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Type 2 Diabetes: Can kombucha help to manage blood sugar?

Type 2 Diabetes: Can kombucha help to manage blood sugar?

A fermented tea called kombucha offers advantages including enhancing gut health. Researchers carried up a study on persons with type 2 diabetes because they were interested in whether the probiotic beverage may be useful in decreasing blood sugar.

After four weeks, the researchers evaluated the blood sugar levels of two groups of individuals with type 2 diabetes who had either received kombucha or a placebo beverage that tasted similar. They switched the groups after a break, then assessed the participants again after another 4 weeks.

In contrast to a placebo, the results showed that drinking kombucha for four weeks dramatically reduced fasting blood glucose levels in comparison to baseline.

The researchers claim that this is the first investigation of kombucha’s effects on persons with type 2 diabetes.

In type 2 diabetes, the body has trouble producing or properly controlling insulin. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), diabetes affects millions of people in the United States and is the eighth largest cause of mortality in the nation.

Scientists are interested in discovering new ways to lower blood sugar, especially through dietary choices, as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes rises.

The School of Health at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., conducted research to see whether the Chinese tea known as kombucha, which is fermented with bacteria and yeasts, could lower blood sugar levels.

They discovered that merely 4 weeks of consuming kombucha reduced fasting blood sugar levels prior to meals from an average of 164 to 116 milligrammes per deciliters (mg/dL) after comparing blood sugar averages between drinking kombucha versus a placebo.

In contrast, according to the American Diabetes Association, normal fasting glucose levels are between 80 to 130 mg/dL before meals.

Tracking fasting blood sugar

The authors highlight that the study’s participants were drawn from the General Internal Medicine Clinic at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, which has “a strong interest in diabetes care.”

They recruited 12 individuals with type 2 diabetes for the trial. They had to consent to consume the designated beverage on a regular basis as well as test their fasting glucose at various intervals at home.

The individuals were also told by the researchers to stick to their regular meals. They did not want dietary modifications to have an impact on prospective blood sugar drops.

The participants were split into two groups, and each group was given an 8-ounce beverage to consume everyday with dinner for a period of 4 weeks. Some participants received kombucha, while others received a placebo beverage that, according to the authors, tasted like kombucha.

The recipients of the kombucha were switched around during the study’s second phase. The individuals had to wait eight weeks before starting back up on their drinking routine so that the researchers could account for any lasting effects of the kombucha.

The subjects experienced further 4 weeks of consuming their assigned beverage after the 8-week “washout period” ended. In the initial phase of the study, participants who consumed kombucha also consumed a placebo beverage, whereas the others consumed kombucha.

The researchers next examined the information the subjects supplied regarding their fasting glucose, which they assessed at the following intervals:

  • their starting point before starting the drinking program
  • after the first week
  • towards the conclusion of week four
  • following the washout time
  • end of the first week of the second round.
  • following the fourth week of the second round.

Drinkers of kombucha had reduced blood sugar.

In order to determine if kombucha increased glucose levels, researchers averaged baseline data from subjects, data from each 4-week round of kombucha consumption, and data from placebo consumption.

Following 4 weeks of kombucha consumption, the subjects’ average baseline blood sugar level fell to 116 mg/dL from 164 mg/dL. This represents a decline for the kombucha group of almost 30%.

In contrast, after consuming the placebo beverage, the subjects’ baseline blood glucose levels barely changed. The authors report that there was no statistically significant difference between the placebo and the average fasting blood glucose levels.

A larger investigation, according to the researchers, is required due to the study’s drawback of a limited sample size.

According to a press statement from the study’s lead author, Dr. Chagai Mendelson, “We were able to provide preliminary evidence that a common drink could affect diabetes.”

We hope that a much larger trial, using the lessons we learned in this trial, could be undertaken to give a more definitive answer to the effectiveness of kombucha in reducing blood glucose levels, and hence prevent or help treat type 2 diabetes,” he continued.

A residency program is being completed by Dr. Mendelson at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital Medical School.

Experts discuss the advantages of kombucha

The outcomes of the study were discussed by Alyssa Wilson, a registered dietitian and metabolic health coach with the California-based company Signos.

Wilson stated that there is “some encouraging data” supporting the inclusion of kombucha in a nutrition care strategy.

For those seeking a healthy alternative to sugary drinks, she said kombucha is a “great option” and may help “reduce hunger and prevent sugar cravings.”

Wilson noted that further research is required to support the findings even though she thinks the study to be promising.

More research is needed in a larger follow-up study to determine the effectiveness of kombucha in reducing blood glucose levels, but the findings are promising and exciting for this patient population,” she said.

The work was also discussed by endocrinologist Dr. Florence Comite, who founded the Comite Centre for Precision Medicine and Health in New York City.

Dr. Comite pointed out that more research is indicating a link between conditions like type 2 diabetes and the composition of the gut microbiome, which is changed by probiotics like kombucha.

The metabolism, inflammation, and immunological response all seem to be substantially influenced by the microbiome. Managing glucose management will be impacted by improving the proportion of beneficial bacteria to harmful bacteria in the stomach, according to Dr. Florence Comite.

She expressed her need for more research in this area, stating that “a causal association between kombucha and lowering blood glucose deserves further study. It is unclear whether diabetes affects the gut or if an unhealthy microbiome contributes to the disease.”

Additional information on kombucha

Depending on how much you consume, kombucha has around the same amount of caffeine as a cup of regular tea.

Due to its high caffeine and low alcohol level, kombucha is not advised for children or pregnant or nursing women.

It’s recommended to buy kombucha rather than attempt to create it at home if you decide to start drinking it (after consulting with your healthcare professional).

Start out with a little quantity of kombucha.

Always check your blood sugar levels to see whether they have an effect on how you control your blood sugar in general. (Each individual is affected differently.)


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Migraines increase the chance of problems during pregnancy.

