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Lets explore the ‘immunity’ secret to living to 100

Lets explore the ‘immunity’ secret to living to 100

The number of persons who reach their 100th birthday or older has increased along with the average lifespan of humans.

Researchers have discovered that centenarians have a distinct immune cell composition and activity, providing them an immune system that prolongs their lives. These discoveries, according to scientists, may be exploited to create treatments for healthy ageing.

Since 1900, the average human life expectancy has more than doubled. The average lifespan across the globe has increased from 31 years in 1900 to 73.2 years in 2023, and is predicted to reach 77.1 years in 2050.

The proportion of individuals who live to be at least 100 years old is also rising. Researchers predict that by 2050, there will be 3.7 million centenarians, who are known as centenarians, with an estimated 450,000 centenarians worldwide in 2015.

Globally, the number of individuals living to be 100 years or older was predicted to more than quintuple between 2005 and 2030, according to earlier data from the early 2000s. What makes some people able to live beyond their 100s while others cannot is one thing that is still unknown.

This question is being addressed by a recent study that was conducted under the direction of scientists from Tufts Medical Center and Boston University Sachool of Medicine and discovered that centenarians have a distinct immune cell composition and activity that allows them to have a highly functional immune system and live longer.

These results, according to scientists, may be utilised to create treatments that promote healthy ageing. In the most recent issue of Lancet eBioMedicine, the study was published.

Immune system as we age

All bodily systems, including the immune system, undergo changes as we become older.

There are two basic theories on how the immune system changes as we age, according to Dr. Scott Kaiser, a geriatrician and the director of Geriatric Cognitive Health for the Pacific Neuroscience Institute in Santa Monica, California.

The first is immunosenescence, which he defined as an age-related immunological malfunctioning process. Hence, ageing can cause a decline in immune function due to changes in the makeup and operation of our immune systems. And that’s strongly tied to how susceptible people are to infections, autoimmune conditions, and even different kinds of cancer, he added.

“And then there’s the problem of inflammaging, which is a term that’s been used to characterise age-related increases in inflammation as a result of high levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the blood and other bodily tissues. For example, neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease are strongly associated with that risk factor, according to Dr. Kaiser.

There is a lot to consider regarding immune function over time, he continued, and how our immune systems alter with age may either increase our vulnerability or provide protection for us.

A look at a “exceptional” immunity

For this work, blood samples from seven centenarians enrolled in the New England Centenarian Project were used to perform single-cell sequencing on an immune cell subset known as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

“We examined immune cells that pass through the immune system throughout the human lifespan using single-cell data and novel computational techniques. We examined the existence of particular immune cell types in younger ages and extreme old age and discovered cell type-specific alterations in ageing and extreme old age, according to Dr. Karagiannis.

We also used the same cell types to investigate how gene expression varies with age in order to identify distinct gene expression patterns of extreme longevity that fluctuate with age but are also specific to the very elderly.

Species-specific cell types in centenarians

After investigation, the researchers validated findings from earlier studies on ageing that pointed to distinct compositional and transcriptional alterations for each cell type that are only observed in centenarians and suggest a healthy immune response.

Also, they discovered that both genes with age-related alterations and genes expressed exclusively in centenarians showed cell type signatures unique to remarkable longevity in centenarians.

“Given that centenarians are an ageing population, we weren’t as shocked to uncover genes that change with age in them. What was unexpected were the varied ageing patterns we discovered, including aging-specific genes whose expression levels changed with advancing age but not in extreme longevity across distinct cell populations, according to Dr. Karagiannis

“Our findings can serve as a platform for further research into the causes of extreme old age, which may result in the development of therapies for healthy ageing. To better understand the protective factors of extreme longevity that contribute to the positive health outcomes seen in these people, we would like to examine longitudinal changes in immune cells of centenarians and younger aged persons.

Innovative treatments for disorders associated with ageing

After reading this study, Dr. Kaiser stated that he thought it was interesting because it examined individuals who had aged remarkably well—individuals who had essentially resisted aging—and then examined what was happening in them to see if there was anything we could learn from them.

The possible lessons from this, he said, “are in what makes us more resilient.”

“Looking at these people who had extreme longevity, living into their 100s and even beyond, and determining what is the nature, what is the characteristic of their immune system so that we could better understand what may be going on, and then determining how that could be translated into potential therapies for other people, so that more people can enjoy that”, said  Doctor Kaiser

We also discussed this study with Kathleen Cameron, senior director of the Institute for Healthy Aging at the National Council on Aging.

