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Potential causes and symptoms of Epilepsy you must know.

Potential causes and symptoms of Epilepsy you must know.

What is Epilepsy?

Unprovoked, repeated seizures caused by the neurological disorder are called Epilepsy. A seizure is a sudden spike in aberrant brain electrical activity. When you experience two or more seizures without another obvious explanation, a doctor will diagnose epilepsy.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 50 million people throughout the world have epilepsy, while the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 3.5 million individuals in the United States have epilepsy (CDC).

Epilepsy can affect anyone, however it typically starts in young children and elderly people. Men are more likely than women to acquire epilepsy, probably as a result of higher exposure to risk factors such alcohol consumption and head trauma.

There are two primary categories of seizures:

  • universal seizures
  • focused epilepses

Your entire brain is affected by generalised seizures. Only one area of your brain is impacted by focal or partial seizures.

It could be challenging to identify a minor seizure. You might be awake during it, and it might only last a few seconds. Spasms and uncontrollable muscular twitches might result from more severe seizures. They may cause confusion or unconsciousness and last anywhere from a few seconds to many minutes. You might not remember having a seizure afterward.

Epilepsy cannot currently be cured, but it can be controlled with medicine and other methods.

What happens in your brain when you have epilepsy?

All parts of your body can communicate with and receive information from the cells in your brain. A constant electrical impulse that moves from cell to cell is used to transmit these messages.

This periodic electrical impulse pattern is disturbed by epilepsy. Instead, there are electrical activity spikes between cells in one or more regions of your brain, much like an erratic lightning storm. Your awareness (including loss of consciousness), sensations, emotions, and muscle actions are all affected by this electrical disruption.

Types and symptoms of epilepsy

The primary epilepsy symptom is seizures. The symptoms of a seizure vary from person to person and depending on the type.

Focused (partial) seizures

Previously known as a simple partial seizure, a focal aware seizure doesn’t cause unconsciousness. These signs include:

  • Sense of taste, smell, sight, hearing, or touch changes
  • dizziness
  • limb twitching and tingling

Unaware focal seizures (previously called complex partial seizures) involve a loss of consciousness or awareness. Additional signs include:

  • looking vacant
  • unresponsiveness
  • performing frequent motions

Universal seizures

The entire brain is involved in generalised seizures. Subtypes consist of:

  • Absence seizures. “Petit mal seizures” were the previous name for absence seizures. They frequently result in a brief loss of awareness, a blank stare, and occasionally repeated actions like blinking or lip-smacking.
  • Tonic seizures. Sudden stiffness in your legs, arms, or trunk muscles is a symptom of tonic seizures.
  • Atonic seizures. Muscle control is lost as a result of atonic seizures. Because a sudden loss of muscle power can cause you to fall quickly, they are also known as “drop seizures.”
  • Clonic seizures. Repeated, jerky muscular movements of the face, neck, and arms are hallmarks of clonic seizures.
  • Myoclonic seizures. Arms and legs twitch quickly and spontaneously as a result of myoclonic seizures. These seizures can occasionally group together.
  • Seizures with tonic-clonic. Grand mal seizures are another name for tonic-clonic seizures. These signs include:
    • rigidification of the body
    • shaking
    • a lack of bowel or bladder control
    • gnawing at one’s tongue
    • consciousness is lost

You might not remember having a seizure afterward or you might have mild nausea for sometime.

What causes epilepsy?

According to the WHO, the cause of epilepsy cannot be identified in roughly 50% of cases. Seizures can be brought on by a number of circumstances, including:

  • Traumatic head injury or another type of head injury
  • following a brain injury, brain scarring (post-traumatic epilepsy)
  • severe ailment or extremely high fever

According to the CDC, stroke accounts for roughly half of older people’ instances of epilepsy with no known aetiology.

  • oxygen deprivation in the brain
  • brain cyst or tumour
  • incorporating Alzheimer’s illness, dementia
  • a mother’s use of certain medicines, an accident during pregnancy, a brain abnormality, or a newborn’s lack of oxygen
  • Infectious diseases such as HIV, AIDS, and meningitis
  • genetic, developmental, or neurological conditions

Although epilepsy can manifest at any age, it is typically diagnosed in the first few years of life or after the age of 60.

