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Hypertension: Even a single drink of alcohol can add to it.

Hypertension: Even a single drink of alcohol can add to it.

Heart attacks and other ill health outcomes are made more likely by high blood pressure. The risk of high blood pressure can be affected by a variety of variables, including lifestyle decisions.

Researchers are still trying to fully comprehend how various lifestyle decisions affect blood pressure levels.

According to data from a recent study, drinking alcohol raises systolic blood pressure, even at moderate doses of alcohol consumption.

A crucial health indicator is blood pressure. Reduced risk of negative health effects can be achieved by maintaining optimal blood pressure levels. Hypertension, often known as high blood pressure, can be caused by a variety of circumstances. Researchers are still working to fully comprehend the effects of these risk variables, though.

The effect that drinking alcohol has on blood pressure is one topic of interest. Alcohol consumption is widespread, even at tiny doses. It’s consumption can raise blood pressure, albeit it may only be in tiny amounts.

Alcohol consumption, even as little as one drink per day, was linked to higher blood pressure, according to a study published in the journal Hypertension.

High blood pressure effects and risk factors

The force of blood pushing against the body’s arteries is measured by blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements reflect the contraction and relaxation of the heart, respectively.

When blood pressure rises too high, there is a higher chance that the body will sustain harm. For instance, high blood pressure can raise the risk of heart failure and heart attack.

Smoking, consuming a diet heavy in sodium, and having little physical activity are risk factors for high blood pressure. Consuming alcohol can elevate risk. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other organisations currently advocate for limiting alcohol consumption to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.

Current recommendations were further explained by Dr. Cheng-Han Chen, an interventional cardiologist and the medical director of the Structural Heart Programme at MemorialCare Saddleback Medical Centre in Laguna Hills, California.

We have long known that consuming alcohol in moderate to high doses will increase blood pressure. This has a lot to do with cardiovascular health because increased blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a significant risk factor for heart attacks and strokes, among other cardiovascular disorders. We have advised people to limit their alcohol consumption to a “moderate” level (2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women).

Alcohol’s effects on blood pressure

How much alcohol affects the risk of high blood pressure is one topic that needs more research. To comprehend how various alcohol consumption levels affected blood pressure levels, researchers for the current paper wanted to know. Does alcohol consumption, for instance, affect risk even at modest doses?

This study involved the dose-response meta-analysis of seven various non-experimental cohort studies. To gather a massive amount of data, researchers examined the data from over 19,500 participants. United States, Japanese, and South Korean subjects were involved in the studies.

Almost five years were spent on follow-up on average. To ensure that only participants without a prior history of cardiovascular illness were included in studies, strict eligibility requirements had to be met by each one.

They discovered that, on average, drinking 12 grammes of alcohol per day resulted in a 1.25 mmHg rise in systolic blood pressure. Twelve grammes of alcohol is even less than the fourteen grammes of alcohol in a regular American drink.

Higher alcohol intakes were linked to a more pronounced rise in systolic blood pressure, with 48 grams per day of alcohol being linked to an average rise of 4.9 mmHg.

Author of the study and adjunct professor in the epidemiology division at Boston University’s School of Public Health, Dr. Marco Vinceti, from the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy:

The overall (or “public health”) message for the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure that emerged from our dose-response meta-analysis is “the lower the better, and no consumption even better,” as we were unable to find any evidence that even very small amounts of alcohol consumption might be beneficial for people’s health.

Research limits and future directions

There are significant limitations to the data in this study. First, there wasn’t a lot of research accessible for analysis. The association between age, blood pressure, and alcohol consumption was not able to be thoroughly investigated. Misclassifications were a possibility, and some individuals’ levels of alcohol use likely changed over the follow-up period. Additionally, the study did not investigate the effects of various types of alcohol on blood pressure. Some data depended on self-reporting; further data could use more representative samples.

In the studies that met the eligibility requirements, there was a special risk for bias, and there is still a possibility for residual confounding. There are numerous chances to build on the research, including learning more about how alcohol consumption affects women’s blood pressure.

Dr. Vinceti identified the following issues as needing more study:

Our systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis concentrated on a continuous endpoint, changes in blood pressure over time, but it did not look at ‘hard outcomes’ like hypertension (as a dichotomous outcome), stroke (for which high blood pressure is an established and strong risk factor), coronary heart disease, and ultimately overall CVD risk. Therefore, to paint a complete picture of the consequences of alcohol use on the cardiovascular system, our study must be supplemented with such additional (and updated) assessments.”

The results of this study may alter recommendations for alcohol consumption, albeit it will probably take time and additional study. On this subject, Dr. Chen made the following assumptions:

For a very long time, the general opinion was that drinking in moderation might be considered safe.” This study supports other recent results that indicate that consuming alcohol at any level is not beneficial for the heart. As a result, I anticipate that in the future, medical advice about alcohol intake will change.


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long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

Following a heart attack, beta-blockers are frequently prescribed to patients to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

According to a recent study, taking drugs over the long term after a heart attack doesn’t seem to benefit cardiovascular health.

The observational study, according to experts, offers useful data, but they also point out that beta-blockers continue to be helpful for a large number of people.

Research in the journal Heart found no evidence that long-term beta-blocker use improved cardiovascular health or decreased the risk of further heart attacks.

Researchers looked at the medical records of persons who had a heart attack between 2005 and 2016 and required hospital treatment using the Swedish national registry for coronary heart disease.

Records from 43,618 persons, with an average age of 64, were included in the study. There were about 1 in 4 women. None of them had left ventricular systolic dysfunction or cardiac failure.

One year after being hospitalized for a heart attack, of the participants, 34,253 (78%) were using beta-blockers, whereas 9,365 (22%) were not.

For an average of 4.5 years following their hospitalisation, the researchers followed up with the participants.

Researchers evaluated the two groups in terms of:

  • Death rates from all causes
  • Additional heart attacks
  • Getting re-vascularized, a procedure to bring back blood flow to certain areas of the heart
  • Heart attack

2,028 (22%) and 6,475 (19%) of the beta-blocker users had one of these occurrences during the observation period.

