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Is BMI not accurate to predict obesity in many people?

Is BMI not accurate to predict obesity in many people?

Body mass index (BMI) is a common metric used in healthcare facilities to determine patient health.

It has been frequently criticized for its simplicity of what being healthy actually entails while being used for decades as the standard measurement for health based on body size.

In fact, many people argue that BMI should not be utilized in medical or fitness settings since it is antiquated and inaccurate.

What is BMI?

“BMI” is an acronym for “body mass index.” A Belgian mathematician by the name of Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet created the BMI in 1832.

He created the BMI scale to help governments allocate health and financial resources by swiftly estimating the level of overweight and obesity in a specific community.

Interestingly, Quetelet claimed that BMI was better at capturing the general health of a group than using it to investigate a single individual. Even so, it’s frequently used to gauge people’s health.

The BMI scale is based on a mathematical formula that compares a person’s height in meters squared to their weight in kilograms to determine whether they are a “healthy” weight:

Height (m2) / weight (kg) equals BMI.

Alternately, you can determine BMI by multiplying 703 by the product of your weight in pounds and your height in square inches:

Weight (lbs) x Height (in2) x 703 equals BMI.

A BMI calculator online, like the one offered by the National Institutes of Health, is another option. If you fall within the “normal” weight range, your BMI is calculated and then compared to the BMI scale.

If you don’t fit the definition of “normal” weight, a healthcare practitioner might recommend health and lifestyle adjustments to you.

To more accurately reflect the size and stature of their inhabitants, some nations have adopted the BMI scale. For instance, Asian men and women have been found to have a higher risk of heart disease than non-Asians at lower BMIs.

Even though this can give a healthcare practitioner a quick overview of a person’s health based on weight, it ignores other aspects of a person’s health, including age, sex, race, genetics, fat mass, muscle mass, and bone density.

Is it a reliable sign of health?

The majority of research demonstrates that a person’s risk of chronic disease and early mortality does increase with a BMI lower than 18.5 (“underweight”) or 30.0 or above (“obese”), despite concerns that BMI doesn’t precisely indicate if they are in good health.

A 2017 retrospective research of 103,218 fatalities, for instance, discovered that those with a BMI of 30.0 or higher (referred to as “obese”) had a 1.5–2.7-fold higher chance of dying following a 30-year follow-up.

Another study with 16,868 persons found that those with an “obese” BMI had a 20% higher chance of dying from any cause and heart disease than those with a “normal” BMI.

Additionally, the researchers discovered that people with “underweight” BMIs and “severely obese” or “extremely obese” BMIs died on average 6.7 years and 3.7 years earlier than people with “normal” BMIs.

According to other research, a BMI over 30.0 considerably raises the chance of developing chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, breathing problems, renal illness, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and mobility problems.

A person’s risk of developing metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes has also been shown to drop by 5–10% with a BMI reduction.

Many health practitioners can use BMI as a broad indicator of a person’s risk because the majority of studies indicate that obese persons have an elevated chance of developing chronic diseases. But it shouldn’t be the only diagnostic instrument employed.

The BMI as a measure of obesity

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which was conducted from 2011 to 2018, had data on 9,784 participants with an average age of 39.

BMI and body fat % were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the data. BMIs were divided into categories according to ethnicity.

In the end, 36% of individuals were obese, defined as having a BMI of 30 or more. However, 74% of participants were rated as obese based on their body fat percentage.

When body fat % was taken into account, many persons with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9, which are considered healthy weights, were labelled as obese, including:

  • 27% of Black non-Hispanics
  • 44% of white non-Hispanics
  • 49 percent of Hispanics
  • In Asia, 49%

The finding that non-Hispanic Black people with overweight had 58% lower risk of obesity than non-Hispanic White people struck me as particularly fascinating. Dr. Erkeda de Rouen, a board-certified specialist in family, diversity, and lifestyle medicine who was not involved in the study, said that this might be caused by the regular genetic weight distribution.

A person’s mental health and complex sociological issues like money, access to affordable and nutritious food, food skills and knowledge, and housing conditions are all ignored when a person’s health is solely determined by their BMI.

Drawbacks of BMI

There are many problems with the use of BMI, despite data linking low (below 18.5) and high (30 or above) BMI with elevated health risks.

Disregards other potential health factors

Without taking into account a person’s age, sex, genetics, lifestyle, medical history, or other considerations, BMI just provides a “yes” or “no” answer as to whether they are of “normal” weight.

Relying just on BMI could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of a person’s genuine state of health by excluding other crucial health indicators including cholesterol, blood sugar, heart rate, blood pressure, and inflammation levels.

In addition, BMI employs the same formula for both sexes even though men and women have different body compositions, with males having more muscle mass and less fat mass than women.

Additionally, a person’s body fat mass naturally rises and their muscle mass naturally reduces as they age. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an older adult’s BMI of 23.0-29.9 can be protective against disease and early death.

The premise that all weight is equal

Muscle is denser and takes up less space even though 1 pound or kilogram of muscle weighs the same as 1 pound or kilogram of fat. As a result, someone who is extremely slim but has a lot of muscle may weigh more than average.

For instance, a person with a BMI of 29.5 who weighs 200 pounds (97 kilograms) and is 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm) tall is considered to be “overweight.”

The appearance of two people who are the same height and weight might vary greatly. One can be a bodybuilder with a lot of muscle, whilst the other might have more fat.

If BMI is the only factor taken into account, it is quite easy to mistakenly label someone as “overweight” or “obese” despite their low-fat mass. Therefore, in addition to a person’s weight, it’s necessary to take their bone, muscle, and fat mass into account.

Overlooks the distribution of fat

Even while a higher BMI is associated with worse health outcomes, the distribution of body fat may be more important.

People with a gynoid or pear-shaped body type, also known as those who have fat accumulated in their hips, buttocks, and thighs, are less likely to develop chronic disease than people with an android or apple-shaped body type.

For instance, researchers discovered that those with an apple-shaped fat distribution had a substantially higher risk of all-cause mortality than those with a pear-shaped distribution in a study of 72 studies that included data from more than 2.5 million people.

The authors really emphasized that BMI does not take into account where fat is stored in the body, which might cause a person to be incorrectly classified as being sick or at risk for disease.

Possible weight bias

The medical professional is expected to apply their best judgment, which means that they will take the BMI result and treat each patient as an individual.

However, some medical practitioners simply utilize BMI to assess a patient’s health before making recommendations, which can result in weight prejudice and subpar medical care.

Higher BMI patients more frequently claim that their doctors only address their BMI during appointments for unrelated issues. Serious medical conditions frequently go undiagnosed or are misdiagnosed as weight-related disorders.

In reality, research has shown that those with higher BMIs are less likely to get frequent health checks because of anxiety about being assessed, mistrust of the medical staff, or a bad experience in the past. This can result in delayed diagnoses, care, and treatment.

It might not apply to all populations

Even though BMI is widely used among all adults, it could not adequately reflect the health of some racial and cultural groups.