What are seizure triggers?

Some people can pinpoint the events or circumstances that cause their seizures. The following are a handful of the known triggers that are most frequently used:

  • absence of sleep
  • a fever or sickness
  • stress
  • flashing or patterned lights, or both
  • Caffeine, alcohol, or alcohol withdrawal, narcotics, or prescription medications
  • skipping meals, overindulging, or certain dietary components
  • really low blood sugar
  • a brain injury

Finding triggers is not always simple. It’s not necessarily true that a single occurrence qualifies as a trigger. Frequently, a seizure is brought on by a number of circumstances. Keeping a seizure notebook can help you identify your triggers. Keep the following in mind following each seizure:

  • time and day
  • which activity you engaged in
  • what was going on in the area
  • strange sounds, scents, or sights
  • unexpected stressors
  • how much you ate or how long it
  • Depending on what you were eating or how recently you had last eaten
  • the degree of your exhaustion and the quality of your sleep the night before

Your seizure notebook can also be used to check on the effectiveness of your medication. Take note of any adverse effects and how you felt right before and right after your seizure.

When you visit the doctor, bring the journal with you. If changing your prescription dosage or looking into alternative treatments is or becomes required, it might be helpful for your doctor to know.


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How dangerous is a Benign tumor and its types?

How dangerous is a Benign tumor and its types?

What is Benign tumor?

Noncancerous growths in the body are known as benign tumours. They have distinct borders, modest growth, and can appear anywhere on the body. They don’t spread to other bodily parts like malignant tumours do.

You could presume it is a cancerous tumour right away if you find a lump or mass in your body that can be felt from the outside. For instance, women who self-examine their breasts and discover lumps are frequently worried. The majority of breast tumours are benign, nevertheless. In actuality, the majority of growths on the body are benign.

Over 90% of breast tissue changes are benign, and benign growths are highly prevalent. Similar to other cancers, benign bone tumours are more common than malignant bone tumours.

Types of Benign Tumor.

Numerous benign tumours can form in various locations throughout the body.

Whereas benign tumours grow determines their classification. For instance, lipomas develop from fat cells while myomas do so from muscle. Below are some examples of several benign tumours:


A thin layer of tissue called epithelial tissue, which covers glands, organs, and other internal systems, is where adenomas develop. The development of colonic polyps and liver tumours are two examples. The thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands can all develop adenomas.

These tumours may progress to cancer. In fact, one in ten colon adenomas progress to cancer.


The most frequent kind of benign tumour, lipomas develop from fat cells. A lipoma will appear once every 1,000 people in their lifetime. They frequently appear on the neck, back, shoulders, and arms. They can be somewhat manipulated under the skin and are typically spherical and velvety.

Treatment for lipomas might not be necessary unless they are painful or developing quickly. According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, they also seldom get cancer. Lipomas can develop at any age, however they are most prevalent in persons between the ages of 40 and 60.


Myomas can develop in blood vessel walls or from muscle. They can also develop in smooth muscle, such as that which lines the uterus, the stomach, or the gastrointestinal tract. It is also referred to as a uterine fibroid if the myoma forms in the uterus.


Fibroids, also known as fibromas, can develop in any organ, tendon, or ligament’s connective tissue. They are called uterine fibroids in the uterus, where they are most prevalent. (Uterine myomas and leiomyomas are other names for uterine fibroids.)

The symptoms of uterine fibroids include severe vaginal bleeding, back or pelvic pain, and stomach pressure. Although they are rarely malignant, surgery for fibroid may be required to treat the symptoms.


Moles are another name for nevi. These are typical, non-cancerous skin growths that can be tan, brown, pink, or even black in appearance.

Dyplastic nevi, for example, have a higher risk of turning into skin cancer. In order to detect these changes, routine skin exams are required.

Skin tags and other benign skin neoplasms are examples of skin growths. These atypical growths should be monitored for cancerous developments, just as moles.


Benign tumours called hemangiomas develop from blood vessels. The skin or internal organs like the liver or intestines may accumulate blood vessel cells. You might notice a red or bluish mark on the skin when it occurs. On the head, neck, or trunk, these are frequently seen. These typically disappear on their own and are seen as birthmarks by some people.

