


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What are the different ways to treat depression?

What are the different ways to treat depression?

Depression is a mood disorder characterized by sadness and loss of interest, also known as major depression or clinical depression. It affects how you feel, think, behave, and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. In addition to causing emotional and physical problems, it can also make it difficult for you to function at work and at home.

Risk factor of depression

Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in teenage or adulthood. It is now recognized that depression can occur in children and adolescents, although occasionally the symptoms manifest more as irritability than depression. In many cases, chronic anxiety and mood disorders in adults begin as high levels of anxiety in children.

Following are the conditions that is associated as a high risk for the cause of depression.

  • experiencing certain life events
  • having a chronic condition or cardiovascular disease
  • living with chronic pain
  • lacking social support
  • having had a previous episode of major depression
  • having a lack of successful coping strategies
  • experiencing acute stress
  • using recreational drugs, such as alcohol or amphetaminessustained a head injury
  • having a neuro degenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s
  • having a close relative with depression
  • using some prescription drugs


It is possible to treat depression. The majority of people, however, do not react to treatment immediately and may need to combine treatments or try multiple drugs to get relief. The majority of people who suffer from depression remit their symptoms within 12 months, but it can return at any time.

The most effective treatment for your symptoms may be a combination of treatments, or you may find that one form of treatment is enough to manage your symptoms. Apart from medicine therapy usually adopted by most of the depressed people, in many cases, medical treatments are combined with lifestyle therapies, such as:

1. Psychotherapy:

You can learn skills to cope with negative feelings by speaking with a therapist. The services of a family therapist or a group therapist may also be of benefit to you. The goal of psychotherapy, also known as “talk therapy,” is to identify and cope with the factors contributing to a mental health condition, such as depression.

Psychotherapy has been proven to be effective treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. A combination of psychological therapy and pharmaceutical treatment is often used. Various types of psychotherapy are available, and some people respond better to certain types.

2. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT):

The goal of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is to uncover unhealthy patterns of thought and identify how they may lead to harmful behaviors, reactions, and beliefs.

It is possible that your therapist will assign you “homework” in which you need to practice replacing negative thoughts with more positive ones.

3. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)

Unlike cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) emphasizes acceptance of uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and behaviors rather than fighting them.

It is believed that if you accept that change is possible and make a recovery plan, you will be able to change your harmful thoughts or emotions.

4. Psychodynamic therapy:

Talk therapy, or psychodynamic therapy, can help you cope with your everyday life more effectively. Psychodynamic therapy is based on the principle of that the reality you live in today is shaped by your unconscious childhood experiences.

As part of this form of therapy, your therapist will help you reflect on and examine your childhood and experiences in order to help you cope and understand your present situation.

5. Light therapy:

White light can help regulate your mood and reduce depression symptoms. A common use of light therapy is in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder, which has now been renamed major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern.

6. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT):

People with clinical depression can benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which uses electrical currents to induce seizures. Those with severe depression or depression that hasn’t responded to other treatments or antidepressants are prescribed this medication. In an ECT procedure, you will be administered an anesthetic agent, which will cause you to fall asleep for approximately 5-10 minutes.

An electrode will be placed on specific areas of your head and cardiac monitoring pads will be placed on your chest. Short electric pulses will be passed through them for several minutes. There will be negligible feeling of those pulses un your body and you will wakeup after several minutes.

Patients may also develop memory problems, but these usually reside in the weeks and months after treatment.


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What are the ways to manage anxiety in move?

What are the ways to manage anxiety in move?

What is Anxiety?

Anxiety can be referred asa response driven by your brain with respect to stress or danger alert. Anxiety can be triggerred in situation which puts you under stress and heavy thinking such as public speaking, examination, important decision making, taking an important test, etc.

Usual anxiety is common in people which is trigger by several situation as mentioned just above. It is generally a mental condition caused by mental and physical stressful event as alone or combination.

When an individual observe anxiety due to triggering event occasionally, it is termed as occational anxiety which is considered as a normal condition. However, getting diagnosed to anxiety disorder is pretty much a different and much worse level.