For instance, multiple studies have demonstrated that, compared to white individuals, people of Asian descent have a higher risk of chronic disease at lower BMI cut-off points.

In truth, the Asian-Pacific BMI recommendations, which offer different BMI cut-off points, were created by the World Health Organisation.

Numerous research has demonstrated that these alternate cut-off points are more effective at identifying Asian populations’ health risks. However, further research is required to compare these cut-off points with Asian Americans who are multigenerational.

Additionally, despite having higher muscle mass and lower fat mass, Black persons may be mistakenly labeled as overweight. This may imply that Black women, in particular, have a greater BMI cutoff criterion for chronic illness risk than those of other races.

Indeed, a 2011 study indicated that Black women were deemed metabolically healthy at cut-off points 3.0 kg/m2 higher than non-Black individuals, which further calls into doubt the applicability of BMI to all racial and ethnic groups.

Last but not least, depending solely on BMI disregards the cultural significance of body size to various communities. Higher fat mass is regarded as desirable and healthier in some cultures. Healthcare practitioners should take into account what each person’s definition of “health” is.

The conclusion

Body mass index (BMI) is a highly debatable health assessment technique used to determine a person’s risk for poor health and body fat.

According to most studies, as BMI rises above the “normal” level, there is an increased risk of developing a chronic illness. Additionally, a low BMI (below 18.5) has been associated with negative health effects.

However, BMI does not take into account other factors that may affect health, including age, sex, fat mass, muscle mass, race, genetics, and medical history. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that using it as the only predictor of health increases weight bias and health disparities.

BMI is a good place to start, but it shouldn’t be the primary indicator of your health.


For Obesity medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Avoid hypertension and heart disease with Japanese plump.

Avoid hypertension and heart disease with Japanese plump.

Globally, almost 1.3 million people suffer from high blood pressure. Additionally, the top global risk factor for death is hypertension. One is greatly at risk for developing various forms of heart disease if they have high blood pressure.

Juice concentrate is made from the Japanese plum, according to Temple University researchers. It may aid persons with hypertension who are at risk for cardiovascular disease.

The juice concentrate was also discovered by scientists to help prevent the development of hypertension.

High blood pressure, sometimes referred to as hypertension medically, affects about 1.3 million people worldwide. This makes it the leading cause of mortality.

According to research, having high blood pressure increases the chance of other cardiovascular conditions such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, stroke, and coronary heart disease.

Currently, Temple University researchers think that the Japanese plum juice concentrate can help lower cardiovascular disease risk in persons with hypertension and may even help prevent high blood pressure. A mouse model was used for the investigation.

Is it possible for Japanese plum to lower blood pressure?

It is customary in Japan to use the word “ume” to refer to the Japanese plum, or Prunus mume, also known as the Japanese apricot.

For use in wine or juice beverages, it is occasionally transformed into an infused juice concentrate. It is known as bainiku-ekisu.

This study’s senior author, Dr. Satoru Eguchi, is a professor in the Cardiovascular Research Centre at the Sol Sherry Thrombosis Research Centre and Centre for Metabolic Disease Research at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University. He said the study was motivated by the need for treatments other than prescription medications for hypertension.

Even while they normalise blood pressure, he told us, “current treatments are insufficient to normalise the risk of cardiovascular disease death and incidences like myocardial infarction or stroke.” “Compared to subjects with normal blood pressure, hypertension patients have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease regardless of treatment or drug-induced blood pressure normalisation.”

Researchers claim that prior studies in blood vessel smooth muscle cells shown that bainiku-ekisu helped prevent angiotensin II-induced signals that promote proliferation. Circulatory hormone angiotensin II is recognised to contribute to the emergence of hypertension.

Angiotensin II is a major hormone (regulating) blood pressure and contributes to the development of hypertension in humans,” stated Dr. Eguchi. In cultured vascular cells, our earlier study showed that it reduced angiotensin II signaling and function. All other fruit extracts failed to change the effects of angiogenic factors in these cells. Our in vitro results, however, were somewhat limited. Thus, we proposed the hypothesis that it might lower blood pressure. Also, the related vascular issues are caused by hypertension in vivo.

Preventing the development of cardiovascular disease

Dr. Eguchi and his team tested their hypotheses on the ume juice concentrate, bainiku-ekisu, using a mouse model for this study.

Angiotensin II was infused into mice to raise their blood pressure. The mice were then given water that either contained bainiku-ekisu or normal water.

Analysis revealed that mice who drank the water with bainiku-ekisu did not develop hypertension.

The Dainik-kiss additionally assisted in shielding their vasculature from the damaging effects of angiotensin II. For instance, mice given the juice concentrate only experienced slight aortic hypertrophy. Whereas mice given normal water experienced severe aortic hypertrophy.

The researchers also discovered that bainiku-ekisu assisted in reducing immune cell levels, which would typically lead to an inflammatory process connected to hypertension.

Additionally, scientists found that bainiku-ekisu prevented the cellular switch from aerobic metabolism to glycolysis which is typically seen in hypertension. This aids in preventing the body from suffering from oxidative stress, which can lead to inflammation, vascular stiffness, and even the emergence of more serious cardiovascular disease.

According to Dr. Eguchi, “Our animal studies indicate that bainiku-ekisu may lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension.” “It is okay to mix with standard treatment. Reducing the amount of medication required to maintain normal blood pressure may also be helpful.

Additionally, he continued, “Taking bainiku-ekisu may help you avoid complications related to hypertension, like heart attack and stroke.”

Previous studies on the health advantages of ume

The Japanese plum is grown on a tree that, like cherry trees, blooms with plum blossoms in the spring, ushering in festive occasions in Japan.

In warm to subtropical climates, Japanese plum trees thrive. The Japanese plum has been grown for thousands of years in China and Japan, but it has also spread to other regions of the world, including sections of the United States.

The Japanese plum has a taste that is more acidic and tart even though it resembles Western plums or apricots in appearance and scent.

The Japanese plum is frequently used to make umeboshi, which is a highly salted and pickled plum that is used as a condiment in conventional Japanese cuisine, in addition to being processed into the infused juice concentrate known as bainiku-ekisu.

Japanese plum has previously been investigated for its potential health advantages. According to earlier studies, ume may aid those who experience the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with their digestive problems.

Other research have revealed that ume contains anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and may help prevent obesity and allergy disease.

Additionally, a 2017 study discovered that persons with grade I hypertension who consumed ume extract daily saw an improvement in their diastolic blood pressure.

Study restrictions and conclusions

In addition, we discussed the latest findings with Dr. Rigved Tadwalkar, a board-certified cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in Santa Monica, California.

Although it was conducted on mice, he said, “what’s interesting is that bainiku-ekisu was able to attenuate hypertension and protect against vascular remodelling, which is really quite positive.”

Dr. Tadwalkar did advise caution, however, because there is still much to learn about ume and bainiku-ekisu as potential remedies.

