Browsed by
Tag: vaccinations

Essential parameters you need to know to avoid Measles.

Essential parameters you need to know to avoid Measles.

What is Measles?

Measles is an acute viral respiratory, highly contagious virus-caused airborne illness. Eight to twelve days after being exposed, symptoms may start to appear. For 10 to 14 days, symptoms may persist. Other names for measles include rubeola, 10-day measles, and red measles. It differs from rubella and the German measles.

According to the World Health Organization, there were around 110,000 measles-related fatalities worldwide in 2017, with most of these occurring in children under the age of 5. In recent years, instances of measles have also been rising in the US.

What is the difference between measles and German measles?

German measles (rubella) and the measles (rubeola) share several characteristics. Fever, sore throat, and rash are a some of the symptoms they share. But unlike the virus that causes German measles, the virus that causes measles is distinct.

For women who are expecting, German measles can be quite dangerous. This disorder may result in a miscarriage or give birth to a child with birth abnormalities. One vaccine can protect against both viral infections.

Who does measles affect?

Measles can infect anyone who hasn’t received a vaccination. Nearly everyone contracted the disease prior to the development of the measles vaccination. You are more likely to be immune to the measles virus if you have had measles or were immunised against it. After receiving the vaccine, you could still contract atypical or modified measles.

The measles was essentially eradicated in the United States by 2000 as a result of a successful vaccination campaign. Now, however, outbreaks have occurred as a result of a sizable percentage of parents choosing not to vaccinate their children. International tourists who have never received vaccinations have always posed a concern, but getting immunised reduces that risk.

What causes measles?

The morbillivirus, an exceedingly contagious virus, is what causes measles. In fact, nine of ten unvaccinated individuals in a room with a measles carrier would contract the disease. Measles is transmitted by:

  • Droplets of contaminated fluid that are released into the air when you cough, sneeze, or speak.
  • kissing a measles sufferer.
  • sharing beverages or meals with a measles patient.
  • embracing or shaking hands with a person who has the measles.
  • from expectant mothers to their unborn children, either during labour and delivery or when breastfeeding

Even after the measles sufferer has left the area, the airborne respiratory droplets may still be there.

After being exposed to measles, symptoms might appear anywhere between six and twenty one days later. The incubation period is now. Between four days before and four days after the rash begins, you are contagious.

Symptoms of Measles

After being exposed to the virus for 10 to 14 days, measles signs and symptoms start to manifest. Typical measles symptoms and signs include:

  • Fever
  • wet cough
  • clogged nose
  • unwell throat
  • irritated eyes (conjunctivitis)
  • Also known as Koplik’s spots, these tiny white dots with bluish-white centres on a red background can be discovered inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek.
  • a rash on the skin that consists of big, flat patches that frequently merge together

Infection progresses over the course of two to three weeks.

Generalised symptoms and signs. A low to moderate fever, along with other symptoms like a persistent cough, runny nose, itchy eyes (conjunctivitis), and a sore throat, are the typical first signs of measles. This comparatively minor ailment could last two to three days.

Rash and an acute sickness. Small red dots, some of which are slightly elevated, make up the rash. The skin appears splotchy red due to clusters of spots and pimples. First to break out is the face.

The rash begins to spread down the arms, chest, and back over the following several days before moving on to the thighs, lower legs, and feet. At the same time, the fever intensifies, frequently reaching 104 to 105.8 F(40 to 41 C).

Incubation and infection. The measles virus spreads in the body over the first 10 to 14 days following infection. There are currently no measles symptoms or indicators.

Recovery. The typical duration of a measles rash is seven days. The rash progressively goes away, beginning with the face and finishing with the thighs and feet. The cough and darkening or peeling of the skin where the rash occurred may last for about 10 days after other disease symptoms have subsided.

Is measles airborne?

Small aerosol particles and respiratory droplets both have the potential to spread measles through the air. When they cough or sneeze, an infected individual can cough or sneeze the virus into the air.

Also susceptible to adhering to things and surfaces are these respiratory particles. If you touch your face, nose, or mouth after coming into contact with a contaminated object, such a door handle, you could become infected.

You might be surprised to learn how long the measles virus can survive outside of the body. It’s actually contagious for up to two hours in the air or on surfaces.

Is measles contagious?

The measles spreads easily. This indicates that the virus can spread from person to person extremely quickly. A susceptible individual who is exposed to the measles virus has a 90% probability of contracting the disease. Furthermore, a virus can be disseminated by an infected person to anywhere from 9 to 18 vulnerable people.

Before others are aware of their own infection, a person with the measles can infect them. Four days pass before the recognisable rash forms in an infected person. They are still transmittable for an additional four days after the rash emerges.

Being unvaccinated is the primary risk factor for contracting the measles. Pregnant women, young children, and those with compromised immune systems are among those who are more likely to experience problems from measles infection.


For more details, kindly visit below.