Migraines increase the chance of problems during pregnancy.

A sizable prospective study was carried out by scientists at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston to learn more about the link between migraines and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes.

According to their findings, women with pre-pregnancy headaches had a 40% increased risk of preeclampsia, a 28% increased risk of gestational hypertension, and a 17% increased risk of premature delivery.

These findings, according to the researchers, point to the potential advantage of greater monitoring for pregnant women who have a history of migraines.

Compared to men, women have a 2 to 3 times higher lifetime risk of developing migraines, which are most prevalent in women between the ages of 18 and 44.

Before a migraine attack, some people see an “aura” that frequently consists of flashing lights in their range of vision.

An aura-specific migraine, in particular, has been linked to a two-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, according to a recent meta-analysis.

The molecular factors linked to cardiovascular risks in migraine sufferers may also raise the chance of pregnancy difficulties, according to a research hypothesis.

Meanwhile, little research has examined the connection between migraine and difficulties during pregnancy. Small study populations, a lack of knowledge about potential confounding variables, and the migraine phenotype (with or without aura) are the limitations of these investigations.

To fill in these knowledge gaps, scientists from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston created a significant prospective study to calculate the correlations between pre-pregnancy migraine and the risk of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, and low birth weight.

The researchers also looked at potential effect modification by aspirin use and examined whether these relationships varied by migraine phenotype in the study, which was published in the journal Neurology.

Study on migraines and pregnancy

Data from the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) were used by Brigham instructors Alexandra Cari Purdue-Smithe, Ph.D., and her team to achieve these goals.

In 1989, 116,430 registered nurses in the United States between the ages of 25 and 42 participated in this study. Questionnaires about participants’ lifestyles and health were given out. Every two years, participants in this study were required to answer questions on their lifestyle and general health.

In 2009, participants submitted information on each pregnancy they had ever had, including any unfavorable results. In 2007, participants in the NHSII were asked if they had ever experienced aura along with their migraine headaches.

Any self-reported medical diagnosis of migraine on the 1989, 1993, and 1995 NHSII questionnaires was considered a migraine for the purposes of this study, according to Purdue-Smithe’s team.

They restricted their studies to 30-555 pregnancies in 19,694 women who had no history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, or cancer. These pregnancies had to be at least 20 weeks long.

Using log-binomial and log-Poisson models, the researchers determined the relative risk and 95% confidence interval for each unfavorable pregnancy outcome. These models were adjusted for several confounding variables, including age at conception, age at menstruation’s onset, race and ethnicity, body mass index, chronic hypertension, alcohol use, physical activity, smoking status, analgesic use, oral contraceptive use, infertility diagnosis, and the number of births.

Important results of the migraine study

11% of the 19,694 female participants at baseline had ever been diagnosed with a migraine by a doctor.

According to the statistical studies, migraine was not linked to gestational diabetes or low birth weight, but it was linked to a higher risk of preterm delivery by 17%, gestational hypertension by 28%, and preeclampsia by 40%.

For migraine with and without aura, the risk of preterm birth and the risk of gestational hypertension were comparable. However, compared to women who had migraines without aura, those who had migraines with aura had a slightly increased chance of developing preeclampsia.

The researchers also discovered a 45% decreased risk of preterm birth in migraine-prone women who consistently (more than twice a week) took aspirin before becoming pregnant. Although this particular investigation had limited statistical power, the researchers did find that women who reported regularly taking aspirin before becoming pregnant had a qualitatively decreased risk of preeclampsia.

Understanding pregnancy and migraine

The results are significant, according to Dr. Matthew Robbins, an associate professor of neurology at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York who was not involved in the study.

“We already knew that the relative risk of stroke and overall cardiovascular comorbidity is higher in individuals who have migraine with aura,” he told us. “This is based on large, population-based epidemiological studies.” “Now, we know that this risk may also extend to pregnancy-related complications, such as a higher incidence of pregnancy-specific cardiovascular diseases like gestational hypertension and preeclampsia.”

He continued, “The results of this investigation imply that migraine history and, to a lesser extent, migraine phenotype, are therapeutically helpful predictors of pregnancy risks.

Likewise not taking part in the study was Dr. Sarah E. Vollbracht, an associate professor of neurology at Columbia University in New York.

Given the high prevalence of migraine in women of childbearing age, these findings suggest that migraine screening should be included in initial obstetrical assessments to determine if a woman is at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and women with migraine should be closely followed throughout pregnancy and monitored for the development of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy,” she said in a statement to us.

Aspirin use during pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth and preeclampsia, according to the study’s findings, but Vollbracht cautioned that “this finding should be interpreted cautiously” and that “more data, including placebo-controlled studies, is needed to determine the role of aspirin use in pregnant women with migraine.”

Limitations and upcoming studies

The definition of migraine utilized in this study may have understated the actual prevalence of migraine in the study population and, consequently, the relative risks, according to Purdue-Smithe and her co-authors.

Confounding effects from additional factors, such as heredity and drugs specifically designed to treat migraines, cannot be completely ruled out despite the statistical studies taking numerous potential confounding factors into account.

The Nurses’ Health Study II cohort’s limited generalizability is due to the majority of non-Hispanic white study participants.

Future research should focus on including a patient population that is more diverse in terms of racial, cultural, and socioeconomic origins, according to Vollbracht.

She went on to say that “further prospective studies are needed to determine more clearly the difference in risk based on migraine phenotype as well as understanding the influence of attack frequency on the risk of these adverse pregnancy outcomes.”

Additional study is required to better understand how aspirin alters effects, especially in terms of dosage and initiation time.

Future research may need to evaluate the use of daily aspirin during the second and third trimesters as a preventive intervention against preeclampsia for pregnant women with migraine with aura, according to Robbins.

The researchers concluded by saying that further investigation should aim to shed light on the mechanisms behind the connections found in this study.


