Browsed by
Tag: SIgns and symptoms

Important parameters of Cervical cancer women need to know.

Important parameters of Cervical cancer women need to know.

What Is Cervical Cancer?

Women’s cervix, which connects the uterus and vagina, is where cervical cancer develops when cells in the cervix alter. The deeper tissues of their cervix may be affected by this cancer, and it has the potential to metastasis (spread to other parts of the body), most frequently the lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and rectum.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is avoidable with a vaccine, is the main cause of cervical cancer. Since cervical cancer develops slowly, it is typically detectable and treatable before it poses a major threat. Thanks to better screening through Pap tests, it claims fewer and fewer lives of women every year.

The majority of cases are women between the ages of 35 and 44. However, women over 65 make up more than 15% of new cases, particularly those who haven’t been undergoing routine exams.

Different Types of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer comes in several different forms.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma. This develops in your cervix’s lining. Up to 90% of cases have it.
  • Adenocarcinoma. This develops in the mucus-producing cells.
  • Mixed cancercarcinoma. This possesses traits from the other two categories.

Cervical cancer stages

Your doctor will determine the stage of your cancer after a diagnosis has been made. The stage reveals if and how far the cancer has spread if it has. Your doctor can identify the best course of treatment for you by staging your cancer.

There are four phases of cervical cancer:

  • Stage 1: A little cancer. There’s a chance the lymph nodes were affected. It hasn’t spread to other body areas.
  • Stage 2: The tumour has grown. It can have reached the lymph nodes or spread beyond the uterus and cervix. It hasn’t yet spread to other areas of your body.
  • Stage 3: The malignancy has gone to the pelvic or the lower vagina. The ureters, which are tubes that transfer urine from the kidneys to the bladder, may be blocked as a result. It hasn’t spread to other body areas.
  • Stage 4: The cancer may have spread to other organs, such as your lungs, bones, or liver, from the pelvis.

Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer

Early stages of cervical cancer are typically difficult to diagnose because they lack symptoms. It may take several years before cervical cancer symptoms appear. The greatest strategy to prevent cervical cancer is to find abnormal cells during testing for the disease.

Stage 1 cervical cancer symptoms and signs might include:

  • Vaginal discharge that is either bloody or watery, may be heavy, and may smell bad.
  • Vaginal bleeding following sex, in between cycles, or following menopause.
  • Periods of menstruation could be heavier and longer than usual.

Symptoms of cancer that has spread to adjacent tissues or organs include:

  • urination that is painful or difficult, occasionally with blood in the pee.
  • diarrhoea, abdominal pain, or bleeding when you poop.
  • fatigue, weight loss, and appetite loss
  • a state of general disease
  • a dull backache or leg swelling.
  • abdominal and pelvic pain

You should have a comprehensive gynaecological exam, which includes a Pap test, if you suffer abnormal bleeding, vaginal discharge, or any other unexplained symptoms.

Cervical cancer causes

The sexually transmitted human papillomavirus is the primary factor in most occurrences of cervical cancer (HPV). Genital warts are brought on by the same virus.

There are over 100 distinct HPV strains. Cervical cancer is only caused by specific types. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are the two strains that cause cancer the most frequently.

Cervical cancer is not a guarantee even if you have an HPV cancer-causing strain. Most HPV infections are cleared up by your immune system, frequently within two years.

In both men and women, HPV can lead to other malignancies. These consist of:

  • vulvar cancer
  • vaginal cancer
  • penile cancer
  • anal cancer
  • rectal cancer
  • throat cancer

Cervical cancer risk factors

The greatest risk factor for cervical cancer is HPV. Additional elements that may raise your risk include:

  • HIV
  • chlamydia
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • a history of cervical cancer in the family
  • consuming little fruit and veg
  • using contraceptive tablets
  • being pregnant three times at term
  • being under the age of 17 when you first became pregnant

You are not destined to develop cervical cancer even if you have one or more of these risk factors.

How is cervical cancer treated?

One member of the team treating cervical cancer is a gynecologic oncologist (a doctor who specialises in cancers of female reproductive organs). The stage of the disease, your age and general health, and whether or not you intend to have children in the future all play a role in the recommended course of therapy for cervical cancer.

Radiation, chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are all options for treating cervical cancer.