“This is somewhat novel, and mouse models don’t always reflect the complex pathophysiology of human cardiovascular disease,” he said. Therefore, it is evident that human testing would be necessary to establish the effectiveness, safety, and dosage for controlling this.

Dr. Tadwalkar continued, “It does give a potential avenue for these alternative medicines in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. So altogether, it’s encouraging, but obviously, I approach the subject with a little bit of scepticism.”

Dr. Tadwalkar concurred, saying it’s critical to look into alternative treatments for cardiovascular illnesses.

Today’s patient is looking for a range of options and they want to have a specific treatment plan that’s tailored to their needs and circumstances,” he added. “This offers a slightly more individualized approach. And it can include all of the popular holistic treatments, including dietary adjustments, lifestyle changes, and all-natural cures combined.

I think it allows patients to feel more empowered because they can take a little bit more of an active role in their own care,” Dr. Tadwalkar continued. According to my observations, patients are frequently much more likely to be interested in conventional medication when they may adopt a complementary strategy that encourages the use of alternative medicines.


For Heart disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

More fruits & veggies might reduce death from CKD.

More fruits & veggies might reduce death from CKD.

According to research, eating more fruits and vegetables reduces the chance of death in persons with chronic renal disease.

Doctors may recommend a low-potassium diet to patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) because their kidneys have trouble processing it, resulting in excessive potassium levels in the blood.

In this study, researchers discovered comparable baseline serum potassium levels stratified by CKD stage in various groups based on how frequently they consumed fruits and vegetables.

According to the researchers, this shows that regularly consuming fruits and vegetables may not be linked to a rise in serum potassium levels.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a progressive loss of renal function. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases estimates that more than one in seven persons in the United States have CKD.

Since there are sometimes no symptoms in the condition’s early stages, CKD frequently stays undiagnosed until it is severe. Sometimes damaged kidneys cause blood levels of potassium to rise. The word for elevated potassium levels is hyperkalemia.

Researchers from one study discovered that more than half of the individuals, all of whom had severe CKD, had potassium levels above the recommended threshold. Occasionally, doctors advise patients with CKD to keep to low-potassium diets as their renal function declines.

Consuming more fruits and vegetables

Officials in charge of public health frequently extol the virtues of eating plants. Consuming fruits and vegetables has been linked to a lower risk of cancer, heart disease, and all-cause death.

According to the researchers, advanced CKD patients occasionally find themselves eating fewer meals that include vegetables and fruits due to worries about maintaining a diet low in potassium.

The 2019 systematic review of observational studies piqued the researchers’ interest because it revealed that hemodialysis patients had poor fruit and vegetable intake and that increasing consumption was linked to a lower risk of all-cause and non-cardiovascular death.

More specifically, the researchers found that consuming roughly 17 servings of vegetables and fruits each week, as opposed to just two, was related to a 20% decreased risk of all-cause mortality.

The researchers chose a Japanese hospital to carry out their study of patients with and without CKD because Asian diets are frequently higher in fruits and vegetables.

Kidney disease diet study

More than 2,000 persons 20 years or older who attended one of the hospital’s several outpatient clinics on Sado Island, Japan, between 2008 and 2016 were a part of this study.

Participants had to provide information about their intake of vegetables and fruits, as well as a record of their baseline serum creatinine and urinalysis measurements. At least one follow-up evaluation was also conducted for them.

The participants’ average age was 69. 64% of the subjects had high blood pressure, 64% were men, and 39% had diabetes.

Participants were divided into groups based on their responses to the question of how often they consume fruits and vegetables: “never or rarely,” “sometimes,” or “every day.” 15% of participants said they never ate fruits and vegetables, while about half said they did so daily.

These participants were separated into three groups: hemodialysis patients, CKD patients, and CKD patients who were not reliant on dialysis. Among the participants, 45% of the patients had CKD but weren’t dependent on dialysis, and 7% were receiving hemodialysis.

With regard to non-dialysis-dependent CKD, more than half of the participants said they regularly ate fruits and vegetables. The percentage of hemodialysis patients who reported eating fruits and vegetables every day was only 28%.

There were 561 fatalities recorded over a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Using obituaries, medical data, and reports from family or friends, researchers were able to determine whether or not the study participants had passed away.

Researchers updated the analyses to account for variables like gender and age, demographics (including individuals’ smoking status and BMI), and a variety of co-morbidities.

Survival benefit of high fruit and vegetable consumption

Those who just occasionally ate fruits and vegetables had a 25% higher chance of passing away from any cause than those who regularly consumed these meals.

A 60% increased chance of passing away from any cause existed for people who either never or infrequently ate fruits and vegetables.

According to initial findings, all CKD stage-strategy groups for vegetable and fruit eating frequency had equal serum potassium levels. This shows, according to the researchers’ article, “that frequency of vegetable and fruit intake is not associated with serum potassium levels even in patients with advanced CKD.”

According to the researchers, “the association was similar regardless of CKD status”, with no effect modification by CKD status.

Our findings imply that daily consumption of fruits and vegetables may not be related with elevated serum potassium levels and that it may actually decrease all-cause mortality in CKD patients, including those receiving [hemodialysis], as opposed to increasing it.

The researchers issued a warning in their publication that participants with severe CKD might have eaten fruits and vegetables that were lower in potassium or soaked or boiled items before eating them to eliminate potassium — a common prescription provided to Japanese CKD patients.

To the contrary, they said, “accumulating evidence suggests that dietary potassium levels are not associated with serum potassium levels or hyperkalemia.”

Kidney disease and potassium

Professor and clinical chief of nephrology at the University of California, Los Angeles’ David Geffen School of Medicine, Dr. Anjay Rastogi, told that the study was “thought-provoking” but that it had certain limitations.

He noted that compared to Americans, a large portion of the population in Japan consumes more fruits and vegetables.

Rastogi was concerned that the individuals would have only submitted labs from one date and had only once reported on their consumption of fruits and vegetables. There were many details that were missing, he claimed.

Rastogi asserted that he believes those with advanced CKD should consume a diet low in potassium. “It’s a very important mineral element in our body, but obviously in patients with kidney disease who have hyperkalemia, it can wreak havoc,” said Dr. Rastogi of potassium. “It might result in cardiac arrest.”

In order to minimise their potassium intake and keep consuming fruits and vegetables, Rastogi advised persons with CKD to engage with a trained dietitian.

There are new potassium binders on the market to treat hyperkalemia for those who cannot control their potassium through diet, he added.

Rastogi declared, “I am a very big advocate of diet and lifestyle changes for slowing down the progression of not just kidney disease but also cardiovascular disease.” Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with kidney disease. Both of them are interrelated.

More complex suggestions

Health professionals frequently “advise people with chronic kidney disease in ways that are not very nuanced,” according to Dr. Deidra Crews, a professor of medicine in the division of nephrology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Maryland.

Diets heavy in potassium may be problematic for some people who have very severe chronic renal disease, or even kidney failure, she explained. “However, the vast majority of individuals with chronic kidney disease really have less severe forms of the condition.