There was no noticeable difference in the rates between the two groups, according to the researchers, who took demographic factors and pertinent co-morbid disorders into account.

According to real-time data, the use of long-term beta-blockers after a heart attack in persons without heart failure or left ventricular systolic dysfunction was not linked to better cardiovascular outcomes.

Physician response to beta-blocker research

The interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in California, Dr. Hoang Nguyen, recommended beta blockers for patients with left ventricular dysfunction since they had a demonstrable mortality benefit.

According to him, beta blockers are a lifetime in this patient population. “Beta blockers are necessary for patients with a history of coronary artery disease who are not candidates for bypass surgery or stents to lower angina symptoms and hospitalizations for this symptom. I might try to wean them off of beta blockers, especially if they have serious adverse effects if they have undergone revascularization (either with stents or bypass surgery) or have normally left ventricle function.

This study has prompted some doctors to reconsider their methods, but not all of them are presently prepared to do so.

According to Dr. Devin Kehl, a non-invasive cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, “this study suggests that a long-term continuation of beta-blockers following myocardial infarction may not be of significant benefit in patients without any of those factors and with normal cardiac function.” However, because it was an observational study, the results might have been impacted by unrecognized confounders.

To be more clear about whether beta-blockers should be continued or stopped after one year following myocardial infarction, randomized trials are required, according to Kehl, who spoke to us. “Caution is needed in interpreting the results of this type of analysis and applying this clinical practice,” Kehl said.

In conclusion, it is still necessary for a patient’s cardiologist to exercise careful clinical judgement when deciding how long beta-blocker therapy should be administered after myocardial infarction.


Beta-blockers are used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

They accomplish this by preventing the negative effects that stress hormones have on the heart and can lower heart rate. They are also beneficial for migraines.

Beta-blockers are typically regarded as secure and efficient. However, there are some adverse effects, such as:

  • Fatigue
  • easily running out of breath
  • Unsteadiness or faintness
  • Depression

Nguyen notes that side effects of the drugs include memory loss and impaired sexual function.

Perhaps we should try to wean patients off beta blockers if a beta blocker is not needed after one year, especially if the patient’s heart function is normal,” Nguyen suggested.

Some people might not be able to take them or might quit taking them because of the negative effects.

The use of beta-blockers

After the first year of treatment, Miller typically stops prescribing beta-blockers to heart attack survivors with intact cardiac function.

They are only kept on the drug if there is another condition, like hypertension, that calls for it.

Those with heart failure, irregular cardiac rhythm, hypertension, and recurring palpitations that happen without a known trigger (like caffeine), are candidates who can benefit from beta-blockers.

“The patient should always discuss with their physician whether or not a beta-blocker is a suitable treatment and/or should be discontinued,” he said.

Reduce the dosage gradually rather than stopping the drug all at once if a patient decides to stop taking it.

Considering the future

Medication observation studies examine participants’ responses to a drug or treatment without changing their circumstances.

Observational studies are not regarded by medical practitioners as being as reliable as randomised, controlled trials. However, when prescribing medications, they provide important information for doctors and other medical professionals.

Beta-blockers have long been and will continue to remain a cornerstone medical therapy following a myocardial infarction as they have been clearly demonstrated to reduce the risk of recurrent events and death,” said Kehl. However, clinical trials have not examined the benefit of beta-blockers in patients with normal cardiac function beyond three years after a myocardial infarction, and their benefit is strongest in the early period post-myocardial infarction, according to the study.

Additionally, patients with and without cardiac dysfunction were included in a mixed cohort in clinical trials looking at the benefits of beta-blockers, the author continued. “It is unclear if long-term use of beta-blockers after myocardial infarction benefits people with normal cardiac function. Due to a lack of data from clinical research, the American College of Cardiology guidelines do not directly address the issue. Currently, a long-term continuation of beta-blockers depends on carefully examining the patient’s cardiac history and determining whether there are any other distinct indications for using beta-blockers, such as arrhythmias, angina, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, or hypertension.”


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Can workplace discrimination result in high blood pressure?

Can workplace discrimination result in high blood pressure?

According to a recent study, those who feel discriminated against at work are far more likely to experience high blood pressure.

The results are consistent with earlier studies in which researchers found that even a small degree of employment discrimination can have an adverse effect on one’s physical and emotional well-being.

According to experts, employment discrimination must be reduced through the implementation of regulatory changes and cultural reforms.

Your blood pressure may increase if you feel discriminated against at work, and not only metaphorically.

Analysing the research’s data

The researchers looked at information from the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS) on American adults who had a range of educational backgrounds and occupations for this study. They examined information on 1,246 persons who were tracked from the study’s beginning in 2004 to its halfway point in 2006 without exhibiting signs of high blood pressure. About half of those examined were women and most were white.

They mainly fell into the following age groups:

  • not older than 45
  • aged 46 to 55
  • 56 or more

According to a study published this week in the Journal of the American Heart Association, people who report experiencing high levels of workplace discrimination were 54% more likely to acquire high blood pressure than those who reported experiencing low levels of such discrimination.

To estimate the prevalence of employment discrimination, researchers examined survey responses from 1,246 persons in the US who did not self-report having high blood pressure, often known as hypertension, at the start of the study.

Most of the participants were Caucasian, and they represented a variety of professions and educational levels. There were roughly equal numbers of males and women. Following that, participants were monitored for about 8 years.

A validated questionnaire was used to measure perceived workplace discrimination. Participants were questioned about their work experiences, including whether they felt treated unfairly, whether they felt monitored or ignored more than others, whether job promotions were appropriately rewarded, and how frequently they were exposed to racial, sexual, or ethnic discrimination or jokes.

Every inquiry received a score between 1 (never) and 5 (at least once each week). Participants were split into three groups based on their total scores: low, middle, or strong discrimination.

The outcomes?

