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Typhoid: Important Causes and symptoms you need to know.

Typhoid: Important Causes and symptoms you need to know.

A bacterial infection called typhoid can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, and a high fever. The bacterium Salmonella typhimurium is to blame (S. typhi). If a doctor diagnoses it early, antibiotics can be used to treat it. Typhoid can be fatal if it persists.

Typhoid is typically spread by eating or drinking infected food or water. Additionally, carriers who are unaware that they carry the germs could spread it from one person to another. In areas where sanitation and hygiene are less effective, typhoid is more common.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are around 5,700 cases of typhoid reported in the US each year. Most persons who get diagnosed after visiting another country probably contracted it there.

What is Typhoid?

The bacterium S. typhi is what causes the infection known as typhoid. Human blood and intestines are home to the bacteria. Direct contact with the infected person’s excrement is how it travels from one person to another.

Since no animals are capable of carrying this illness, only humans may spread it. S. typhi enters through the mouth and stays in the intestine for 1-3 weeks. After that, it enters the bloodstream after passing through the gut wall.

It spreads into various tissues and organs from the bloodstream. Because S. typhi can dwell within the host’s cells and is immune system-safe, the host’s immune system is powerless to fight back. Typhoid is diagnosed by a physician looking for S. typhi in a blood, stool, urine, or bone marrow sample.

Symptoms of typhoid

Typically, 1-3 weeks after bacterial exposure, symptoms appear. Typhoid has two primary symptoms: fever and rash. The temperature associated with typhoid is extremely high, gradually rising over several days to 104°F.

Rose-colored dots make up the rash, which does not affect everyone and is most noticeable on the neck and abdomen. Additional signs can include:

Causes of Typhoid

The bacteria S. typhi is what causes typhoid. It spreads by contaminated food, beverages, and drinking water that has faecal matter in it. If the water is contaminated, washing fruits and vegetables might transmit the disease as well.

Typhoid can affect some people even when they show no symptoms. After their symptoms have subsided, some people keep the germs in their bodies. The illness can occasionally return.

Typhoid-positive individuals may not be permitted to work with youngsters or senior citizens until subsequent negative medical tests.

Who is at risk?

In South Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa, typhoid fever is most common. Typhoid infection risk is higher for people who reside, work, or travel to areas with a high prevalence of the infection.

Typhoid fever outbreaks can still occur in places with poor sanitation and hygiene, even in nations with a low incidence of the disease. About 500 cases of typhoid fever are reported in the United States each year, and more than half of these infections were acquired abroad.

Localized outbreaks, however, typically occur in the food business, where a carrier of the virus spreads it through food. People who work in restaurants or other food-related companies may be more vulnerable, notwithstanding the rarity of this.

Treatment of Typhoid

Antibiotics are the sole effective treatment for typhoid. Cipro (ciprofloxacin) is most frequently prescribed by doctors to non-pregnant patients. In addition to these, a doctor might prescribe:

  • chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)
  • ampicillin (Ampi, Omnipen, Penglobe, and Principen) 
  • sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Bactrim)

Chloramphenicol should not be used during pregnancy. Typhoid patients should consume enough water to rehydrate themselves. A person may require surgery in more serious circumstances where the bowel has become perforated.

However, there is concern about the escalating antibiotic resistance of S. typhi, as there is with a number of other bacterial diseases. Multidrug-resistant typhoid strain outbreaks have occurred, such as the one that hit Pakistan in 2018 and affected individuals who were resistant to five different antibiotic classes.


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What are the ways to treat and diagnose Gastritis?

What are the ways to treat and diagnose Gastritis?

What is Gastritis?

Gastritis is a disorder that causes the mucosa lining of the stomach to become inflamed. This inflammation results in stomach pain, dyspepsia, bloating, and nausea. It can trigger other issues. Gastritis can develop gradually (chronic) or suddenly (acute) (chronic). Reducing stomach acid and modifying your diet can help with gastritis symptoms.

The mucosa is the protective mucus lining that lines your stomach. Your stomach’s lining shields it from the powerful stomach acid that aids in food digestion. The protecting mucosa gets inflamed and leads to gastritis when something weakens or harms it. The most frequent bacterial cause of gastritis is a kind of bacterium known as Helicobacter pylori.

About 8 out of every 1,000 people get acute (sudden) gastritis. Long-term, chronic gastritis is less frequent. Approximately two out of every 10,000 people are impacted.