Radiation Therapy

Your cervix’s cancerous cells are destroyed by energy beams used in radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is available in two different forms:

  • External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) uses a machine outside the body to direct powerful radiation towards tumours.
  • Radiation is applied directly to or near a malignancy during brachytherapy.


Chemotherapy (chemo) kills cancer cells by administering medications by injection into your veins or oral ingestion. It enters your circulation and kills cells effectively throughout your body. Chemotherapy uses a variety of medications, some of which can be combined. Cycles of chemotherapy are frequently administered.


Cervical cancer is treated with a variety of surgical procedures. The most typical procedures used to treat cervical cancer include:

  • Laser procedure
  • conical biopsy
  • an easy hysterectomy
  • Trachelectomy
  • Pelvic enlargement
  • Targeted treatment

Specific cancer cells are eliminated by targeted medication therapy without harming healthy cells. It functions by focusing on proteins that regulate how cancer cells proliferate and spread.


In immunotherapy, drugs are used to activate your immune system’s capacity to detect and eliminate cancer cells. Cancer cells can also signal to avoid being attacked by your immune system. Targeting these signals with immunotherapy makes it so cancer cells can’t deceive your body into believing they are healthy cells.

Clinical trials are yet another form of treatment. Some people supplement their cancer therapy with complementary therapies like nutrition, herbs, acupuncture, and other practises. Speak with your healthcare practitioner about alternative practises that promise to lessen the symptoms of cancer. Some may be beneficial, while others may be dangerous.

Cervical cancer prevention

Screening with a Pap smear or a hrHPV test on a regular basis is one of the simplest strategies to avoid cervical cancer. Precancerous cells are detected during screening so they can be treated before they progress to malignancy.

Most occurrences of cervical cancer are caused by HPV infection. With the help of the vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix, the illness can be avoided. The best time for vaccination is before a person starts acting sexually. Boys and girls can both receive the HPV vaccine.

You can lessen your risk of HPV and cervical cancer by doing the following additional things:

  • Do not have too many sexual partners.
  • When engaging in vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse, you should always use a condom or another barrier device.

You may have precancerous cells in your cervix if your Pap smear results are abnormal.


For more details, kindly visit below.

Recognizing potential signs and symptoms of throat cancer.

Recognizing potential signs and symptoms of throat cancer.

Cancer is a group of disorders in which the body’s aberrant cells uncontrolled proliferate and divide. Tumors are malignant growths made up of these cells. Oftentimes, when individuals refer to throat cancer, they imply cancer of the:

  • gullet
  • windpipe
  • thyroid hormone

Typically, doctors do not refer to throat cancer. Instead, they speak of head and neck malignancies. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) refers to these as:

  • Pharyngeal cancer is frequently referred to as oropharyngeal cancer together with oral cavity cancer.
  • throat cancer

Compared to other malignancies, throat cancer is rather rare. Oropharyngeal cancer represents around 2.8 percent of all cancer cases and 1.8 percent of all cancer-related deaths, according to the NCI. In the general population, there is a 1.2 percent probability of being diagnosed with one of these malignancies.

Around 0.7 percent of new cancer cases and 0.6 percent of cancer-related fatalities are caused by laryngeal cancer. This form of cancer is predicted to emerge in about 0.3 percent of people.

Types of throat cancer

Type will determine the course of treatment and prognosis for cancer. Which type of cancer cell is present will be revealed by a biopsy. Squamous cell carcinoma, which affects the flat cells lining the throat, is the most prevalent type of throat cancer.

There are two primary types of throat cancer:

Pharyngeal cancer

The pharynx, a hollow tube that extends from beyond the nose to the top of the windpipe, is where this cancer grows. The following are pharyngeal malignancies that manifest in the throat and neck:

  • nasopharynx cancer (upper part of the throat)
  • oropharynx cancer (middle part of the throat)
  • hypopharynx cancer (bottom part of the throat)

Laryngeal cancer

The larynx, or voice box, is where this cancer develops. Cancer may manifest in:

  • supraglottis (part of the larynx above the vocal cords)
  • glottis (part of the larynx around the vocal cords)
  • subglottis (part of the larynx below the vocal cords
  • hypolarynx (below the larynx)

Signs and symptoms of throat cancer

Typical warning signs and symptoms of throat cancer include:

  • alteration in your voice
  • difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
  • slim down
  • unwell throat
  • a persistent want to swallow your food
  • prolonged and potentially bloody cough
  • neck lymph nodes that are enlarged
  • wheezing
  • ears hurt
  • hoarseness

Make an appointment with a doctor if any of these symptoms appear and persist.