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Eating Over 6 Teaspoons of Sugar increases health risk.

Eating Over 6 Teaspoons of Sugar increases health risk.

Although sugar is a natural component of food, it can also be added during production or cooking.

Understanding the risks of consuming too much sugar is still a work in progress for researchers.

According to a recent comprehensive analysis, sugar consumption is linked to a number of detrimental health effects, such as heart disease and other cancers. People can take action to reduce their use of added sugars and beverages with added sugar.

It’s important to provide the body with the nutrients it requires. To avoid obtaining too much or too little of any one vitamin, careful balancing is required. Although sugar is a nutritional staple, excessive sugar consumption can hurt one’s health.

Intake of dietary sugar was linked to several unfavorable health outcomes. This including as weight gain, gout, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and specific forms of cancer. According to a recent review published in The BMJ, the quality of the evidence, nevertheless, varied.

Based on these results, the review authors advise consumers to limit their intake of added sugars to six tablespoons or less per day and to have no more than one sugar-sweetened beverage per week.

Added sugars and natural sugars

A few different forms of carbohydrates fall under the umbrella phrase “dietary sugar.” As an illustration, sugars include glucose, fructose, and lactose. People will obtain some of the sugar they need by consuming foods like fruit or milk, which naturally contain some sugar.

Any sugar that producers or consumers add to foods is referred to as added sugar. Some organisations make suggestions for restricting the use of added sugars based on this distinction.

People cannot completely cut out sugar from their diets because the body needs a certain amount, but the source is crucial. Journalist and licenced dietician Molly Kimball clarified that she was not part in the study.

“Our bodies’ main energy source, including the brain, the central nervous system, and the muscles, is glucose. Your body’s cells require glucose to survive. But since many foods, including proteins and carbohydrate-containing foods like vegetables and whole grains, can be naturally transformed by our bodies into glucose, we don’t need to include extra sugars such as sucrose or glucose into our meals.

In order to provide the best advice on sugar consumption, researchers are still examining the available data.

How dietary sugar affects health?

Over 8,500 articles total, spread across 73 meta-analyses, were considered in this comprehensive evaluation. The review’s authors sought to investigate the effects of dietary sugar consumption on health outcomes. The intake of beverages with added sugar was one particular topic of attention because it might be a substantial source of extra sugar.

The authors of the review discovered a number of negative links between eating sugar and poor health outcomes. They found the following highlights in their research:

Greater body weight was linked to greater consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. A higher risk of gout, a higher risk of coronary heart disease, and an increased risk of all-cause mortality were all linked to increasing use of sugar-sweetened beverages.

Consuming dietary sugar was linked to an increased chance of developing specific cancers, including as pancreatic, breast, prostate, and total cancer mortality.

Consuming dietary sugar has been linked to a number of detrimental cardiovascular outcomes, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke.

They also discovered a few other detrimental links between consuming sugar and 45 different health issues, such as melancholy, oral health issues, and childhood asthma.

The evidence linking sugar consumption to cancer is currently weak, according to researchers, and this subject needs more research. The strength of the evidence supporting the correlations was also inconsistent.

Additionally not engaged in the study, Dr. Felix Spiegel, a bariatric surgeon at Memorial Hermann in Houston, Texas, made the following observations:

The review’s conclusions are strong and compelling. Consuming too much sugar significantly raises the risk of metabolic diseases like diabetes, cancer, heart disease, psychiatric disorders, and dental issues.

Study restrictions

This review did have several shortcomings. First, scientists admit that there was a chance for some publication bias. Second, the researchers were constrained by the limitations of the studies they reviewed and by the variations among the investigations. Studies, for instance, have examined sugar intake using a variety of techniques, many of which have a high potential for data collection errors. Studies also used various methods to calculate sugar intake.

Reviewers were unable to determine the amount of sugar in certain items. The authors also emphasise how crucial it is to look for multiple confounding variables before interpreting results and drawing conclusions.

Because of funding conflicts, some of the analyses that were included had outcomes that should be read with caution. Last but not least, the present reviewers neglected to consider the conflicting objectives of the many studies from the meta-analyses they examined.

Decrease your sugar consumption

People can take action to reduce their intake of added sugars by consulting with medical specialists and other experts as necessary. Although every person has different needs, the findings of this study indicate that restricting added sugars may help prevent some undesirable health effects.

Dr. Spiegel provided the following recommendations for cutting back on sugar intake:

“Reading labels and checking for hidden sugar are two steps to decrease consumption. Avoiding packaged foods is also a great idea. Fruits are a great alternative that is also highly beneficial. Simple grilling or air frying should be used for meat, fish, and poultry without the addition of seasoning or glaze. Instead, use a lot of natural spices. Constantly consuming water is also beneficial. Avoiding sugary alcoholic beverages can help limit overconsumption of sugar.

The natural glucose required to maintain a healthy body will be provided by fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats. If you do consume packaged goods, check the nutritional labels and be aware of how specific foods affect your daily sugar intake, advised registered dietitian Molly Kimball, who was not involved in the study.


An connection between sugar consumption and 45 health outcomes, such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity, asthma, depression, several malignancies, and death, has recently been discovered by a new meta-review.

Health professionals advise limiting added sugar consumption to 6 teaspoons per day. Fresh or frozen fruit, low- or no-sugar yogurts, sugar-free sweeteners like stevia, and other foods are examples of low-sugar substitutes. Additionally, it’s crucial to pay attention to portion management.


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How coffee helps lower type 2 diabetes risk?

How coffee helps lower type 2 diabetes risk?

A significant new study investigates the mechanisms underlying the well-established link between coffee drinking and a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes.

According to the study, coffee’s anti-inflammatory characteristics may account for a major portion of its positive effects. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers seem to decrease with coffee consumption while anti-inflammatory biomarkers rise.