Types of Gastritis

There are two main categories of gastritis:

Erosive (reactive): Erosive gastritis results in both stomach lining erosion and inflammation. Reactive gastritis is another name for this illness. Alcohol, smoking, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, viral or bacterial infections, stress from diseases or injuries, and corticosteroids are some of the causes.

Non-erosive: Stomach lining inflammation that does not cause erosion or compromise the lining.

What Causes Gastritis?

Inflammation brought on by heavy alcohol use, frequent vomiting, stress, or the use of specific medications like aspirin or other anti-inflammatory therapies can result in gastropathy. Additionally, it might result from any of the following:

  • Abuse of alcohol: Prolonged drinking can irritate and damage the stomach lining.
  • Autoimmune disease: In certain people, the stomach lining’s healthy cells are attacked by the immune system.
  • Bacterial infection: Peptic ulcer illness and chronic gastritis are mostly brought on by the H. pylori bacterium (stomach ulcers). Inflammation is brought on by the bacteria’s destruction of the stomach’s barrier lining.
  • Reflux of bile: Your liver produces bile to aid in the digestion of fatty foods. Reflux is a reflowing action. When bile bypasses the small intestine and instead rushes back into the stomach, this condition is known as bile reflux.
  • Medication: Regularly taking corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) to treat chronic pain can irritate the stomach lining.
  • Stress on the body: A sudden, serious sickness or injury might cause gastritis. Gastritis frequently occurs even following trauma to the body that does not affect the stomach. Brain injuries and severe burns are two common causes.

Symptoms of gastritis

There are many cases of gastritis without symptoms. When symptoms do occur, many people mistake them for indigestion. Additional indications of gastritis include:

  • tarry, dark stool
  • Bloating.
  • vomiting and nauseous.
  • greater satiety during or after a meal.
  • decrease in appetite.
  • abdominal ulcers
  • shedding pounds without intending to.
  • discomfort or soreness in the upper abdomen (belly).
  • throwing up blood.

How is gastritis diagnosed?

Your doctor will examine you physically and inquire about your medical history and symptoms. Your doctor might also recommend one or more of the following tests:

  • Breath test: You ingest a capsule or liquid containing the radioactive substance urea during an H. pylori breath test. Then you exhale into a bag that resembles a balloon. Urea is converted into carbon dioxide by H. pylori bacteria. The breath test will reveal a rise in carbon dioxide if you have the bacteria.
  • Blood test: Checking for antibodies that combat the H. pylori bacteria through a blood test.
  • Stool test: H. pylori bacteria are detected in your stool during this test of your faeces (poop).
  • Upper endoscopy: Your doctor examines your stomach using an endoscope, a lengthy, thin tube with a camera attached to it. The oesophagus, which joins your mouth to your stomach, is where the doctor puts the scope. Using an upper endoscopy, your doctor can look at the stomach lining. Additionally, a tissue sample (biopsy) from the lining of your stomach may be taken in order to check for infection.
  • Upper GI examination: For an upper GI examination, you ingest barium, a chalky material. Your stomach lining is coated by the fluids, giving the X-ray technician more precise images.

How is gastritis treated?

Depending on the reason, there are many treatments for gastritis. While some medicines treat symptoms of dyspepsia, others kill bacteria. Your healthcare professional might advise:

Antibiotics: The bacterial infection may be treated with antibiotics. For a few weeks, you might need to take many different kinds of antibiotics.

Antacids: Calcium carbonate drugs that act as antacids lessen exposure to stomach acid. They could aid in reducing inflammation. Heartburn can also be treated with antacids like Tums and Rolaids.

Histamine (H2) blockers: Drugs like ranitidine (Zantac), cimetidine (Tagamet), and other analogues reduce the formation of stomach acid.

Proton pump inhibitors: These drugs lessen the amount of acid your stomach generates. Examples include omeprazole (Prilosec) and esomeprazole (Nexium). Proton pump inhibitors also treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and stomach ulcers.


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Is Spasmo proxyvon plus really effective for muscle cramps?

Is Spasmo proxyvon plus really effective for muscle cramps?

A combination drug called Spasmo Proxyvon Plus Capsule, which is an analgesic, works by relaxing the muscles in the stomach or intestine to ease pain and cramps. Acute pain is transient, whereas chronic pain is ongoing. Acute pain is temporary discomfort brought on by injury to the muscle, bone, or other organ tissues. While chronic pain is long-lasting and brought on by diseases like osteoarthritis and nerve damage, etc.

