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Important types and risk factors associated with Gout.

Important types and risk factors associated with Gout.

An extremely painful, swollen, and stiffening form of arthritis known as gout generates these symptoms in the joints. The metatarsophalangeal joint, which is located at the base of the big toe, is typically affected. The body having too much uric acid is its main cause.

More than 3 million Americans suffer from gout, which is the most prevalent kind of inflammatory arthritis in men. Additionally, females are more prone to get gout after menopause despite the fact that disease is generally less likely to harm them.

Gout episodes can start suddenly and may continue to happen over time. This persistent recurrence can be quite painful and gradually destroy the tissue surrounding the inflammation. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are gout risk factors.

Types of gout

The progression of gout goes through a number of stages.

Asymptomatic hyperuricemia

Elevated uric acid levels might exist without any overt symptoms. Although there is now no need for treatment, tissue damage can occur as a result of elevated blood uric acid levels.

As a result, a doctor might advise someone with high uric acid levels to treat any potential causes.

Acute gout

This stage happens when urate crystals suddenly induce severe inflammation and excruciating pain in a joint. This sudden outbreak, known as a “flare,” may last for three days to two weeks. dependable source Events in life that are stressful and binge drinking may cause flare-ups.

Intercritical or interval gout

The time between acute gout attacks is referred to as this stage. These intervals get shorter as the gout gets worse. Urate crystals may continue to accumulate in tissue in between these times.

Chronic tophaceous gout

The most painful form of gout, chronic tophaceous gout, can permanently damage the kidneys and joints. At this point, the joints of the fingers and other colder parts of the body are susceptible to tophi and persistent arthritis.

Usually, acute gout attacks are followed by years of chronic tophaceous gout. Individuals who receive appropriate treatment are less likely to develop to this stage.


One disorder that specialists frequently mistake for gout is calcium pyrophosphate deposition, also known as pseudogout. Although the flare-ups of pseudogout are typically milder, the symptoms are strikingly similar to those of gout.

The main distinction between gout and pseudogout is that calcium pyrophosphate crystals, not urate crystals, irritate the joints in the latter condition. Treatments for pseudogout differ from those for gout.

Symptoms of Gout

Gout attacks nearly often start quickly, and they frequently happen at night. They consist of:

  • Intense joint pain.  Although it can affect any joint, gout typically impacts the big toe. The elbows, wrists, fingers, ankles, and knees are other joints that are frequently impacted. Within the first four to twelve hours after it starts, the pain is likely to be at its worst.
  • Persistent discomfort. Some joint discomfort may remain from a few days to a few weeks after the most intense pain disappears. Later episodes are probably more prolonged and likely to involve more joints.
  • Swelling and redness. Affected joints develop swelling, tenderness, warmth, and redness.
  • Limited range of motion. You might not be able to move your joints normally when gout worsens.

Causes of Gout

Gout is brought on by a buildup of uric acid in the blood, which results from purine breakdown. Your body overproduces uric acid when you have certain situations, like dehydration or problems with your blood and metabolism.

Your body may have a difficult time eliminating extra uric acid if you have a thyroid or renal condition, a genetic illness, or both.

Gout is more likely to develop in you if you:

  • a middle-aged guy or a woman who has had menopause
  • alcohol use among gout-suffering parents, siblings, or other family members
  • take prescription drugs like cyclosporine and diuretics
  • have a condition such as diabetes, high blood pressure, thyroid illness, kidney disease, or sleep apnea

Consuming foods high in gout-producing purines can lead to gout in some persons.

Risk factors for gout

The following are a few reasons that can make hyperuricemia and gout more likely.

  • Age: Children are infrequently affected by gout, which is more prevalent in elderly persons.
  • Sex: Males are four times more likely than females to have gout in people under the age of 65. When a person is beyond 65, the ratio significantly drops to three times as likely.
  • Genetics: A person’s chance of having gout may be increased by a family history of the ailment.
  • Lifestyle choice: Alcohol use impedes the body’s ability to remove uric acid, according to lifestyle choices. A diet heavy in purines also raises the body’s uric acid levels. These two can both result in gout.
  • Lead exposure: Chronic exposure to lead may boost your risk of developing gout, according to studies.
  • Medication: Some drugs have the potential to raise the body’s uric acid levels. These include a few diuretics and salicylate-containing medications.
  • Weight: Gout risk is associated with being overweight or obese and having high amounts of visceral body fat. Obesity, however, cannot be the direct cause of the illness.
  • Other medical conditions: Kidney disease and renal insufficiency can impair the body’s capacity to eliminate waste, causing increased uric acid levels. Additionally, diabetes and high blood pressure are linked to gout.