In order to help individuals live longer, she said it’s critical to comprehend the immunological changes related to ageing. And many individuals desire to live longer if it means maintaining their health.

“Treatments that extend life may be developed if we can identify what causes this immunological resilience in those who live to be over 100. Nevertheless, it would also be helpful if there were certain healthy habits that contributed to this resilience, Cameron continued.

She did, however, note that this is all very preliminary data and that further research should be done to help medical professionals comprehend this immunological resilience.


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Important signs and symptoms you need to know about Dengue.

Important signs and symptoms you need to know about Dengue.

The virus that causes dengue is mostly spread via the bite of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. There are no indications of dengue and severe symptoms that resemble the flu. A small proportion of people develop severe dengue, which can be fatal.

Dengue serotypes are groups of four closely related dengue viruses. Recovery from infection confers immunity against that serotype of dengue, but it also raises the chance of developing severe dengue if patients contract a different serotype later.

Every year, dengue infections affect millions of people globally. Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, Latin America, and Africa are where dengue fever is most prevalent. Localized outbreaks of the disease have been reported in Europe and the southern United States, among other new locations.

The development of dengue fever vaccines is ongoing. For now, in areas where dengue fever is common, the best ways to prevent infection are to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes and to take steps to reduce the mosquito population.

Who does dengue fever affect?

Africa, Central and South America, some regions of Asia, and the Pacific Islands are where dengue is most frequently found. Dengue is present in a few areas of the United States. More than half of the world’s population, who reside or travel to these areas, are most at risk. The chance of developing a major illness is higher in children and the elderly.

How common is dengue fever?

Around 96 million of the 400 million dengue infections that are reported each year around the world result in disease. Most occurrences occur in tropical regions of the world, with the following regions having the highest risk:

  • The continent of India
  • Asia-Pacific is
  • China’s south
  • Taiwan
  • Islands in the Pacific
  • Atlantic Ocean (except Cuba and the Cayman Islands)
  • Mexico
  • Africa
  • South and Central America (except Chile, Paraguay, and Argentina)

The majority of cases in the US are visitors who caught the virus abroad. However, those who reside near the Texas-Mexico border as well as in other southern US regions are at an increased danger. A dengue fever outbreak was discovered in 2014 in Hawaii, with earlier outbreaks being reported in 2013 in Brownsville, Texas, and Key West, Florida.


Many persons may not exhibit any symptoms or indicators of dengue illness. When symptoms do show up, they typically start four to ten days after being bitten by an infected mosquito and may be mistaken for other ailments, like the flu.

Any of the following signs and symptoms, as well as a high fever of 104 F (40 C), are brought on by dengue fever:

  • Headache
  • joint, muscle, or bone pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • back of the eyes hurt
  • enlarged glands
  • Rash

Most folks get better in about a week. In some cases, symptoms worsen and can become life-threatening. This is called severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome.

Your blood vessels become damaged and leaky with severe dengue. Additionally, the quantity of platelets in your blood decreases. Shock, internal bleeding, organ failure, and even death may result from this.

There can be speedy development of severe dengue fever warning signs, which is a life-threatening emergency. The warning signals, which may include the following, may appear within the first day or two after your fever has subsided.

  • Severe stomach pain
  • continual vomiting
  • bleeding from the nose or gums
  • Having blood in your faeces, urine, or vomit
  • under-the-skin bleeding that may resemble bruises
  • arduous or quick
  • Fatigue
  • Easily irritated or restless


Any one of the four dengue virus types can cause dengue fever. Being around someone who has dengue fever won’t cause you to catch it. In contrast, mosquito bites are how dengue disease is transmitted.

There are two mosquito species that carry dengue viruses most frequently are widespread in and around residential areas. The dengue virus enters the mosquito when it bites a person who is afflicted with it. The virus then enters the bloodstream of the person who is bitten by the infected mosquito. This can produces an infection.

Once you have recovered from dengue fever, you are immune to the virus type that caused your infection for life, but not to the other three types that cause dengue fever. This implies that one of the other three virus types could infect you once more in the future. In the event that you contract dengue fever a second, third, or fourth time, your risk of acquiring severe dengue fever rises.