The eight capsules of Spasmo Proxyvon Plus comprise Tramadol, Paracetamol, and Dicyclomine. The central nervous system’s pain receptors are the target of tramadol. It works by obstructing the pain-causing nerve messages. By preventing the production of chemical mediators that produce pain, paracetamol functions as an analgesic.

When used together, tramadol and paracetamol have a quicker onset of action and deliver rapid pain relief. Dicyclomine aids in preventing the body from responding by producing certain natural compounds that induce pain. Together, they successfully lessen the pain.

Benefits of Spasmo-Proxyvon Plus

The capsule form of Spasmo-Proxyvon Plus efficiently reduces severe, disruptive, and abrupt pain. It aids in the treatment of muscle spasms or contractions in the stomach and intestine (gut), resulting in muscle relaxation and improved food movement. 

Additionally, it suppresses the brain’s chemical messengers involved in pain perception. This aids in the treatment of cramps, bloating, and discomfort in addition to treating abdominal (or stomach) pain.

How does it work?

The three medications Dicyclomine, Paracetamol, and Tramadol are combined in the capsule form known as Spasmo-Proxyvon Plus. Dicyclomine is an anti-cholinergic that eases gastrointestinal (intestinal) and stomach muscles and prevents unexpected muscle contractions (spasms).

It eases bloating, pain, cramps, and discomfort by doing this. The analgesic and antipyretic drug paracetamol acts by preventing the release of specific chemical messengers that induce fever and pain. As an opioid analgesic, tramadol reduces the impression of pain by preventing the brain from receiving pain signals.

Side effects

The majority of adverse effects are temporary and go away as your body becomes used to the medication. In the event that they continue or cause you concern, speak with your doctor.

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • mouth feeling parched
  • Sleepiness
  • Weakness
  • Nervousness
  • distorted vision

Uses of Spasmo Proxyvon Plus

Associated with muscle spasms, moderate to severe pain

Your muscles will clench or spasm when this happens. It may persist for a few seconds to 15 minutes and be uncomfortable. Exercise that is too vigorous, muscle injury, dehydration, and poor blood flow are the most frequent reasons. The muscles in the arms, hands, thighs, legs, feet, stomach, and intestinal wall can all be impacted. If your muscular cramps are severe or linger for a long time, you could need medical assistance. The capsule form of Spasmo Proxyvon Plus is indicated to treat mild to severe muscle discomfort.

Colic discomfort

Colicky pain is characterised by sharp, localised pain that begins and ends suddenly. is referred to as colicky pain. It typically happens as a result of obstruction caused by forcing stuff out in hollow organs such the intestines, rectum, gallbladder, and ureter. Spasmo Proxyvon Plus Capsule is used to stop colicky pain and abrupt muscle contractions or spasms.

Contraindications of Spasmo Proxyvon Plus

  • Intolerance to any of the drug’s ingredients
  • gastrointestinal blockage, including paralytic ileus, that is either known or suspected
  • use within the last 14 days or concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Selegiline and Rasagiline are two examples.
  • Alcohol and this drug together can have fatal consequences, including respiratory depression, coma, and even death.
  • Children under the age of 12 should not take this medication.
  • It is not recommended for use in children under the age of 18 after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy.
  • severe or acute bronchial asthma in the absence of resuscitation tools or in an unmonitored environment.
  • respiratory depression that is significant
  • Glaucoma at a closed angle
  • Chronic myasthenia
  • Haemorrhage
  • In people who are elderly or disabled, intestinal atony
  • Uropathy with obstruction
  • significant ulcerative colitis
  • esophagitis with reflux
  • babies under 6 months old (reports of seizure, respiratory failure, death)
  • active, severe liver disease, etc.


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What is the reason behind white and formy Diarrhea?

What is the reason behind white and formy Diarrhea?

What is Diarrhea?

Diarrhea is a common symptom, characterised by loose, watery, and possibly more frequent bowel movements. It can occur alone or in conjunction with other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or weight loss.

