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Bird flu: Risks and complication you need to know.

Bird flu: Risks and complication you need to know.

Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu, is a virus that can infect not just birds but also people and other animals. The majority of the virus’s variants only affect birds.

The most prevalent strain of avian flu is H5N1. It can easily infect people and other animals who come into touch with a carrier and is fatal to birds. The World Health Organization reports that since H5N1 was initially identified in humans in 1997, over 60% of people who contracted the disease have died.

The virus is not known to pass from person to person at this time. However, some specialists are concerned that H5N1 could eventually threaten humans with a pandemic.

Health officials are concerned that if a bird flu virus mutates into a version that spreads more quickly from person to person, a global outbreak might happen. The development of vaccinations to help prevent the spread of avian flu is now underway.

How avian influenza virus is spread?

All avian influenza type A viruses are thought to be carried by water birds, such as wild ducks. Bird faeces act as a vehicle for the viruses to leave the bird’s intestines and enter the environment (poo). Bird flu might potentially spread from diseased migratory birds to any nation they travel to.

Wild birds don’t typically exhibit bird flu symptoms, but the H5N1 virus that is presently circulating has made some wild birds sick and even killed them. Domesticated species, including chickens and turkeys, are more frequently killed by the avian influenza virus.

The signs that can appear in birds vary depending on the species, but they can include vomiting, trouble breathing, a swelled head, and even death. The virus is excreted by ill birds in their feathers, mucus, saliva, and faeces.

Bird flu can infect people who come into close contact with sick birds. For instance, a person might touch a sick bird, get chicken faeces on their hands, and neglect to wash their hands before eating. The infected bird poop will subsequently be consumed by them. The most typical route for a human to contract avian flu is through this. Although it can persist in raw poultry flesh as well, the virus is killed by conventional cooking.

There is no proof that the H5N1 avian flu variant that is now circulating can be easily transmitted from person to person.

Symptoms of bird flu

If you suffer symptoms similar to the flu that are more severe than those of the flu, such as:

  • cough
  • diarrhoea
  • respiratory problems
  • fever (over 38°C or 100.4°F)
  • headache
  • muscular pain
  • malaise
  • clogged nose
  • unwell throat

Before you visit the doctor or hospital, you should let the personnel know if you have been exposed to the bird flu. By letting them know beforehand, they can take preventative measures to safeguard personnel and other patients before taking care of you.

What causes bird flu?

Despite the fact that there are other strains of bird flu, H5N1 was the first to infect people. In 1997, the first infection took place in Hong Kong. The handling of diseased chickens was connected to the outbreak.

Although H5N1 normally exists among wild waterfowl, it can spread quickly to farmed poultry. Humans can contract the disease by coming into contact with contaminated bird excrement, nasal secretions, or eye or mouth secretions.

The bird flu cannot be contracted by eating properly cooked poultry or eggs from sick birds, however runny eggs should never be served. When meat reaches an internal temperature of 165°F (73.9°C), it is deemed safe.

Bird flu risk factors

H5N1 has the capacity to endure for long stretches of time. For up to 10 days, H5N1-infected birds continue to expel the virus in their faeces and saliva. The infection can spread by touching infected surfaces.

You may be more susceptible to getting H5N1 if you are:

  • a farmer of poultry
  • a visitor to the impacted areas
  • being exposed to diseased birds
  • one who consumes raw poultry or eggs
  • a medical professional treating infected individuals
  • a member of the sick person’s family

Complications of Bird flu

When afflicted with the avian flu, a person may experience serious health issues, such as:

  • Pneumonia
  • Red eye (conjunctivitis)
  • respiration difficulty
  • a kidney problem
  • Heart issues

Because so few people have contracted bird flu, even though it may kill more than half of those it infects, the number of fatalities is still modest. Since 1997, the World Health Organization has received reports of fewer than 500 bird flu fatalities.

The seasonal flu, on the other hand, is thought to be the sole cause of thousands of deaths annually in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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Is it possible to have Angina with normal blood pressure?

Is it possible to have Angina with normal blood pressure?

What is Angina?