After the trial, they discovered that 319 participants had high blood pressure after around eight years of the follow-up period.

People with “low workplace discrimination scores” were 22% less likely to report high blood pressure than those with “intermediate workplace discrimination exposure scores.”

Additionally, in comparison to individuals who had reported low workplace discrimination scores, those with high workplace discrimination exposure ratings were 54% more likely to report high blood pressure readings during the follow-up research period.

Dr. Jian Li, M.D., Ph.D., the lead study author and professor of work and health at the University of California, Los Angeles’ Fielding School of Public Health and School of Nursing, told Healthline that he initially predicted there would be a connection between high blood pressure and workplace discrimination before beginning this project.

He declared that he was “excited to see the association” between discrimination and such a significant increase in blood pressure.

The health effects of discrimination

In a sense, experts say, these results are not surprising because prior research has demonstrated that racism and prejudice can have major effects on both physical and mental health.

It appeared that employment discrimination, even at low levels, had an impact. When compared to individuals with low workplace discrimination ratings, those with intermediate values were still 22% more likely to report having high blood pressure.

Anjali Gowda Ferguson, PhD, a certified clinical psychologist, claimed that discrimination has “profound health impacts that are a result of an exacerbated stress response.”

“People can exhibit trauma symptoms, which essentially put the body in the fight-or-flight position. The physical health of people starts to suffer as a result of these protracted feelings of anxiety”.

Senior lecturer in cognitive science at Troy, New York’s Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Alicia Walf, PhD, concurred. Discrimination, according to her, is a “chronic psychosocial stressor” that demands attention.

Waif said that because people are discriminated against in settings other than the workplace, “the effects shown in this study of an increased risk of developing high blood pressure in individuals who reported that they faced discrimination at work has far-reaching consequences.” In addition, high blood pressure is an important indicator since it is associated with a higher risk of diseases other than cardiovascular disease, like immunological and metabolic problems.”

She continued, “I believe that this is an important first study examining the relationships between workplace discrimination and this one signal of the detrimental effects on health, such as high blood pressure. “I hope this inspires future research finding out if there are individual differences based on factors, like age and the type of discrimination faced,” the author says.

Manage discrimination leading to high blood pressure

What should you do if discrimination at work causes your blood pressure to rise or causes other changes to your cardiovascular health?

Li suggested that workers could use self-regulated stress reduction techniques like mindfulness exercises. According to him, studies show that “mindfulness-based stress reduction could lower blood pressure.”

Albert noted that while some people have better coping techniques than others when it comes to managing the effects of workplace discrimination on blood pressure, these measures can be beneficial for the individual.

“Those who have higher coping skills will have better biological responses, meaning they are less likely to develop high blood pressure and other forms of cardiovascular disease,” she said.

Albert emphasised that this places a heavy burden on the individual.

Sincerity be damned, I’ve always had a problem with coping since it tends to focus on the individual rather than the systems and structural elements. Both are necessary, she noted. Interventions that deal with systemic prejudice are necessary, as are interventions that support people as they adjust to having fewer biological effects.

Most adversely affected by discrimination at work

Li responded that a wide spectrum of groups are affected and at danger for the detrimental effects of workplace discrimination.

A person may be the subject of discrimination due to a variety of reasons, including their color, age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, national origin, presence of a certain health condition, or outward appearance.

One noted weakness of the new study is that non-white people with lower levels of education who hold positions where they have less power over their workplaces tended to opt out of the follow-up questioning sessions. Future research should, according to Li, fill some of these gaps.

Albert pointed out that it is significant to take into account the fact that the majority of the participants in this study self-identified as white.

It isn’t difficult to imagine that those same groups would also experience some of the worst cases of discrimination, and, as a result, these detrimental effects on cardiovascular health, she said, given the larger structural barriers the most vulnerable members of our society face because of their race and ethnicity, their sex and gender identity, and their sexual orientation, to name a few examples.

There isn’t a lot of information available on this as of yet, she claimed. She cited studies on the effects of discrimination on the cardiovascular health of Black women that she had conducted and presented.

According to Albert, there is a 30–50% higher risk of coronary heart disease, which is what causes heart attacks, as a result of discrimination.


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Is Strength training effective for managing blood pressure.

Is Strength training effective for managing blood pressure.

Hypertension, often known as high blood pressure, is a common ailment that, if left untreated, can cause major issues. Medication and lifestyle changes can both be used to address high blood pressure.

A systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of the available data revealed that strength training may be a useful non-drug alternative for the management of high blood pressure. Its effectiveness, however, is influenced by variables including intensity and duration.

People who have hypertension or high blood pressure are susceptible to some long-term problems. Blood pressure can be lowered and a person’s risk of problems can be decreased with early management.

The greatest strategies for modifying one’s lifestyle to lower blood pressure are constantly being researched. How strength training affects blood pressure is one topic of interest. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the blood pressure-lowering benefits of strength training.

Researchers found that strength training appears to be most useful when it entails working out at least twice per week for at least two months at a moderate to strenuous level.

High blood pressure and treatments

The force the heart uses to pump blood throughout the body is measured by blood pressure. The force blood applies to blood vessel walls as the heart contracts is known as systolic blood pressure. When the heart relaxes, the blood pressure in the diastole is the force.

It’s critical that blood pressure maintain a healthy range. Stroke, heart attack, or kidney failure are just a few of the severe problems that high blood pressure can cause. Dr. John Higgins, a sports cardiologist from UTHealth Houston and a non-study author, observed:

“Hypertension is a significant risk factor for developing heart disease that, if not managed properly, can result in early coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure. Increased morbidity and death are linked to all these disorders.

Aside from taking medicine, managing high blood pressure entails making changes to one’s lifestyle. Losing weight, giving up smoking, and exercising are a few examples of lifestyle changes. Individualized treatment programs for people with high blood pressure can be created in collaboration with their doctors.