Therefore, the majority of the more than 37 million Americans with chronic kidney disease have this type of less severe disease, and the dietary practises that will help them avoid cardiovascular disease and live [a long life] will be very similar to what we might suggest to the more general population, which is: eat your fruits and vegetables.

According to Crews, study into whether diets high in fruits and vegetables are genuinely linked to hyperkalemia in persons with severe CKD is sparked by studies like this one out of Japan.

Even though individuals with advanced CKD frequently cannot eliminate potassium from their bodies through the kidneys, they may be able to do it through “pathways that exist in the gut, in the bowels,” the expert noted.

Crews emphasised that because fruits and vegetables frequently have significant fibre content, they might aid in the process.


For Chronic Kidney Disease disease medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Trial Obesity therapy can lead to nausea-less weight loss.

Trial Obesity therapy can lead to nausea-less weight loss.

Researchers have created a new class of peptides that might offer gastric bypass surgery’s advantages without requiring intrusive procedures. According to recent research, these peptides helped obese rats lose a large amount of weight and lower their blood glucose levels.

The injectable substances minimise eating while also increasing calorie burn, and they do so without the side effects of nausea and vomiting that are frequently associated with modern weight reduction and diabetic medications.

Diabetes and obesity are both major public health issues, with the former being one of the main risk factors for the latter. A good therapeutic option is bariatric surgery, which includes the gastric bypass, gastric sleeve, and gastric band. It can lead to long-term weight loss and even the remission of diabetes.

These procedures, nevertheless, have significant risks, are not appropriate for everyone, and are not easily accessible to the majority of people. Therefore, some researchers propose that a different therapeutic choice would be to treat metabolic problems with medication that mimics the long-term benefits of surgery.


According to the National Institutes of Health, obesity and being overweight are chronic illnesses that are widespread in the United States.

These problems can worsen a variety of other medical conditions and are associated with heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.

The following are some of the factors that contribute to obesity:

  • eating habits, such as consuming meals and drinks that are high in calories but poor in nutrients
  • sleep deprivation
  • absence of exercise
  • Many drugs, including those prescribed for diabetes, depression, or high blood pressure
  • genealogy and genetics

Overweight or obesity affects over three-fourths of US adults over the age of 20. Obesity affects 20% of kids between the ages of 2 and 19 years.

Body mass index (BMI) is used by medical practitioners to check for overweight and obesity. The formula is: Height squared divided by weight (in kilos) (in meters.) Online BMI calculators abound, one of which is provided by the CDC.

Sood told that he would like future research on weight loss to evaluate both weight loss and body composition. “We just lack sufficient knowledge to determine whether patients taking gut hormone agonists for weight loss are mostly losing fat or a mixture of fat and muscle,” says the researcher (the latter is more likely). To age properly and retain a strong metabolism as we age, losing muscle would be counterproductive.

Gut peptides

Some patients who have had gastric bypass surgery benefit from specific health advantages linked to adjustments in the gut’s hormone output.

The hormones in question, such as peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), signal fullness, curb hunger, and aid in blood sugar regulation.

Targeting GLP-1 receptors in the pancreas and brain, scientists have created medications that seek to mimic these effects.

These medications have been effective in managing type 2 diabetes and weight loss. There is a need for better solutions with fewer side effects because some people are unable to handle the negative effects of these medications, and studies show that roughly half of those who start taking them stop within a year.

Better option

To meet this demand, a group led by scientists from Syracuse University in New York has created a novel peptide. On March 26–30, they discussed their most current findings at the ACS Spring 2023 meeting.

The researchers suggest that an alternate treatment for those with metabolic issues would be a substance that matches the long-term advantages of gastric bypass surgery.

Several strategies have been devised by researchers to alleviate the negative effects of medications that only target one hormone receptor in the stomach. Designing medications to interact with several receptor types is one approach.

In a prior investigation, the group produced a peptide named GEP44 that activates two peptide YY receptors and one glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

When this substance was tested on obese rats, it was discovered that the animals that received it consumed up to 80% less food than usual and on average lost 12% of their body weight over the course of the 16-day experiment.

In a recent study, they compared the novel peptide GEP44’s efficacy in treating obesity to that of the medication liraglutide.

According to the study, rats given GEP44 lost more weight than rats given liraglutide. When tested on rats and shrews, GEP44, unlike liraglutide, did not exhibit any signs of nausea or vomiting.

According to the researchers, this might be as a result of GEP44 activating a number of receptors, which might stop the intracellular signalling cascade that results in these symptoms.

Weight loss and high energy expenditure

This study also suggests that the weight reduction brought on by GEP44 is a result of increased energy expenditure rather than just a decrease in food consumption. The manifestation of this rise in energy expenditure can take several forms, including an increase in heart rate, body temperature, or physical activity.

By directing glucose into muscle tissue to be used as fuel and by transforming specific pancreatic cells into cells that produce insulin, peptide treatments like GEP44 not only aid in weight reduction but also aid in lowering blood sugar levels.

GEP44 must be administered numerous times daily to maintain its effectiveness because it has a brief half-life in the body. The team has created a novel peptide, however, that requires only one or two injections per week and has a far longer lifespan.

The researchers discovered that rats treated with this novel molecule continue to lose weight even after the treatment has ceased, which is unusual for medications currently on the market that have been licenced to treat obesity.

“Obesity is obviously an increasing epidemic worldwide,” Dr. Becca Krukowski, professor of public health sciences at the University of Virginia and a non-participant in this study, told us.

What does it implies?

Although these are preliminary results in lab animals, Dr. Krukowski said that “over time, our research may lead to novel drugs that are safe and beneficial for patients.” But before being widely administered, this medication would need to go through the deliberate deliberate slow and thorough multi-stage and multi-year testing process, she warned.

However, if this treatment characteristic was verified in trials with humans, Krukowski continued, “the possible lack of weight regain after ceasing treatment would be extremely interesting.”

Both positive and negative impacts from this research, according to Bishoff, are possible. “The benefits being that patients can take lesser doses of medications that can deliver desired results while reducing nausea and vomiting side effects.

On the other hand, it’s possible that weight loss medications lower caloric intake to the point of malnutrition or deficiency. In the end, additional study will be required, which may take several years.

Although there may be some medical advantages to weight reduction medications, it’s crucial that patients understand they shouldn’t be used as a substitute for a healthy lifestyle. They can be viewed as a tool as opposed to a fix. When controlling weight and diabetes, eating a variety of well-balanced meals, sticking to daily caloric goals, and exercising frequently should always be encouraged, according to Haley Bishoff.


For Weight loss medications that have been suggested by doctors worldwide are available here

Lets explore the myths about heart attack.

Lets explore the myths about heart attack.

Several misconceptions exist regarding both cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation (AFib). Even their names can be unclear to you. Yet, you can manage either heart failure or AFib with treatment and still live a full life.