Foods to avoid

Some meals naturally contain a lot of purines, which your body converts to uric acid. Most people can eat meals high in purines. However, if your body struggles to eliminate too much uric acid, you may want to stay away from things like:

  • a red meat
  • animal organs
  • specific seafood
  • alcohol

Despite the fact that they don’t contain purines, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and beverages that include fructose can also be harmful. Some meals are beneficial if you have gout because they lower the body’s uric acid levels.


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Different causes and ways to prevent Chronic Knee pain.

Different causes and ways to prevent Chronic Knee pain.

What is a chronic knee pan?

Long-lasting pain, swelling, or sensitivity in one or both knees is referred to as chronic knee pain. The symptoms you encounter can vary depending on the source of your knee discomfort. Chronic knee pain can result from a wide range of illnesses, and there are numerous therapies available. The effects of persistent knee discomfort will vary from person to person.

Causes of Knee pain

Knee discomfort can be brought on by mechanical issues, different types of arthritis, and other issues.


A knee injury can impact not just the bones, cartilage, and ligaments that make up the joint itself, but also any ligaments, tendons, or bursae that surround your knee joint. The following are some of the more typical knee injuries:

  • ACL damage. One of the four ligaments that connect your shinbone to your thighbone, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), can be torn, resulting in an ACL injury. People who play basketball, soccer, or other sports requiring quick changes in direction are more likely to sustain an ACL damage.
  • Fractures. In falls or car accidents, the knee’s bones, particularly the patella (knee cap), can break. Additionally, patients with osteoporosis may occasionally suffer a knee fracture from a simple misstep.
  • Meniscus tear. Between your shinbone and thighbone, there is a firm, rubbery cartilage called the meniscus that serves as a stress absorber. If you suddenly twist your knee while standing on it, it may tear.
  • Knee bursitis. The bursae, the little sacs of fluid that cushion the outside of your knee joint so that tendons and ligaments may move easily across the joint, can become inflamed as a result of several knee injuries.
  • Tendonitis of the patella. The thick, fibrous fibres that connect muscles to bones through tendons experience irritation and inflammation due to tendinitis. The patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap (patella) to the shinbone and enables you to run, leap, and kick, can become injured and cause this irritation. Patellar tendinitis can occur in runners, skiers, bikers, and those who participate in jumping sports and hobbies.

Mechanical problems

The following are some instances of mechanical issues that might result in knee pain:

Slack body. A fragment of bone or cartilage may occasionally break off and float in the joint space due to damage or deterioration. It might not be a problem unless the loose body restricts the movement of the knee joints, in which case the result is similar to a pencil being stuck in a door hinge.

Syndrome of the iliotibial band. This happens when the thighbone’s outer surface is rubbed against by the iliotibial band, a firm band of tissue that runs from the outside of your hip to the outside of your knee. Iliotibial band syndrome is more common in cyclists and distance runners.

Displaced kneecap. This happens when the patella, a triangular bone covering the front of your knee, slides out of position, usually to the outside of your knee. In some circumstances, the kneecap may remain dislocated, allowing you to observe the dislocation.

Foot or hip ache. You can alter your gait to spare your bothersome joint if you experience foot or hip pain. However, this altered walk may put extra strain on your knees, leading to discomfort.

Arthritis types

There are more than 100 different kinds of arthritis. The following types are those most likely to impact the knee:

Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis, which is often referred to as degenerative arthritis, is the most prevalent kind of arthritis. It is a wear-and-tear ailment that develops when your knee cartilage ages and deteriorates from use.

Rheumatoid arthritis. The most crippling type of arthritis, is an autoimmune disorder that can damage virtually any joint in your body including your knees is Rheumatoid arthritis. Even though rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic condition, its severity can vary and it occasionally flares up.

Gout. When uric acid crystals accumulate in the joint, it leads to this kind of arthritis. Gout can affect the knee in addition to the big toe, which is where it most frequently occurs.

Pseudogout. Pseudogout, which is sometimes confused for gout, is brought on by calcium-containing crystals that form in the synovial fluid. It most frequently affects the knees.