Dr. Rohini Manaktala, a cardiologist with Memorial Hermann Medical Group and an independent study author, stated that “following a healthy way of living with daily physical activity, maintaining a normal weight, consuming alcohol in moderation, and refraining from tobacco use are all ways to control an individual’s blood pressure.”

Using strength training to manage hypertension

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, researchers investigated the effects of strength training on high blood pressure levels by reviewing several papers. Through several databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the World Health Organisation, they discovered studies. Fourteen randomized controlled studies that satisfied inclusion requirements were included in their study.

253 hypertensive people in all were included in the study and analysis. Participants were just about sixty years old on average.

Giovana Rampazzo Teixeira, Ph.D., the senior author of the study and a professor at UNESP – So Paulo State University’s School of Technology and Sciences, said: “We used randomised clinical studies that used strength training as a treatment for arterial hypertension in hypertensive individuals.”

The following criteria were determined to be the most conducive to strength training’s ability to lower blood pressure in participants:

At least twice a week, individuals engaged in strength exercises that ranged from moderate to strenuous intensity. The intervention lasted at least eight weeks. As outlined by Dr. Teixeir:

“We found that people under 59 years old experienced a more notable drop in blood pressure during the physical training phase. People between the ages of 60 and 79 reported a less noticeable but still discernible difference. Thus, we emphasize that strength training provides advantages for both young and old.

Dr Teixeria continued, “Professionals who are faced with a hypertensive subject in clinical practise or even in the day-to-day at the gym will be able to use strength training as a treatment for arterial hypertension, knowing what the necessary variables for this are to be achieved, and always taking into consideration the goals of that subject.”

How to lower blood pressure

Studies like this one, according to Dr. Fahmi Farah (MD), of Bentley Health, can give cardiologists like her another tool when communicating with the patients they care for.

We have always known that exercise lowers the chance of developing cardiovascular disease, but this study gives us additional proof and confidence to tell our patients about the benefits of exercise and encourage them to try it for themselves.

Farah and her peers in the sector are aware that strength training can provide health hazards or be prohibitively expensive or difficult to get owing to geography. is not accessible to all.

“I would say that on a population, a country, and a government level, I think the help needs to come from higher up so that we can make it more practical for everyone to be able to afford working out.”

Even for individuals who can exercise, Makowski advises against becoming overly ambitious or pushing oneself beyond their limits.

Strength training may be done at many degrees, and it’s not always what we imagine when we think of someone bench pressing a lot of weight elastic bands, light dumbbell weights, and bodyweight movements known as isometrics are some examples.

But before beginning weight training as an intervention for high blood pressure, every expert for this article advised the same thing: make sure you’ve spoken with your doctor.

Data limitations and clinical implications

This analysis and assessment does have some restrictions. First, research involving the use of blood pressure-lowering drugs were not disregarded. This fact might have affected how their analysis turned out.

Second, while multiple control groups were employed in the studies that were included, the researchers only paid attention to the blood pressure readings of participants who had high blood pressure. The ability of researchers to compare how strength training would benefit men and women differently was also constrained. Researchers also point out that there may be publication bias in the available studies.

Dr. Manaktala made the following assumptions regarding how strength training might be used to reduce high blood pressure based on the study’s findings:

Strength training is simple to incorporate into a person’s regular routine. The most crucial factor is constancy. A decent first exercise method to lower blood pressure would be a moderate to strenuous workout, 2 to 3 times per week.

It’s also crucial to remember that each person’s use of strength training may seem different. To perform a strength training programme safely, people might ask doctors and other experts for assistance.

Dr. Higgins stated that it is wise to consult with medical professionals before beginning a strength training programme to ensure that it is safe to do so and to get their advice on the appropriate level of intensity.


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Dementia due to brain damage by high blood pressure?

Dementia due to brain damage by high blood pressure?

According to research, some aggressive blood pressure medicines can benefit brain health. As per them, the therapies function by opening up neural pathways in the perivascular regions of the brain.

According to experts, a balanced diet, regular exercise, enough sleep, and avoiding overstimulation are all important components of maintaining excellent brain health. Researchers may be able to detect people with severe cognitive impairment with the aid of additional research.

Dementia, a general term for a multitude of illnesses affecting memory loss and cognitive deterioration, affects more than 55 million individuals worldwide. Scientists are unsure of the exact aetiology of dementia, but they do know that certain factors can affect whether or not someone gets dementia. High blood pressure is one of these.

According to earlier studies, those who have high blood pressure are more likely to experience dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.

Researchers from the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom and Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow, Poland, have now identified the precise regions of the brain that may be harmed by high blood pressure and are connected to the onset of dementia.

What is blood pressure? 

The amount of power the heart exerts to pump blood through the arteries is measured as a person’s blood pressure.

The doctor gets two distinct readings while taking your blood pressure. The highest figure reflects the systolic pressure experienced as the heart pumps blood into the arteries. The diastolic pressure, which the heart experiences between heartbeats, is represented by the bottom number. They are both expressed in millimetres of mercury (mmHg).

For instance, the systolic and diastolic pressures of normal blood pressure are both less than 120 and 80 mmHg, respectively (but more than 90mmHg systolic and 60mmHg diastolic).

High blood pressure is seen as beginning when the systolic and diastolic pressures both rise to 130 and 80, respectively. Stage 2 high blood pressure is defined as systolic and diastolic pressures of at least 90mmHg and 140mmHg, respectively.

High blood pressure

Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, develops when the amount of effort required for blood to flow through the arteries is too great.

This may occur if plaque inside the artery walls, which contains cholesterol, causes the arteries to become damaged or narrower.

A person’s chance of acquiring high blood pressure may be increased by a number of variables, such as:

  • unsound diet
  • obesity
  • inactivity
  • Using tobacco or alcohol
  • genetics
  • certain illnesses, like diabetes

How does high blood pressure affect the brain? 

The lead author of this study and professor of cardiovascular medicine at Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow, Poland, and the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom, Prof. Tomasz Guzik, believes that having high blood pressure can negatively impact the structure and operation of the brain in a variety of ways.

