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Important types of Cataract everyone need to know about.

Important types of Cataract everyone need to know about.

What is Cataract?

A cataract is a hazy, thick region that develops in the eye’s lens. When proteins in the eye clump together, the lens is unable to transmit clear images to the retina. This leads to the development of a cataract. The retina functions by processing impulses from the light that enters via the lens. The optic nerve receives the signals from it and delivers them to the brain.

It gradually gets worse and eventually obstructs your eyesight. Cataracts can develop in both of your eyes, but they typically do not do so simultaneously. Older persons frequently develop cataracts. The National Eye Institute estimates that by the time people reach the age of 80, more than half of Americans either have cataracts or have had cataract surgery.

What Are the Symptoms?

Typically, cataracts form gradually. You might not even be aware of their presence until they begin to block light. Next, you might observe:

  • hazy, fuzzy, foggy, or filmy vision
  • Nearsightedness (in older persons)
  • alterations in how you see colour
  • driving issues at night (glare from oncoming headlights)
  • glare issues during the day
  • vision in the damaged eye is double.
  • Problems with spectacles or poorly functioning contact lenses

What Causes Cataracts?

The most frequent reason is ageing. This results from typical eye changes that start to occur after the age of 40. Normal lens proteins begin to degrade at that point. The lens becomes clouded due to this. Most people over 60 begin to experience some lens clouding. However, visual issues can not appear for a few of years. There are more causes of cataracts, such as:

  • having cataract-affected parents, siblings, or other family members
  • having certain health issues, such diabetes
  • smoking
  • having undergone radiation therapy for your upper body, surgery, or sustained an eye injury

Types of Cataract

When protein accumulates in the eye’s lens, clouding it, cataracts grow. This prevents crystal-clear light from going through. It may result in some vision loss for you. Cataracts can take many different forms.

Atomic cataracts

This type of cataract, also known as a nuclear sclerotic cataract, is the most common one observed by physicians. Most people who live long enough acquire one.

They develop in the nucleus, or core, of the lens. Your reading vision may actually improve as they get worse. Second sight is referred to as such, yet it is transient.

The lens hardens and turns yellow or even brown over time. Small details are difficult to perceive, colours become less vibrant, and in the dark. Also, brilliant objects appear to have haloes surrounding them.

Cortical cataracts

These develop on the cortex, the outside edge of your lens. They initially appear as white triangle-shaped wedges that point in the direction of your eye’s centre. They emit light as they expand.

Glare is the major symptom. Driving at night could be challenging for you. They may also cause you to feel as though there is a fog in front of your eyes. Identifying distinct colours or determining an object’s distance may be challenging.

You usually get them removed at a young age since they can cause problems with both close and far vision.

Cataracts in the posterior capsule

These develop right inside the rear of your lens capsule, the structure in your eye that encloses and stabilises the lens. Directly in the path of the light as it travels through the lens, they are.

You may experience symptoms within months because they develop more quickly than other cataracts. Your close-up vision is impacted, and they make it more challenging to see in strong light.

Prior to the capsule cataracts

This type develops right inside the lens capsule’s front portion. One may be brought on by an eye injury or edoema. Atopic dermatitis, a kind of eczema, can also cause this.

They might not require treatment if they are tiny or located outside the centre of the lens, it can prevent the eye from learning to see because a doctor must remove one that limits vision after a newborn is born.

Accidental cataracts

A cataract can develop as a result of numerous traumas. You may suffer from one if a ball strikes your eye, or if you suffer burn, chemical, or splinter injuries. The cataract may manifest right after following the damage or years later.

Additional cataracts

Doctors refer to a cataract as secondary if it develops as a result of another illness or medical procedure. Possible causes include diabetes, the use of steroid medications like prednisone, and even cataract surgery.

Ray-induced cataracts

UV radiation from the sun can harm your eyes in addition to your skin. This is something you may already be aware of. If you spend too much time in the sun without eye protection, you could occasionally get cataracts.

This type of cataract is more common in people who work outside, such as farmers and fishermen. Wear sunglasses that offer 100% UVA and UVB protection to avoid it. Another adverse effect of radiation therapy for cancer is cataracts.

Cataracts with zonules or lamellae

This variety often affects both eyes and younger children. They are transferred from parent to child via the genes that cause them.

These cataracts may develop into a Y shape and appear as little white dots in the lens’s centre. It is possible that the lens’ entire centre will eventually turn white.

Polar cataracts in the back

These develop on the rear of your lens in the middle. They’re frequently brought on by genes that have been passed down through your family.

It’s fortunate that posterior polar cataracts frequently don’t show any symptoms because they are challenging to remove.

Cataracts on the polar front

They appear as tiny white dots that develop in the front and centre of your lens. Usually, these cataracts don’t impair your eyesight.

Cataracts following a vitrectomy

The clear gel at the centre of your eye is called vitreous. It is removed during a procedure called a vitrectomy. The procedure may cause a cataract but can help with some eye conditions.