Risk elements

You are more likely to have dengue fever or a more severe version of the illness, if,

You frequent or reside in tropical locales. A higher risk of contracting the virus that causes dengue fever exist if you live in tropical or subtropical regions. Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, Latin America, and Africa are regions with very high risk.

You’ve previously experienced dengue fever. If you have already had dengue fever, you are more likely to experience severe symptoms if you contract the virus again.


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How dangerous can be Polio disease for a child?

How dangerous can be Polio disease for a child?

The poliovirus is the illness that causes polio (poliomyelitis). Most people only experience minimal or no symptoms, but in a few, it might result in death or paralysis.

The three poliovirus variants are known as wild poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3. (WPV1, WPV2 and WPV3). Only a few regions of the world still have wild polio type 1, and wild polio types 2 and 3 have been eradicated (no longer exist). Paralysis is most likely to result from type 1 polio.

In several places of the world, polio cases are still present today. International efforts to eliminate polio are still underway, despite the fact that the number of infected individuals has significantly decreased.

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine should be given as a booster dose to adults who have already received it and are travelling to a region where polio is present. After receiving a booster, immunity is permanent.

Types of polio

Depending on the parts of your body the virus targets and multiplies in, polio can have various effects on you. the following types of polio:

  • Abortive poliomyelitis manifests as intestinal and influenza-like symptoms. It doesn’t have long-lasting effects and just lasts a few days.
  • Aseptic meningitis, a brain swelling, may result from non-paralytic poliomyelitis. It results in more symptoms than abortive poliomyelitis and can necessitate a hospital stay.
  • Paralytic poliomyelitis: When the poliovirus affects your brain and spinal cord, paralytic poliomyelitis results. The muscles that allow you to breathe, speak, swallow, and move your limbs can become paralysed by it. It is referred to as spinal polio or bulbar polio, depending on which areas of your body are afflicted. Together, spinal and bulbar polio can manifest (bulbospinal polio). Only 1% of polio survivors develop paralytic poliomyelitis.
  • Polioencephalitis: A uncommon form of polio that primarily affects newborns is polioencephalitis. The brain swells as a result.
  • Post-polio syndrome: When polio symptoms reappear years after an initial infection, it is known as post-polio syndrome.

What effects does polio have on my body?

Through the mouth or nose, the poliovirus enters your body. In your gut and throat, it reproduces additional copies of itself (intestines). It can sometimes enter your brain and spinal cord and paralyse you. Your arms, legs, or the muscles that control your breathing may become paralysed.

Who is exposed to polio?

You are most vulnerable to contracting polio if if are not immunised and you:

  • reside in or visit a region where polio still exists.
  • live in or visit a place with inadequate sanitary conditions.
  • are less than 5
  • are expecting.

Can adults contract polio?

Yes, polio can strike adults. Many adults have immunity, either through vaccinations or from having polio. Unvaccinated adults who are exposed to the poliovirus can get the disease.

How widespread is polio?

Thanks to widespread immunisation campaigns, symptomatic polio is uncommon in many regions of the world. Polio is no longer distributed there, and most nations consider it to be eradicated. However, polio can start to spread again if individuals stop taking their vaccinations.


The majority of those who are infected with the virus don’t become sick and are unaware they are infected, despite the fact that polio can result in paralysis and death.

Polio not paralytic

Some persons who experience polio symptoms get a kind of polio that doesn’t cause paralysis (abortive polio). The mild, flu-like signs and symptoms that are typical of other viral infections are typically caused by this.

The following signs and symptoms, which may persist up to 10 days:

  • Fever
  • unwell throat
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • back stiffness or pain
  • neck stiffness or discomfort
  • Arms or legs that are painful or stiff
  • a weakened or painful muscle

Dyskinetic syndrome

Rarely does the disease manifest in its most severe form. Fever and headache are common early paralytic polio symptoms that can be mistaken for nonparalytic polio. But after a week, more symptoms start to show, such as:

  • decline in reflexes
  • muscular weakness or excruciating aches
  • slack and flaccid limbs (flaccid paralysis)

Poliomyelitis syndrome

Some patients have post-polio syndrome, a collection of incapacitating signs and symptoms, years after they had polio. Typical warning signs and symptoms include:

  • discomfort and deteriorating muscle or joint weakness
  • Fatigue
  • muscles are lost (atrophy)
  • issues with breathing or swallowing
  • respiratory issues that affect sleep, like sleep apnea
  • less ability to tolerate cold temperatures


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