Heart failure affects 6.2 million adults in the United States. You might believe you are an expert in heart failure given how widespread it is, but let’s test your knowledge. It’s time to dispel the top five heart failure myths and misconceptions I encounter.

We’ve learned a lot about what causes heart attacks and how to avoid them during the past ten years. Yet if you don’t actively follow medical news, there’s a chance you can have misconceptions about heart disease’s risk factors or actual symptoms. Here are some widely held, false beliefs. You will have the knowledge you need to set the best course for a healthy heart with your doctor if you can replace these beliefs with facts.

MYTH 1: Those with heart problems should avoid strenuous activity.

“Being sedentary is unwise for the great majority of persons with heart disease. It may result in blood clots in the legs and a deterioration of general health “Dr. Richard T. Lee, a cardiologist and co-chief editor of the Harvard Heart Letter, adds. The heart muscle is strengthened by exercise, the blood supply to the brain and internal organs is improved, and overall health and wellbeing are enhanced.

What you can do: See your doctor about the best type and quantity of exercise for you. Most people are able to walk, and doing so regularly is excellent for your heart.

MYTH 2: You can eat anything if you take a medication to decrease your cholesterol.

There are two sources of cholesterol in the bloodstream: some is produced by the liver and some is obtained from particular foods. The amount of cholesterol produced by the liver is decreased with statins.

As a result, your blood cholesterol levels fall, resulting in less cholesterol being deposited in your arteries. If you take a statin and continue to consume meals high in saturated fat and cholesterol. The medication will not work as well as it should, and your cholesterol level may even increase.

MYTH 3: Having greater blood pressure as you age is acceptable.

Age-related increases in blood pressure are common, but just because they are “normal” doesn’t mean they are healthy for you. Age-related stiffening of arterial walls is the cause. The heart must pump harder due to stiff arteries. The result is a vicious circle.

With time, the artery walls become damaged from blood pounding against them. When the heart muscle is overused, it loses efficiency and must work more to pump blood to the body. The arteries are further harmed by this, and fat is encouraged to enter the artery walls. This is how having high blood pressure raises the possibility of having a heart attack or stroke.

MYTH 4: If you take diabetes medicine, you won’t develop heart disease.

Medication for diabetes lowers blood sugar levels. Microvascular problems (complications affecting the smaller blood vessels), such as renal disease, eyesight loss, erectile dysfunction, and nerve damage, can be avoided by maintaining normal blood sugar levels.

Yet, the big blood arteries that develop inflammation and illness and raise the risk of heart attack and stroke are less affected by blood sugar regulation. According to Dr. Alan Malabanan, a diabetes specialist at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, which is connected with Harvard, “These vessels benefit more from decreasing cholesterol and blood pressure.”

Take your diabetic medication as prescribed to avoid microvascular problems. Do everything you can to reduce your blood pressure and high cholesterol, give up smoking, and lose any additional weight. Your risk of heart disease and stroke will decrease as a result of these actions.

MYTH 5: By taking vitamins and supplements, you can reduce your risk of developing heart disease.

Reduced risk of heart disease is attributed to the antioxidant vitamins E, C, and beta carotene. Clinical studies on the use of these vitamins as supplements, though, either failed to demonstrate a benefit or were carried out in such a way that no conclusions could be made. According to the American Heart Association, there is no scientific support for the use of these vitamins to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease.

What you can do: The body absorbs and uses vitamins and minerals best when they are obtained from foods, for unknown reasons. Avoid store-bought supplements and consume a wide range of nutritious meals of every type to guarantee you obtain the vitamins and minerals you require.

MYTH 6: Quitting smoking won’t lower your risk of heart disease if you’ve smoked for a long time.

No matter your age, how long you’ve smoked, or how many cigarettes a day you’ve smoked, the advantages of quitting begin the moment you do. Your chance of having a heart attack will be 50% lower one year after quitting, and will be the same as it would have been if you had never smoked after ten years.

What you can do is get assistance to stop smoking. To successfully quit smoking, many people use stop smoking aids like nicotine patches, gum, or medications.

MYTH 7: Heart disease primarily affects men.

Since 1984, heart disease has been the leading cause of death for more women than men. Similar to how heart disease is the number one killer of males, it is the top cause of death for women over 65.

What you can do: Regardless of whether you are a man or a woman, request that your physician perform a baseline heart checkup that involves measuring your blood pressure and cholesterol.

MYTH 8: You should consume as little fat as you can if you have heart disease.

It is true that you should consume a diet low in trans, partly hydrogenated, and saturated fats. Yet, some types of fat, especially the unsaturated fats found in vegetable oils and other foods, are advantageous. In actuality, consuming salmon and other fish strong in omega-3 fatty acids twice a week helps reduce the risk of heart disease.

What you can do: Incorporate fatty fish, almonds, olive oil, and low-fat dairy items in your diet. If you consume meat, be sure the cuts are lean and take the skin off of any fowl you consume.

MYTH 9: A little heart attack is of no great concern.

“Your heart’s ability to operate normally can recover from a little heart attack. Even so, it can go unnoticed. The fact that you have significant heart disease and that your next heart attack could be fatal is a major warning flag, however “Dr. Lee notes.

What you can do: Reduce your risk of heart attack by maintaining a healthy weight, cholesterol level, and blood pressure, quitting smoking, and visiting your doctor frequently to check for any changes in risk factors.

MYTH 10: Bypass surgery or angioplasty and stenting “repair” your heart.

Chest pain (angina) can be effectively treated with angioplasty and bypass surgery, which also enhances quality of life. Yet, they do not stop atherosclerosis, the underlying illness. Without addressing the factors that cause atherosclerosis, fatty plaque will continue to build up in the arteries, which could result in a recurrence of angina or, worse, a heart attack or stroke.

What you can do: After angioplasty or bypass surgery, it’s critical to address the issues that necessitated the procedure, such as high blood pressure or cholesterol, a poor diet, smoking, or inactivity.



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Heart related diseases linked to specific kinds of sugars.

Heart related diseases linked to specific kinds of sugars.

According to a recent study, the type of sugar you consume may have a greater impact on your risk of developing heart disease than the quantity of sugar you consume.

Researchers from the University of Oxford in the UK found that eating foods high in “free sugars” dramatically increased the risk of heart disease and stroke. They discovered that the risk rose in proportion to how much more free sugar a person consumed.

Free sugars are all sugars that have been intentionally added to food by a producer, cook, or consumer. Also, sugars that are naturally found in honey, syrups, and unsweetened fruit juice. Those naturally found in entire fruits and vegetables are not considered to be free sugar.

How much sugar is permitted?

What quantity of additional sugar is appropriate if 24 tablespoons daily is too much? Since sugar is not a necessary nutrient in your diet, it is difficult to say. There is no official sugar RDA set by the Institute of Medicine, which establishes RDAs for other nutrients.

The American Heart Association advises against exceeding the daily added sugar calorie limits for men and women, respectively. A respectively 100 calories (about 6 teaspoons or 24 grammes) and 150 calories (roughly 9 teaspoons or 36 grammes). That equates to roughly one 12-ounce soda can’s worth of liquid.

