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Helpful things you must know about Coronary Artery Disease.

Helpful things you must know about Coronary Artery Disease.

When the coronary arteries grow too thin or cholesterol blockages form in the walls), also known as coronary heart disease(CAD). The blood channels that carry blood and oxygen to the heart are known as the coronary arteries.

When cholesterol deposits on the arterial walls form plaques, CAD frequently results. These plaques can either produce inflammation and hardening of the blood vessel walls, which reduces blood flow to the heart and causes the arteries to constrict. Sometimes clots can impede blood flow, leading to major medical issues.

The network of blood vessels that supplies the surface of the heart with oxygen is made up of coronary arteries. The heart may not get enough oxygen-rich blood if these arteries are small, especially during exercising.

Forms of coronary artery disease

A heart attack can sometimes result from CAD. It is the most prevalent kind of heart disease in the United States, where it causes more than 655,000 fatalities annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Coronary artery disease primarily comes in two different forms:

Stable Ischemic heart disease

The chronic form is this. Your coronary arteries gradually tighten over a long period of time. Your heart receives less blood that is rich in oxygen with time. Even if you may experience certain symptoms, you can manage the illness on a daily basis.

Acute coronary syndrome

This is a medical emergency in its abrupt form. A blood clot is created when the plaque in your coronary artery abruptly bursts, obstructing blood flow to your heart. A heart attack is caused by this sudden obstruction.

How common is coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease affects a lot of people. In the US, there are about 18 million persons who have coronary artery disease. That almost equals the population of Houston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York City all together.

In the United States, coronary artery disease claimed 360,900 lives in 2019. That number of individuals could more than seven times fill Yankee Stadium.

What Causes CAD?

Plaque, which is made up of cholesterol, fat, and other chemicals, can begin to form on the blood vessel walls as early as childhood. It accumulates over time. This results in “atherosclerosis,” which doctors refer to as the hardening and narrowing of arteries.

Plaque may rupture or shatter in some circumstances. As a result, platelets, which are blood cells, will attempt to close the artery and create a blood clot.

This accumulation hinders the free passage of blood through the arteries, much like muck in a clogged drainpipe. The heart receives nourishment and oxygen through the blood. It might cause chest pain and shortness of breath if you don’t get enough (Angina).

The heart can weaken if it doesn’t get enough oxygen. An erratic heartbeat may result from this (arrhythmia). It may also result in heart failure, which is the inability of the heart to adequately pump blood throughout the body to satisfy needs.

You may experience a heart attack if a plaque enlarges to the point where it obstructs blood flow to the heart muscle. However, the smaller plaques that rupture are typically the cause of heart attacks.

Coronary artery disease symptoms

Early on, you might not exhibit any signs. However, when the plaque keeps accumulating and restricts blood flow to the heart muscle, you could start to feel out of breath or exhausted, especially when you exercise.

Chest pain, often known as angina, is the most typical sign of CAD. Some individuals mistake it for indigestion or heartburn. Your chest may feel uncomfortable if you have angina. The feeling could also be felt in your back, shoulders, arms, or jaw.

You could feel:

  • Tightness
  • Discomfort
  • Pressure
  • Heaviness
  • Squeezing
  • Burning
  • Aching
  • Numbness
  • Fullness

Call for emergency medical help if you experience any of the symptoms listed below.

  • chest pain, especially in the centre or left side, that lasts for a short while or that disappears then reappears. It may feel like discomfort, squeezing, pressure, or fullness. Some individuals mistake it for heartburn or indigestion.
  • Any discomfort in your upper torso. One or both arms, the shoulders, the neck, the jaw, or the upper section of the stomach could be affected.
  • breathlessness with or without discomfort in the chest
  • nausea or vomiting coupled with feeling faint, woozy, or cold

What puts you at Risk?

As you age or if it runs in your family, you are more prone to develop coronary artery disease (CAD). However, you may control a variety of additional risk factors, such as:

  • High triglyceride and cholesterol levels
  • elevated blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes syndrome
  • Overweight and obesity
  • inadequate exercise
  • Anger, sadness, and stress
  • unsound diet
  • excess booze
  • Slumber apnea


Keeping blood cholesterol levels under control can lower a person’s risk of developing CAD. Think about the following to improve blood cholesterol levels:

  • being more active physically
  • reducing alcohol consumption
  • eschewing tobacco
  • consuming a diet lower in salt, sugar, and saturated fats

Those who already have CAD should make careful to keep these factors under control by according to their doctor’s advice.


