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Important benefits between heart and regular exercises.

Important benefits between heart and regular exercises.

Although getting regular physical activity throughout the week may be challenging, it is good for cardiovascular health.

Regular moderate to vigorous physical activity during the week had similar effects on cardiovascular health as moderate to vigorous physical activity concentrated over one to two days, generally the weekend, according to a recent study.

The results demonstrated that the risk of heart attacks, atrial fibrillation (AFib), heart failure, and stroke was reduced in both “weekend warriors” and regular exercisers.`

Exercise has important health benefits, such as lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Some people may find it challenging to engage in regular physical activity during the week, which may cause them to engage in more intense physical activity on the weekends.

A recent study compared patterns of physical activity behaviour between individuals who spread their physical activity out over the course of the week with those who concentrated their moderate to strenuous physical activity over one or two days.

According to research, both forms of exercise were linked to a similar reduction in the risk of heart attack, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke.

Weekend workouts versus weekday workouts

The present study’s researchers emphasized that the recommended amount of exercise is 150 minutes per week of moderate to intense activity.

They sought to determine whether the linked health advantages changed between two important groups:

Weekend warriors are those who engage in a sustained period of moderate to vigorous physical activity over one to two days. Individuals who evenly distribute their moderate to vigorous physical activity throughout the week

A group with activity levels of fewer than 150 minutes per week was also included by the researchers in order to establish an exact comparison. This group was deemed inactive because they fell short of the required amount of activity per week.

The UK Biobank cohort study’s nearly 90,000 participants were included in the study. Participants tracked their physical activity levels by wearing accelerometers on their wrists for a week. Based on their degree of activity, researchers categorised participants as weekend warriors, frequently active, or inactive.

A little over 42% of participants were weekend warriors. 34.7% were classified as inactive, compared to 24.4% who reported exercising frequently. In their data analysis, researchers took into account variables like age, educational attainment, and tobacco usage.

Regular exercise and weekend warrior activity both reduced the risk of AFib (an irregular heart rhythm), heart attacks, heart failure, and stroke. Similar hazards were reduced in both groups.

According to Dr. Shaan Khurshid, author of the study and director of the Demoulas Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmias at Massachusetts General Hospital, “both a weekend warrior type activity pattern and a more even activity pattern were each associated with similar reductions in risk of heart attack, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke as compared to inactive individuals.”

Limitations of the research and future directions

This study did have certain shortcomings in particular.

First, the study’s ability to generalize is constrained by the fact that it largely consisted of white, British subjects. Second, because the data only covered one week of activity, it’s likely that participants behaved differently than usual or altered their usual behavior as a result of being observed.

Researchers also point out that depending on the kind of exercise a person engages in, the accuracy of identifying moderate to strenuous physical activity can change. They employed a classification scheme that took into account a variety of activities, which might have affected the outcomes.

Finally, because this data collection occurred several years before the collection of accelerometry data, data on variables may have been incorrectly categorized.

The following study limitations were highlighted by Dr. Gregory Katz, an outside observer and assistant professor in the Department of Medicine at NYU Grossman School of Medicine’s Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology as well as a cardiologist.

The major issue is that the study’s conclusions are somewhat constrained because participants weren’t monitored for long stretches of time in terms of tracking their exercise. They just used an accelerometer to evaluate them for seven days. This involves observing tens of thousands of people for a week of exercise and then keeping track of their health consequences for much longer than that. Thus, there is a limit to how broadly applicable this is.

Drs. Ellinor and Khurshid also identified the following areas as needing more study:

“We intend to examine if weekend warrior-style activities have comparable advantages over other human illnesses and diseases. Our findings might inspire more research on concentrated physical activity programs, which might be more useful and effective.

The importance of physical activity

As this study has shown, different people will engage in different amounts of physical exercise each week. The true problem is figuring out how to make time for physical activity in our daily life. For suitable physical activity suggestions, people should speak with their doctor. This is especially true if they are unaware of what levels and types of physical exercise are satisfactory.

Finding things you enjoy, working out with a friend, and designating certain times for exercise, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, could all help you become more active.