Hemangiomas that are close to the eyes or ears might impair hearing or vision. Furthermore, they may bleed or get ulcers. Some people need medical attention or laser therapy. In some situations, surgery can be required.


Meningiomas are benign tumours that grow in the membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord, or the meninges. These tumours might not present any symptoms, but they may do so if they enlarge significantly or put pressure on the brain or spinal column. These signs include a headache, a seizure, side weakness, and eyesight issues.

These tumours can sporadically develop cancer. According to research, 1–3% of meningiomas develop into cancerous brain tumours.


Benign brain tumours called neuromas develop inside of nerves. Almost anyplace in the body can experience them. The peripheral nervous system’s nerve sheaths generate schwannomas. Neurofibromas form on nerve tissue and can also spread deeper into the body, such the bladder, than the skin.


Exostosis, also name for osteomas, is the benign development of new bone over preexisting bone. Any bone in the body could be affected by this. It is known as an osteochondroma when the bone growth is coated in cartilage.

Some growths may not hurt and don’t require medical attention. However, some of them can hurt and may require surgery to be removed. They have no probability of developing into cancer.

Causes of benign tumors

A benign tumor’s precise cause is frequently unknown. It arises when the body’s cells divide and grow too quickly. The body usually manages to keep cell division and development in check. When a cell dies or becomes damaged, new, healthy cells are produced in its place. Tumors are growths that are created when dead cells are left behind and stick together.

The same processes govern cancer cell growth. Cancerous cells can invade neighbouring tissue and spread to other parts of the body, in contrast to the cells in benign tumours.

Although the exact cause of benign tumour development is unknown, there are some possible explanations. These consist of:

  • environmental elements like chemicals, radiation, or poisons
  • infection or inflammation
  • diet
  • localised ailment or damage
  • stress
  • genetics

Even children can acquire benign tumours, while adults are more prone to do so as they become older.

Symptoms of benign tumors

Neither benign nor malignant tumours always exhibit symptoms. The operation of critical organs or the senses may be impacted by a number of symptoms, depending on the location of the tumour.

Possible signs of a benign tumour, depending on the location, include:

  • chills
  • annoyance or pain
  • fatigue
  • fever
  • reduced appetite
  • morning sweats
  • slim down

Even benign tumours that are close to the skin may be large enough to be noticed. The majority, nevertheless, aren’t painfully or discomfortingly enormous. If they are, they can be taken away. Lipomas, for instance, are often soft, moveable, and painless, yet they can be large enough to be detected.

Benign skin-surface tumours like nevi or hemangiomas may exhibit some degree of skin pigmentation. Anything that seems strange has to be examined by a physician. Depending on where they are growing, some benign tumours could produce particular symptoms. These consist of:

Benign brain tumour

A benign brain tumour may cause the following symptoms:

  • headaches
  • vision issues
  • unclear memory
  • seizures

A meningioma or other tumour pushing on the brain or spinal column causes these symptoms to appear. Your daily life may be impacted by symptoms, which may necessitate therapy.

Benign breast tumour

Although most alterations to breast tissue are benign, some tumours may still be large enough to be felt by hand. The following are signs of these benign breast growths:

  • elevated lump beneath or on the skin
  • If near the skin, it would be large enough to feel.
  • EIther firm or soft, while pressing
  • may change if you press

benign bone tumour

Osteomas and osteochondromas are benign bone tumours that rarely produce symptoms, but they can if they are large or close to joints. These signs comprise:

  • notably in the muscles or joints
  • bone or nerve pressure
  • complete range of motion is challenging
  • Shorter on one limb than the other


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Important causes of Stroke you need to know about.

Important causes of Stroke you need to know about.

What is a stroke?

A stroke happens when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and bleeds or when the blood supply to the brain is cut off. Blood and oxygen cannot reach the brain’s tissues because of the rupture or obstruction.

Stroke is a primary cause of death in the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). More than 795,000 Americans experience a stroke each year. Brain tissue and cells are damaged and start to die within minutes of being oxygen-deprived.