Septic arthritis. Your knee joint may occasionally get infected, resulting in swelling, discomfort, and redness. When septic arthritis first manifests, a fever is frequently present, and there is typically no prior injury. The knee cartilage can suffer severe damage very fast as a result of septic arthritis. Consult your doctor straight away if you have knee pain along with any of the signs of septic arthritis.

Other issues

The phrase “patellofemoral pain syndrome” refers generally to discomfort felt between the kneecap and the thighbone underneath. It frequently affects athletes, young adults, particularly those whose kneecaps don’t track well in their grooves, and elderly persons, who typically get it as a result of kneecap arthritis.

Symptoms of chronic knee pain

Each person’s chronic knee pain symptoms are unique, and the severity of the pain is frequently influenced by its underlying cause. Symptoms of chronic knee discomfort include:

  • ongoing pain
  • when used, causes a severe, shooting pain
  • a mild searing pain

Chronic discomfort and swelling around the knee may also be a problem.

Risk factors

You may be more likely to experience knee issues if you have a number of risk factors, such as:

Excess weight. Even during routine activities like walking or climbing stairs, being overweight or obese puts more strain on your knee joints. By hastening the degeneration of joint cartilage, it also increases your risk of osteoarthritis.

Lack of strength or flexibility in the muscles. Injury risk to the knees might be increased by a lack of strength and flexibility. Your joints are stabilised and protected by strong muscles, yet a full range of motion is possible thanks to flexible muscles.

Certain activities or professions. Knees are more likely to be strained during some sports than others. Your risk of knee injuries is increased by activities like alpine skiing, which involves inflexible ski boots and the potential for falls, basketball, which involves hops and pivots, and running or jogging, which repeatedly pounds your knees. Construction and farming work, as well as other occupations that put repetitive strain on the knees, can raise your risk.

Previous injury. A prior knee injury increases your risk of suffering another knee injury.


Not all knee discomfort is severe. But if left untreated, some knee illnesses and injuries, including osteoarthritis, can cause disability, joint damage, and excruciating pain. Additionally, even a small knee injury increases your risk of suffering another one in the future.


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What are the significance of Arthritis and its types?

What are the significance of Arthritis and its types?

Although the word “arthritis” literally means “joint inflammation,” it is often used to refer to more than 100 other disorders that affect joints, surrounding tissues, and other connective tissues. Depending on the type, many factors might induce arthritis.

Osteoarthritis is the type of arthritis that is most prevalent. Gout and rheumatoid arthritis are two additional prevalent forms of arthritis caused by rheumatic diseases (RA).

In the US, 58.5 million adults, or one in four persons, suffer from arthritis. Adults 65 years of age and older are more likely to experience it. However, it can have an impact on people of all ages, especially young ones.

What is Arthritis?

Rheumatic diseases and ailments that affect joints, including more than 100, are referred to as arthritis. In and around one or more joints, these disorders frequently cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, and swelling.

Joint inflammation is what the word “arthritis” refers to. The tendons and ligaments around the joint, however, may also be impacted by inflammation. A person’s ability to carry out daily chores may be hampered by the symptoms, which may appear gradually or unexpectedly.

Types of arthritis

More than 100 different forms of arthritis exist. Arthritis can generally be divided into the following groups:

Inflammation Arthritis

An expected aspect of the body’s healing process is inflammation. It frequently happens as a line of defence against bacteria and viruses or as a reaction to wounds like burns. Inflammation, however, occurs in patients with inflammatory arthritis for no obvious reason.

Damaged inflammation that does not naturally develop in response to injury or illness defines inflammatory arthritis. The damage caused by this sort of inflammation, which results in discomfort, stiffness, and swelling, is counterproductive and harmful to the affected joints.

Multiple joints may be affected by inflammatory arthritis, and the inflammation may also harm the underlying bone.

Inflammatory arthritis examples include:

  • RA
  • inflammatory arthritis
  • spondylitis with ankylosing
  • Ankylosing spondylitis

Mechanical or degenerative Arthritis

A collection of disorders known as degenerative or mechanical arthritis mostly entail harm to the cartilage that surrounds the ends of the bones. The smooth, slick cartilage’s primary function is to facilitate easy gliding and motion in the joints. The cartilage gets thinner and rougher as a result of this type of arthritis.