Causes and risk of throat cancer

The risk factors for throat cancer can vary depending on the type, however the following are some things that could make you more likely to get laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancer:

  • smoking
  • high levels of alcohol use
  • consuming little fruit and veg
  • asbestos exposure, in cases of laryngeal cancer
  • chewing gutka and betel nut when suffering from oropharyngeal cancer
  • a large body mass
  • being more advanced, as these tumours typically develop beyond age 50
  • having inherited genetic disorders like Fanconi anaemia or dyskeratosis congenita
  • possessing specific human papillomavirus types (HPV)
  • Oral hygiene practises could be a factor.

According to the American Cancer Society, those who smoke and drink heavily are about 30 times more likely to acquire oropharyngeal cancer than those who don’t, and they’re also significantly more likely to develop laryngeal cancer (ACS).

Approximately 10% of men and 3.6% of women have oral HPV, a sexually transmitted disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, HPV may be to blame for almost 70% of oropharyngeal cancer cases in the country.

Males are more prone than females to get laryngeal or oropharyngeal cancer. Statistics from the NCI show that while white individuals have a higher percentage overall, Black men have a far greater rate than both all females and men of other races.

According to a 2014 study, the disparity in laryngeal cancer survival rates between American males of colour and whites increased rather than decreased between 1975 and 2002. According to the study’s authors, possible causes include socioeconomic circumstances, a later stage of diagnosis, and a lack of access to effective therapy.

Preventing throat cancer

Although throat cancer cannot always be prevented, there are things you may take to lower your risk:

  • Avoid or give up smoking and using tobacco.
  • track your alcohol consumption
  • reduce your intake of added fats, sweets, and highly processed foods while consuming a nutrient-rich diet that emphasises fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • maintain a regular exercise schedule
  • To help lower your risk of developing an oral HPV infection, talk to your doctor about obtaining the HPV vaccine.

The NCI states that the highest risk factor for acquiring these malignancies is a combination of smoking and alcohol consumption. Thus, the two main approaches to prevent head and neck cancers are to limit alcohol use and quit smoking.

Treatment options for throat cancer

You’ll receive treatment from and have input from a variety of specialists, including:

  • a surgeon who specialises in cancer who performs operations like removing tumours
  • a radiation oncologist who uses radiation therapy to treat your cancer
  • a pathologist who analyses tissue samples taken from your biopsy
  • during a biopsy or surgery, an anesthesiologist will give anaesthetic and keep track of your health.

Options for treating throat carcinoma include:

  • surgery
  • radiation treatment
  • chemotherapy

Depending on the cancer’s stage and other considerations, your doctor may recommend a different course of treatment.


For more details, kindly visit below.

Significance of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & its cause.

Significance of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & its cause.

A set of progressive neurological illnesses known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) affect the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that regulate muscular action.

Although ALS is an umbrella term for a number of disorders, many specialists still refer to it as a single illness. The most prevalent variety of motor neuron disease is collectively ALS. In honour of a well-known baseball star who suffered from it, it is occasionally referred to as Lou Gehrig’s sickness.

Although the precise origin is unknown, genetic and environmental factors may be at play. Despite the fact that there is no cure, treatments can reduce the symptoms and enhance quality of life.

What is ALS (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)?

In the arms, legs, and face, for example, ALS targets the nerve cells that control the voluntary muscular movements that a healthy person is capable of controlling. Motor neurons are the targeted cells.

These cells deteriorate and die as ALS worsens. The brain is no longer able to govern voluntary movement because the muscles stop communicating with the brain. The muscles deteriorate and deteriorate over time.

How does ALS affect your body?

Your motor neurons’ (nerve cells’) ability to communicate with your muscles is deteriorating. There are two kinds of motor neurons:

  • Upper motor neurons are the motor nerve cells in your brain and spinal cord. Their responsibility is to communicate with lower motor neurons.
  • Lower motor neurons, also known as motor nerve cells, are found in the spinal cord and brain stem (lower part of the brain). The top motor neurons provide them instructions. Your muscles are then instructed to move by the messages they convey.