Strokes often come in three different forms:

  • Temporary ischemia. A blood clot causes a transient ischemic attack (TIA), which normally resolves on its own.
  • Ischemic stroke. It involves an obstruction in the artery brought on by a clot or plaque. The signs and problems of an ischemic stroke may persist permanently or linger longer than those of a TIA.
  • Hemorrhagic stroke. A blood vessel that seeps into the brain either bursts or leaks, which is the source of the condition.

Strokes are often fatal. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), there were 37.6 age-adjusted deaths for every 100,000 stroke diagnosis in 2017. This fatality rate is 13.6% lower than it was in 2007 thanks to medical advances in the treatment of strokes.

How does a stroke affect my body?

What a heart attack is to your heart, strokes are to your brain. When you suffer a stroke, a portion of your brain loses blood flow, preventing that part of your brain from receiving oxygen. The afflicted brain cells become oxygen-starved and quit functioning correctly without oxygen.

Your brain cells will perish if you deprive them of oxygen for too long. If enough brain cells in a particular region perish, the damage is irreversible, and you risk losing the abilities that region used to regulate. Restoring blood flow, however, might stop that kind of harm from occurring or at least lessen how bad it is. Time is therefore very important when treating a stroke.

What causes a stroke?

Hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes can occur for a variety of reasons. Blood clots are typically the cause of ischemic strokes. These can occur for a number of causes, including:

  • Atherosclerosis.
  • bleeding issues.
  • Heart fibrillation (especially when it happens due to sleep apnea).
  • Heart problems (atrial septal defect or ventricular septal defect).
  • ischemia microvascular disease (which can block smaller blood vessels in your brain).

There are other more causes of hemorrhagic strokes, including:

  • High blood pressure, especially when it is present for an extended period of time, when it is extremely high, or both.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes can occasionally result from brain aneurysms.
    brain cancer (including cancer).
  • diseases like moyamoya disease can weaken or result in unexpected abnormalities in the blood vessels in your brain.

Related conditions

A person’s likelihood of having a stroke can also be influenced by various other ailments and elements. These consist of:

  • a drinking disorder.
  • elevated blood pressure (this can play a role in all types of strokes, not just hemorrhagic ones because it can contribute to blood vessel damage that makes a stroke more likely).
  • High triglycerides (hyperlipidemia).
  • Migraine headaches (they can resemble stroke symptoms, and sufferers of migraines, particularly those who experience auras, also have an increased lifetime chance of developing a stroke).
  • diabetes type 2.
  • smoking and using other tobacco products (including vaping and smokeless tobacco).
  • drug addiction (including prescription and non-prescription drugs).

Stroke symptoms

Damage to brain tissues results from reduced blood supply to the brain. The body components that are regulated by the brain damage-related areas show signs of a stroke.

The better the prognosis for someone experiencing a stroke, the earlier they receive treatment. Because of this, being aware of the symptoms of a stroke will help you take prompt action. Some signs of a stroke include:

  • paralysis
  • Arm, face, or leg numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body
  • difficulty communicating or comprehending others
  • muddled speech
  • Lack of clarity, disorientation, or responsiveness
  • abrupt behavioural alterations, particularly increased agitation
  • visual issues, such as double vision or difficulty seeing with one or both eyes that are blurry or blacked out
  • loss of coordination or balance
  • dizziness
  • strong headache that appears out of the blue
  • seizures
  • dizziness or vomiting

Any stroke victim needs to see a doctor right away. Call your local emergency services as soon as you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing a stroke. Early intervention is essential to avoiding the following consequences:

  • brain injury
  • long-term impairment
  • death

Don’t be scared to seek emergency medical assistance if you believe you have seen the symptoms of a stroke because it’s best to be extra careful while dealing with a stroke.

Risk factors for stroke

You are more prone to stroke if you have certain risk factors. Risk factors for stroke include the following, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteTrusted Source:

  • Diet
  • Inactivity
  • heavy drinking
  • Tobacco use

Personal history

You have no control over a number of stroke risk factors, including:

  • Family background. Some families have an increased risk of stroke due to inherited health issues including high blood pressure.
  • Sex. Strokes can affect both men and women, although in all age categories, women are more likely to experience them than men, according to the CDCTrusted Source.
  • Age. The probability of having a stroke increases with age.
  • Ethnicity and race. Compared to other racial groups, African Americans, Alaska Natives, and American Indians are more likely to experience a stroke.


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