The important advantages of exercise were further emphasized by Dr. John Bhadorani, a board-certified interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Saddleback Medical Centre in Laguna Hills, California, who was also not involved in the study:

Because it has a favourable effect on the heart and blood vessels, exercise is essential for cardiovascular health. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health by strengthening heart muscle, reducing blood pressure, lowering bad cholesterol (LDL), and raising good cholesterol (HDL). Additionally, it helps people stay at a healthy weight, increases blood flow, and makes it easier for the body to use oxygen.

According to Dr. John Bhadorani, “This study suggests that this activity may not need to occur every day throughout the week but rather concentrated over 1-2 days as long as you are reaching the target of >150 minutes per week.”


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Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by the bacteria in your gut.

Heart health may be impacted by some gut bacteria, particularly certain strep species that are typically found in the mouth and digestive tract.

Gut bacteria in particular, according to researchers, may be connected to the development of plaque, which can result in clogged arteries.

According to experts, the new research expands on other studies that suggest a connection between gut flora and cardiovascular health. A new study reveals that the mouth and gut may be the origin of several cardiac issues.

A key contributor to heart attacks are deposits of fat, cholesterol, and other chemicals called atherosclerotic plaques, also referred to as clogged arteries.

According to Swedish researchers, a higher prevalence of these plaques is linked to the presence of specific oral bacteria, mainly Streptococcus, in the gut.

The research, conducted by scientists at Uppsala and Lund University and reported in the journal Circulation, was based on an examination of the gut flora and cardiac imaging of 8,973 persons between the ages of 50 and 65 who had no history of heart disease.

We found that oral bacteria, especially species from the Streptococcus genus, are associated with increased occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques in the small arteries of the heart when present in the gut flora,” said Dr Tove Fall, a study author and professor of molecular epidemiology at the department of medical sciences and the SciLifeLab at Uppsala University.

Information from the gut bacteria and heart health study

The development of plaque in the blood arteries of the heart was detected early by researchers using cutting-edge imaging technologies.

They coupled the details with genetic sequencing information on a variety of bacteria that live in the stomach (as well as the mouth and throat).

In addition to the link between Streptococcus anginosus and atherosclerotic plaque, researchers also noted that Streptococcus oralis appeared to be connected to plaque accumulation.

According to the study’s findings, levels of some Streptococcus species in the mouth and the gut were associated with fatty deposits in the arteries.

Dr. Marju Orho-Melander, a senior author of the study and a professor of genetic epidemiology at Lund University, said, “We have just begun to grasp how the human host and the bacterial community in the various compartments of the body affect one other.”

According to our study, people who carry streptococci in their stomach have changed cardiovascular health. We must now look into whether these bacteria have a significant role in the emergence of atherosclerosis, she added in a press release.

Plaque buildup is facilitated by two different bacteria species.

One of the most important links the researchers discovered after looking at cardiac imaging and gut flora was with two particular bacteria.

Streptococcus species and indicators of systemic inflammation in the blood have a close relationship. Researchers connected the bacteria with diseases of the oral cavity because they were the same species that were discovered in the mouth.

According to Mesilhy, “Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus oralis subsp. Oralis were the most prevalent in [this study group] patients with coronary atherosclerosis.”

Mesilhy continued, “Previous research in mice suggest that oral exposure to Streptococcus species induces plaque formation.

How do gut microbes affect heart health?

Dr. Kezia Joy, an advisor for the UK-based online healthcare company Welzo who was not involved in the study, said that “emerging evidence suggests that alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota, commonly referred to as dysbiosis, may contribute to various health conditions, including cardiovascular diseases.”

According to studies, specific gut bacteria can create metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which has been linked to the onset and development of atherosclerosis. “TMAO has been linked to increased oxidative stress, atherosclerotic plaque development, and inflammation. Furthermore, the development of physiological systems including lipid metabolism, inflammation, and immunological responses all of which are important contributors to the development of cardiovascular diseases can be influenced by the gut microbiota.”

Dr. Bina Joe, chair of the physiology and pharmacology department at the University of Toledo in Ohio and founding director of the school’s Centre for Hypertension and Precision Medicine, stated that “the strength of this study is that it’s a large cohort [of participants], the researchers have done a very careful analysis of them at an early stage of cardiovascular disease, and the use of biomarkers” to identify particular gut bacteria that may contribute to plaque formation.

The significance of studying gut microbes

The Swedish study, according to Joe, who has previously led research into the connections between gut bacteria and high blood pressure, is a significant advancement in a field of study where the link between bacteria and cardiovascular illness is more hypothesized than established.

