Browsed by
Tag: causes

Complications of Sickle cell disease and its treatment.

Complications of Sickle cell disease and its treatment.

An umbrella term for a collection of hemoglobin-related hereditary diseases is sickle cell disease. There are techniques to control the symptoms of many conditions, even though they can be fatal. Hemoglobin, a substance found in red blood cells, transports oxygen to the body’s tissues. Hemoglobin issues in sickle cell disease result in sticky, C-shaped red blood cells that resemble sickles.

They may therefore become stuck in the cardiovascular system. Additionally, they are unable to adequately distribute oxygen. The body may be impacted in several ways by this.

The only known treatment for sickle cell disease is a stem cell transplant, but groups like the Sickle Cell Disease Association of America are attempting to increase public awareness of the condition and support financing for future research.

Sickle cell disease disproportionately affects “people whose ancestors come from Africa; Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Turkey, and Italy; the Arabian Peninsula; India; and Spanish-speaking regions in South America, Central America, and parts of the Caribbean,” according to Genetics Home Reference.

Types of Sickle cell disease

The protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells is called haemoglobin. It typically consists of two beta chains and two alpha chains. Different mutations in these genes are what lead to the four basic forms of sickle cell anaemia. 

SS-hemoglobin disease

The most prevalent form of sickle cell disease is haemoglobin SS disease. It happens when both of your parents pass along copies of the haemoglobin S gene to you. As a result, Hb SS haemoglobin is produced. People with the most severe form of SCD also tend to exhibit the worst symptoms more frequently.

Hemoglobin SC disease

The second most prevalent form of sickle cell disease is haemoglobin SC illness. It happens when you receive both the Hb S and Hb C genes from one parent. Similar symptoms can be seen in those with Hb SC and Hb SS. The anaemia is less severe, though.

Hemoglobin SB+ (beta) thalassemia

The generation of beta globin is impacted by haemoglobin SB+ (beta) thalassemia. Less beta protein is produced, which results in smaller red blood cells. Hemoglobin S beta thalassemia is a condition that can be inherited if the Hb S gene is present. The symptoms are not as bad.

Hemoglobin SB 0 (Beta-zero) thalassemia

The fourth variety of sickle cell disease is known as sickle beta-zero thalassemia. Additionally, the beta globin gene is involved. It has signs like Hb SS anaemia. However, beta zero thalassemia might occasionally present with more severe symptoms. It’s linked to a worse prognosis.

Hemoglobin SD, hemoglobin SE, and hemoglobin SO

These sickle cell diseases are more uncommon and typically do not present with severe symptoms.

Sickle cell trait

Sickle cell trait refers to individuals who only have one parent have a mutant gene (haemoglobin S). They could have no symptoms at all or fewer symptoms.

Causes of Sickle cell disease

A genetic disorder is sickle cell disease. It can only be inherited from one or more defective genes from a person’s biological parents.

A person will have sickle cell trait but not sickle cell illness if they only inherit a defective gene from one parent. A person will develop sickle cell disease if they receive a defective gene from each parent.

How does sickle cell anemia affect people?

Sickle cell anaemia in newborns can last months without showing any signs. When they do, anemia-related symptoms such as severe fatigue or irritability, excruciatingly swollen hands and feet, and jaundice manifest. Injuries to the spleen in babies might impair their immune systems and increase their vulnerability to bacterial infections.

Older sickle cell anaemia sufferers may change and experience more severe medical complications as a result of the lack of oxygen reaching organ tissues. Sickle cell anaemia patients are more likely to suffer from liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and renal damage.

Symptoms and complications of Sickle cell disease

Numerous symptoms and issues may develop if the body’s cells do not obtain adequate oxygen. These can occur at any age and differ from person to person.

Compared to healthy red blood cells, sclerotic cells degrade more quickly. Anemia, or reduced amounts of red blood cells, may develop from this.