Angina is tightness, squeezing, pressure, or pain in the chest. It occurs when an area of the heart muscle receives less blood oxygen than usual. It is not a disease but a symptom. Angina usually happens due to ischemia, when one or more of the coronary arteries becomes narrow or blocked. It is often a symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Alone, angina is not life threatening, but it can resemble the symptoms of a heart attack, and it is a sign of heart disease. Receive medical attention if angina occurs unexpectedly, does not go away, or does not respond to rest or medication.

What does angina feel like?

Most angina sufferers describe having pressure or pain in the chest. Or they describe a heaviness or squeezing in their chest. Some claim that it has the sensation of dyspepsia. Others claim that putting angina into words is difficult.

Usually, the pain starts behind your breastbone. You might not always be able to pinpoint the particular source of the pain. Your upper torso may experience upper chest pain or discomfort as well. Your neck, jaw, shoulders, arms, back, and belly are a few of these.

Other symptoms, referred to as “angina analogues,” can be brought on by a lack of oxygen to your heart. You may not feel any of these symptoms in your chest, such as:

Types of Angina

Enduring angina

When the heart is working harder than usual, such as during exercise, stable angina develops. Normally, it lasts for five minutes.

It has a predictable rhythm and might last for weeks, months, or even years. The symptoms can typically be reduced with rest or medicine.

Erratic angina

Unstable angina has no set rhythm and typically strikes while you’re at rest. Atherosclerosis, which involves a blockage preventing blood from reaching the heart, is the primary cause.

The pain may develop with time and linger for more than five minutes. Medication and rest may not be enough to reduce the symptoms.

Angina that is unstable can signal a possible heart attack. Anyone experiencing sudden angina should seek emergency medical attention.

Angina microvascular

Coronary microvascular disease can cause microvascular angina (MVD). The tiniest coronary arteries are impacted by this.

In addition to chest pain, a person may feel:

  • low energy and weariness
  • issues with sleep
  • breathing difficulty
  • Stable angina is more transient than microvascular angina. It frequently lasts for more than ten minutes. Trustworthy Source and occasionally takes more than 30 minutes.

Angina variant

Rare variant angina Prinzmetal angina is the name some doctors give to this condition, which can occur when the body is at rest, usually in the early morning or late at night.

It takes place when the coronary arteries spasm. Cold exposure, stress, medications, smoking, or cocaine usage are examples of potential triggers. Although the illness is chronic, medicines can help manage it.

What causes angina?

Angina is brought on by myocardial ischemia, which is reduced blood supply to the heart. Your coronary arteries may develop a number of issues that hinder your heart from getting adequate blood. These consist of:

Coronary artery disease: The most frequent cause of angina is coronary artery disease. When plaque (a fatty, waxy substance) accumulates in your coronary arteries, which carry blood to your heart, it causes heart disease. Your heart receives less blood as a result of these arteries’ narrowing or hardening (atherosclerosis).

Coronary microvascular disease: Compared to men and individuals designated male at birth, women and people assigned female at birth (AFAB) had a higher prevalence of coronary microvascular disease (AMAB). Small blood veins that branch off of your coronary arteries suffer damage to their walls.

Coronary artery spasm: Your coronary arteries repeatedly contract (tighten) and then relax during a coronary artery spasm. Your heart’s blood supply is momentarily restricted by these spams. Even without coronary artery disease, you can experience coronary spasms. Regular CAD testing may not be able to diagnose this, and it may be necessary to conduct specialised testing that not all hospitals offer.

Angina with normal blood pressure?

Even though the coronary arteries themselves are healthy, angina can occasionally develop when parts of the heart muscle are not getting enough oxygen.

The following conditions can cause angina without having coronary artery disease:

  • extremely low blood pressure, which may happen in shock as a result of bleeding
  • severe anaemia
  • extremely active effort
  • a lot of mental stress (as in broken heart syndrome)
  • significant hyperthyroidism
  • persistent tachycardia
  • significant hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • severely enlarged ventricles
  • significant aortic stenosis

These disorders typically affect sicker people, and angina is typically just one symptom among many. Therefore, the absence of classic CAD is unlikely to mislead the healthcare professionals caring for these patients into a false sense of complacency.


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