Coffee consumption has been associated to a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. According to a recent study, the connection is well-established, although the exact mechanism is still unknown.

Another study contends that through reducing subclinical inflammation, coffee consumption may reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The advantage was greatest in espresso or filtered ground coffee consumers and non-smokers or never-smokers.

Data set on coffee and type 2 diabetes

The authors of the study examined a sizable data set from participants in two population-based studies: the Rotterdam Study in the Netherlands and the UK Biobank.

The 502,536 participants in the UK Biobank cohort were from England, Scotland, and Wales and enrolled in the study between April 2006 and December 2010. They ranged in age from 37 to 73. Follow-up information on these people became accessible in 2017.

The Rotterdam Study, which started in 1990 and will eventually include 14,929 people, is still ongoing. In 2015, follow-up information was revealed. Researchers found alterations in the levels of type 2 diabetes-associated biomarkers connected to inflammation in the study.

Researchers found that those who increased their daily intake of coffee by just one cup had a 4% lower risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. This reduction in risk was most likely brought about by decreased inflammation, the study’s authors speculate.

The current study’s “main strength is the large number of individuals included in the cohorts, the long follow-up time, and the comprehensive assessment of inflammatory markers,” according to Dr. Angélica Amato, associate professor in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Brasil who was not involved in it.

Effects of coffee on inflammation

The Rotterdam Project and the UK Biobank provided the researchers with the 152,479 participants’ health records for evaluation. They examined the daily coffee consumption of the participants, which ranged from 0 to about 6 cups, as well as the prevalence of type 2 diabetes across a 13-year period.

By the use of fasting blood samples, the team also assessed levels of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and adiponectin as well as indicators of insulin resistance.

The researchers discovered that drinking an extra cup of coffee each day was linked to a 4–6% decreased chance of developing diabetes.

Greater levels of interleukin-13 and adiponectin concentrations, which have anti-inflammatory effects, were linked to higher levels of coffee consumption instead of lower levels of CRP and leptin, pro-inflammatory markers. Blood glucose levels can be lowered by adiponectin’s ability to make people more sensitive to insulin.

Researchers believe that drinking coffee can help lower inflammatory biomarkers, which are known to rise in the body when there is inflammation, as is the situation with type 2 diabetes.

The researchers also think that the type of coffee is important because espresso or filtered coffee was more closely related to risk reduction.

According to Andrew Odegaard, PhD, an associate professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of California, Irvine, the results are consistent with earlier research that found a relationship between higher levels of coffee consumption and a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes across various populations and demographics.

Odegaard noted that more information is required to fully grasp the potential pathways, but that “the mediating estimates of inflammation provide evidence on a major postulated mechanism.”

Enjoy coffee but avoid relying on it

Tan would not necessarily recommend it to individuals wanting to protect themselves. Tan says persons with diabetes and those at risk for the condition should feel comfortable consuming black coffee or espresso.

There are alternative strategies that have been more thoroughly researched to lower the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and general health, according to Tan.

Tan advises increasing physical exercise, reducing inactive time, abstaining from alcohol and tobacco, having a balanced diet, and, if at all feasible, avoiding specific drugs that can worsen hyperglycemia in order to reduce one’s chance of developing diabetes.

She exhorts them to consider the kind of coffee they consume. Moreover, Tan remarked, “I would like to caution patients that the study indicated the most benefit from filtered coffee or espresso rather than from coffee beverages that can include very high amounts of sugar and fat.”

Why inflammation matters in diabetes?

Dr. Amato expressed his concern that a longitudinal study like this one could not be used to conclusively prove causality. She did, however, add that “it is most likely that the association between coffee use and reduced type 2 diabetes risk is due to decreased insulin resistance, one of the physiopathological pathways underpinning the development of type 2 diabetes.”

Insulin produced by the pancreas cannot regulate blood sugar levels in persons with type 2 diabetes. These levels are able to escalate dangerously out of control due to such insulin resistance.

According to Dr. Amato, subclinical inflammation, which is reportedly reduced by coffee drinking, has a significant role in insulin resistance.

Dr. Kausel continued, “Adipokine released by adipocytes has anti-inflammatory benefits in addition to making patients more sensitive to insulin. Further enhancing insulin sensitivity and lowering systemic inflammation are coffee’s polyphenol components.

Dr. Ochoa-Rosales advised patients worried about preventing type 2 diabetes to take a stance against inflammation by consuming a diet high in polyphenols from fruits and vegetables.

Smokers don’t get the same coffee benefits

The researchers also discovered that among people who smoke, coffee’s health benefits were less pronounced.

According to Dr. Ochoa-Rosales, “there is a correlation between smoking and higher coffee consumption – heavy coffee consumers are often smokers,” therefore the researchers first considered smoking a confounding factor in their analysis.

Nevertheless, when they investigated the impact of coffee consumption on diabetes risk among smokers, non-smokers, and never-smokers, they discovered that the effect of coffee’s positive relationship with decreased C-reactive protein and type 2 diabetes risk was only present among former- and never-smokers.

Treating and avoiding type 2 diabetes

Although the link between inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease has been researched, Dr. Kausel pointed out that the new study offers a “fresh perspective.”

However finding increasing your coffee intake won’t likely prevent type 2 diabetes, “anything that lowers these inflammation indicators can be acquired as a daily routine, and since most people consume coffee, it’s a good thing to know,” she continued.

Dr. Ochoa-Rosales noted that there is already increased interest in treatments that target inflammatory indicators as a result of the substantial body of information linking systemic inflammation to the onset of type 2 diabetes.

Dr. Amato acknowledged this and suggested that the biomarkers identified in the study could serve as “promising targets” for therapeutic treatment of type 2 diabetes:

“Exploring the precise mechanisms by which the bioactive components of coffee function to elucidate potential targets and pathways that may be addressed to treat or prevent the disease” is another fascinating option.