“For example, hypertension can have a serious influence on your brain’s blood vessels, causing them to change in shape, stiffen, and form clogged arteries. “Small vessel disease” is a condition that results from the malfunction of smaller blood vessels in the brain caused by high blood pressure, which is passed from bigger to smaller blood vessels.

“High blood pressure not only impacts the flow of blood to the brain, but it also speeds up pathological processes including neurodegeneration and inflammatory activationTrusted Source. Dementia, memory loss, and other cognitive impairments are all caused by these conditions, said Tomasz Guzik, Ph.D.

Furthermore, according to Prof. Guzik, excessive blood pressure might harm the brain’s white matter.

He said that damage to this area can result in poor cognitive performance and raise the risk of stroke. “The white matter is formed of nerve fibres that transfer information across different brain regions,” he said.

According to him, this emphasises how crucial it is to keep blood pressure under control in order to avoid white matter damage and the accompanying cognitive problems.

Blood pressure study

The individuals were split into two groups by the scientists for their analysis. With a goal of 120 mm Hg systolic pressure, 243 patients in one group had highly intense treatment for high blood pressure.

The second group, consisting of 199 individuals, received routine care with a 140 mm Hg goal. Pre- and post-study MRIs were used to compare the number of perivascular spaces in each participant’s brain.

The innermost layer of the brain contains spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid known as Virchow-Robin spaces, or perivascular spaces (PVS), according to Dr. Sandra Narayanan, a vascular neurologist and neuro-interventional surgeon at the Pacific Stroke & Neurovascular Center at Pacific Neuroscience Institute in California.

They may get bigger as a result of neurodegenerative processes, demyelinating diseases, inflammation, or ageing. They aid in clearing the brain of metabolic waste and water, she said.

The American Heart Association states that a normal blood pressure reading is less than 120/80 mm Hg. Elevated blood pressure is defined for adults as 120 to 129 mm Hg for the systolic pressure (the top number) and less than 80 mm Hg for the diastolic pressure.

High blood pressure is defined as a persistently high systolic pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher, or a diastolic pressure of 80 mm Hg or higher.

Hypertension-dementia link

Thousands of participants from the UK Biobank, COGENT, and the International Collaboration for Blood Pressure provided observational data for this study, which Prof. Guzik and his team conducted using a combination of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetic analysis, and observational data.

After examination, scientists discovered alterations in nine regions of the brain connected to both deteriorating cognitive function and elevated blood pressure.

The putamen, which is in charge of learning and motor control, is one of these regions. Alzheimer’s disease and putamen dysfunction are related, according to earlier study.

White matter regions, the anterior thalamic radiation, the anterior corona radiata, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule were also affected by high blood pressure. 

Both basic and complicated behaviours are planned and carried out by the anterior thalamic radiation, whereas the anterior corona radiata supports decision-making and emotion regulation. Moreover, the internal capsule’s anterior limb supports motivation, decision-making, and cognitive processing.

What you can do to improve brain health?

According to Narayanan Sajd, “many risk factors for neurodegenerative illnesses, such senior age, tend to be progressive.” There are significant potential clinical consequences on quality and quantity of life for these debilitating and pervasive illnesses if some of the associated clinical aspects are changeable.

According to the study’s findings, maintaining a healthy blood pressure level is crucial for maintaining a healthy brain.

The Mediterranean diet, which is low in fat and abundant in fruits and vegetables, is one example of a nourishing diet that the Alzheimer’s Association recommends. It’s also crucial to challenge your intellect by learning something new.

Behavioral scientist, relationship expert, and developer of the Happiness Hypothesis Method Clarissa Silva advises incorporating the following into your life:

  • Exercise. Daily aerobic activity for at least 30 minutes encourages the growth of new neurons in the brain.
  • Sleep. Regular sleeping patterns prevent the onset of brain fog and can make it worse throughout the day.
  • Overstimulation. Work productivity may be hampered by multitasking, which also adds to our brain’s ongoing overstimulation. Neuroplasticity in the brain is enhanced by concentrating on one task at a time and taking a break before moving on to the next one.
  • Unattended trauma. Trauma affects cognitive performance, self-esteem, and decision-making. Working with a qualified specialist to address trauma can start the process of reversing current cognitive impairment and preventing further degenerative disorders.

According to Silva, limiting screen time can aid in neuron regeneration. “Setting up a routine. At first thing in the morning and an hour before going to bed, try to cut back on checking your gadget. The constant overstimulation that we experience throughout the day needs to be repaired in our brains.


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Treating hypertension with help of the ultrasonic device.

Treating hypertension with help of the ultrasonic device.


The findings of a recent meta-analysis of prior studies looking into a novel method of blood pressure control seem promising. It explains a treatment that “mutes” overactive kidney nerves, a sign of hypertension frequently observed in middle-aged adults.

Participants’ blood pressure was dramatically reduced after the procedure, dropping by an average of 8.5 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Follow-ups two months later and three years later supported the effectiveness of this advantage.

One of the primary causes of death on a global scale is hypertension or high blood pressure. In addition to heart, brain, and renal disorders, it can cause strokes. Since an estimated 46% of people with hypertension are unaware that they have it, it is frequently referred to as the “silent killer”.

Many hypertension medications, may be helpful in addition to a healthy lifestyle and dietary adjustments in managing the illness. Many folks find this to be adequate. Nonetheless, some people’s blood pressure continues to be consistently high.


According to a recent meta-analysis, the 506 hypertensive participants in three randomized clinical trials had considerably lower blood pressure when therapeutic ultrasonography was used to reduce kidney-nerve hyperactivity.

The exact etiology of hypertension is unknown. Scientists speculate that it may be a result of a mix of genetics, lifestyle, aging, and other processes.

Middle-aged hypertension is typically accompanied by hyperactive renal nerves, which can raise blood pressure in several different ways. It could cause salt and water retention as well as the production of hormones that raise blood pressure.

