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Important note on Parkinson’s disease you need to know.

Important note on Parkinson’s disease you need to know.

Parkinson’s disease is a neurological condition that worsens over time. Movement issues are one of the earliest symptoms. Dopamine is a chemical that exists in the brain and is responsible for smooth and coordinated motions of the body’s muscles. The “substantia nigra” is a region of the brain where dopamine is made.

The substantia nigra cells begin to deteriorate in Parkinson’s disease. Dopamine levels drop as a result of this. Parkinson’s disease symptoms begin to show up when they have decreased by 60 to 80%.

Parkinson’s disease stages

Parkinson’s is a progressive illness, which means that over time, the condition’s symptoms usually get worse.

The Hoehn and Yahr scale is frequently used by doctors to categorise its stages. This scale categorises symptoms into five phases and aids medical practitioners in determining the severity of disease symptoms and signs.

Stage 1

Stage 1 is the mildest type is Parkinson’s. In fact, it’s so mild that you could not even notice any symptoms. Your regular activities and chores might not yet be affected by them.

Even if you do experience symptoms, they might just affect one side of your body.

Stage 2

It may take months or even years for stage 1 to move into stage 2. The experiences of each person will vary. You might feel symptoms at this stage, which is moderate such as:

Stiffness in your muscles can make regular tasks more difficult and take longer to complete. However, you probably won’t have any balance issues at this point.

The body’s two sides may experience the same symptoms. Posture, movement, and facial expression modifications may be more obvious.

Stage 3

The symptoms change course at this midpoint. You probably won’t develop any new symptoms, but they might become more obvious. They might also obstruct all of your daily activities.

Activities move more slowly as a result of the noticeable slower movements. Falls can grow more frequent as balance problems become more serious. However, people with Parkinson’s disease in stage 3 can typically keep their independence and carry out daily tasks without much help.

Stage 4

There are substantial modifications as the stages 3 and 4 proceed. Without a walker or other aid, it will be quite difficult for you to stand at this point.

Significantly slower reactions and muscle motions are also observed. It might be risky and unsafe to live alone.

Stage 5

In this most advanced stage, constant help is required due to the intense symptoms. Standing will be challenging, if not impossible. Most likely, a wheelchair will be needed.

Parkinson’s patients may also have disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations at this stage. The disease’s consequences can start developing in its latter stages.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

Some of the early signs of Parkinson’s can show up years before there are any movement issues. These initial indications include:

  • reduced capacity to smell (anosmia)
  • constipation
  • tiny, squished handwriting
  • voice variations
  • hunched position

The four most prevalent motor issues include:

  • tremor (shaking that occurs at rest)
  • sluggish motions
  • rigidity in the arms, legs, and trunk
  • difficulties with balance and a propensity to tumble

Additional signs include:

  • blank look on the face
  • a propensity to become trapped while walking
  • low-pitched, muted speech
  • reduced swallowing and blinking
  • inclination to reverse direction
  • shortened arm walking while swinging
  • Parkinsonian gait, or the propensity to walk with shuffled steps

Additional signs and symptoms could be:

  • Seborrheic dermatitis is the condition when the skin develops flaky white or yellow scales on greasy areas.
  • greater likelihood of developing the deadly skin disease melanoma
  • vivid dreams, chatting, and movement while sleeping are all signs of disturbed sleep.
  • depression
  • anxiety
  • hallucinations
  • psychosis
  • issues with focus and memory
  • visual-spatial interactions are challenging

Parkinson’s disease’s early warning signals could go unnoticed. With these warning signals, your body may try to warn you of the movement issue years before any movement difficulties appear.

Causes of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a neurological condition brought on by alterations in the brain. Although the exact reason why it occurs is unknown, scientists have found some varieties that do.

Low dopamine levels

Parkinson’s disease symptoms are mostly brought on by low or declining levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. It occurs when brain cells that make dopamine die.

The area of the brain that regulates movement and coordination receives information from dopamine. Therefore, it may be more difficult for people to control their movement when dopamine levels are low.

The severity of the symptoms gradually worsens as dopamine levels continue to drop.

low levels of norepinephrine

Damage to the nerve terminals that create another neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, which supports blood circulation and other natural bodily activities, may also be a component of Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease patients with low norepinephrine levels may have both motor and nonmotor symptoms like:

  • rigidity and stiffness
  • physical unsteadiness
  • tremor
  • anxiety
  • having trouble focusing
  • dementia
  • depression

This may help to explain why orthostatic hypotension frequently occurs in persons with Parkinson’s disease. When someone stands up, their blood pressure fluctuations, which can cause dizziness and a chance of falling, is referred to as this.

The Lewy body

The brain of a person with Parkinson’s disease may have Lewy bodies, or clusters of the protein alpha-synuclein. Changes in movement, thinking, behaviour, and mood can result from the buildup of Lewy bodies, which can also result in nerve cell death. Dementia may also result from it.

Lewy body dementia is not the same as Parkinson’s disease, although because the symptoms are similar, some people may have both.

Genetic factors

Although mutations in numerous genes have been found to be associated with Parkinson’s disease, experts do not believe this to be a hereditary ailment.

Only 10% of cases, particularly in those with early-onset disease, seem to be genetic in nature.

Autoimmune factors

According to a 2017 study, there may be a hereditary connection between inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and Parkinson’s disease.

In 2018, Taiwanese health data were examined by researchers who discovered a 1.37-fold increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders.

Risk factors for parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease risk may be increased by a number of environmental variables.