No matter what new pharmacological targets are discovered as a result of research like this one, Dr. Kausel emphasised that “if individuals don’t start thinking about healthy practises, it will be impossible to avoid the disease.”

Dr. Kausel underlined that eating a good diet is the major component in preventing diabetes.


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Purple veggies and tubers may have anti-diabetic properties

Purple veggies and tubers may have anti-diabetic properties

Anthocyanins are organic substances that give many fruits, vegetables, and tubers their reddish-orange and blue-violet hues. Anthocyanins have been found to have favourable impacts on inflammation, the energy metabolism, and the gut flora.

A comprehensive review of the research reveals how the effects of purple vegetables and tubers on energy metabolism. Also, inflammation and gut microbiota may help prevent and control type 2 diabetes.

Studies in terms of anti-diabetic characteristics, acylated anthocyanins, present in vegetables like red-cabbage and purple sweet potatoes were conducted. They may be superior to nonacylated anthocyanins, which are present in blackberries and blackcurrants.

The CDC estimates that around 37 million Americans—or about 1 in 10 people—have diabetes, and that 90–95% of them have type 2 diabetes.

In a typical state, the hormone insulin transports glucose (sugar) from the blood into the cells, where it is used as an energy source. Nevertheless, type 2 diabetes causes the body to improperly use or create insulin. This causes glucose to build up in the blood rather than be utilised by cells.

Diabetes, if improperly controlled, has a long list of negative effects on health. This ncludes heart disease, high blood pressure, nerve damage, eye damage and vision loss, renal illness, and foot issues.

Research has shown that a diet high in fruits and vegetables can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes. Also, it improve the well-being of people with diabetes-related health problems. Even though there are many factors that can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, including a family history of the disease.

Fruits and vegetables have a high concentration of polyphenols, which is what is responsible for their health advantages. Plants get their red-orange to blue-violet colours from a specific family of polyphenols called anthocyanins.

Consumption of foods high in anthocyanins, particularly berries, has been linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This is according to research from the United States and Finland.

Acylated vs. nonacylated anthocyanins

Based on their molecular makeup, anthocyanins can be classified as either acylated or nonacylated.

Nonacylated anthocyanins do not have a “acyl group,” which is a chemical compound made up of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom double-bonded to one another with a single connection to another carbon atom.

Atherosclerotic pigments that have been acylated are more enduring and resistant to digestion than those that have not been acylated. Because of this, they pass through the stomach and upper intestine without being digested and absorbed, instead moving on to the colon where they are extensively broken down by gut microbes.

Nonacylated anthocyanins are mostly found in elderberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant. However, acylated anthocyanins are present in red radish, purple maize, black carrot, red cabbage, and purple sweet potato.

It is challenging to make definitive judgements regarding the changes in biological activity between studies on the two types of anthocyanins. This is due to differences in study design and analysis techniques.

Yet according to Dr. Baoru Yang, a professor of food sciences at the University of Turku, and the other authors of the review, acylated anthocyanins may have better anti-diabetic characteristics than nonacylated anthocyanins.

Consider other variations in the sources of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins. According to Dr. Taylor C. Wallace, founder and CEO at the Think Healthy Group and adjunct professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Studies at George Mason University, as reported by Medical News Today.

Anthocyanins promote gut health

Using animal models, researchers have examined how different anthocyanins affect the bacteria that make up the gut microbiome.

Nonacylated anthocyanins from black rice were found to boost the number of specific gut bacteria. Notably Akkermansia muciniphila, in a rat research. It has been demonstrated that A. muciniphila improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic mice by enhancing insulin secretion.

Acylated anthocyanins may be found in foods like purple sweet potatoes and Concord grapes. They have also been proven to have an impact on the gut microbiota by enhancing the growth of good bacteria. They reduces the proliferation of bad bacteria, and boosts the production of short-chain fatty acids. This is good for gut health and glycemic control.

The bulk of studies conducted to date, according to Dr. Wallace, are not sophisticated or validated enough “to actually know what happens to anthocyanins in the GI system,” he told MNT.

To truly understand if there is a difference, purified radio labelled non-acylated and acylated anthocyanins should be administered in humans, he added. To his knowledge, this has not been done because it is quite expensive.

Anthocyanins lower blood glucose levels

The suppression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion is one of the pharmacological actions of anthocyanins, and it lowers blood glucose levels. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that anthocyanins activate the liver’s and muscles’ lipid and glucose metabolism pathways. This also aid in decreasing blood sugar levels.

One study found that diabetic mice given unrestricted access to food for two weeks who were supplemented with mulberry fruit extract containing nonacylated anthocyanins had blood glucose levels that were roughly 30% lower than mice who weren’t fed.

In a related study, diabetic mice were given acylated anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potatoes for four weeks at a daily dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. Also, the treatment groups showed a significant drop in blood glucose and an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

Anthocyanin activation of the AMPK (AMP-activating protein kinase) and PI3K/AKT (phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B) pathways, which are essential for glucose and lipid metabolism, has been linked to anthocyanins’ ability to reduce blood glucose levels.

Dr. Wallace made the observation that as the majority of the research listed in the study employed anthocyanin-rich extracts as opposed to purified anthocyanins, additional polyphenols and flavonoids could have had synergistic effects.

The majority of flavonoids have the ability to interfere with sugar absorption by adhering to sugars and blocking the enzymes that break down carbohydrates.

Anthocyanins lower inflammation 

An immediate inflammatory immunological response is brought on by eating carbohydrates or fat. Inflammation often subsides rapidly, but if it persists, it may develop into a chronic condition. Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes can result from chronic inflammation that damages the insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas.

Nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins were added to the diets of diabetic mice in experiments to reduce inflammation. The improvement in glucose metabolism in diabetes is caused by the reduction in inflammation, which also lowers insulin resistance.