Even though there are many different medications for treating hypertension, none explicitly target this renal overactivity. So, the “renal denervation” ultrasound approach investigated in the present study provides clinicians with an extra instrument. Thi was made to support patients in maintaining their health.

Researchers from the Université de Paris in France and Columbia University in New York City carried out the study. You can find it in JAMA Cardiology.

How blood pressure is measured?

Millimeters of mercury, or mmHg, is used to measure blood pressure. This is because early precise blood pressure gauges and some contemporary systems rely on mercury.

Two blood pressure readings are usually displayed, one above the other or to the left of the other. Systolic blood pressure, or the pressure the heart puts off when pumping blood, is the first value. The pressure in arteries between heartbeats is shown by the second value, called the diastolic value.

The American Heart Association defines good blood pressure as having a systolic reading of less than 120 mmHg over a diastolic reading of less than 80 mmHG. A value of 130–139/80–89 mmHG indicates stage 1 hypertension. Higher results indicate hypertension in stage 2.

The current study discovered that renal denervation dramatically decreased participants’ blood pressure, by 5 to 10 mmHG, with an average decrease of 8.5 mmHg.

kidney nerves and high blood pressure

It is believed that overactive renal nerves induce water and sodium retention and produce hormones that can elevate blood pressure. They are a contributing factor in the development of hypertension in middle age. As blood arteries stiffen in older adults, hypertension frequently develops.

Antihypertensive medications lower blood pressure in a variety of methods, such as by dilation of blood vessels, removal of extra fluid, or blockage of hormones that elevate blood pressure. Yet, none of these drugs specifically target the renal nerves.

By calming hyperactive nerves in the renal artery, ultrasound treatment blocks the signals that cause hypertension. A thin catheter that is placed into a vein in the wrist or leg and sent to the kidney delivers the therapy to the nerves.

Renal denervation

A tiny catheter that is placed into a vein in the leg or wrist and threaded into the kidney makes up the renal denervation device addressed in the study. During the operation, ultra-high-frequency sound waves are used to treat the kidney’s nerves. This causes minute amounts of scar tissue to form, which reduces the nerve activity. “Ablation” is the name of this procedure.

Lead author Dr. Ajay J. Kirtaine predicted that the surgery would be performed as an outpatient, similar to cardiac catheterization.

“Ultrasound-renal denervation’s ablation portion is less than one minute, and the whole procedure is less than an hour, with conscious sedation/local anesthetic,” he said.

In the research, participants were divided into two groups: the ultrasound denervation group and the control group, which had a sham operation with no therapeutic benefit.

The number of participants in the study arm who received the therapy to lower blood pressure to 135/85 was twice as high. This outcome was the same in all three investigations, which included a population of different racial backgrounds, indicating the technique is probably valuable to many people.

The investigations indicated that the reduction in blood pressure persisted for at least 2 months following the operation and that participants’ blood pressure was improved. The result of the surgery “appears to be durable with follow-up out to 3 years,” according to Dr. Kirtaine.

Not yet, at least not for everyone.

The device is experimental so far, having not acquired permission for usage in the United States. The study’s authors plan to apply it to people whose blood pressure is still uncontrolled despite modifying their lifestyles and taking medication.

Dr. Jayne Morgan, a cardiologist who was not involved in the study, concurred and viewed the procedure as perhaps a secondary treatment rather than a first-choice therapy. But she noted, “I envision that this might certainly be reversed in the future with continued trials and information/data.

According to Dr. Morgan, the surgery may be especially beneficial for Black people and other minorities who have high rates of hypertension and heart disease.

This is a terrific reason why Black volunteers should be recruited, she said, since it may offer a more long-lasting option for blood pressure control in the future. 17% of participants in the meta-analysis were Black Americans.

Dr. Devin Kehl, who was not involved in the research, issued a warning: “The trials have been quite limiting in their inclusion and exclusion criteria,” despite the fact that the technique has an outstanding long-term safety profile and is probably safe.


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Heart related diseases linked to specific kinds of sugars.

Heart related diseases linked to specific kinds of sugars.

According to a recent study, the type of sugar you consume may have a greater impact on your risk of developing heart disease than the quantity of sugar you consume.

Researchers from the University of Oxford in the UK found that eating foods high in “free sugars” dramatically increased the risk of heart disease and stroke. They discovered that the risk rose in proportion to how much more free sugar a person consumed.

Free sugars are all sugars that have been intentionally added to food by a producer, cook, or consumer. Also, sugars that are naturally found in honey, syrups, and unsweetened fruit juice. Those naturally found in entire fruits and vegetables are not considered to be free sugar.

How much sugar is permitted?

What quantity of additional sugar is appropriate if 24 tablespoons daily is too much? Since sugar is not a necessary nutrient in your diet, it is difficult to say. There is no official sugar RDA set by the Institute of Medicine, which establishes RDAs for other nutrients.

The American Heart Association advises against exceeding the daily added sugar calorie limits for men and women, respectively. A respectively 100 calories (about 6 teaspoons or 24 grammes) and 150 calories (roughly 9 teaspoons or 36 grammes). That equates to roughly one 12-ounce soda can’s worth of liquid.

Taking sugar alternatives into account

Consuming excessive amounts of sugar can increase the risk of stroke and heart disease. This results in high blood pressure, inflammation, weight gain, diabetes, and fatty liver disease.

According to Dr. Elizabeth H. Dineen, an integrative cardiologist with the UCI Health Susan Samueli Integrative Health Institute, “it looks wise to limit the use of artificial sweeteners” in light of the cardiovascular events observed among research participants.

Dr. Ailin Barseghian El-Farra, an integrative cardiologist with the institute, adds that these findings “can help open a dialogue with patients about their dietary consumption of sugars, as well as artificial sweeteners, and their associated risk for coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular events.” Neither doctor took part in the investigation.

Over 100,000 French people were monitored for approximately nine years as part of the NutriNet-Santé project. When they first began, the participants’ average age was 42, and over 80% of them were women. Everyone was prompted to share information on their diet, health, physical activity, level of education, smoking status, and line of work.