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Is it possible to have Angina with normal blood pressure?

Is it possible to have Angina with normal blood pressure?

What is Angina?

Angina is tightness, squeezing, pressure, or pain in the chest. It occurs when an area of the heart muscle receives less blood oxygen than usual. It is not a disease but a symptom. Angina usually happens due to ischemia, when one or more of the coronary arteries becomes narrow or blocked. It is often a symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Alone, angina is not life threatening, but it can resemble the symptoms of a heart attack, and it is a sign of heart disease. Receive medical attention if angina occurs unexpectedly, does not go away, or does not respond to rest or medication.

What does angina feel like?

Most angina sufferers describe having pressure or pain in the chest. Or they describe a heaviness or squeezing in their chest. Some claim that it has the sensation of dyspepsia. Others claim that putting angina into words is difficult.

Usually, the pain starts behind your breastbone. You might not always be able to pinpoint the particular source of the pain. Your upper torso may experience upper chest pain or discomfort as well. Your neck, jaw, shoulders, arms, back, and belly are a few of these.

Other symptoms, referred to as “angina analogues,” can be brought on by a lack of oxygen to your heart. You may not feel any of these symptoms in your chest, such as:

Types of Angina

Enduring angina

When the heart is working harder than usual, such as during exercise, stable angina develops. Normally, it lasts for five minutes.

It has a predictable rhythm and might last for weeks, months, or even years. The symptoms can typically be reduced with rest or medicine.

Erratic angina

Unstable angina has no set rhythm and typically strikes while you’re at rest. Atherosclerosis, which involves a blockage preventing blood from reaching the heart, is the primary cause.

The pain may develop with time and linger for more than five minutes. Medication and rest may not be enough to reduce the symptoms.

Angina that is unstable can signal a possible heart attack. Anyone experiencing sudden angina should seek emergency medical attention.

Angina microvascular

Coronary microvascular disease can cause microvascular angina (MVD). The tiniest coronary arteries are impacted by this.

In addition to chest pain, a person may feel:

  • low energy and weariness
  • issues with sleep
  • breathing difficulty
  • Stable angina is more transient than microvascular angina. It frequently lasts for more than ten minutes. Trustworthy Source and occasionally takes more than 30 minutes.

Angina variant

Rare variant angina Prinzmetal angina is the name some doctors give to this condition, which can occur when the body is at rest, usually in the early morning or late at night.

It takes place when the coronary arteries spasm. Cold exposure, stress, medications, smoking, or cocaine usage are examples of potential triggers. Although the illness is chronic, medicines can help manage it.

What causes angina?

Angina is brought on by myocardial ischemia, which is reduced blood supply to the heart. Your coronary arteries may develop a number of issues that hinder your heart from getting adequate blood. These consist of:

Coronary artery disease: The most frequent cause of angina is coronary artery disease. When plaque (a fatty, waxy substance) accumulates in your coronary arteries, which carry blood to your heart, it causes heart disease. Your heart receives less blood as a result of these arteries’ narrowing or hardening (atherosclerosis).

Coronary microvascular disease: Compared to men and individuals designated male at birth, women and people assigned female at birth (AFAB) had a higher prevalence of coronary microvascular disease (AMAB). Small blood veins that branch off of your coronary arteries suffer damage to their walls.

Coronary artery spasm: Your coronary arteries repeatedly contract (tighten) and then relax during a coronary artery spasm. Your heart’s blood supply is momentarily restricted by these spams. Even without coronary artery disease, you can experience coronary spasms. Regular CAD testing may not be able to diagnose this, and it may be necessary to conduct specialised testing that not all hospitals offer.

Angina with normal blood pressure?

Even though the coronary arteries themselves are healthy, angina can occasionally develop when parts of the heart muscle are not getting enough oxygen.

The following conditions can cause angina without having coronary artery disease:

  • extremely low blood pressure, which may happen in shock as a result of bleeding
  • severe anaemia
  • extremely active effort
  • a lot of mental stress (as in broken heart syndrome)
  • significant hyperthyroidism
  • persistent tachycardia
  • significant hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • severely enlarged ventricles
  • significant aortic stenosis

These disorders typically affect sicker people, and angina is typically just one symptom among many. Therefore, the absence of classic CAD is unlikely to mislead the healthcare professionals caring for these patients into a false sense of complacency.


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