For instance, flossing is now recommended by dentists as a technique to reduce the buildup of mouth germs that may increase the risk of heart disease.

We don’t know why, but it works,” said Joe.

Further investigation into the exact bacteria that affect cardiovascular disease and the execution of longitudinal studies that could demonstrate a causation rather than an association between gut flora and heart health are questions for future study, according to Joe.

Streptococcus bacteria, for instance, present in both the mouth and the gut, but it’s doubtful that just one strain is to blame for plaque formation because bacteria cannot thrive in both an anaerobic environment like the gut and an oxygen-rich one like the mouth.

Joe remarked, “It’s unclear whatever species of Streptococcus [the researchers] are referring to. In the end, a large community of bacteria may be at play rather than a specific strain.


A link between gut flora and coronary atherosclerotic plaques has been demonstrated by a recent study.

Researchers studied gut flora and cardiac imaging, and the results showed a strong connection between two different kinds of bacteria.

The study also demonstrated a connection between certain of the species linked to levels of the same species in the mouth and the accumulation of fatty deposits in heart arteries. These findings imply that microorganisms affect several biological systems.


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long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

long time beta-blockers use doesn’t enhance heart health.

Following a heart attack, beta-blockers are frequently prescribed to patients to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

According to a recent study, taking drugs over the long term after a heart attack doesn’t seem to benefit cardiovascular health.

The observational study, according to experts, offers useful data, but they also point out that beta-blockers continue to be helpful for a large number of people.

Research in the journal Heart found no evidence that long-term beta-blocker use improved cardiovascular health or decreased the risk of further heart attacks.

Researchers looked at the medical records of persons who had a heart attack between 2005 and 2016 and required hospital treatment using the Swedish national registry for coronary heart disease.

Records from 43,618 persons, with an average age of 64, were included in the study. There were about 1 in 4 women. None of them had left ventricular systolic dysfunction or cardiac failure.

One year after being hospitalized for a heart attack, of the participants, 34,253 (78%) were using beta-blockers, whereas 9,365 (22%) were not.

For an average of 4.5 years following their hospitalisation, the researchers followed up with the participants.

Researchers evaluated the two groups in terms of:

  • Death rates from all causes
  • Additional heart attacks
  • Getting re-vascularized, a procedure to bring back blood flow to certain areas of the heart
  • Heart attack

2,028 (22%) and 6,475 (19%) of the beta-blocker users had one of these occurrences during the observation period.

There was no noticeable difference in the rates between the two groups, according to the researchers, who took demographic factors and pertinent co-morbid disorders into account.

According to real-time data, the use of long-term beta-blockers after a heart attack in persons without heart failure or left ventricular systolic dysfunction was not linked to better cardiovascular outcomes.

Physician response to beta-blocker research

The interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Centre in California, Dr. Hoang Nguyen, recommended beta blockers for patients with left ventricular dysfunction since they had a demonstrable mortality benefit.

According to him, beta blockers are a lifetime in this patient population. “Beta blockers are necessary for patients with a history of coronary artery disease who are not candidates for bypass surgery or stents to lower angina symptoms and hospitalizations for this symptom. I might try to wean them off of beta blockers, especially if they have serious adverse effects if they have undergone revascularization (either with stents or bypass surgery) or have normally left ventricle function.

This study has prompted some doctors to reconsider their methods, but not all of them are presently prepared to do so.

According to Dr. Devin Kehl, a non-invasive cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Centre in California, “this study suggests that a long-term continuation of beta-blockers following myocardial infarction may not be of significant benefit in patients without any of those factors and with normal cardiac function.” However, because it was an observational study, the results might have been impacted by unrecognized confounders.

To be more clear about whether beta-blockers should be continued or stopped after one year following myocardial infarction, randomized trials are required, according to Kehl, who spoke to us. “Caution is needed in interpreting the results of this type of analysis and applying this clinical practice,” Kehl said.

In conclusion, it is still necessary for a patient’s cardiologist to exercise careful clinical judgement when deciding how long beta-blocker therapy should be administered after myocardial infarction.


Beta-blockers are used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions.

They accomplish this by preventing the negative effects that stress hormones have on the heart and can lower heart rate. They are also beneficial for migraines.