Important things you need to know about the flu(Influenza).

Important things you need to know about the flu(Influenza).

The flu season typically lasts from late fall to early spring and is accompanied by the typical flu symptoms of fatigue, sniffling, sneezing, and coughing.

The illness’s severity varies from person to person, but the COVID-19 pandemic has brought a new sense of urgency to our need to safeguard ourselves as both of these viruses spread in the coming months.

Flu vaccinations are crucial every year, but this year they’re even more crucial to prevent the general public, especially vulnerable populations, from contracting the flu while COVID-19 is still a danger.

What is the flu?

A common and contagious virus called influenza is transmitted when droplets enter the body of a different person. The virus then establishes itself and starts to grow. The flu spreads throughout the country each year. According to a 2018 CDC study, the flu affects 3 to 11 percent of Americans each year. This explains why some people experience symptoms.

The flu’s main season is winter, with February being its peak. However, influenza can strike at any time of the year. There are numerous flu strains. Which viral strains will be most prevalent each year is decided by medical professionals and researchers. Then, vaccinations are created using those strains. One of the simplest and most reliable ways to prevent the flu is with a flu vaccine.

A few symptoms of the flu and the common cold are similar.

People who have any ailment frequently encounter:

  • runny or congested nose
  • sneezing
  • bodily pains
  • overall weariness

Generally speaking, flu symptoms are worse than cold symptoms. The seriousness of the two is another obvious distinction. Rarely do colds result in further medical concerns or issues. However, the flu can cause:

  • sinusitis
  • infected ears
  • pneumonia
  • sepsis

If your symptoms are severe, you might want to get a diagnosis of the flu or the common cold confirmed. Your doctor will order tests to assist identify the cause of your symptoms. Call beforehand to find out the procedure for going to a doctor in person or online during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The symptoms of the common cold and the flu should also be handled carefully because they are similar to those of COVID-19. You only need to treat your symptoms if your doctor identifies you with a cold until the virus has finished its course. These remedies may consist of:

  • utilising over-the-counter (OTC) medicine for colds
  • drinking water
  • obtaining lots of sleep

What’s the difference between the flu and COVID-19?

While there are some similarities between COVID-19, the flu, and allergies, there are also many differences. The primary signs of COVID-19 include:

Sneezing is unusual. The flu symptoms, such as fever and body aches, are comparable to COVID-19. However, you might not experience shortness of breath as a flu symptom. Sneezing, coughing, and wheezing are some of the more common chronic allergy symptoms.

What are the symptoms of the flu?


Your body temperature will nearly always rise when you have the flu. Fever is another name for this. The majority of fevers caused by the flu range from a low-grade fever of roughly 100°F (37.8°C) to a high-grade fever of 104°F (40°C).

While worrying, it’s not uncommon for young children to experience fevers that are higher than those of adults. Consult your child’s doctor if you think they may have the flu.

When your temperature is high, you could have “feverishness.” Chills, sweats, or feeling cold in spite of a high body temperature are symptoms. Most fevers last 3 to 4 days, which is less than a week in most cases.


When you have the flu, a dry, persistent cough is typical. It’s possible for the cough to get worse and become painful.

Occasionally, you could feel like your chest hurts or your breath is short. Many coughs brought on by the flu might continue for around 2 weeks.

Muscle pain

Your neck, back, arms, and legs are the most typical locations for flu-related muscle discomfort. They are frequently severe, making it challenging to move even when attempting to carry out simple duties.


Your first flu symptom can be a terrible headache. Sometimes headaches are accompanied by other symptoms, such as light and sound sensitivity.


A less visible flu symptom is feeling weary. One of several conditions can be an indicator of feeling generally ill. These feelings of exhaustion and fatigue may strike suddenly and be challenging to get rid of.

How long does the flu last?

The majority of people recover from the flu in a week or so. However, it can take a few more days until you feel like yourself again. Even a few days after your flu symptoms have disappeared, fatigue is not uncommon.

It’s crucial to skip the first day of class or work until you’ve been fever-free for at least 24 hours (without using fever-reducing drugs, of course). A day before your symptoms start to manifest and for up to seven days afterward, the flu virus can be transmitted to another person.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, if you exhibit any cold or flu symptoms, you should separate yourself while getting tested and continue to practise excellent hygiene by:

  • the act of handwashing
  • cleaning up high-touch areas
  • putting on a face mask
  • staying away from other people

Treatment options for the flu

The majority of flu illnesses are mild enough for self-care at home without the use of prescription drugs. When you first experience flu symptoms, it’s crucial that you stay at home and limit your contact with others.

You will need to:

  • Drink a lot of water. This includes low-sugar flavoured drinks, soup, and water.
  • Use over-the-counter drugs to treat symptoms including fever and headaches.
  • To stop the virus from getting onto other surfaces or persons in your home, wash your hands.
  • Use tissues to cover your coughs and sneezes. Get rid of the tissues right away.
  • When outside, hide your face.

