A woman’s reproductive organs undergo continuous change from puberty to menopause due to sexual activity, pregnancy, age, natural processes, etc. Gynecology is the branch of medicine that deals with the condition female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries).
A gynaecological disorder is a condition that affects the female reproductive organs. It including the breasts, the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the vagina, and the vulva. Almost every woman will experience a gynaecological problem at some point in her life. It may be disastrous or insignificant.
There are many different tpes of Gynecological Disorders found in wome. Some of the most common types of disorder include,
- PCOS(Polycystic ovary syndrome) – The most frequent reason for anovulatory infertility is PCOS. Women who have PCOS are more likely to develop a number od medical conditions. It includes endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and mood problems.
- Endometriosis – About 10% of women of reproductive age are affected by endometriosis, which significantly contributes to the formation of pelvic adhesions, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and persistent pelvic pain.
- Uterine Fibroids (leiomyomata) -The most frequent benign gynecologic tumour in women, uterine fibroids (leiomyomata) are linked to a number of harmful health outcomes, such as irregular uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, miscarriage, and preterm childbirth.
- Vaginitis – Any condition that results in swelling or inflammation of the vulva and the vagina is referred to as vaginitis. Yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, non-infectious vaginitis, and vaginitis that is transmitted through sexual contact are common types of vaginitis.
- Menstrual Disorders – Irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding affects quality of life and can be a sign of underlying gynecologic diseases including endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, or anovulatory disorders.
Norethisterone is a medical drug available to us under the name Noriday which belongs to a class of medication called Progestins. This medicine is used for several women reproduction related disorders such as painful periods, premenstrual tension, breast cancer, endometriosis and also for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
How to use?
Norethisterone is available to us in a form of pill that must be taken by mouth with or without food as per your doctor’s prescription. It is usually taken once a day daily. The dosage and length of the treatment is based on your medical condition, response to the treatment and other medicine that you may be taking for the same or different reason. Swallow the tablet whole rather than chewing or crushing it in your mouth as it may release all the drug in your mouth which increases the risk of side effects.
Your doctor may start you with a low dose which will increase gradually. Take the medicine at the same time daily to get the most benefits from it. Do not increase your dose or take it more often than prescribed as this may also increase the risk of side effects without any improvement in your condition. Discuss all the other medicines that you might be taking along with Norethisterone for the same or different reasons. Follow the medical prescription carefully and inform your doctor in case of any exception or confusion.
Side Effects of Norethisterone
Common side effects observed while medicating with Ibandronate are nausea, vomiting, headache, weight gain, bloating or breast tenderness, may occur. Inform your doctor if these conditions persist or get worse.
There are some serious side effects which must be informed to the doctor right away if observed such as lumps in the breast, mental/mood changes, severe stomach/abdominal pain, unusual changes in vaginal bleeding, dark urine, yellowing eyes/skin, etc.
There are also some severe allergic reactions involved with these medications which require immediate medical attention if observed such as rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), trouble breathing, severe dizziness, chest/jaw/left arm pain, confusion, sudden dizziness/fainting, pain/swelling/warmth in the groin/calf, trouble speaking, sudden shortness of breath/rapid breathing, unusual headache, unusual sweating, weakness on one side of the body, vision problems/changes, etc.
Precaution before using Norethisterone
- If you have any allergies, including those to other progestins or norethindrone, let your doctor or pharmacist know before using this drug. Inactive chemicals in this product have the potential to trigger allergic reactions or other issues. To learn more, speak with your pharmacist.
- Inform your doctor or pharmacist of your medical history before taking this medication, especially of any of the following conditions such as blood clots (for example, in the legs, eyes, or lungs), blood clotting disorders (such as protein C or protein S deficiency), high blood pressure, abnormal breast exam, cancer (especially endometrial or breast cancer), low levels of “good” cholesterol (HDL), depression, diabetes, severe headaches/migraines, heart problems (such as heart valve disease, irregular heartbeat, Jaundice, liver disease (including tumours), unexplained vaginal bleeding, history of yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice) during pregnancy or while using hormonal birth control (such as pills or a patch).
- Inform your surgeon or dentist of all the products you use prior to surgery (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).
- Your face and skin may develop blotchy, dark spots as a result of this drug (melasma). This effect could get worse in the sun. Keep sun exposure to a minimum. Avoid using sunlamps and tanning booths. When outdoors, wear protective gear and sunscreen.
- Pregnancy should not be the time to use this drug. Inform your doctor as soon as possible if you become pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant.
- Small doses of this medicine may enter breast milk and cause unfavourable effects on a nursing newborn. Before breastfeeding, speak with your doctor.
Norethisterone effects on Gynecological Disorders
- With regard to treating dysmenorrhea, causing amenorrhea for at least six months, and reducing the size of ovarian endometriomas, the current data showed that NET was effective.
- Progestins have anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effect in endometriotic tissues and do not raise the risk of thrombosis. In endometriosis, NET and DNG both seem to be equally effective at reducing pain and the size of lesions. DNG is anti-androgenic, but NET also exhibits this property. These two progestins lack the strong glucocorticoid or anti-mineralcorticoid effects that many other hormonal medications have. Even progestins by themselves may help in bone development. Because NET is partially converted to estrogens, this may be an advantage over DNG.
In conclusion, the available evidence points to NET as a viable treatment for endometriosis-related dysmenorrhea and for shrinking ovarian endometriomas. Oral progestins alone can be used at any age, have very few adverse effects, do not increase the risk of thrombosis, and are capable of suppressing ovulation and causing amenorrhea.
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