Beta-blockers are typically regarded as secure and efficient. However, there are some adverse effects, such as:

  • Fatigue
  • easily running out of breath
  • Unsteadiness or faintness
  • Depression

Nguyen notes that side effects of the drugs include memory loss and impaired sexual function.

Perhaps we should try to wean patients off beta blockers if a beta blocker is not needed after one year, especially if the patient’s heart function is normal,” Nguyen suggested.

Some people might not be able to take them or might quit taking them because of the negative effects.

The use of beta-blockers

After the first year of treatment, Miller typically stops prescribing beta-blockers to heart attack survivors with intact cardiac function.

They are only kept on the drug if there is another condition, like hypertension, that calls for it.

Those with heart failure, irregular cardiac rhythm, hypertension, and recurring palpitations that happen without a known trigger (like caffeine), are candidates who can benefit from beta-blockers.

“The patient should always discuss with their physician whether or not a beta-blocker is a suitable treatment and/or should be discontinued,” he said.

Reduce the dosage gradually rather than stopping the drug all at once if a patient decides to stop taking it.

Considering the future

Medication observation studies examine participants’ responses to a drug or treatment without changing their circumstances.

Observational studies are not regarded by medical practitioners as being as reliable as randomised, controlled trials. However, when prescribing medications, they provide important information for doctors and other medical professionals.

Beta-blockers have long been and will continue to remain a cornerstone medical therapy following a myocardial infarction as they have been clearly demonstrated to reduce the risk of recurrent events and death,” said Kehl. However, clinical trials have not examined the benefit of beta-blockers in patients with normal cardiac function beyond three years after a myocardial infarction, and their benefit is strongest in the early period post-myocardial infarction, according to the study.

Additionally, patients with and without cardiac dysfunction were included in a mixed cohort in clinical trials looking at the benefits of beta-blockers, the author continued. “It is unclear if long-term use of beta-blockers after myocardial infarction benefits people with normal cardiac function. Due to a lack of data from clinical research, the American College of Cardiology guidelines do not directly address the issue. Currently, a long-term continuation of beta-blockers depends on carefully examining the patient’s cardiac history and determining whether there are any other distinct indications for using beta-blockers, such as arrhythmias, angina, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, or hypertension.”


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Do we actually need more sleep in the winter?

Do we actually need more sleep in the winter?

A vital part of wellbeing is sleep, and getting enough of it helps the body heal and function normally. According to a recent study, people get more REM sleep in the winter, which is an essential part of the regular sleep cycle.

To corroborate the results of this study in the broader population, more data is required. Yet, people can make efforts to encourage sound sleep during the winter, a season in which doing so may be particularly important.

Everyone requires sleep, yet everyone’s demands are different. Research is ongoing to determine what influences sleep requirements and the most effective course of action.

A recent study examined how seasonal changes in sleep patterns. The researchers discovered that REM sleep is more prevalent during the months of winter.

Human sleep study

The research team enlisted 292 patients to take part in sleep studies termed polysomnographies, which are conducted on individuals who have trouble falling or staying asleep.

The volunteers visited a specialised lab where they were instructed to go to sleep naturally, without setting an alarm, so that the duration, kind, and quality of their sleep could be observed.

Although sleep issues may have affected the results, the study’s design allowed for a sizable group to be evenly distributed throughout the year, which helped to better show variations from month to month.

Those who took sleep-related medications, those who experienced technical difficulties during the polysomnography, and participants whose REM sleep latency was greater than 120 minutes—which suggested that the initial REM sleep episode had been skipped—were excluded from the study.

There were 188 subjects left after the exclusions. The majority of their diagnoses exhibited little seasonal variation, while sleeplessness was more frequently identified as the year’s end approached.

Importance of REM sleep

Several facets of life, including physical, emotional, and mental health, are impacted by sleep. Sleep duration and quality have an impact on bodily functions like immune system, metabolism, heart health, and memory.

The several stages of sleep that people go through are all necessary for a restful night’s sleep.

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is one type of sleep. The brain is more active during REM sleep, and dreams are experienced. REM sleep is beneficial for controlling mood. Moreover, it enhances immunological performance, focus, and memory.

According to the results of this latest study, there may be seasons of the year when people experience more REM sleep.

M​ore REM sleep in the winter

This specific study focused on variations in seasonal sleep patterns. All through the year, researchers examined the subjects’ sleep patterns. The individuals were already dealing with some sleep abnormalities, such as insomnia and sleep-related respiratory issues.