Taking sugar alternatives into account

Consuming excessive amounts of sugar can increase the risk of stroke and heart disease. This results in high blood pressure, inflammation, weight gain, diabetes, and fatty liver disease.

According to Dr. Elizabeth H. Dineen, an integrative cardiologist with the UCI Health Susan Samueli Integrative Health Institute, “it looks wise to limit the use of artificial sweeteners” in light of the cardiovascular events observed among research participants.

Dr. Ailin Barseghian El-Farra, an integrative cardiologist with the institute, adds that these findings “can help open a dialogue with patients about their dietary consumption of sugars, as well as artificial sweeteners, and their associated risk for coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular events.” Neither doctor took part in the investigation.

Over 100,000 French people were monitored for approximately nine years as part of the NutriNet-Santé project. When they first began, the participants’ average age was 42, and over 80% of them were women. Everyone was prompted to share information on their diet, health, physical activity, level of education, smoking status, and line of work.

They recorded all food and drinks consumed within a 24-hour period every six months. This provides thorough breakdown of their overall consumption of artificial sweeteners. Also, the consumption of other foods and nutrients, such as fruit, vegetables, dairy, and meat.

Impact on your heart

In a study that was published in 2014 in JAMA Internal Medicine, Dr. Hu and his coworkers discovered a link between a high-sugar diet and an increased risk of dying from heart disease. Over the course of the 15-year trial, those who consumed between 17% and 21% of their calories as added sugar had a 38% higher chance of dying from cardiovascular disease than those who only consumed 8% of their calories in this way.

According to Dr. Hu, the risk of heart disease is essentially inversely proportional to the amount of added sugar consumed.

Monitoring the intake of sweeteners

According to the study, 37% of individuals drank diet Coke or another type of artificial sweetener on average, which works out to 42 milligrammes per day or around one packet of sweetener. The average daily intake of artificial sweeteners among people who consumed more of them was nearly double at 78 milligrammes, or about 7 ounces of diet soda.

Overall, those who used the most artificial sweeteners were younger, had higher body mass indices (BMI). They were more likely to smoke, were less active, and didn’t follow a diet to control their weight. Curiously, they ate fewer calories, drank less alcohol, and consumed less fibre, fruit, and vegetables, as well as saturated and polyunsaturated fats. However, they consumed more sodium, red and processed meats, and dairy foods.

Researchers also kept tabs on the health of the participants, including physical examinations, medical procedures, and cardiovascular occurrences. This includes heart disease, heart attacks, and strokes.

Researchers found that those who consumed the most artificial sweeteners, particularly aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose, had a 9% higher risk for cardiovascular disease and an 18% greater risk for stroke or other cerebrovascular disease when compared to participants who ate none. This was true even after taking into account differences in age, sex, physical activity, education, smoking, and family history of heart disease.

The same authors’ previous spring PLoS ONE study revealed increased artificial sweetener intake. Additionally risk for cancer was linked to  aspartame and acesulfame-K.

Sugar and Other Health Problems

Studies have shown a connection between sugar consumption and animal models of hypertension. According to a human study, people with diabetes who use diuretics have a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) if they consume a lot of sugar in their diet.

Consuming sugar can improve one’s body’s ability to store and use carbohydrate energy. This improvement, however, only happens at levels of physical activity and exercise intensity that are connected to endurance performances lasting at least 30 minutes. The main sources of energy for muscular contraction are blood glucose, liver glycogen, and muscle glycogen. The consumption of sugar can quickly restore blood glucose levels to normal when these substances reach dangerously low levels, which can lead to weariness. Consuming sugar has no effect on performance for the majority of low- to moderate-intensity tasks, such as walking or household chores.

The link between dietary sugar and cognition and behaviour has garnered a lot of attention. Two theories served as the foundation for the notion that sugar and hyperactivity are related. The first was a potential allergic reaction, and the second was the possibility of functional reactive hypoglycemia in hyperactive children. Both of these concepts remain unproven, and a meta-analysis of 16 randomised studies in hyperactive children revealed that cutting back on sugar in the diet had no positive impact on hyperactivity levels.



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Is it possible to have Angina with normal blood pressure?

Is it possible to have Angina with normal blood pressure?

What is Angina?

Angina is tightness, squeezing, pressure, or pain in the chest. It occurs when an area of the heart muscle receives less blood oxygen than usual. It is not a disease but a symptom. Angina usually happens due to ischemia, when one or more of the coronary arteries becomes narrow or blocked. It is often a symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Alone, angina is not life threatening, but it can resemble the symptoms of a heart attack, and it is a sign of heart disease. Receive medical attention if angina occurs unexpectedly, does not go away, or does not respond to rest or medication.

What does angina feel like?

Most angina sufferers describe having pressure or pain in the chest. Or they describe a heaviness or squeezing in their chest. Some claim that it has the sensation of dyspepsia. Others claim that putting angina into words is difficult.

Usually, the pain starts behind your breastbone. You might not always be able to pinpoint the particular source of the pain. Your upper torso may experience upper chest pain or discomfort as well. Your neck, jaw, shoulders, arms, back, and belly are a few of these.

Other symptoms, referred to as “angina analogues,” can be brought on by a lack of oxygen to your heart. You may not feel any of these symptoms in your chest, such as:

Types of Angina

Enduring angina

When the heart is working harder than usual, such as during exercise, stable angina develops. Normally, it lasts for five minutes.

It has a predictable rhythm and might last for weeks, months, or even years. The symptoms can typically be reduced with rest or medicine.

Erratic angina

Unstable angina has no set rhythm and typically strikes while you’re at rest. Atherosclerosis, which involves a blockage preventing blood from reaching the heart, is the primary cause.

The pain may develop with time and linger for more than five minutes. Medication and rest may not be enough to reduce the symptoms.

Angina that is unstable can signal a possible heart attack. Anyone experiencing sudden angina should seek emergency medical attention.

Angina microvascular

Coronary microvascular disease can cause microvascular angina (MVD). The tiniest coronary arteries are impacted by this.

In addition to chest pain, a person may feel:

  • low energy and weariness
  • issues with sleep
  • breathing difficulty
  • Stable angina is more transient than microvascular angina. It frequently lasts for more than ten minutes. Trustworthy Source and occasionally takes more than 30 minutes.

Angina variant

Rare variant angina Prinzmetal angina is the name some doctors give to this condition, which can occur when the body is at rest, usually in the early morning or late at night.

It takes place when the coronary arteries spasm. Cold exposure, stress, medications, smoking, or cocaine usage are examples of potential triggers. Although the illness is chronic, medicines can help manage it.

What causes angina?

Angina is brought on by myocardial ischemia, which is reduced blood supply to the heart. Your coronary arteries may develop a number of issues that hinder your heart from getting adequate blood. These consist of:

Coronary artery disease: The most frequent cause of angina is coronary artery disease. When plaque (a fatty, waxy substance) accumulates in your coronary arteries, which carry blood to your heart, it causes heart disease. Your heart receives less blood as a result of these arteries’ narrowing or hardening (atherosclerosis).