The body starts to remodel the bone in an effort to restore stability in order to make up for the loss of cartilage and modifications in joint function. Osteophytes, which are unfavourable bony growths, may result from this. It’s possible for the joint to deform. Osteoarthritis is the term most often used to describe this ailment.

Osteoarthritis may also develop as a result of prior joint injury, such as a fracture or joint inflammation.

Connective Tissues Disease (CTD)

Other body tissues and organs are supported, bound together, or divided by connective tissues. They consist of cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.

Joint discomfort and inflammation are symptoms of CTD. The skin, muscles, lungs, and kidneys are just a few of the tissues that may experience inflammation. Along with sore joints, this might cause other symptoms, thus it may be necessary to speak with several different doctors.

CTD examples include:

  • Lupus, or SLE,
  • systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma
  • dermatomyositis
  • Sjogren’s

Infectious arthritis

Inflammation in joints can occasionally be brought on by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

Joint-infecting microbes include:

  • Shigella and salmonella, which are transmitted through tainted or contaminated food
  • sexually transmitted illnesses including gonorrhoea and chlamydia (STDs)
  • Hepatitis C, a blood-to-blood infection that can be contracted via receiving blood transfusions or using shared needles,

Antibiotics or other antimicrobial drugs can be used by a doctor to treat a joint infection. However, if the infection has continued for a while, the arthritis may become chronic and the damage to the joints may be irreversible.

Metabolic arthritis

As the body breaks down purine-containing compounds, uric acid is produced. Human cells and many foods contain purines.

The majority of uric acid dissolves in the blood and is carried to the kidneys. It then exits the body through the urine. Some persons have high uric acid levels as a result of either naturally producing more uric acid than they require or having a slower-than-normal uric acid clearance rate.

Some people’s uric acid builds up and collects, forming needle-like crystals in the joint, which can cause rapid surges in their level of acute joint pain or a gout attack. If uric acid levels are not lowered, gout can develop into a chronic condition or appear in episodes.

Typically, it only affects a single joint or a small group of joints, like the hands and big toe. Typically, the extremities are affected. According to one idea, uric acid crystals develop in colder joints that are removed from the body’s core heat.

Symptoms of arthritis

Depending on the type, arthritis symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways. They may appear quickly or gradually. Since arthritis is typically a chronic condition, symptoms may fluctuate or linger over time.

But anyone who exhibits any of the four crucial warning symptoms listed below needs to contact a doctor.

  • Pain: Arthritis pain can be persistent or intermittent. It might only impact one area or cause discomfort over the entire body.
  • Swelling: Some varieties of arthritis cause red, swollen, and warm-to-the-touch skin above the damaged joint.
  • Stiffness: This symptom is common. With some kinds, this is probably the case when you first wake up in the morning, after spending a lot of time sitting at a desk or in a car, or after. Other types may experience stiffness during or following activity.
  • Joint difficulty: Arthritis or another joint condition may be present if moving a joint or rising from a chair is difficult or painful.

A number of different forms of arthritis can result in symptoms that are distinct from these common symptoms. Juvenile RA, for instance, might result in ocular issues including uveitis, iridocyclitis, or iritis.

Fever and excruciating joint pain are frequent symptoms of septic arthritis. If it worsens to the point of sepsis, it can become an emergency.

Causes of arthritis

All forms of arthritis are caused by a variety of factors. Depending on the type or form of arthritis, there may be one or many causes.

Possible reasons could be:

  • an incident that may result in degenerative arthritis
  • an improper metabolism that can lead to diseases like calcium pyrophosphate deposits and gout (CPPD)
  • a hereditary predisposition that may result in osteoarthritis
  • an infection like Lyme disease, which can cause symptoms of arthritis
  • immune system malfunction, such as that which results in lupus and RA,

The majority of arthritis types have several contributing causes. Some, though, seem to sprout out of nowhere and without a clear cause.


More than 100 different forms of arthritis exist.

Some forms, like RA and lupus, have several organs affected and are brought on by an overactive immune system. Different joints’ physical deterioration is the cause of other types.

Indicators of arthritis development include:

  • injury
  • erratic metabolism
  • Biological makeup
  • infections
  • immune system impairment

A physician can assist a patient in determining whether they have arthritis and the most appropriate course of treatment. Medication and lifestyle modifications are two possible treatments. Occasionally, a person may require surgery.


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