The NF-B inflammation pathway is inhibited by anthocyanins, which has been demonstrated in numerous studies to have an anti-inflammatory impact. Additional studies have demonstrated that nonacylated anthocyanins stimulate the Nrf2 pathway, which aids in the production of antioxidant proteins to guard against inflammation- or injury-induced oxidative damage.



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How metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of Gout?

How metabolic syndrome may increase the risk of Gout?

Obesity, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease all seem to be more common in people with metabolic syndrome(MetS). This may make them more likely to develop in tandem.

The syndrome is a group of risk factors that have been linked to an elevated risk of acquiring additional disorders rather than a single, separate disease.

Metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of developing gout, according to research from the Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in South Korea. Its a kind of arthritis that causes pain and swelling in the joints.

A recent study as per the journal Arthritis & Rheumatology, examined over 1.3 million men between the ages of 20 and 39 who had health examinations. The relationship between modifications in the participants’ METs and the onset of gout was examined.

They identified those who had gout using a database of diagnoses. Also, they utilised a statistical model to examine the connection between changes in metabolic syndrome and the onset of gout.

They found that males with metabolic syndrome or those who developed MetS had a higher risk of developing gout. Men who had high triglyceride levels and abdominal obesity—two factors associated with MetS—were at a substantially higher risk.

What is metabolic syndrome (MetS)?

A clinician may suspect metabolic syndrome if a patient displays at least three of the following five signs and symptoms:

  • Specifically, a waist size of more than 40 inches for men and more than 35 inches for women is considered central, visceral, abdominal obesity.
  • 100 mg/dL or more for fasting blood sugar.
  • values of 130/85 mm/Hg or above for blood pressure.
  • Blood triglyceride values of 150 mg/dL or higher.
  • levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol at or below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL or less for men.

What is gout?

An extremely painful, inflammatory, and inflexible form of arthritis known as gout causes the joints to become stiff.

The metatarsophalangeal joint, which is situated at the base of the big toe, is typically affected. An excessive buildup of uric acid in the body is the source of the disorder.

Researchers find

18,473 males in the recent study experienced gout. Compared to people having MetS, people having metabolic syndrome had a nearly four-fold increased risk of developing gout.

The researchers also noted that a participant’s probability of developing gout quadrupled if they had MetS. Yet, the likelihood of developing gout was practically cut in half for those who recovered from MetS.

High triglyceride levels and abdominal obesity were found to have the highest associations with gout risk. This is as per reports of metS factors.

Comparison was made for those in their 20s, 30s, and those who were underweight or had a normal weight. People with underweight were more likely to experience a connection between changes in MetS and gout.

This is the first extensive study to look at the relationship between alterations in the metabolic syndrome and the risk of gout. According to the study, young persons’ chance of developing gout can be greatly decreased by avoiding MetS or recovering from it.

Reports as per studies

Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed that, when compared to controls, those with hyperuricemia and gout had a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.

In a cross-sectional research of 21,544 participants who completed work-related health examinations, those with serum urate levels 9 mg/dL had about a five-fold greater chance of developing metabolic syndrome. This is compared to those with serum urate levels 7 mg/dL.

Ford et al used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2002. They conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1370 children and adolescents to ascertain the relationship between serum urate and metabolic syndrome.

In the lowest to highest quartiles of serum urate, risk of metabolic syndrome was 1.0%, 3.7%, 10.3%, and 21.1%, respectively. The top quartile of urate had a roughly 15-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome than the lowest two quartiles.

When comparing data from 1988-1994 to 1999-2006, NHANES also revealed that the prevalence of gout and metabolic syndrome were rising continuously and at comparable rates.

Rashad Barsoum, MD, FRCP, FRCPE, emeritus professor of medicine at Cairo University, and Rheumatology Advisor talked about the epidemiologic link between gout and metabolic syndrome. It is still disputed whether hyperuricemia is a surrogate marker or a confounding risk factor, but the statistical correlation does not suggest causality, he says, despite the significant evidence linking it to the metabolic syndrome.

Action to reduce risks

The findings of this study, according to Mitchell, “should at the very least act as a wake-up call for the children. Diabetes and hypertension are no longer considered “diseases of the elderly.”

“Gout is merely one of the numerous additional hazards that come with these chronic illnesses. In addition to lowering quality of life, early onset of these diseases may also shorten lifespans. This is over the next few decades, according to the expert.

To “promote the findings of this study to the general public and build a gout prevention programme,” Trinh made a number of recommendations, stating that the following actions may be taken:

Make educational materials that describe the connection between MetS and gout, such as pamphlets, posters, and infographics. Also, the information in these materials must to cover lifestyle modifications for managing MetS.

Join up with medical professionals including primary care doctors and endocrinologists to promote gout prevention strategies and share information about the study’s findings.

Use social media: Share information about the study’s findings and encourage healthy lifestyle choices. By using social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, this can be done.

To inform those who have MetS about the connection between the condition and gout and to offer advice on how to treat it with lifestyle changes, hold workshops or webinars for them.

To promote gout prevention practises to a larger audience, work with neighbourhood organisations like wellness centres or municipal health agencies.



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Undenieable causes and symptoms of Diabetes you must know.

Undenieable causes and symptoms of Diabetes you must know.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus, also known as just diabetes, is a metabolic condition that raises blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone that transports sugar from the blood into your cells where it can be stored or utilised as fuel. When you have diabetes, your body can’t use the insulin it does make or doesn’t produce enough of it.

Diabetes-related high blood sugar left untreated can harm your kidneys, nerves, eyes, and other organs. However, you can safeguard your health by learning about diabetes and taking measures to prevent or control it.