Fortunately, diarrhoea is usually only temporary, lasting only a few days. When diarrhoea lasts for several days or weeks, it usually indicates the presence of another problem, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or a more serious disorder, such as chronic infection, celiac disease, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Even while most instances of diarrhoea are self-limited (lasting a certain period of time and progressing at a constant rate of severity), it can occasionally cause life-threatening consequences. Dehydration (when your body loses a lot of water), electrolyte imbalance (loss of sodium, potassium, and magnesium), and renal failure (not enough blood or fluid is delivered to the kidneys) are all effects of diarrhoea.

Along with excrement, diarrhoea causes the loss of electrolytes and water. To replenish the lost fluids, you must consume enough of liquids. If dehydration does not improve, worsens, or is not properly treated, it may become dangerous.

What causes diarrhea?

There are various ailments or situations that might produce diarrhoea. Possible reasons Among the reliable sources of diarrhoea are:

  • bacterial infections, such as Salmonella and E. coli, parasite infections, and viral gastroenteritis such as rotavirus, norovirus, and gastroenteritis
  • intestinal conditions, food intolerances such lactose intolerance, and drug interactions
  • stomach or gallbladder surgery

Globally, rotavirus is the most frequent cause of acute diarrhoea. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that this virus accounts for about 40% of hospitalizations among kids under the age of five. The majority of diarrhea-related deaths occur worldwide as a result of tainted water sources and inadequate sanitation.

A more serious disorder like irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease may show symptoms of chronic diarrhoea. Intestinal illness or a functional bowel dysfunction may be indicated by frequent and severe diarrhoea.

Symptoms of diarrhea

Frequent loose, watery stools and a strong urge to urinate are the two main signs of diarrhoea.

Diarrhea can cause a variety of distinct symptoms. Only one of these things might happen to you, or any combination of them might. The reason determines the symptoms. It’s normal to experience one or more of the followingTrusted Source feelings:

  • Constant urges to urinate include nausea, abdominal pain, cramping, bloating, dehydration, and abdominal cramps.
  • an abundance of stools
  • dehydration

White and formy Diarrhea

While a standard stool is typically solid and brown, there are various variances that might occur. Stool that is foamy or frothy usually resembles diarrhoea and may even appear to have bubbles in it. It could also appear oily or have mucous in it.

Foamy stools are frequently a reaction to specific foods. If so, it will be a singular occurrence that gets better with time and fluids. Generally speaking, eating more fat than the body can break down can lead to frothy stools. Foamy stools, however, might also be an indication of a serious medical issue.


Disorder of malabsorption

The condition known as malabsorption disorder occurs when the body is unable to properly absorb or utilise nutrients from diet. Celiac disease is a prevalent malabsorption problem. This occurs when a person consumes gluten and experiences an autoimmune reaction, resulting in intestinal inflammation and other gastrointestinal symptoms like changes in faeces.

Similar symptoms can be brought on by dietary intolerances to different foods. These foods consist of Sugar alcohols such mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol, as well as eggs, fructose, lactose, and shellfish.
After consuming a particular dish, a person could get frothy stools. They might also feel queasy or bloated.


Pancreatitis can be either acute or chronic. It can impair one’s ability to digest fats.

This condition can cause severe pain, particularly in the upper abdomen, and the pain can spread to the back.Pancreatitis can cause the following symptoms in addition to foamy stools:

  • fever, nausea, and rapid heartbeat
  • exocrine pancreatic insufficiency swollen abdomen vomiting

Pancreatitis may necessitate hospitalisation for treatment.


Gas bubbles can be produced by a bacterial, parasite, or viral illness in the gastrointestinal tract, giving stool a foamy appearance.

Giardia is a parasite that is frequently the cause of infection. Consuming tainted water or food might make you sick. When swimming, for instance, a person could also come in contact with contaminated water.

Additional indications of an infection include:

  • exhaustion, flatulence, nauseousness, and unexplained weight loss
  • Symptoms of an infection can last for two to six weeks, on average.

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers may have mucus in their stools, which might give the impression that it is frothy.

IBS additionally manifests as:

  • stomach cramps and agony
  • diarrhea
  • bloating
  • constipation

Abdominal operations

Digestion may be harmed by abdominal surgery. The removal of a section of the large or small intestine is one of these procedures.

Short bowel syndrome, which can result in persistent diarrhoea and frothy stools, can be brought on by surgery. This ailment could be transient and go away after the body heals.

However, if a patient has this syndrome for an extended period of time, a doctor will typically suggest supplements to make sure the patient gets enough nutrition.


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