They recorded all food and drinks consumed within a 24-hour period every six months. This provides thorough breakdown of their overall consumption of artificial sweeteners. Also, the consumption of other foods and nutrients, such as fruit, vegetables, dairy, and meat.

Impact on your heart

In a study that was published in 2014 in JAMA Internal Medicine, Dr. Hu and his coworkers discovered a link between a high-sugar diet and an increased risk of dying from heart disease. Over the course of the 15-year trial, those who consumed between 17% and 21% of their calories as added sugar had a 38% higher chance of dying from cardiovascular disease than those who only consumed 8% of their calories in this way.

According to Dr. Hu, the risk of heart disease is essentially inversely proportional to the amount of added sugar consumed.

Monitoring the intake of sweeteners

According to the study, 37% of individuals drank diet Coke or another type of artificial sweetener on average, which works out to 42 milligrammes per day or around one packet of sweetener. The average daily intake of artificial sweeteners among people who consumed more of them was nearly double at 78 milligrammes, or about 7 ounces of diet soda.

Overall, those who used the most artificial sweeteners were younger, had higher body mass indices (BMI). They were more likely to smoke, were less active, and didn’t follow a diet to control their weight. Curiously, they ate fewer calories, drank less alcohol, and consumed less fibre, fruit, and vegetables, as well as saturated and polyunsaturated fats. However, they consumed more sodium, red and processed meats, and dairy foods.

Researchers also kept tabs on the health of the participants, including physical examinations, medical procedures, and cardiovascular occurrences. This includes heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes.

Researchers found that those who consumed the most artificial sweeteners, particularly aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose, had a 9% higher risk for cardiovascular disease and an 18% greater risk for stroke or other cerebrovascular disease when compared to participants who ate none. This was true even after taking into account differences in age, sex, physical activity, education, smoking, and family history of heart disease.

The same authors’ previous spring PLoS ONE study revealed increased artificial sweetener intake. Additionally risk for cancer was linked to  aspartame and acesulfame-K.

Sugar and Other Health Problems

Studies have shown a connection between sugar consumption and animal models of hypertension. According to a human study, people with diabetes who use diuretics have a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) if they consume a lot of sugar in their diet.

Consuming sugar can improve one’s body’s ability to store and use carbohydrate energy. This improvement, however, only happens at levels of physical activity and exercise intensity that are connected to endurance performances lasting at least 30 minutes. The main sources of energy for muscular contraction are blood glucose, liver glycogen, and muscle glycogen. The consumption of sugar can quickly restore blood glucose levels to normal when these substances reach dangerously low levels, which can lead to weariness. Consuming sugar has no effect on performance for the majority of low- to moderate-intensity tasks, such as walking or household chores.

The link between dietary sugar and cognition and behaviour has garnered a lot of attention. Two theories served as the foundation for the notion that sugar and hyperactivity are related. The first was a potential allergic reaction, and the second was the possibility of functional reactive hypoglycemia in hyperactive children. Both of these concepts remain unproven, and a meta-analysis of 16 randomised studies in hyperactive children revealed that cutting back on sugar in the diet had no positive impact on hyperactivity levels.



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Important causes of Stroke you need to know about.

Important causes of Stroke you need to know about.

What is a stroke?

A stroke happens when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and bleeds or when the blood supply to the brain is cut off. Blood and oxygen cannot reach the brain’s tissues because of the rupture or obstruction.

Stroke is a primary cause of death in the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). More than 795,000 Americans experience a stroke each year. Brain tissue and cells are damaged and start to die within minutes of being oxygen-deprived.

Strokes often come in three different forms:

  • Temporary ischemia. A blood clot causes a transient ischemic attack (TIA), which normally resolves on its own.
  • Ischemic stroke. It involves an obstruction in the artery brought on by a clot or plaque. The signs and problems of an ischemic stroke may persist permanently or linger longer than those of a TIA.
  • Hemorrhagic stroke. A blood vessel that seeps into the brain either bursts or leaks, which is the source of the condition.

Strokes are often fatal. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), there were 37.6 age-adjusted deaths for every 100,000 stroke diagnosis in 2017. This fatality rate is 13.6% lower than it was in 2007 thanks to medical advances in the treatment of strokes.

How does a stroke affect my body?

What a heart attack is to your heart, strokes are to your brain. When you suffer a stroke, a portion of your brain loses blood flow, preventing that part of your brain from receiving oxygen. The afflicted brain cells become oxygen-starved and quit functioning correctly without oxygen.

Your brain cells will perish if you deprive them of oxygen for too long. If enough brain cells in a particular region perish, the damage is irreversible, and you risk losing the abilities that region used to regulate. Restoring blood flow, however, might stop that kind of harm from occurring or at least lessen how bad it is. Time is therefore very important when treating a stroke.

What causes a stroke?

Hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes can occur for a variety of reasons. Blood clots are typically the cause of ischemic strokes. These can occur for a number of causes, including:

  • Atherosclerosis.
  • bleeding issues.
  • Heart fibrillation (especially when it happens due to sleep apnea).
  • Heart problems (atrial septal defect or ventricular septal defect).
  • ischemia microvascular disease (which can block smaller blood vessels in your brain).

There are other more causes of hemorrhagic strokes, including:

  • High blood pressure, especially when it is present for an extended period of time, when it is extremely high, or both.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes can occasionally result from brain aneurysms.
    brain cancer (including cancer).
  • diseases like moyamoya disease can weaken or result in unexpected abnormalities in the blood vessels in your brain.

Related conditions

A person’s likelihood of having a stroke can also be influenced by various other ailments and elements. These consist of:

  • a drinking disorder.
  • elevated blood pressure (this can play a role in all types of strokes, not just hemorrhagic ones because it can contribute to blood vessel damage that makes a stroke more likely).
  • High triglycerides (hyperlipidemia).
  • Migraine headaches (they can resemble stroke symptoms, and sufferers of migraines, particularly those who experience auras, also have an increased lifetime chance of developing a stroke).
  • diabetes type 2.
  • smoking and using other tobacco products (including vaping and smokeless tobacco).
  • drug addiction (including prescription and non-prescription drugs).