Types of diabetes

There are several varieties of diabetes:

  • Type 1: Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune condition. The immune system targets and kills insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Uncertainty surrounds the attack’s origin.
  • Type 2: When your body gets resistant to insulin, type 2 diabetes develops and blood sugar levels rise. About 90% to 95%Trusted Source of people with diabetes have type 2, making it the most prevalent kind.
  • Type 1.5: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adulthood is another name for type 1.5 diabetes (LADA). Like type 2 diabetes, it develops gradually during maturity. LADA is an autoimmune condition that cannot be controlled by a healthy diet or way of living.
  • Diabetes gestational: Diabetes gestational is excessive blood sugar when pregnant. This form of diabetes is brought on by substances the placenta secretes that block insulin.

Despite having a similar name to diabetes mellitus, the uncommon illness known as diabetes insipidus is unrelated. Your kidneys are removed from your body too much fluid in a separate ailment. Each kind of diabetes has specific symptoms, underlying conditions, and therapies.


When your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the condition is known as prediabetes. It happens when your body’s cells don’t react to insulin as it should. Later on, type 2 diabetes may result from this.

According to experts, more than one in three Americans have prediabetes, but more than 80% of those individuals are completely unaware of their condition.

Symptoms of diabetes

The onset of diabetes is accompanied by blood sugar increases.

General symptoms

The symptoms of kinds 1, 2, and 1.5 (LADA) are identical, however they manifest more quickly than those of types 2 and 1.5. Type 2 usually has a slower onset. This diabetes is more likely to cause tingling nerves and slow-healing wounds.

Type 1 in particular, if untreated, can result in diabetic ketoacidosis. At this point, the body’s level of ketones is harmful. Although less typical in other forms of diabetes, it is nevertheless conceivable.

Diabetes’s typical signs and symptoms include:

  • increased appetite
  • heightened thirst
  • slim down
  • excessive urination
  • hazy vision
  • extreme exhaustion
  • not-healing wounds

Men’s symptoms

Men with diabetes may have the following in addition to the typical symptoms:

Women’s symptoms

Diabetes symptoms in women might include:

Gestational diabetes

The majority of women who develop gestational diabetes show no symptoms. When doing a routine oral glucose tolerance test or blood sugar test, which is often done between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, medical professionals frequently find the issue.

A person with gestational diabetes may, in extremely rare circumstances, also feel increased thirst or urination.

Diabetes symptoms might be so subtle that they are first difficult to identify. Discover the symptoms that call for a visit to the doctor.

Causes of diabetes

Each form of diabetes has a unique set of reasons.

Diabetes type 1

Type 1 diabetes has an unknown specific cause, according to doctors. The immune system wrongly targets and kills insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas for some unknown cause.

Some people may be affected by their genes. Additionally, a virus may trigger an immune system attack.

Diabetes type 2

The cause of type 2 diabetes is a result of both hereditary and environmental factors. Your risk is further increased if you are overweight or obese. The effects of insulin on your blood sugar are resisted by your cells more when you are overweight, especially in the abdomen.

Families are prone to this condition. Family members have genes that increase their risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Diabetes of type 1.5

When your own antibodies attack your pancreas, you have type 1.5 autoimmunity. like kind 1. Although additional research is required, it might be inherited.

Gestational diabetes

Hormonal changes during pregnancy are the cause of gestational diabetes. The placenta secretes hormones that reduce the sensitivity of a pregnant person’s cells to the effects of insulin. Pregnancy-related elevated blood sugar can result from this.

Gestational diabetes is more likely to develop in people who are overweight before becoming pregnant or who put on too much weight while pregnant.

Diabetes complications

Your body’s organs and tissues are harmed by high blood sugar. Your risk of complications increases as your blood sugar level rises and as you live with it for a longer period of time.

Diabetes-related complications include:

  • stroke, heart attack, and heart disease
  • neuropathy
  • nephropathy
  • Retinopathy and reduced eyesight
  • loss of hearing
  • harm to the feet, such as infections and unhealed wounds
  • skin problems include fungal and bacterial infections
  • depression
  • dementia

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes that is not treated might result in issues for both the mother and the unborn child. Baby-related complications can take the following forms:

  • preterm delivery
  • higher-than-average birth weight
  • a later-life increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • low blood glucose
  • jaundice
  • stillbirth

A woman who has gestational diabetes during pregnancy runs the risk of getting type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure (preeclampsia). You can also need a C-section, often known as a caesarean delivery. Future pregnancies also have a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes.

Although diabetes can cause major medical issues, you can manage the disease with medication and a change in lifestyle.


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What’s the relation between Metabolic syndrome and ED?

What’s the relation between Metabolic syndrome and ED?


Erectile dysfunction (ED) is characterized by an inability to maintain an erection sufficient for a satisfactory sexual encounter. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of symptoms that increases the risk of heart disease in patients. Studies have linked the metabolic syndrome to ED.

The presence of ED is an important indicator that a patient may be at risk for a cardiovascular event within five years of onset. In the same way, metabolic syndrome has multifactorial causes, so it may also have multifactorial effects on erectile function. The purpose of this blog is to review on how metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with ED. Also, whether interventions targeted at improving metabolic syndrome components can improve the condition.  


A man with erectile dysfunction (ED) is unable to achieve and/or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. ED is the most commonly treated sexual dysfunction in men worldwide. It is found in 15% of men between 40 and 50 years old. Also in 45% of men between 60 and 70 years old, and 70% of older men.

The association between ED and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been documented for the past decade. It may be difficult to establish causality, but ED appears to be an indicator of systemic disease, with both ED and CVD arising from the same cause.

What is Erectile dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction is basically a disorder found in men which could be a sign of physical or psychological condition. The symptoms associated with this disorder is found in men’s reproductive organ i.e. inability to keep an erection firmer and longer enough during a sexual activity.

There are many men who experience erectile dysfunction occasionally because of stress, fatigue, alcohol, or emotional issues, but 25% of men have recurring episodes of the disorder. People dealing with erectile dysfunction will be:

  • Unable to achieve erection at anytime needed.
  • might achieve erection sometime but not when needed like during sexual activity.
  • might able to achieve erection when needed but not long enough

What is Metabolic Syndrome?