When conducting their analysis, the researchers used 188 participants. Participants were monitored while they slept using a method known as polysomnography.

Participants were encouraged by the researchers to stick to their usual bedtime routines. Alarm clocks were not allowed to be used by participants. Participants were disqualified from the study based on a few important factors, such as the usage of sleep-interfering drugs.

To Medical News Today, research author Dieter Kunz provided the following significant findings:

“In our work, we demonstrate that, in an adult population residing in an urban environment, human sleep architecture differs significantly across seasons. In a sizable population with neuropsychiatric sleep disorders, we employed polysomnography to record the various stages of sleep over the course of a full year.

According to Kunz, they discovered three intriguing findings:

  • In comparison to summer, people slept an hour more during the winter.
  • I had about 30 minutes more of REM sleep in the winter than the spring.
  • Got 40 minutes fewer of deep sleep in the fall than the other months.

Researchers found no statistical significance in the one-hour sleep gap between the winter and summer seasons. Instead, one of their key areas of interest was the seasonal variations in REM sleep.

Get better sleep in the winter

The American Board of Sleep Medicine-certified sleep specialist Nicole Eichelberger focuses on abnormalities of the circadian rhythm, apnea, and insomnia. Eichelberger gave us some advice for getting a good night’s sleep, which included maintaining a consistent sleep routine.

Even on weekends, try to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, she advised.

Making a sleep-friendly environment is also beneficial.

Ensure that your bedroom is cold, quiet, and dark. Utilize supportive bedding and soft pillows, advised Eichelberger.

Restrict your screen time before bed.

It can be more difficult to fall asleep due to the blue light emitted by electronic gadgets, according to her. Melatonin is a hormone that promotes sleep.

Avoid alcohol and caffeine.

Both can interfere with your sleep and make it more difficult to get enough rest, she explained.

Develop your relaxing skills.

You can relax and be ready for sleep by engaging in activities like yoga, deep breathing, or meditation, according to Eichelberger.

She continued by saying that sleep is essential for both our physical and mental health because it aids in both memory consolidation and learning as well as body recovery and repair.

Persistent sleep loss has been connected to a number of health problems, including as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease, she said. “On the other side, it has been demonstrated that getting adequate sleep strengthens our immune system, lifts our mood, and improves our cognitive performance. Simply put, having enough good sleep is crucial for our overall health.



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Improve your Heart’s health from Vitamin D3 Naturally.

Improve your Heart’s health from Vitamin D3 Naturally.

Vitamin D3 is a fat soluble secosteroid nutrient and one of the two forms of vitamin D that has a primary responsibility of boosting the absorption rate of the intestine for minerals such as magnesium, calcium, phosphate, along with a number of important biological tasks and effects on your body such as maintaining bone strength. Vitamin D3 also works as a dietary supplement by increasing or boosting the level of vitamin D absorption rate that keeps your body healthy. 

Natural sources of Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 is a kind of nutrient that has an impact on around 2000 different types of genes of your body. The easiest way to get vitamin D sources is sunlight. When your body is exposed to sunlight, vitamin D is automatically produced in your body through skin. Your body cannot create vitamin D3 on its own but production takes place by conversion of sunlight inside your body. Another easy way of consuming vitamin D3 is intake of a number of food products such as seafood, fatty fish such as:

  • salmon,
  • canned tuna,
  • herring,
  • sardines,
  • egg yolks,
  • mushrooms,
  • fortified food products,
  • cereals,
  • cod liver oil,
  • cheese,
  • butter,
  • beef liver, etc. 

Benefits of Vitamin D3 in your body

There are a number of benefits associated with vitamin D3 such as:

  • Prevents serious health conditions such as heart attack, stroke, unusual blood pressure,
  • Reduced risk of heart conditions.
  • Raises the level of vitamin D higher than D2.
  • Works with calcium to support the health of bones.
  • Maintains muscle strength, lean muscle, and mass.
  • Boosts immunity to fight against several bacteria and fungal infections.
  • Prevents mental mood changes such as depression which depends upon vitamin D level.
  • Impactful against several inflammatory diseases and conditions such as asthma, Eczema, Atopy, etc.
  • Stimulates the insulin production that maintains the blood sugar level of your body.


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