Coronary microvascular disease: Compared to men and individuals designated male at birth, women and people assigned female at birth (AFAB) had a higher prevalence of coronary microvascular disease (AMAB). Small blood veins that branch off of your coronary arteries suffer damage to their walls.

Coronary artery spasm: Your coronary arteries repeatedly contract (tighten) and then relax during a coronary artery spasm. Your heart’s blood supply is momentarily restricted by these spams. Even without coronary artery disease, you can experience coronary spasms. Regular CAD testing may not be able to diagnose this, and it may be necessary to conduct specialised testing that not all hospitals offer.

Angina with normal blood pressure?

Even though the coronary arteries themselves are healthy, angina can occasionally develop when parts of the heart muscle are not getting enough oxygen.

The following conditions can cause angina without having coronary artery disease:

  • extremely low blood pressure, which may happen in shock as a result of bleeding
  • severe anaemia
  • extremely active effort
  • a lot of mental stress (as in broken heart syndrome)
  • significant hyperthyroidism
  • persistent tachycardia
  • significant hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • severely enlarged ventricles
  • significant aortic stenosis

These disorders typically affect sicker people, and angina is typically just one symptom among many. Therefore, the absence of classic CAD is unlikely to mislead the healthcare professionals caring for these patients into a false sense of complacency.


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Is there any side effects of using too much Cinnamon?

Is there any side effects of using too much Cinnamon?

What is Cinnamon?

On toast and in lattes, cinnamon is a spice. But for thousands of years, extracts from the cinnamon tree’s bark, leaves, blossoms, fruits, and roots have also been utilised in traditional medicines all throughout the world. It is added to many foods and used in baking and cooking.

The four main types of cinnamon are as follows. The variety of cinnamon that is most frequently offered in the US is cassia, which is darker in colour. Southeast Asia is where it is raised. True cinnamon, commonly referred to as Ceylon cinnamon, is widely utilised abroad.

One of the two primary varieties of cinnamon i.e. Ceylon or Cassia, or a combination of the two—could be the cinnamon you purchase at the shop. Ceylon is easier to grind, but its health benefits might not be as good.

Health Benefits of Cinnamon

Cinnamaldehyde is one of the most significant active components in cinnamon. It is utilised in scents and flavourings. It might be the cause of some of cinnamon’s potential health advantages.

According to certain studies, cinnamon may benefit diabetics. According to a study of 18 studies, cinnamon may help reduce blood sugar levels. Hemoglobin A1C, a marker of blood sugar levels over time, was unaffected, nevertheless. In diabetics, it may also decrease cholesterol.

Numerous studies lack information about the sort of cinnamon they used or have other issues that cast doubt on the accuracy of their conclusions. According to one analysis, cinnamon may aid in reducing obesity and weight gain. Irritable bowel syndrome and other stomach and intestinal issues are occasionally treated with it. But its effectiveness is unclear.

Cinnamon has been proposed to be beneficial for

  • Heart condition
  • Alzheimer’s condition
  • Cancer
  • HIV
  • Infection
  • dental decay
  • Allergies

However, a large number of research have used animal or cell models. Although cinnamon has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties, there are currently insufficient studies to support their effectiveness in treating human conditions.

Side effects of Cinnamon

Cinnamon consumption in moderation is unlikely to have a significant negative influence on your health. Consuming excessive amounts of it is also not recommended.

There is no established dosage for cinnamon because it is an unproven treatment. Some experts advise taking 2-4 grammes of powder, or 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, per day. The amount of cinnamon used in some studies ranged from 1 to 6 grams. High doses could be harmful.

May Cause Liver Damage

A 130-pound (59-kg) person can consume 5 mg of coumarin daily, or approximately 0.05 mg per pound (0.1 mg per kilogramme) of body weight. Accordingly, consuming even a single teaspoon of cassia cinnamon could cause you to exceed the daily limit.

Unfortunately, a number of research have revealed that consuming too much coumarin may harm and poison the liver.

As an illustration, after only one week of taking cinnamon supplements, a 73-year-old woman experienced a sudden liver infection that resulted in liver damage. But in this instance, the dose was larger because of the supplements used than it would be from food alone.

May Increase the Risk of Cancer

An excessive intake of coumarin, which is present in large quantities in Cassia cinnamon, has been linked to an increased risk of some malignancies in animal experiments.

For instance, research on rodents has revealed that consuming too much coumarin might result in the growth of malignant tumours in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. It’s unclear how coumarin might result in tumors.

However, some scientists think that over time, DNA damage brought on by coumarin increases the risk of cancer.

May Cause Mouth Sores

Mouth sores have been reported in certain consumers after consuming items with cinnamon flavouring.

When taken in excessive quantities, the chemical cinnamaldehyde found in cinnamon may cause an allergic reaction. Small doses of the spice don’t appear to trigger this reaction because saliva keeps chemicals from coming into prolonged contact with the mouth.

Other signs of a cinnamaldehyde allergy besides mouth sores include:

  • tongue or gum enlargement
  • a feeling of burning or itching
  • mouth with white spots
  • Although not always serious, some symptoms can nonetheless be uncomfortable.

It’s crucial to remember that cinnamaldehyde only causes mouth sores in people who are allergic to it. A skin patch test can be used to check for this kind of allergy.

May Cause Low Blood Sugar

It is commonly known that cinnamon can reduce blood sugar levels. According to studies, the spice can replicate the actions of the hormone insulin, which aids in removing sugar from the blood.

Although consuming a small amount of cinnamon may help lower blood sugar, doing so excessively may cause it to drop too low. It is known as hypoglycemia. It may cause fatigue, wooziness, and even fainting.

Those who are taking diabetes treatments are particularly at risk of having low blood sugar. This is due to the possibility that cinnamon could intensify the effects of these drugs and cause your blood sugar to drop too low.

May Cause Breathing Problems

This is so that it won’t be difficult to inhale due to the spice’s fine texture. Its accidental inhalation can result in:

  • coughing
  • gagging
  • trying to catch your breath is difficult

Additionally, the cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon irritates the throat. It might result in additional respiratory issues. Being unintentionally exposed to cinnamon should be avoided by those who have asthma or other breathing-related illnesses because they are more prone to have breathing difficulties.

Interact with Certain Medications

With the majority of drugs, cinnamon is safe to consume in small to moderate doses. If you are taking medication for diabetes, heart disease, or liver disease, taking too much may be a problem. This is due to the possibility that cinnamon may interact with such drugs, either amplifying their effects or causing more severe side effects.

For instance, cassia cinnamon has a lot of coumarin, which is poisonous to the liver and might harm it if ingested in large quantities.

A lot of cinnamon may increase your risk of liver damage if you use drugs that could harm your liver, like paracetamol, acetaminophen, and statins.


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What happens when you take Xenical to treat Obesity?