A metabolic syndrome is a collection of conditions that occur together, increasing your risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. A number of conditions are associated with obesity, including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

The presence of just one of these conditions does not necessarily indicate metabolic syndrome. It does, however, increase your risk of serious diseases. In addition, if you develop more of these conditions, you face a greater risk of complications, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Link between ED and Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome has attracted considerable attention as a result of its increasing association with various pathophysiologic conditions, including heart failure, type 2 diabetes, and erectile dysfunction. It has been shown in numerous studies that various components of the Metabolic syndrome are directly correlated with ED.

Additionally, an independent association between components of Metabolic syndrome and ED was found in the study. Kupelian et al. showed that even at a BMI of 25, Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased ED risk (relative risk = 2.09) using data from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.

An analysis of adult participants in the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey revealed an association between poor glycemic control, impaired insulin sensitivity, and the Metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of ED.


To prevent or control the epidemic trend of the Metabolic syndrome and its consequences, strategies must be developed. Identification and treatment of at-risk individuals early could aid in the improvement of ED and secondary cardiovascular disease, such as weight management, lifestyle changes, and physical activity. There have been several studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention. In a recent study, Esposito et al. found that a Mediterranean-style diet is beneficial in reducing the prevalence of ED in men with Metabolic syndrome, as it is rich in whole grain, fruits, vegetables, legumes, walnuts, and olive oil.


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Diabetes and Erectile Dysfunction: What’s the connection?

Diabetes and Erectile Dysfunction: What’s the connection?

Erectile dysfunction is basically a disorder found in men which could be a sign of physical or psychological condition. The symptoms associated with this disorder is found in men’s reproductive organ i.e. inability to keep an erection firmer and longer enough during a sexual activity.

The causes of erectile dysfunction includes a number of reasons be it physical, psychological, and sometimes even both. One of the main cause of erectile dysfunction is men dealing with diabetes.

As per studies, around 35-37% of men dealing with diabetes will get affected by erectile dysfunction earlier than men without diabetes.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs either when your pancreas are unable to produce enough insulin or when your body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces to regulates the blood glucose. Hyperglycemia, also called raised blood glucose/sugar level, is a common effect of diabetes that is not controlled. Overtime, it can lead to serious damage to many systems and parts of our body which typically includes nerves and blood vessels.

Diabetes affected 8.5% of adults over the age of 18 in 2014. Diabetic complications directly caused 1.5 million deaths in 2019; 48% of these deaths occurred before the age of 70. Diabetic kidney disease results in 460 000 deaths, and raised blood glucose contributes to around 20% of cardiovascular deaths.

Age-standardized mortality rates from diabetes increased by 3% between 2000 and 2019. The death rate due to diabetes increased by 13% in countries with lower-middle incomes. Between 2000 and 2019, the probability of dying from any of the four main noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes) decreased by 22% worldwide. 

Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Type 1 (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by low insulin production and requires daily insulin administration. In 2017, there were 9 million people living with type 1 diabetes; the majority are in high-income countries. We do not know what causes it or how to prevent it.

The most common symptoms are excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, loss of weight, and changes in vision.

Type 2 Diabetes

It is caused by the body’s inefficiency in using insulin, which is formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Approximately 95% of diabetics have type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes is largely the result of excess body weight and poor lifestyle choices.

The symptoms are similar to those of type 1 diabetes, but are often less pronounced. Therefore, the disease may be diagnosed years after onset, after complications have already developed. This type of diabetes was previously seen only in adults, but is becoming increasingly common among children.

Diabetes and Erectile dysfunction

It is believed that diabetes is associated with ED because it affects the circulation and nervous system. The blood sugar levels in the body should be controlled properly in order to avoid damage to the small vessels and nerves. An erection that is firm enough to engage in sexual interaction can be impeded by damage to the nerves that control sexual stimulation and response. It is also possible for ED to be caused by reduced blood flow from damaged blood vessels.

Sexually aroused men release a chemical called nitric oxide into their bloodstreams. A large amount of blood flows into the penis thanks to this nitric oxide, which relaxes the arteries and the muscles there, resulting in erection. Diabetes patients often struggle with blood sugar swings, especially if their condition isn’t managed well.

Blood sugar levels become too high, causing nitric oxide production to slow down. An erection cannot be achieved or maintained if there is not enough blood flowing into the penis. Those who suffer from diabetes often have low levels of nitric oxide.

While men who experience occasional erectile difficulties can eventually develop ED permanently, this is rarely the case. The combination of adequate sleep, quitting smoking, and reducing stress may still help you overcome ED if you have diabetes.

Preventing erectile dysfunction through Diabetes

Control your blood sugar: Your blood sugar levels will be better controlled when you eat a diabetes-friendly diet, and your blood vessels and nerves will be less damaged. Erectile dysfunction can be reduced by eating a diet that is geared towards keeping your blood sugar levels in check. Nutrition can also improve your mood and energy levels, both of which can reduce the chances of developing erectile dysfunction. A dietitian who is also a certified diabetes educator may be able to help you adjust your eating style.

Treatments for Men With Diabetes and Erectile Dysfunction

If you have diabetes and are having trouble getting and/or keeping an erection, you can take oral medications like avanafil (Stendra), sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra).

Diabetes patients also tend to have problems with their hearts, so these medications may be inappropriate for them and could interact with heart medications in a dangerous way. Determine what treatment is best for you with the help of your doctor.

Among the treatments men with diabetes could consider are intracavernous injections, vacuum erection devices (not constriction devices), venous constriction devices (for venous leak syndrome), intraurethral therapy, penile prostheses (inflatable and malleable), and sex therapy.

Details on such treatments are discussed in other ED related blog on this website. Feel free to learn something new from us.


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