Remedies for flu symptoms

The flu is not enjoyable. However, there are numerous treatments for flu symptoms that offer significant relief.If you have the flu, have in mind these remedies:Pain relievers.

  • Pain relievers. drugs that reduce pain. It is frequently advised to use analgesics like acetaminophen and ibuprofen to relieve symptoms. These include headache, fever, and aches and pains in the muscles.
  • Decongestants. This kind of medication can ease sinus and ear pressure as well as nasal congestion. Read the labels carefully to choose the decongestant that is appropriate for you because each type can have some negative effects.
  • Expectorants. This kind of drug aids in reducing the buildup of thick sinus secretions that give you a cough-inducing feeling in your head.


For more details, kindly visit below.

How dangerous can be Polio disease for a child?

How dangerous can be Polio disease for a child?

The poliovirus is the illness that causes polio (poliomyelitis). Most people only experience minimal or no symptoms, but in a few, it might result in death or paralysis.

The three poliovirus variants are known as wild poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3. (WPV1, WPV2 and WPV3). Only a few regions of the world still have wild polio type 1, and wild polio types 2 and 3 have been eradicated (no longer exist). Paralysis is most likely to result from type 1 polio.

In several places of the world, polio cases are still present today. International efforts to eliminate polio are still underway, despite the fact that the number of infected individuals has significantly decreased.

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine should be given as a booster dose to adults who have already received it and are travelling to a region where polio is present. After receiving a booster, immunity is permanent.

Types of polio

Depending on the parts of your body the virus targets and multiplies in, polio can have various effects on you. the following types of polio:

  • Abortive poliomyelitis manifests as intestinal and influenza-like symptoms. It doesn’t have long-lasting effects and just lasts a few days.
  • Aseptic meningitis, a brain swelling, may result from non-paralytic poliomyelitis. It results in more symptoms than abortive poliomyelitis and can necessitate a hospital stay.
  • Paralytic poliomyelitis: When the poliovirus affects your brain and spinal cord, paralytic poliomyelitis results. The muscles that allow you to breathe, speak, swallow, and move your limbs can become paralysed by it. It is referred to as spinal polio or bulbar polio, depending on which areas of your body are afflicted. Together, spinal and bulbar polio can manifest (bulbospinal polio). Only 1% of polio survivors develop paralytic poliomyelitis.
  • Polioencephalitis: A uncommon form of polio that primarily affects newborns is polioencephalitis. The brain swells as a result.
  • Post-polio syndrome: When polio symptoms reappear years after an initial infection, it is known as post-polio syndrome.

What effects does polio have on my body?

Through the mouth or nose, the poliovirus enters your body. In your gut and throat, it reproduces additional copies of itself (intestines). It can sometimes enter your brain and spinal cord and paralyse you. Your arms, legs, or the muscles that control your breathing may become paralysed.

Who is exposed to polio?

You are most vulnerable to contracting polio if if are not immunised and you:

  • reside in or visit a region where polio still exists.
  • live in or visit a place with inadequate sanitary conditions.
  • are less than 5
  • are expecting.

Can adults contract polio?

Yes, polio can strike adults. Many adults have immunity, either through vaccinations or from having polio. Unvaccinated adults who are exposed to the poliovirus can get the disease.

How widespread is polio?

Thanks to widespread immunisation campaigns, symptomatic polio is uncommon in many regions of the world. Polio is no longer distributed there, and most nations consider it to be eradicated. However, polio can start to spread again if individuals stop taking their vaccinations.


The majority of those who are infected with the virus don’t become sick and are unaware they are infected, despite the fact that polio can result in paralysis and death.

Polio not paralytic

Some persons who experience polio symptoms get a kind of polio that doesn’t cause paralysis (abortive polio). The mild, flu-like signs and symptoms that are typical of other viral infections are typically caused by this.

The following signs and symptoms, which may persist up to 10 days:

  • Fever
  • unwell throat
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • back stiffness or pain
  • neck stiffness or discomfort
  • Arms or legs that are painful or stiff
  • a weakened or painful muscle

Dyskinetic syndrome

Rarely does the disease manifest in its most severe form. Fever and headache are common early paralytic polio symptoms that can be mistaken for nonparalytic polio. But after a week, more symptoms start to show, such as:

  • decline in reflexes
  • muscular weakness or excruciating aches
  • slack and flaccid limbs (flaccid paralysis)

Poliomyelitis syndrome

Some patients have post-polio syndrome, a collection of incapacitating signs and symptoms, years after they had polio. Typical warning signs and symptoms include:

  • discomfort and deteriorating muscle or joint weakness
  • Fatigue
  • muscles are lost (atrophy)
  • issues with breathing or swallowing
  • respiratory issues that affect sleep, like sleep apnea
  • less ability to tolerate cold temperatures


For more details, kindly visit below.