Anxiety disorder.

Driven from medical condition anxiety, anxiety disorder is worsening stage of anxiety where stress and fear could cause physical interference with oneself or the other. The diagnosed individual might go through extreme worry, stress, or fear with respect to triggering event. This condition may cause serious side effect to the body. The person might also crave for closeness of people that are close to him/her such as relatives, close friends, lover, etc.

Types of Anxiety disorder


It is a type of anxiety disorder in which you avoid situations or places that might cause you to feel trapped, helpless, or embarrassed.

Anxiety disorder due to a medical condition

It comprises symptoms of intense anxiety or panic caused by a medical condition.

Generalized anxiety disorder

Worry about ordinary, routine issues, as well as persistent and excessive anxiety and anxiety about activities or events. In addition to being out of proportion to the actual situation, worry affects your physical health. In many cases, it occurs in conjunction with another anxiety disorder or depression.

Panic disorder

In this condition, repeated episodes of intense anxiety and fear or terror reach their peak within minutes (panic attacks). A rapid, fluttering, or pounding heart (heart palpitations) may cause feelings of impending doom, shortness of breath, chest pain, or a feeling of impending doom. An individual suffering from panic attacks may worry that they will occur again or avoid situations where they have occurred.

Selective mutism

Children with this condition fail to speak consistently in certain situations, such as school, despite being able to speak in other circumstances, such as at home with close family members. The effects of this can be felt at school, at work, and in social settings.

Separation anxiety disorder

The disorder consists of anxiety that is excessive for the child’s developmental level and is connected to separation from one’s parents or other adults who play a parental role.

Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)

The condition is characterized by high levels of anxiety, fear, and avoidance of social situations due to embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.

Specific phobias

They are characterized by a strong sense of anxiety when being exposed to specific objects or situations. Some people are prone to panic attacks as a result of phobias.

Substance induced anxiety disorder

When misusing drugs, taking medications, being exposed to toxic substances or withdrawing from drugs, it results in symptoms of intense anxiety or panic.

Other specified anxiety disorder and unspecified anxiety disorder

They are anxiety disorders that don’t meet the exact criteria for any other anxiety disorder, but are significant enough to be disruptive and distressing.

Signs and symptoms of Anxiety

The feeling of anxiety varies from person to person. There are many kinds of feelings that can accompany anxiety, from butterflies in the stomach to a racing heart. There might be a disconnect between your mind and body that makes you feel out of control.

Although there are many types of anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation)
  • Sweating
  • Feeling nervous, restless or tense
  • Having a sense of impending danger, panic or doom
  • Having an increased heart rate
  • Experiencing gastrointestinal (GI) problems
  • Having difficulty controlling worry
  • Having the urge to avoid things that trigger anxiety
  • Trembling
  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Trouble concentrating or thinking about anything other than the present worry
  • Having trouble sleeping

Side effects of Anxiety disorder.

Anxiety attack generally causes several side effects in your body which can range from normal to severe condition. Following are several side effects associated with anxiety disorder.


You can’t predict what will cause someone to develop an anxiety disorder, but you can take steps to reduce the impact of symptoms.

When you’ve been diagnosed with anxiety, you can discuss treatment options with your doctor. It is, however, possible to overcome the symptoms and live a more manageable day-to-day life with the help of treatment.

As per nature and severity of anxiety, the treatments are classified into three general categories:

  • A psychotherapy session. Visiting a therapist or psychologist can help you learn how to cope with stress when it occurs. There are several types of therapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy and exposure response prevention.
  • Complementary health techniques. Alternative methods of treating anxiety include mindfulness, yoga, and self-management strategies such as stress management.
  • Medication. It is common for doctors to prescribe antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs.

For short-term symptom relief, benzodiazepines can be used, but they’re usually avoided due to the high dependence risk. The use of antianxiety and antidepressant medications such as escitalopram has been shown to improve mood and reduce stress by altering brain chemistry.


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