Cataracts in Christmas trees

They develop in your lens and are also known as polychromatic cataracts. People with myotonic dystrophy are more likely to experience them.

Cataracts with a rusty hue

A nuclear cataract becomes extremely hard and brown if untreated. It is known as brunescent.

You find it difficult to distinguish between hues, especially blues and purples. Surgery to remove it is more difficult, time-consuming, and dangerous than when you receive early therapy.

Cataracts caused by diabetes

You may develop this uncommon form of cataract if you have diabetes. It quickly worsens and develops a snowflake-like gray-white pattern.


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What happens when a person is dignosed with Glaucoma?

What happens when a person is dignosed with Glaucoma?

What is Glaucoma?

A series of eye disorders known as glaucoma harm the optic nerve. For clear vision, the optic nerve, which transmits visual data from the eye to the brain, is essential. High pressure in your eye is frequently associated with damage to the optic nerve. However, glaucoma can develop with normal eye pressure as well.

Even while it can strike anyone, older persons are more likely to develop glaucoma. For those over 60, it is one of the main causes of blindness. Numerous glaucoma types show no symptoms at all. You might not notice a change in vision until the problem is advanced since the effect is so gradual.

Regular eye exams that include measuring your eye pressure are crucial. Early glaucoma diagnosis allows for possible prevention or slowing of vision loss. For the rest of your life, glaucoma patients will require treatment or monitoring.

Types of Glaucoma

(Chronic) Open-Angle Glaucoma

The only indication of open-angle, or chronic, glaucoma is a progressive loss of vision. Your vision could be permanently damaged due to this loss’s sluggish progression before any other symptoms show up. This is the most prevalent kind of glaucoma, according to the National Eye Institute (NEI).

(Acute) Angle-Closure Glaucoma

A strong, fast, and painful rise in pressure may result from the rapid buildup of fluid if the flow of your aqueous humour fluid is suddenly blocked. An emergency condition exists with angle-closure glaucoma. In the event that you start to experience symptoms like excruciating pain, nausea, or blurred vision, you should call your doctor right once.

Birth defects glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma is a condition in which an abnormality in the angle of the eye limits or delays normal fluid drainage. Symptoms of congenital glaucoma frequently include clouded eyes, excessive weeping, or sensitivity to light. Glaucoma that is congenital can run in families.

Secondary Glaucoma

Secondary glaucoma frequently develops as a result of trauma or another eye ailment, like cataracts or tumours. This kind of glaucoma can also be brought on by medications like corticosteroids. Rarely, glaucoma can develop as a result of eye surgery.

Glaucoma with normal tension

People with normal eye pressure occasionally get optic nerve injury. This has an unknown origin. However, this type of glaucoma may be caused by high sensitivity or a lack of blood supply to your optic nerve.

Symptoms of Glaucoma

Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most prevalent form of the disease. Except for a progressive loss of vision, it shows no indications or symptoms. You should therefore get yearly complete eye exams so that your ophthalmologist, or eye specialist, can keep track of any changes in your vision.

A medical emergency is acute-angle closure glaucoma, also known as narrow-angle glaucoma. If you suffer any of the following signs, see a doctor right away:

  • intense eye pain
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • your eye is red
  • abrupt changes in eyesight
  • observing bands of colour surrounding lights
  • sudden eyesight haze

What Causes Glaucoma?

Aqueous humour, a transparent fluid that is continuously produced in the back of your eye, The front of your eye is filled with this fluid as it is created. It then exits your eye via channels in your iris and cornea. The intraocular pressure (IOP), which is the normal pressure inside your eye, may rise if these pathways are completely or partially occluded. Your optic nerve may suffer injury if your IOP rises. You could start losing your eye’s sight if the damage to your nerve gets worse.

Sometimes it’s unclear why the pressure in your eyes rises. However, medical professionals think one or more of the following may be involved:

  • eyedrops for dilation
  • obstructed or constrained eye drainage
  • prescription drugs like corticosteroids

How Is Glaucoma Treated?

IOP reduction is the main objective of glaucoma treatment in order to prevent further vision loss. Usually, prescription eye drops are the first thing your doctor will prescribe. Your doctor might recommend one of the following therapies if these don’t work or if more sophisticated therapy is required:


There are many medications available that are made to lower IOP. These medications can be used orally or as eye drops, but drops are more prevalent. One of these or a mixture of them may be recommended by your doctor.


Your doctor can advise surgery to create a drainage passage for fluid or remove tissues that are generating the excess fluid if a blocked or slow channel is the cause of elevated IOP.

Different therapies are used to treat angle-closure glaucoma. This form of glaucoma is a medical emergency that needs to be treated right away in order to lower eye pressure as soon as feasible. To reverse the angle closure, medications are typically used initially, but they may not be successful. It is also possible to use a laser to perform a procedure called laser peripheral iridotomy. To enable greater fluid circulation, this technique makes tiny holes in your iris.


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