What happens when you take Xenical to treat Obesity?


Obesity is a complex disease characterised by an excess of body fat. Obesity is more than just a cosmetic issue. It is a medical condition that raises the risk of developing other diseases and health issues, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain cancers.

Some people struggle to lose weight for a variety of reasons. Obesity is typically caused by a combination of inherited, physiological, and environmental factors, as well as dietary, physical activity, and exercise choices.

Reports about Obesity

Following are some recent WHO global estimates.

  • In 2016, over 1.9 billion adults aged 18 and up were overweight. Over 650 million of these adults were obese.
  • 39% of adults aged 18 and up were overweight (39% of men and 40% of women), in 2016.
  • Approximately 13% of the world’s adult population (11% of men and 15% of women) in 2016 were obese.
  • Between 1975 and 2016, the global prevalence of obesity nearly tripled.
  • An estimated 38.2 million children under the age of five were overweight or obese in 2019. Overweight and obesity, once thought to be a problem only in high-income countries, are now on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban areas.
  • Since 2000, the number of overweight children under the age of five has increased by nearly 24% in Africa. In 2019, Asia was home to nearly half of all children under the age of five who were overweight or obese. Over 340 million children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 in 2016 were overweight or obese.

Causes of Obesity

Obesity and overweight are caused by an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. There has been worldwide:

  • an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods high in fat and sugars; 
  • and an increase in physical inactivity as a result of the increasingly sedentary nature of many types of work, changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanisation.

Environmental and societal changes associated with development, as well as a lack of supportive policies in sectors such as health, agriculture, transportation, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing, and education, frequently cause changes in dietary and physical activity patterns.


Orlistat is a medical drug, available to us under the brand name Xenical that belongs to a class of medication called Lipase inhibitors. This medicine is used to promote weight loss by decreasing the amount of fat that is absorbed in your intestine, generally dietary. It works by breaking the dietary fat into smaller compounds so that it can be used or stored for future energy. 

Xenical is available to us in a form of pill that must be taken by mouth with or without food as per your doctor’s prescription. The dosage is based on your medical condition, its response to the treatment, and other medicine that you may be taking along with Xenical. Your doctor may start the dosage low and may increase it gradually after some while. Take the medicine at the same time daily to get the most benefits from it. Do not increase the dosage or take it more often than prescribed. Contact your doctor in case of any confusion or exception associated with medication.

Side effects of Xenical

Common side effects an individual may observe while medicating with Xenical are oily spotting, intestinal gas discharge, several bowel movement disorders, may occur. Inform the doctor if these conditions persist or get worse.

There are some serious side effects which must be informed to the doctor right away if observed such as blurred vision, dark urine, stomach/abdominal pain, eyes/skin yellowing, easy bruising/bleeding, symptoms of kidney stones, etc.

Also, there are some severe allergic reactions involved with this medicine which require immediate medical attention if observed such as severe dizziness, facial itching/swelling, trouble breathing, rashes, etc.

Precautions before using Xenical

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to orlistat or if you have any other allergies before taking it. Inactive ingredients in this product may cause allergic reactions or other problems. More information can be obtained from your pharmacist.

Inform your doctor or pharmacist of your medical history, particularly of:

  • a digestive problem (chronic malabsorption syndrome),
  • kidney stones/problems (such as calcium oxalate kidney stones, hyperoxaluria),
  • an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism),
  • seizures,
  • anorexia nervosa/bulimia,
  • HIV infection,
  • a gall bladder problem (cholestasis).

Also, inform your doctor or dentist about all of the products you use before having surgery (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

If you have diabetes, losing weight may help you control your blood sugar levels. Check your blood sugar levels on a regular basis anda report the results to your doctor. Your diabetes medication, exercise programme, or diet may need to be adjusted by your doctor.

This medication should not be taken while pregnant. Weight loss has no potential benefits for pregnant women and may harm the unborn child. Inform your doctor right away if you become pregnant or suspect you are pregnant.


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What’s the relation between Metabolic syndrome and ED?

What’s the relation between Metabolic syndrome and ED?


Erectile dysfunction (ED) is characterized by an inability to maintain an erection sufficient for a satisfactory sexual encounter. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of symptoms that increases the risk of heart disease in patients. Studies have linked the metabolic syndrome to ED.

The presence of ED is an important indicator that a patient may be at risk for a cardiovascular event within five years of onset. In the same way, metabolic syndrome has multifactorial causes, so it may also have multifactorial effects on erectile function. The purpose of this blog is to review on how metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with ED. Also, whether interventions targeted at improving metabolic syndrome components can improve the condition.  


A man with erectile dysfunction (ED) is unable to achieve and/or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. ED is the most commonly treated sexual dysfunction in men worldwide. It is found in 15% of men between 40 and 50 years old. Also in 45% of men between 60 and 70 years old, and 70% of older men.

The association between ED and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been documented for the past decade. It may be difficult to establish causality, but ED appears to be an indicator of systemic disease, with both ED and CVD arising from the same cause.

What is Erectile dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction is basically a disorder found in men which could be a sign of physical or psychological condition. The symptoms associated with this disorder is found in men’s reproductive organ i.e. inability to keep an erection firmer and longer enough during a sexual activity.

There are many men who experience erectile dysfunction occasionally because of stress, fatigue, alcohol, or emotional issues, but 25% of men have recurring episodes of the disorder. People dealing with erectile dysfunction will be:

  • Unable to achieve erection at anytime needed.
  • might achieve erection sometime but not when needed like during sexual activity.
  • might able to achieve erection when needed but not long enough

What is Metabolic Syndrome?

A metabolic syndrome is a collection of conditions that occur together, increasing your risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. A number of conditions are associated with obesity, including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

The presence of just one of these conditions does not necessarily indicate metabolic syndrome. It does, however, increase your risk of serious diseases. In addition, if you develop more of these conditions, you face a greater risk of complications, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Link between ED and Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome has attracted considerable attention as a result of its increasing association with various pathophysiologic conditions, including heart failure, type 2 diabetes, and erectile dysfunction. It has been shown in numerous studies that various components of the Metabolic syndrome are directly correlated with ED.

Additionally, an independent association between components of Metabolic syndrome and ED was found in the study. Kupelian et al. showed that even at a BMI of 25, Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased ED risk (relative risk = 2.09) using data from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.

An analysis of adult participants in the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey revealed an association between poor glycemic control, impaired insulin sensitivity, and the Metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of ED.


To prevent or control the epidemic trend of the Metabolic syndrome and its consequences, strategies must be developed. Identification and treatment of at-risk individuals early could aid in the improvement of ED and secondary cardiovascular disease, such as weight management, lifestyle changes, and physical activity. There have been several studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention. In a recent study, Esposito et al. found that a Mediterranean-style diet is beneficial in reducing the prevalence of ED in men with Metabolic syndrome, as it is rich in whole grain, fruits, vegetables, legumes, walnuts, and olive oil.


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