Early signs could include:

  • Jaundice, also known as a yellowing of the skin and eye whites
  • fatigue
  • Hands and feet ache and edoema

Additional signs and issues might include:

  • occurrences of pain
  • the hands and feet swelling
  • chest pain suddenly
  • seeing less
  • increased spleen
  • leg sores
  • stroke
  • profunde vein thrombosis
  • harm to the liver, heart, or kidneys
  • gallstones
  • malnutrition (in young people)
  • infertility (in males)
  • Priapism, which is a term for a protracted and uncomfortable erection
  • Blood pressure that is too high in the lungs is known as pulmonary hypertension.
  • blood arteries that feed the lungs
  • heart disease
  • bone and joint injury brought on by inadequate blood flow
  • a greater chance of infections, which could present with serious symptoms
  • fever

For further information on some of the most common signs and side effects of sickle cell disease, see the list below:

  • Pain: Sickle cells become caught during a pain episode and block the flow of blood to a specific area of the body. The intensity and duration of the discomfort might vary, from minor to severe.
  • Infections: The CDC cautions that, regardless of age, people with sickle cell disease may be more susceptible to developing a serious infection from COVID-19.
  • Chest symptoms: Acute chest syndrome symptoms include chest pain, coughing, fever, and breathing difficulties.
  • Enlarged spleen: Symptoms of an enlarged spleen include weakness, pale lips, rapid breathing and heartbeat, extreme thirst, and stomach pain.

Anyone who exhibits any of these symptoms requires immediate medical attention. They could also need to stay in the hospital for some time.

In children

Sickle cell illness is present before birth since it is inherited. If the problem is present at birth, a normal blood test will reveal it.

Aplastic crises, in which the bone marrow stops generating red blood cells and causes severe anaemia, can occur in infants in extreme cases. Due to red blood cell entrapment, they could also have an enlarged spleen. Low appetite and sluggishness are symptoms.

Sickle cell anemia Treatment

There are several different SCD treatments available, including:

  • Intravenous fluid rehydration aids in the normalisation of red blood cell function. If you’re dehydrated, your red blood cells are more prone to swell and take on the sickle shape.
  • Infections that are underlying or related with the crisis must be treated since the stress of an infection might cause a sickle cell crisis. An infection could develop as a crisis’s side effect.
  • Transfusions of blood facilitate the delivery of nutrients and oxygen when necessary. Patients receive packed red cells that have been extracted from donated blood.
  • Through a mask, more oxygen is administered. It facilitates breathing and raises blood oxygen levels.
  • During a sickle crisis, painkillers are used to reduce the pain. You might require over-the-counter medications or potent prescription painkillers like morphine.
  • (Droxia, Hydrea) aids in boosting foetal haemoglobin synthesis. The necessity for blood transfusions might decline.
  • Immunizations can aid in illness prevention. Immunity is typically reduced in patients.
  • Sickle cell anaemia has been treated by a bone marrow transplant. The best candidates are children under the age of 16 who have serious difficulties and have a matching donor.


For more details, kindly visit below.

What are the Symptoms of Selenium toxicity?

What are the Symptoms of Selenium toxicity?

Selenium Deficiency

Selenium deficiency is a condition in which a body receives insufficient amounts of selenium to perform its roles and responsibilities. As per reports of 2017, about 1 billion people worldwide are dealing with selenium deficiency which makes it quite a common condition. The deficiency directly relates to the selenium availability in the soil which differs from region to region. Plants and animals receiving low selenium from soil are bound to be deficient in their own body. Such deficit food products are consumed by humans which results in less consumption of selenium which reggiers this condition. Some of the common symptoms of selenium deficiency an individual experience are:

Causes of Selenium deficiency

Apart from selenium level in soil on which the life cycle depends, there could be several conditions in which a body is unable to use sufficient amount of selenium levels such as:

  • diagnosed with HIV
  • sustaining dialysis
  • diagnosed with certain digestive disorder such as Crohn’s disease

Such medical conditions are termed as the cause of Selenium deficiency due to their interaction with absorption of selenium inside the body. Even consuming enough amounts of selenium could cause deficiency in such medical conditions as absorption of this mineral is affected and decreased. An individual must consult a doctor to treat such conditions to maintain overall health of the body.

Is selenium mineral that important?