These consist of:

  • Past traumatic brain injury: For instance, head traumas sustained while playing contact sports may raise the likelihood of the illness.
  • Exposure to toxins: These include metals, pesticides, solvents, and other contaminants.
  • Males are 50% more likely than females to have the illness, while a 2016 study found that the risk for females may rise with age.
  • Age: The illness frequently manifests around the age of 60.
  • Some pharmaceuticals: Some drugs can cause Parkinsonism, a condition in which a person exhibits tremors and other symptoms but does not have Parkinson’s disease.

Symptoms typically start to show up around the age of 60. However, early-onset Parkinson’s, which manifests before the age of 50, affects 5–10% of those who have the condition.

Statistics in the past have indicated that Black Americans are less likely than people of other ethnicities to have Parkinson’s disease.

The lack of knowledge about how the disease can affect Black people and a higher likelihood of misdiagnosis as a result of unequal access to healthcare, according to experts, may be to blame for this.



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Key notes on Post-Lyme disease syndrome and its symptoms?

Key notes on Post-Lyme disease syndrome and its symptoms?

The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi is the source of the contagious illness Lyme disease. Humans contract B. burgdorferi when a black-legged or deer tick bites them. After consuming infected mice, birds, or deer, the tick contracts the infection.

For the infection to be transmitted, a tick must have been attached to the skin for between 36 and 48 hours. Many Lyme disease patients have no recollection of being bitten by a tick. The first case of Lyme disease was identified in 1975 in the Connecticut village of Old Lyme. In both Europe and the US, it is the most prevalent infection transmitted by ticks.

The likelihood of contracting this sickness is higher in people who reside in or frequently visit forested areas. Additionally, visitors to woodland areas who own domesticated animals are more likely to contract Lyme disease.

Symptoms of Lyme disease

Similar to a mosquito bite, a tick bite may appear as a tiny, irritating lump on your skin. This doesn’t imply that you have an illness spread by ticks. Many people won’t even be aware they’ve been bitten by a tick.

Different Lyme disease symptoms exist. They typically appear in phases. However, the phases can mix. Additionally, not everyone exhibits the typical early-stage symptoms.

Stage 1

Typically, the first signs of Lyme illness appear 3 to 30 days following a tick bite. There aren’t many symptoms present at this stage of the disease. Early localised disease is what we refer to as.

A rash is a typical Lyme disease symptom. However, it doesn’t always occur. The rash often begins as a single circle and slowly spreads from the tick bite site. The centre could grow distinct and resemble a target or bull’s-eye. Although the rash frequently feels warm to the touch, it normally isn’t uncomfortable or unpleasant.

Following additional stage 1 signs:

  • Fever and headache.
  • extreme exhaustion.
  • stiff joints.
  • Muscle discomfort and soreness.
  • lymph nodes with swelling.

Stage 2

The Lyme illness might worsen if left untreated. Within 3 to 10 weeks of a tick bite, the symptoms frequently manifest. Stage 2 is frequently more severe and pervasive. Early-disseminated disease is the term for it.

Stage 2 symptoms could also include those from stage 1 and the following:

  • many rashes on various body areas.
  • neck stiffness or discomfort
  • weakness in the facial muscles on one or both sides.
  • irregular heartbeats are brought on by immune system activation in the heart’s tissue.
  • Leg pain that originates in the back and hips and spreads.
  • Hands or feet suffering from pain, numbness, or weakness
  • edoema that hurts in the eye or eyelid tissues.
  • Immune system activation that results in discomfort or visual loss in the ocular nerves.

Stage 3

You might experience additional symptoms in the third stage along with previous stage symptoms. Late-disseminated disease is the term for this stage.

The most prevalent condition of this stage in the US is arthritis in big joints, especially the knees. Long-lasting discomfort, edoema, or stiffness is possible. The signs could also come and go. Symptoms of stage 3 typically appear 2 to 12 months after a tick bite.

Acrodermatitis chronic atrophicans is a skin ailment that can be brought on by the kind of Lyme disease that is prevalent in Europe. The tops of the feet and the backs of the hands develop discoloured, swollen skin. The elbows and knees may also be affected. In more severe cases, tissues or joints could be damaged.

After a tick bite, this skin condition may appear months or years later.

Post-Lyme disease syndrome

Post-Lyme disease syndrome or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome is what happens if you receive antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease but still suffer symptoms.

According to a 2016 New England Journal of Medicine report, this syndrome affects 10 to 20 percent of individuals with Lyme disease. The reason is still a mystery.

Mobility and cognitive abilities may be impaired by the post-Lyme disease syndrome. The main goal of treatment is to reduce suffering from pain and discomfort. Though most people bounce back, it may take months or even years.

Post-Lyme disease syndrome symptoms

The signs and symptoms of post-Lyme disease syndrome are the same as those that appear at the beginning of the illness.

These signs could consist of:

Lyme disease causes

Borrelia burgdorferi is the bacteria that causes Lyme disease (rarely Borrelia mayonii). People contract B. burgdorferi when a black-legged tick, sometimes referred to as a deer tick, bites them.

The Northeastern, Mid-Atlantic, and North Central regions of the United States are where infected black-legged ticks spread Lyme disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The disease is spread along the US Pacific Coast by Western Black-Legged Ticks.

Is Lyme disease contagious?

There is no proof that Lyme disease spreads among humans. Furthermore, the CDC states that there are no cases of Lyme disease transmission through breast milk.

Bacteria carried by black-legged deer ticks cause Lyme disease, which is an infection. Despite the fact that these bacteria are present in bodily fluids, there is no proof that Lyme disease may be passed from one person to another while sneezing, coughing, or kissing.

Additionally, there is no proof that Lyme disease may be spread through blood transfusions or through sexual contact.


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