Both upper and lower motor neurons are typically impacted by ALS. If predominantly upper or mostly lower motor neurons are damaged, you could have various symptoms.

Muscle stiffness results from diseases of the upper motor neurons. Muscle tone declines as a result of lower motor neuron disorders. Weakness is a result of both upper and lower motor neuron issues.

Signs and symptoms

All ALS patients experience progressive muscle weakness, albeit this may not be the initial symptom. Early indications and symptoms might not be very visible. Over time, they become increasingly apparent, albeit each person experiences this transition differently.

Typical signs include:

All ALS patients experience progressive muscle weakness, albeit this may not be the initial symptom. Early indications and symptoms might not be very visible. Over time, they become increasingly apparent, albeit each person experiences this transition differently.

Such signs include:

  • walking and other regular activities challenging
  • Clumsiness has increased
  • weakness in the hands, legs, ankles, and feet
  • twitching and cramping in the tongue, shoulders, or arms
  • difficulties holding the head erect and maintaining excellent posture
  • Emotional lability is the term for the condition of uncontrolled laughing or sobbing fits.
  • alterations in the mind or memory
  • Speech that is slurred and voice projection issues
  • pain
  • fatigue
  • issues with mucous and saliva
  • progressively worse breathing and swallowing issues

Clumsiness, peculiar limb weariness, muscle cramps and jerks, as well as slurred speech, are frequent early symptoms. As the illness worsens, a person has symptoms all over their body.

Frontotemporal dementia, a type of dementia, develops in some ALS patients as a result of decision-making and memory issues. Mood swings and emotional responses can be brought on by emotional lability.

What Are the Main Types of ALS?

ALS is of two main types:

  • ALS sporadic is the most typical types of ALS. Up to 95% of those who have the condition are affected. Sporadic meaning that it occurs infrequently and without apparent cause.
  • Familial ALS (FALS) is a genetic condition. This type affects 5% to 10% of ALS patients. A gene is altered, which results in FALS. Children inherit the defective gene from their parents. Each of their offspring will have a 50% risk of inheriting the gene and developing the disease if one parent carries the ALS gene.

Causes of ALS

Motor neurons in ALS die for unknown reasons, according to researchers. Between 5% and 10% of cases of ALS are caused by gene alterations or mutations. ALS has been associated with more than 12 distinct gene alterations.

One modification involves a gene that produces the SOD1 protein. Motor neurons may be harmed by this protein. Motor neurons may potentially be harmed by other gene alterations in ALS.

Environmental factors may potentially contribute to ALS. Researchers are looking at whether exposure to specific chemicals or bacteria increases the risk of contracting the illness. For instance, ALS has been diagnosed more frequently than typical in veterans of the 1991 Gulf War.

Scientists are also investigating these additional potential causes:

  • Glutamate. The brain and nerves receive and transmit impulses via this molecule. This kind of neurotransmitter exists. Glutamate may harm nerve cells when it accumulates surrounding them in ALS.
  • The drug riluzole (Rilutek), which lowers glutamate levels, can halt the progression of the illness.
  • Immune system difficulties. Your immune system defends your body from external intruders like viruses and germs. Microglia are the predominant immune cell type in your brain. They eliminate pathogens and damaged cells. Microglia may also obliterate sound motor neurons in ALS.
  • Mitochondrial issues: Your cells’ mitochondria are the organelles responsible for producing energy. A issue with them could cause ALS or exacerbate an already existing condition.
  • Stress from oxidation. Your body’s cells convert oxygen into energy. Your body may convert some of the oxygen it requires to produce energy into dangerous compounds called free radicals, which can harm cells. These free radicals can be controlled by the antioxidant drug edaravone (Radicava).

Every day, new information concerning ALS is discovered. They will be able to create drugs to alleviate symptoms and enhance the lives of those who have this disease with the help of what they learn.


For more details, kindly visit below.

What are the ways to manage anxiety in move?

What are the ways to manage anxiety in move?

What is Anxiety?

Anxiety can be referred asa response driven by your brain with respect to stress or danger alert. Anxiety can be triggerred in situation which puts you under stress and heavy thinking such as public speaking, examination, important decision making, taking an important test, etc.

Usual anxiety is common in people which is trigger by several situation as mentioned just above. It is generally a mental condition caused by mental and physical stressful event as alone or combination.