Stroke symptoms

Damage to brain tissues results from reduced blood supply to the brain. The body components that are regulated by the brain damage-related areas show signs of a stroke.

The better the prognosis for someone experiencing a stroke, the earlier they receive treatment. Because of this, being aware of the symptoms of a stroke will help you take prompt action. Some signs of a stroke include:

  • paralysis
  • Arm, face, or leg numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body
  • difficulty communicating or comprehending others
  • muddled speech
  • Lack of clarity, disorientation, or responsiveness
  • abrupt behavioural alterations, particularly increased agitation
  • visual issues, such as double vision or difficulty seeing with one or both eyes that are blurry or blacked out
  • loss of coordination or balance
  • dizziness
  • strong headache that appears out of the blue
  • seizures
  • dizziness or vomiting

Any stroke victim needs to see a doctor right away. Call your local emergency services as soon as you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing a stroke. Early intervention is essential to avoiding the following consequences:

  • brain injury
  • long-term impairment
  • death

Don’t be scared to seek emergency medical assistance if you believe you have seen the symptoms of a stroke because it’s best to be extra careful while dealing with a stroke.

Risk factors for stroke

You are more prone to stroke if you have certain risk factors. Risk factors for stroke include the following, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteTrusted Source:

  • Diet
  • Inactivity
  • heavy drinking
  • Tobacco use

Personal history

You have no control over a number of stroke risk factors, including:

  • Family background. Some families have an increased risk of stroke due to inherited health issues including high blood pressure.
  • Sex. Strokes can affect both men and women, although in all age categories, women are more likely to experience them than men, according to the CDCTrusted Source.
  • Age. The probability of having a stroke increases with age.
  • Ethnicity and race. Compared to other racial groups, African Americans, Alaska Natives, and American Indians are more likely to experience a stroke.


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What happens when you take Xenical to treat Obesity?

What happens when you take Xenical to treat Obesity?


Obesity is a complex disease characterised by an excess of body fat. Obesity is more than just a cosmetic issue. It is a medical condition that raises the risk of developing other diseases and health issues, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain cancers.

Some people struggle to lose weight for a variety of reasons. Obesity is typically caused by a combination of inherited, physiological, and environmental factors, as well as dietary, physical activity, and exercise choices.

Reports about Obesity

Following are some recent WHO global estimates.

  • In 2016, over 1.9 billion adults aged 18 and up were overweight. Over 650 million of these adults were obese.
  • 39% of adults aged 18 and up were overweight (39% of men and 40% of women), in 2016.
  • Approximately 13% of the world’s adult population (11% of men and 15% of women) in 2016 were obese.
  • Between 1975 and 2016, the global prevalence of obesity nearly tripled.
  • An estimated 38.2 million children under the age of five were overweight or obese in 2019. Overweight and obesity, once thought to be a problem only in high-income countries, are now on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban areas.
  • Since 2000, the number of overweight children under the age of five has increased by nearly 24% in Africa. In 2019, Asia was home to nearly half of all children under the age of five who were overweight or obese. Over 340 million children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 in 2016 were overweight or obese.

Causes of Obesity

Obesity and overweight are caused by an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. There has been worldwide:

  • an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugars; 
  • and an increase in physical inactivity as a result of the increasingly sedentary nature of many types of work, changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanisation.

Environmental and societal changes associated with development, as well as a lack of supportive policies in sectors such as health, agriculture, transportation, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing, and education, frequently cause changes in dietary and physical activity patterns.


Orlistat is a medical drug, available to us under the brand name Xenical that belongs to a class of medication called Lipase inhibitors. This medicine is used to promote weight loss by decreasing the amount of fat that is absorbed in your intestine, generally dietary. It works by breaking the dietary fat into smaller compounds so that it can be used or stored for future energy. 

Xenical is available to us in a form of pill that must be taken by mouth with or without food as per your doctor’s prescription. The dosage is based on your medical condition, its response to the treatment, and other medicine that you may be taking along with Xenical. Your doctor may start the dosage low and may increase it gradually after some while. Take the medicine at the same time daily to get the most benefits from it. Do not increase the dosage or take it more often than prescribed. Contact your doctor in case of any confusion or exception associated with medication.

Side effects of Xenical

Common side effects an individual may observe while medicating with Xenical are oily spotting, intestinal gas discharge, several bowel movement disorders, may occur. Inform the doctor if these conditions persist or get worse.

There are some serious side effects which must be informed to the doctor right away if observed such as blurred vision, dark urine, stomach/abdominal pain, eyes/skin yellowing, easy bruising/bleeding, symptoms of kidney stones, etc.

Also, there are some severe allergic reactions involved with this medicine which require immediate medical attention if observed such as severe dizziness, facial itching/swelling, trouble breathing, rashes, etc.

Precautions before using Xenical

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to orlistat or if you have any other allergies before taking it. Inactive ingredients in this product may cause allergic reactions or other problems. More information can be obtained from your pharmacist.

Inform your doctor or pharmacist of your medical history, particularly of:

  • a digestive problem (chronic malabsorption syndrome),
  • kidney stones/problems (such as calcium oxalate kidney stones, hyperoxaluria),
  • an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism),
  • seizures,
  • anorexia nervosa/bulimia,
  • HIV infection,
  • a gall bladder problem (cholestasis).

Also, inform your doctor or dentist about all of the products you use before having surgery (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

If you have diabetes, losing weight may help you control your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels on a regular basis anda report the results to your doctor. Your diabetes medication, exercise programme, or diet may need to be adjusted by your doctor.

This medication should not be taken while pregnant. Weight loss has no potential benefits for pregnant women and may harm the unborn child. Inform your doctor right away if you become pregnant or suspect you are pregnant.


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