As selenium deals with DNA, free radicals, and metabolism of various vital functions and hormones, its roles and responsibilities make it really important to maintain overall health of the body. Also, there are several situations in which the need of this mineral becomes very critical such as:

  • having thyroid growth
  • a weakened immune system
  • having thyroid disease like grave disease
  • dealing with cancer
  • during pregnancy
  • when already deficit to selenium

Selenium Supplements

Selenium Supplements are synthetic medicines that consist of adequate amounts of selenium and several other associated medical agents. These supplements come with a primary role of treating selenium deficiency. They work as an alternative to benefits and roles performed by natural selenium inside the body. People dealing with deficiency must add and consume such supplements in their diet to avoid any unusual deficit symptoms. It is advisable to consume a quality supplement that is generally available in the market to provide good resources for the body.

What is Selenium toxicity?

Toxicity of selenium is a condition in which high levels of selenium get deposited in the body. Such excess amounts of selenium are not considered safe. Due to abnormally high amount of selenium, a body is prone to get affected by several medical conditions such as:

  • liver and kidney damage
  • blood clotting
  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • hair loss
  • irritability
  • nail discoloration
  • nail brittle or loss
  • fatigue
  • foul breath odor
  • Diarrhea
  • skin rashes

An individual must get immediate medical attention if any of these conditions are identified due to selenium toxicity in the body. Although toxicity of selenium is reversible, untreated conditions could be fatal.

Cause of Selenium Toxicity

There are several reason due to which a body could get toxic with selenium mineral such as:

  • drinking high level selenium water
  • excess exposure of selenium in the working environment
  • intake of more than necessary amount of selenium supplement
  • acute or chronic ingestion of excess selenium
  • certain medical condition 


For more details, kindly visit below.

What are the causes and Symptoms of Copper Toxicity?

What are the causes and Symptoms of Copper Toxicity?

Deficiency of Copper (Hypocupremia)

Copper is an essential mineral required for the body to maintain metabolism and health of bones and nervous system. Deficiency of copper is generally rare. However, having a diet that lacks the proper amount of copper could lead to deficiency which could be harmful. There are several adverse effects involved with lack of copper in a human body that includes:

  • fatigue
  • frequent sickness
  • weakness
  • incapable with memory and learning
  • cold sensitivity
  • walking disorder
  • paleness in skin
  • loss of vision
  • anemia
  • loss of sensation in hands and feet
  • unsteady gait
  • spasticity of muscle
  • thyroid problems

Copper supplement

Supplements of copper are synthetic medical drugs that are generally used to treat deficiency of copper in the human body called Hypocupremia. The nutrient works as a cofactor for several enzymes. It is advisable to consume good quality supplements when such nutrients and minerals are to be taken. A high quality and reliable source of supplements are available in mygenericpharmacy. Apart for treating copper deficiency, supplements of copper are also used in various medical conditions such as:

  • kidney disease
  • stomach removal
  • burns on the body
  • zinc toxicity
  • intestinal disease such as celiac
  • pancreas disease
  • high stress
  • copper absorption disorder called Menkes disease

Copper toxicity in the Human body

Copper toxicity or poisoning is a condition in which a human body receives or develops a high amount of copper. Such conditions could result in a number of adverse health conditions

Cause of Copper toxicity

Toxicity of copper is rare especially when a person has a normal diet daily. However, there are certain cases that could increase the level of copper in an individual’s body such as:

  • taking supplements of copper for no reason
  • consumption of food from certain cookware
  • drinking well water or water from copper pipelines
  • intake of birth control pills
  • stress
  • inflammation
  • infection
  • pregnancy
  • Wilson’s disease
  • idiopathic copper toxicosis
  • Childhood cirrhosis

Symptoms of Copper Toxicity

High amount of copper in an individual’s body could result in a number of harmful symptoms such as:

  • bloody or blacky vomiting
  • stomach pain
  • dizziness
  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • headache
  • weakness
  • metallic taste in mouth
  • yellow skin
  • kidney failure
  • liver damage
  • brain disease
  • heart failure
  • Coma

It is advisable to not consume any mineral supplement for no reason and seek immediate medical help if any of such symptoms are identified.


For more details, kindly contact below.