When an individual observe anxiety due to triggering event occasionally, it is termed as occational anxiety which is considered as a normal condition. However, getting diagnosed to anxiety disorder is pretty much a different and much worse level.

Anxiety disorder.

Driven from medical condition anxiety, anxiety disorder is worsening stage of anxiety where stress and fear could cause physical interference with oneself or the other. The diagnosed individual might go through extreme worry, stress, or fear with respect to triggering event. This condition may cause serious side effect to the body. The person might also crave for closeness of people that are close to him/her such as relatives, close friends, lover, etc.

Types of Anxiety disorder


It is a type of anxiety disorder in which you avoid situations or places that might cause you to feel trapped, helpless, or embarrassed.

Anxiety disorder due to a medical condition

It comprises symptoms of intense anxiety or panic caused by a medical condition.

Generalized anxiety disorder

Worry about ordinary, routine issues, as well as persistent and excessive anxiety and anxiety about activities or events. In addition to being out of proportion to the actual situation, worry affects your physical health. In many cases, it occurs in conjunction with another anxiety disorder or depression.

Panic disorder

In this condition, repeated episodes of intense anxiety and fear or terror reach their peak within minutes (panic attacks). A rapid, fluttering, or pounding heart (heart palpitations) may cause feelings of impending doom, shortness of breath, chest pain, or a feeling of impending doom. An individual suffering from panic attacks may worry that they will occur again or avoid situations where they have occurred.

Selective mutism

Children with this condition fail to speak consistently in certain situations, such as school, despite being able to speak in other circumstances, such as at home with close family members. The effects of this can be felt at school, at work, and in social settings.

Separation anxiety disorder

The disorder consists of anxiety that is excessive for the child’s developmental level and is connected to separation from one’s parents or other adults who play a parental role.

Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)

The condition is characterized by high levels of anxiety, fear, and avoidance of social situations due to embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.

Specific phobias

They are characterized by a strong sense of anxiety when being exposed to specific objects or situations. Some people are prone to panic attacks as a result of phobias.

Substance induced anxiety disorder

When misusing drugs, taking medications, being exposed to toxic substances or withdrawing from drugs, it results in symptoms of intense anxiety or panic.

Other specified anxiety disorder and unspecified anxiety disorder

They are anxiety disorders that don’t meet the exact criteria for any other anxiety disorder, but are significant enough to be disruptive and distressing.

Signs and symptoms of Anxiety

The feeling of anxiety varies from person to person. There are many kinds of feelings that can accompany anxiety, from butterflies in the stomach to a racing heart. There might be a disconnect between your mind and body that makes you feel out of control.

Although there are many types of anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation)
  • Sweating
  • Feeling nervous, restless or tense
  • Having a sense of impending danger, panic or doom
  • Having an increased heart rate
  • Experiencing gastrointestinal (GI) problems
  • Having difficulty controlling worry
  • Having the urge to avoid things that trigger anxiety
  • Trembling
  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Trouble concentrating or thinking about anything other than the present worry
  • Having trouble sleeping

Side effects of Anxiety disorder.

Anxiety attack generally causes several side effects in your body which can range from normal to severe condition. Following are several side effects associated with anxiety disorder.


You can’t predict what will cause someone to develop an anxiety disorder, but you can take steps to reduce the impact of symptoms.

When you’ve been diagnosed with anxiety, you can discuss treatment options with your doctor. It is, however, possible to overcome the symptoms and live a more manageable day-to-day life with the help of treatment.

As per nature and severity of anxiety, the treatments are classified into three general categories:

  • A psychotherapy session. Visiting a therapist or psychologist can help you learn how to cope with stress when it occurs. There are several types of therapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy and exposure response prevention.
  • Complementary health techniques. Alternative methods of treating anxiety include mindfulness, yoga, and self-management strategies such as stress management.
  • Medication. It is common for doctors to prescribe antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs.

For short-term symptom relief, benzodiazepines can be used, but they’re usually avoided due to the high dependence risk. The use of antianxiety and antidepressant medications such as escitalopram has been shown to improve mood and reduce stress by altering brain chemistry.


For more details, kindly visit below.

Suggested Keywords panic attack | anxiety attack | social anxiety disorder | anxiety attack symptoms | depression and anxiety | anxiety treatment | types of anxiety